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You are on page 1of 41

UNIT – I

INTRODUCTION

1.What do you understand by the terms: Signal and Signal Processing.

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space, or any

other independent variable.

Signal processing is any operation that changes the characteristics of a signal.

These characteristics include the amplitude, shape, phase and frequency content of a signal.

2.What are the classification of signals?

There are five methods of classifying signals based on different features:

(a) Based on independent variable.

(i) Continuous time signal.

(ii) Discrete time signal.

(b) Depending upon the number of independent variable.

(i) One dimensional signal,

(ii) Two dimensional signal.

(iii) Multi dimensional signal.

(c) Depending upon the certainty by which the signal can be uniquely described as

(i) Deterministic signal.

(ii) Random signal.

(c) Based on repetition nature.

(i) Periodic signal.

(ii) Non – Periodic signal.

(d) Based on reflection

(i) Even signal.

(ii) Odd signal.

3. Define discrete system.

A discrete time system is a device or algorithm that operates on a discrete time

input signal x(n) , according to some well defined rule , to produce another discrete – time

signal y(n) called the output signal.

4. What are the classification of discrete – time systems?

1. Static and Dynamic system.

2. Time – variant and time – invariant system.

3. Linear and non – linear system.

4. Stable and Un-stable system.

5. Causal and non-causal system.

6. IIR and FIR system.

5. Differentiate Continuous time and Discrete time signal.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

1

Continuous time signal: It is also referred as analog signal i.e., the signal is

represented continuously in time.

Discrete time signal : Signals are represented as sequence at discrete time intervals .

6.Define digital signal.

A discrete time signal which discrete valued represented by a finite number of digits is

referred to as a “digital signal”.

7.What is Deterministic signal? Give example.

A signal that can be uniquely determined by a well - defined process such as a

mathematical expression or rule , or look-up table is called a deterministic signal.

Example : A sinusoidal signal

t V t v

m

ω sin ) ( ·

8.What is random signal? Give example.

A signal that is generated in a random fashion and cannot be predicted ahead of

time is called a “ random signal”.

Example : Speech signal , ECG signal and EEG signal.

9.Define (a) Periodic signal (b) Non – periodic signal.

Periodic signal: A signal x(n) is periodic with period N if and only if x(n+N)=x(n)

for all n.

Non – periodic signal: If there is no value of N that satisfies the above equation the

signal is called non-periodic or aperiodic.

10. Define symmetric and antisymmetric signals.

Symmetric signal: A real valued signal x(n) is called symmetric if x(-n) = x(n).

Antisymmetric signal: A signal x(n) is called antisymmetric if x(-n) = -x(n).

11.What are energy and power signals?

Energy signal:

The energy of a discrete time signal x(n) is defined as

2

) (

∑

∞

−∞ ·

·

n

n x E

A signal x(n) is called an energy signal if and only if the energy obeys the relation

∞ < < E 0 . For an energy signal P=0.

Power signal :

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

2

The average power of a discrete time signal x(n) is defined as

2

) (

1 2

1

lim

∑

− ·

∞ →

+

·

N

N n

N

n x

N

P .

A signal x(n) is called power signal if and only if the average power P satisfies the

condition ∞ < < P 0 .

12.What are the different types of signal representation?

Signals are represented in various ways

(i) Graphical representation (ii) Functional representation

(iii) Tabular representation (iv)Sequence representation

13.What are the different types of operations performed on discrete – time

signals?

The different types of operations performed on discrete – time signals are

(1)Delay of a signal (2) Advance of a signal (3)Folding or Reflection of a

signal (4) Time scaling (5) Amplitude scaling (6)Addition of signals

(7)Multiplication of signals.

14.What is a static and dynamic system?

A discrete –time system is called static or “memory less” if its output at any

instants ‘n’ depends on the input samples at the same time , but not an past or future

samples of the input.

Ex., y(n) = ax(n)

Y(n)=ax

2

(n)

In any other case, the system is said to be dynamic or to have memory.

Ex., y(n) = ax(n-1)+x(n-2)

y(n)=x(n)+x(n-1)

16.What is a time – invariant system?

A system is called time – invariant if its input – output characteristics do not change

with time.

Ex., y(n)=x(n)+x(n-1)

17.What is a causal system?

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

3

A system is said to be causal if the output of the system at any time n depends only

on present and past inputs, but does not depend on future inputs.

This can be expressed mathematically as,

y(n)=F[x(n), x(n-1), x(n-2)………]

18.Define a stable system?

Any relaxed system is said to be bounded input-bounded output (BIBO) stable if

and only if every bounded input yields a bounded output. Mathematically, their exist

some finite numbers, M

x

and M

y

such that,

∞ < ≤ ∞ < ≤ My n y and Mx n x ) ( ) (

19.What is a linear system?

A system that satisfies the superposition principle is said to be a linear system.

Superposition principle states that , the response of the system to a weighted sum of

signals be equal to the corresponding weighted sum of the outputs of the system to each

of the individuals input signals.

20.Define unit sample response (impulse response) of a system and what is its

significance?

The response or output signal designated as h(n) , obtained from a discrete – time

system when the input signal is a unit sample sequence ( unit impulse) , is known as the

unit sample response(impulse response).

The output y(n) of an LTI system for an input signal x(n) can be obtained by

convolving the impulse response h(n) and the input signal x(n).

) ( ) ( ) ( n h n x n y ∗ ·

∑

∞

∞ ·

− ·

k

k n h k x ) ( ) (

21.What is the causality condition for an LTI system?

The necessary and sufficient condition for causality of an LTI system is, its unit

sample response h(n)=0 for negative values of n i.e.,

h(n)= 0 for n<0

22. What is the necessary and sufficient condition on the impulse response for

stability?

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

4

The necessary and sufficient condition guaranteeing the stability of a linear time-

invariant system is that its impulse response is absolutely summable.

∞ <

∑

∞

∞ −

) (k h

.

23. What do you meant by sampling process?

Sampling is the conversion of a continuous –time signal (or analog signal) into a

discrete – time signal obtained by taking samples of the continuous time signal ( or

analog signal ) at discrete time instants.

24. State sampling theorem.

A band limited continuous time signal with highest frequency (band width) f

m

hertz , can be uniquely recovered from its samples provided that the sampling rate f

s

is

greater than or equal to 2f

m

samples per second.

25. Define Nyquist rate.

The frequency 2f

m ,

which , under sampling theorem, must be exceeded by the

sampling frequency is known as the Nyquist rate.

26. What is meant by Quantization process?

The process of converting a discrete time continuous valued signal into discrete

time discrete valued signal is called Quantization.

27. What is aliasing effect?

The superimposition of high frequency component on the low frequency is known

as “frequency aliasing” or “aliasing effect”.

28. How can aliasing be avoided?

To avoid aliasing the sampling frequency must be greater than twice the highest

frequency present in the signal.

29. What is an anti aliasing filter?

A filter is used to reject frequency signals before it is sampled to reduce the aliasing

is called an anti aliasing filter.

30.What is meant by critical sampling?

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

5

If the sampling frequency is exactly equal to the Nyquist rate is known as critical

sampling.

31.What are the steps involved in the A/D conversion?

1. Sampling

2. Quantization

3. Coding (Each discrete value is represented by a binary sequence)

32. What is meant by Quantization error?

It is the difference between the quantized value and actual sample value.

e

q

(n)=x

q

(n)-x(n)

33. What is a quantization level?

The value allows in a digital signal are called the quantization level.

34. Define resolution or quantization step size.

The distance between two successive level is called quantization step size or

resolution.

35. What is the use of a Sample and Hold circuit?

The sample and hold circuit is used to hold the sample the analog signal and hold

the sampled value constant as long as the A/D converter takes time for accurate

conversion.

36. What are the different types of Analog to Digital converters?

1. Flash A/D converter.

2. Successive approximation converter.

3. Counting type A/D converter.

4. Over sampling Sigma – Delta converter.

37. What are the different types of Digital to Analog converter?

1. Weighted – resistor D/A converter.

2. Resistor – ladder D/A converter.

3. Over sampling D/A converter.

Part – B

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

6

1. Test the casuality of the follwoing systems

y (n) = x(n) + 3x (n+4).

y (n) = x(-n)

y (n) = x(n

2

)

2. Test the following systems for linearity.

a. y(n) =x(n)+c

b. y(n) =nx

2

(n)

c. y(n)=a

x(n)

3. Determine the impulse response h (n) for the system described by the second order

difference equation.

y (n) – 4 y (n-1) + 4y (n-2) = x (n-1).

4. The impulse response of a LTI system is given by h (n) = 0.6

n

u (n). find the

frequency response

5. Test the following systems for time invariance.

y (n) = x(n) – x (n-1)

y (n) = x(n)

y (n) = x(n)

y (n) = x(n) – b x (n-1)

6. Determine the step response of a LTI system whose impulse response h (n) is given by

h (n) = a

-n

u (-n) ; o < a < 1

7. Determine the steady state response for the system with impulse function.

h (n) = (j/2)

n

u (n)

for an input x (n) = [Cos πn] u (n)

8. Determine which of the following signals are periodic and determine the

fundamental period also.

)

6

5 cos( 3 ) 9 ) ( 10 cos 10 ) ( ) (

5 sin 20 ) ( ) ( 25 sin 20 ) ( ) (

π

π

π

+ · ·

· ·

t t x iv t t x iii

t t x ii t t x i

9. Determine the even and odd parts of the following:

5 cos 3 ) ( ) (

sin sin ) ( ) (

+ ·

+ ·

n n x ii

n b n A n x i

ω

ω ω

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

7

10. .A discrete time signal x(n) is defined as

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

≤ ≤

− ≤ ≤ − +

·

otherwise

n

n

n

n x

0

3 0 1

1 3

4

1

) (

Determine its values and sketch the signal x(n).Determine x(4-n).

11. Describe the working principle of a sample and Hold circuit.

UNIT –II

DISCRETE TIME ANALYSIS

1. Define Z – transform.

The Z –transform of a discrete – time signal or sequence is defined as the power

series .

∑

∞

−∞ ·

−

·

n

n

z n x z X ) ( ) (

2.What is meant by region of convergence?

The region of convergence (ROC) of X(z) is the set of all values of z for which

X(z) attains a finite value.

3.What are the properties of region of convergence?

1. The ROC is a ring or disk in the Z – plane centered at the origin.

2. The ROC cannot contains any poles.

3. The ROC of an LTI stable system contains the unit circle.

4. The ROC must be a connected region.

4. What are the properties of z- transform ?

1. Linearity:

z [ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1

z X a z X a n x a n x a + · +

2. Shifting: (a)

[ ]

1

]

1

¸

− · +

∑

−

·

−

1

0

) ( ) ( ) (

m

i

i m m

z i x z X z m n x z

(b) [ ] ) ( ) ( z X z m n x z

m −

· −

3. Multiplication: [ ] ) ( ) ( z X

dz

d

z n x n z

m

m

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

4. Scaling in z- domain: [ ] ( ) z a X n x a z

n 1

) (

−

·

5. Time reversal : [ ] ) ( ) (

1 −

· − z X n x z

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

8

6. Conjugation: [ ] ) ( ) (

∗ ∗ ∗

· z X n x z

7. Convolution:

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

0

z R z H m r m n h z

n

m

·

1

]

1

¸

−

∑

·

8. Initial value:

[ ] ) ( ) 0 ( z X Lt x z

z ∞ →

·

9. Final value:

[ ] ) ( ) 1 ( ) (

1

1

z X z Lt x z

z

−

→

− · α

5. State Parseval’s relation in z-transform.

If x

1

(n) and x

2

(n) are complex valued sequences, then

dv v

v

X v X

j

n x n x

c

n

1

2 1 2 1

1

) (

2

1

) ( ) (

−

∗

∗

∞ →

,

_

¸

¸

·

∫

∑

π

6. What is the relationship between z-transform and DTFT?

The z-transform of x(n) is given by

∑

∞

−∞ ·

−

·

n

n

z n x z X ) ( ) (

…….(1)

Where

ω j

re z ·

Substituting z value in eqn (1) we get,

∑

− −

·

n j n j

e r n x re X

ω ω

) ( ) (

…………………..(2)

The Fourier transform of x(n) is given by

∑

∞

−∞ ·

−

·

n

n j j

e n x e X

ω ω

) ( ) (

……………………….(3)

Eqn(2) and Eqn(3) are identical , when r=1. In the z-plane this corresponds to the

locus of points on the unit circle

1 · z

. Hence ) (

ω j

e X is equal to X(z) evaluated

along unit circle , or

ω

ω

j

e z

j

z X e X

·

· | ) ( ) (

For ) (

ω j

e X to exist , the ROC of X(z) must include the unit circle.

7. What are the different method of evaluating inverse z – transform?

1. Long division method.

2. Partial fraction method.

3. Residue method.

4. Convolution method.

8. Find the convolution of the following using z- transform.

{ } { } 1 , 2 , 1 ) ( ; 1 , 1 , 1 ) (

↑ ↑

· · n h n x

Solution:

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

9

{ }

{ } 1 , 3 , 4 , 3 , 1 ) ( ) (

) 3 4 3 1 ( ) ( ) (

) 2 1 ( ) (

) 1 ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

4 3 2 1

2 1

2 1

· ∗

+ + + + ·

+ + ·

+ + ·

· ∗

− − − −

− −

− −

n h n x

z z z z z H z X

z z z H

z z z X

z H z X n h n x Z

10. Define system function.

Let x(n) and y(n) is the input and output sequences of an LTI system with

impulse response h(n). Then the system function of the LTI system is defined as the

ratio of Y(z) and X(z), i.e.,

) (

) (

) (

z X

z Y

z H ·

where,

Y(z) is the z – transform of the output signal y(n)

X(z) is the z – transform of the input signal x(n)

11. Define Fourier transform of a discrete time signal.

The Fourier transform of a discrete time signal x(n) is defined as

{ }

∑

∞

−∞ ·

−

· ·

n

n j

e n x X n x F

ω

ω ) ( ) ( ) (

12. Why FT of a discrete time signal is called signal spectrum?

By taking Fourier transform of a discrete time signal x(n) , it is decomposed

into its frequency components . Hence the Fourier transform is called signal

spectrum.

13. List the difference between Fourier transform of discrete time signal and

analog signal?

i) The FT of analog signal consists of a spectrum with a frequency

range

. ∞ + ∞ − to

But the FT of discrete time signal is unique in the range

) 2 0 ( π π π to or to + −

, and also it is periodic with periodicity of 2

π

.

ii)The FT of analog signals involves integration but FT of discrete time signals

involves summation.

14. Define inverse Fourier transform.

The inverse Fourier transform of X(ω) is defined as

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

10

{ } ω ω

π

ω

ω

π

π

d e X n x X F

n j

∫

−

−

· · ) (

2

1

) ( ) (

1

15. Give some applications of Fourier transform.

1. The frequency response of LTI system is given by the Fourier transform of

the impulse response of the system.

2. The ratio of the Fourier transform of output to Fourier transform of input is

the transfer function of the system in frequency domain.

3. The response of an LTI system can be easily computed using convolution

property of Fourier transform.

16. What is the frequency response of LTI system?

The Fourier transform of the impulse response h(n) of the system is called

frequency response of the system. It is denoted by H(ω).

17. Write the properties of frequency response of LTI system.

i)The frequency response is periodic function ω with a period of 2

π

.

ii) If h(n) is real then

) (ω H

is symmetric and

) (ω H ∠

is antisymmetric.

iii) If h(n) is complex then the real part of

) (ω H

is antisymmteric over the

interval π ω 2 0 ≤ ≤ .

iv)The frequency response is a continuous function of

ω

.

18. Write a short notes on the frequency response of first order system.

A first order system is characterized by the difference equation

) 1 ( ) ( ) ( − + · n ay n x n y

The frequency response of first order system depends on the co efficient “a” in

the difference equation governing the LTI system. When the value of “a|” is in the

range of 0<a<1, the first order system behave as a low pass filter. When the value

of “a” is in the range –1<a<0, the first order system behave as a high pass filter.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

11

19. Write a short note on the frequency response of second order system.

A second order system is characterized by the difference equation

) 1 ( cos ) ( ) 2 ( ) 1 ( cos 2 ) (

0

2

0

− − + − − − · n x r n x n y r n y r n y ω ω

The frequency response of second order system depends on the parameters

“r” and “

0

ω

” in the difference equation the LTI system. When the value of r is in

the range of 0<r<1, the second order system behave as a resonant filter with center

frequency

0

ω

. When the value of r is varied from 0 to 1 , the sharpness of

resonant peak increases.

20. Define discrete Fourier series.

Consider a sequence x

p

(n) with a period of N samples so that x

p

(n)=x

p

(n/N);

Then the discrete Fourier series of the sequence x

p

(n) is defined as

∑

−

·

−

·

1

0

/ 2

) ( ) (

N

n

N kn j

p p

e n x k X

π

21. What are the two basic differences between the Fourier transform of a

discrete time signal with the Fourier transform of a continuous time

signal?

1. For a continuous signal , the frequency range extends from

. ∞ + ∞ − to

On the other hand , the frequency range of a discrete – time signal extends from

) 2 0 ( π π π to or to + −

.

2.The Fourier transform of a continuous signal involves integration ,

whereas , the Fourier transform of a discrete – time signal involves summation

process.

22. Find the Fourier transform of a sequence x(n) = 1 for 2 2 ≤ ≤ − n

= 0 otherwise.

Solution:

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

12

∑ ∑

− ·

−

∞

−∞ ·

−

· ·

2

2

) ( ) (

n

n j

n

n j

e e n x X

ω ω

ω

ω ω ω ω 2 2

1

j j j j

e e e e

− −

+ + + + ·

ω ω 2 cos 2 cos 2 1 + + ·

PART – B

1)Obtain the impulse response of the system described by,

π ω ω

ω ω

ω

≤ ≤ ·

≤ ·

c

c

j

for

for e H

0

1 ) (

2)Let x(n) be an arbitrary signal with Fourier Transform X(ω). Express the Fourier

transform of following signal is term of X(ω).

(a)y(n) = x(2n)

(b)

¹

'

¹

·

. 0

) 2 / (

) (

odd n

even n n x

n y

3)Compute the convolution of the following signals by z- transform:

0

2

1

0

3

1

) (

1

<

,

_

¸

¸

>

,

_

¸

¸

·

−

n

n n x

n

n

) (

2

1

) (

2

n u n x

n

,

_

¸

¸

·

4)(Compute the convolution y(n)=x(n)*h(n) of the following signals:

(a) x(n)={0, 1, -2, 3, -4 }

h(n) = { 0.5, 0.5, 1, 0.5 }

(b)x(n)={0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1}

↑

h(n)=(1, -2, 3 }

↑

5)Find the Z- Transform of the following :

(a) [ ] ) 10 ( ) (

2

1

) ( − −

,

_

¸

¸

· n u n u n x

n

6)Find the Z- Transform of following :

n N N

n n n x a

≤ ·

≤ · 0 ) ( ) (

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

13

7)Find the Z- Transform of following :

) ( ) sin( ) ( ) (

0

n u n n x a θ ω + ·

8)Determine the causal signal x9n) having the Z- Transform

(a) 2 1

1

2 3 1

3 1

) (

− −

−

+ +

+

·

Z Z

Z

Z X

(b) 2 1

5 . 0 1

1

) (

− −

+ −

·

Z Z

Z X

(c) 2 1

2 1

4 4 1

2 1

) (

− −

− −

+ +

+ +

·

Z Z

z z

Z X

9)By using one sided Z- transform , determine y(n), n≥0 in the following case:

(a) y(n)+0.5y(n-1)-0.25y(n-2)=0 ; y(-1) = y(-2)=1

10)By using one sided Z- transform , determine y(n), n≥0 in the following case:

(a)y(n)=0.5y(n-1)+x(n)

x(n)=(1/3)

n

u(n), y(-1) = 1

UNIT –III

DISCRETE FOURIER TRANSFORMATION & COMPUTATION

1.Define the Discrete Fourier transformation of a given sequence x(n).

The N- point DFT of a sequence x(n) is

∑

−

·

−

·

1

0

/ 2

) ( ) (

N

n

N kn j

e n x k X

π

k= 0, 1, 2……..N-1.

2.Write the formula for N- point IDFT of a sequence X(k).

The N-point IDFT of a sequence X(k) is

∑

−

·

·

1

0

/ 2

) (

1

) (

N

K

N k j

e k X

N

n x

π

n= 0, 1 , 2 …..N-1 .

3. List any four proerties of DFT.

(a) Periodicity

If X(k) is N- point DFT of a finite duration sequence x(n)

then

. ) ( ) (

) ( ) (

k all for k X N k X

n all for n x N n x

· +

· +

(b)Linearity

If X

1

(k)=DFT[x

1

(n)] and

X

2

(k)=DFT[x

2

(n)]

then

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

14

DFT[a

1

x

1

(n)+a

2

x

2

(n)]=a

1

X

1

(k)+a

2

x

2

(k)

( c ) Time reversal of a sequence

If DFT {x(n)}=X(k),

then

DFT{x((-n))

N

}=DFT{x(N-n)}=X((-k))

N

=X(N-k)

(d)Circular time shifting of a sequence

If DFT {x(n)}=X(k),

then

DFT{x((n-l))

N

}=X(k)

N kl j

e

/ 2π −

4. IF N-point sequence x(n) has N- point DFT X(k) then what is the DFT

of the following?

N j

N

e n x iv l n x iii n N x ii n x i

ln/ 2

) ( ) ( )) (( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

π

− −

∗ ∗

Solution:

N

N j

N kl j

N

l k X e n x DFT iv

e k X l n x DFT iii

k X n N x DFT ii

k N X n x DFT i

)) (( } ) ( { ) (

) ( } )) (( { ) (

) ( )} ( { ) (

) ( )} ( { ) (

ln/ 2

/ 2

− ·

· −

· −

− ·

−

∗ ∗

∗ ∗

π

π

5. Calculate the DFT of the sequence x(n) = 16

4

1

·

,

_

¸

¸

forN

n

Solution:

∑

−

·

−

·

1

0

/ 2

) ( ) (

N

n

N kn j

e n x k X

π

K=0, 1 , 2…..N-1

8 /

2

16

15

0

8 /

16 / 2

15

0

4

1

1

4

1

1

4

1

4

1

k j

k j

n

n

k j

kn j

n

n

e

e

e

e

π

π

π

π

−

−

·

−

−

·

−

,

_

¸

¸

−

·

,

_

¸

¸

·

,

_

¸

¸

·

∑

∑

6. State the time shifting property of DFT.

If DFT[x(n)]=X(k),

then

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

15

DFT[x((n-m))

N

]= ) (

/ 2

k X e

N kn j π −

7. Find the DFT of the sequence x(n)={1,1,0,0}

Solution:

∑

−

·

−

·

1

0

/ 2

) ( ) (

N

n

N kn j

e n x k X

π

k=0,1,2,…..N-1.

} 1 , 0 , 1 , 2 { ) (

1 } 0 0 1 { ) ( ) 3 (

0 } 0 0 1 1 { ) ( ) 2 (

1 } 0 0 1 { ) ( ) 1 (

2 } 0 0 1 1 { ) ( ) 0 (

. 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ) (

2 / 3

3

0

3

0

2 /

3

0

3

0

4 / 2

3

0

j j k X

j j e n x X

e n x X

j j e n x X

n x X

k e n x

n j

n

n j

n

n j

n

n

kn j

n

+ − ·

+ · + + + · ·

· + + − · ·

− · + + − · ·

· + + + · ·

· ·

−

·

−

·

−

·

·

−

·

∑

∑

∑

∑

∑

π

π

π

π

8. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

If the sequence x(n) is real and odd (or) imaginary and even, then X(k) is purely

imaginary.

9. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

If the sequence x(n) is real and even (or) imaginary and odd , then X(k) is purely

real.

10.State Circular frequency shifting property of DFT.

If DFT[x(n)]=X(k),

Then

DFT[x(n)

N

N j

l k X e )) (( ]

ln/ 2

− ·

π

11.What is zero padding? What are its uses?

The process of lengthening the sequence by adding zero – valued samples is called

appending with zeros or zero – padding.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

16

USES:

(i) We can get “better display” of the frequency spectrum.

(ii) With zero padding, the DFT can be used in linear filtering.

12.What do you understand by periodic convolution?

Let

) (

1

n x

p

and

) (

2

n x

p

be two periodic sequences each with period N with

[ ]

[ ]

) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) (

) ( ) (

2 1 3

2 2

1 1

k X k X k X If

k X n x DFS

and k X n x DFS

p p p

p p

p p

·

·

·

……………………………(1)

then the periodic sequence

) (

3

n x

p

with Fourier series coefficients

) (

3

k X

p

can be

obtained by periodic convolution, defined as

∑

−

·

− ·

1

0

2 1 3

) ( ) ( ) (

N

n

p p p

m n x m x n x

………………………………(2)

The convolution in the form of eqn(2) is known as periodic convolution, as the

sequences in eqn(2) are all periodic with period N, and the summation is over one

period.

13.Define circular convolution.

The convolution property of DFT says that , the multiplication of the DFTs of the

two sequence is equivalent to the DFT of the circular convolution of the two sequences.

∑

−

·

− ·

⊗ ·

1

0

2 1 3

2 1 2 1

)) (( ) ( ) (

)} ( ) ( { ) ( ) (

N

m

N

m n x m x n x

n x n x DFT k X k X

14. How the circular convolution is obtained by using Graphical method?

Given two sequences ) (

1

n x and ) (

2

n x , the circular convolution of these two

sequences

) ( ) ( ) (

2 1 3

n Nx n x n x ·

can be obtained by using the following steps.

1. Graph N samples of ) (

1

n x , as equally spaced points around an outer circle in

counter clockwise direction.

2. Start at the same point as ) (

1

n x graph N samples of ) (

2

n x as equally spaced

points around an inner circle in clock wise direction.

3. Multiply corresponding samples on the two circles and sum the products to

produce output.

4. Rotate the inner circle one sample at a time in clock wise direction and go to

step3 to obtain the next value of output.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

17

5. Repeat step4 until the inner circle first sample lines up with the first sample of

the exterior circle once again.

15. Distinguish between linear and circular convolution of two sequences.

Sl.NO Linear Convolution Circular convolution

1. If x(n) is a sequence of L number of

samples and h(n) with M number of

samples , after convolution y(n) will

contain N=L+M-1

If x(n) is a sequence of L number of

samples and h(n) with M number of

samples , after convolution y(n) will

contain N=Max(L,M) samples.

2. Linear convolution can be used to find the

response of a linear filter.

Circular convolution cannot be used

to find the response of a filter.

3. Zero padding is not necessary to find the

response of a linear filter.

Zero padding is necessary to find the

response of a filter.

16.What are the steps involved in circular convolution.

The circular convolution involve basically four steps as the ordinary linear

convolution. These are

1. Folding the sequence

2. Circular time shifting the folded sequence

3. Multiplying the two sequences to obtain the product sequence.

4. Summing the values of product sequence.

17. What are the different methods performing circular convolution?

1. Graphical method

2. Stockhman’s method

3. Tabular array method

4. Matrix method.

18.Obtain the circular convolution the following sequences

x(n)={1, 2, 1 }; h(n)={ 1, -2, 2 }

Solution:

The circular convolution of the above sequences can be obtained by using matrix

method.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

18

{ } 1 , 2 , 3 ) (

1

2

3

1

2

1

1 2 2

2 1 2

2 2 1

) 2 (

) 1 (

) 0 (

) 2 (

) 1 (

) 0 (

) 0 ( ) 1 ( ) 2 (

) 2 ( ) 0 ( ) 1 (

) 1 ( ) 2 ( ) 0 (

− ·

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

·

1

1

1

]

1

¸

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

−

1

1

1

]

1

¸

·

1

1

1

]

1

¸

1

1

1

]

1

¸

n y

y

y

y

x

x

x

h h h

h h h

h h h

19.How will you obtain linear convolution from circular convolution.

Consider two finite duration sequences x9n) and h(n0 of duration L samples and N

samples respectively. The linear convolution of these two sequences produces an

output sequence of duration L+M-1 samples , whereas , the circular convolution of x(n)

and h(n) give N samples where N=Max(L,M) . In order to obtain the number of

samples in circular convolution equal to L+M-1, both x(n) and h(n) must be appended

with appropriate number of zero valued samples. In other words, by increasing the

length of the sequences x(n) and h(n) to L+M-1 points and then circularly convolving

the resulting sequences we obtain the same result as that of linear convolution.

20.What is meant by sectioned convolution?

If the data sequence x(n) is of long duration , it is very difficult to obtain the output

sequence y(n) due to limited memory of a digital computer. Therefore, the data

sequence is divided up into smaller section. These sections are processed separately

one at a time and combined later to get the output.

21. What are the different methods used for the sectioned convolution?

The two methods used for the sectioned convolution are (i)the overlap-add method

(ii)Over lap-save method.

22. State the difference between (i) overlap-add method (ii) overlap – save method.

Sl.No Overlap – add method Overlap – save method

1. In this method the size of the input

data block is N=L+M-1

In this method the size of the input data

block is L.

2. Each data block consists of the last M-

1 data points of the previous data

followed by the L new data points.

Each data block is L points and we

appended M-1 zeros to compute N-point

DFT.

3. In each output block M-1 points are

corrupted due to aliasing , as circular

convolution is employed.

In this no corruption due to aliasing as

linear convolution is performed using

circular convolution.

4. To form the output sequence the first

M-1 data points are discarded in each

output block and the remaining datas

are fitted together.

To form the output sequence, the last M-1

points from each output block is added to

the first (M-1) points of the succeeding

block.

23.Distinguish between DFT and DTFT.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

19

Sl.No DFT DTFT

1. Obtained by performing sampling

operation in both the time and

frequency domains.

Sampling is performed only in time

domain.

2. Discrete frequency spectrum

Continuous function of ω

24. What is FFT?

The term Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) usually refers to a class of algorithms for

efficiently computing the DFT.It makes use of the symmetry and periodicity properties

of twiddle factor

K

N

W to effectively reduce the DFT computation time.

It is based on the fundamental principle of decomposing the computation of DFT of a

sequence of length N into successively smaller discrete Fourier transforms. The FFT

algorithm provides speed increase factors , when compared with direct computation of

the DFT, of approximately 64 and 205 for 256 points and 1024 – point transforms

respectively.

25.How many multiplications and additions are required to compute N-point DFT

using radix-2 FFT?

The number of multiplications and additions required to compute N-point DFT

using radix-2 FFT are N

N

and N N

2 2

log

2

log respectively.

26. How many multiplications and additions are required to compute N-point

DFT directly?

The number of multiplications and additions required to compute N-point DFT u

are

2

) 1 ( N and N N − respectively.

27. What is the speed improvement factor in calculating 64 – point DFT of a

sequence using direct computation and FFT algorithms?

(OR)

Calculate the number of multiplications needed in the calculation of DFT and

FFT with 64-point sequence.

The number of complex multiplications required using direct computation is

4096 64

2 2

· · N

The number of complex multiplications required using FFT is

192 64 log

2

64

log

2

2 2

· · N

N

Speed improvement factor= 33 . 21

192

4096

·

28.What is meant by radix-2 FFT?

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

20

The FFT algorithm is most efficient in calculating N-point DFT. If the number of

output points N can be expressed as a power of 2, that is , 2

m

N · where is an integer ,

then this algorithm is known as radix-2 FFT algorithm.

29. What is a decimation – in – time algorithm?

The computation of 8 – point DFT using radix-2 FFT , involves three stages of

computations. Here N=8=2

3

, therefore r=2 and m=3.

The given 8 – point sequence is decimated to 2- point sequences . For each 2 –

point sequence, the 2-popint DFT is computed . From the result of 2 – point DFT the 4

– point DFT can be computed. From the result of 4-point DFT , the 8 – point DFT can

be computed.

30. What is decimation in frequency algorithm?

It is the popular form of the FFT algorithm. In this the output sequence X(k) is

divided into smaller and smaller subsequences, that is why the name decimation in

frequency.

31.What are the difference between and similarities between DIT and DIF

algorithms?

Difference between DIT and DIF:

1) In DIT , the input is bit-reversed while the output is in natural order. For

DIF , the reverse is true, i.e., input is normal order, while the output bit

is reversed. However , both DIT and DIF can go from normal to

shuffled data or vice versa.

2) Considering the butterfly diagram, in DIF , the complex multiplication

takes place after the add – subtract operation.

Similarities:

1) Both algorithms require same number of operations to compute DFT.

2) Both algorithm require bit – reversal at some place during computation.

32. What are the applications of FFT algorithms?

The applications of FFT algorithms includes

(i) Linear filtering (ii) Correlation (iii) Spectrum analysis

PART-B

1) Find DFT of the following

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

21

} 2 , 0 , 1 , 1 { ) ( ) ( } 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 { ) ( ) (

} 1 , 3 , 4 , 2 { ) ( ) ( } 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 { ) ( ) (

4 3

2 1

− · − − ·

· ·

n x iv n x iii

n x ii n x i

2) Find 4 – point DFT of the following sequences

4

cos ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) (

} 2 , 3 , 4 , 2 { ) ( ) ( } 2 , 1 , 0 , 1 { ) ( ) (

π n

n x iv n x iii

n x ii n x i

n

· ·

· − ·

3) Determine the IDFT of the following:

} 2 , 0 , 2 , 1 { ) ( ) (

} 0 , 1 , 0 , 1 { ) ( ) ( } 2 1 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 1 { ) ( ) (

j j k X iii

k X ii j j k X i

+ − − − ·

· + − − ·

4) Show that:

[ ]

N N

L

n

L

n

k n X k n X

N

kn

n x DFT b

k X n x a

)) (( )) ((

2

1 2

cos ) ( ) (

) (

2

1

) ( ) (

2

1

0

2

1

0

+ + − ·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

·

∑ ∑

−

·

−

·

π

5) Compute the circular convolution of two sequences using stock hams method

} 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 { ) (

} 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 { ) (

2

1

·

·

n x

n x

6)Given the two sequence

3 0 ) 2 ( ) ( ; 3 0 ; 1 ) ( ) (

3 0 ) 1 ( ) ( ; 3 0 ; 1 ) ( ) (

2 1

2 1

≤ ≤ · ≤ ≤ ·

≤ ≤ − · ≤ ≤ ·

n n x n n x b

n n x n n x a

n

n

determine the circular convolution.

7) Given a sequence

} 1 , 3 , 5 , 5 , 3 , 2 , 2 , 1 { ) ( · n x

Write the equations for decimation – in – time algorithm and draw the signal flow

graph.

8) Write the equations and draw the signal flow graph for the decimation in frequency

algorithm for N=4.

9) Compute the DFT for N=4 if x(n)=1

3 0 ≤ ≤n

using decimation in time

algorithm.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

22

10)Compute the DFT for the sequence for N=4 if x(n) = sin

,

_

¸

¸

2

π n

using decimation –

in – time algorithm.

UNIT – IV

DESIGN OF DIGITAL FILTERS

1.What are the different types of structures for realization of IIR systems?

The different types of structures for realization of IIR system are

(i) Direct form I structure (ii)Direct form II structure

(iii) Cascade form structure (iv) Parallel form structure

(v) Lattice – ladder form structure.

2.What is the main advantage of Direct form- II realizations when compared to

Direct form –I realization?

In Direct form – II realization , the number of memory locations required is less

than that of Direct form – I realization.

3. Define signal flow graph.

A signal flow graph is a graphical representation of the relationship between the

variables of a set of linear difference equations.

4. What is Canonic form structure?

The Direct form –II realization requires minimum number of delays for the

realization of the system. Hence it is called as “Canonic form” structure.

5. What is the main disadvantage of direct form realization?

The Direct form realization is extremely sensitive to parameter quantization. When

the order of the system N is large , a small change in a filter coefficient due to

parameter quantization , results in a large change in the location of the poles and zeros

of the system.

6. What is the advantage of cascade realization?

Quantization errors can be minimized if we realize an LTI system in cascade form.

7.What are the different types of filters based on impulse response?

Based on impulse response the filters are of two types

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

23

1. IIR filter

2. FIR filter

The IIR filters are of recursive type, whereby the present output sample depends on

the present input, past inputs samples and output samples.

The FIR filters are of non recursive type whereby the present output sample is

depends on the present input sample and previous input samples.

8.What is the general form of IIR filter?

The most general form of IIR filter can be written as

∑

∑

·

·

−

+

·

N

k

k

M

k

k

k

a

z b

z H

1

0

1

) (

9. Give the magnitude of Butterworth filter. What is the effect of varying order of

N on magnitude and phase response?

The magnitude function of the Butterworth filter is given by

.... .......... 3 , 2 , 1

1

1

) (

2

1

2

·

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

Ω

Ω

+

· Ω N j H

N

c

Where N is the order of the filter and

c

Ω

is the cut off frequency. The magnitude

response of the Butterworth filter closely approximates the ideal response as the order

N increases . The phase response becomes more non-linear as N increases.

10. Give any two properties of Butterworth lowpass filters.

1. The magnitude response of the Butterworth filter decreases monotonically as

the frequency Ω increases from 0 to α.

2. The magnitude response of the Butterworth filter closely approximates the ideal

response as the order N increases.

3. The Butterworth filters are all pole designs.

4. The poles of the Butterworth filter lies on a circle.

5. At the cut off frequency

c

Ω

, the magnitude of normalized Butterworth filter is

2

1

.

11.How the poles of Butterworth transfer function are located in s- plane?

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

24

The poles of the normalized Butterworth transfer function symmetrically lies on

an unit circle in s-plane with angular spacing of

N

π

.

12.What is Chebyshev approximation?

In Chebyshev approximation, the approximation function is selected such that the

error is minimized over a prescribed band of frequencies.

13. What is Type –1 Chebyshev approximation?

In type –1 Chebyshev approximation, the error function is selected such that, the

magnitude response is equiripple in the pass band and monotonic in the stop band.

14. What is Type –2 Chebyshev approximation?

In type –2 Chebyshev approximation, the error function is selected such that, the

magnitude response is monotonic in pass band and equiripple in the stop band. The

Type -2 magnitude response is called inverse Chebyshev response.

15. Write the magnitude function of Chebyshev lowpass filter?

The magnitude response of Type -1 lowpass Chebyshev filter is given by

( )

,

_

¸

¸

Ω

Ω

+

· Ω

c

N

a

C

H

2 2

1

1

ε

where

ε

is attenuation constant and

,

_

¸

¸

Ω

Ω

c

N

C

is the Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind of degree N.

16.How the order of the filter affects the frequency response of Chebyshev filter.

From the magnitude response of Type -1 Chebyshev filter it can be observed that

the magnitude response approaches the ideal response as the order of the filter is

increased.

17.How will you determine the order N of Chebyshev filter.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

25

The order N of the Chebyshev filter is given by

,

_

¸

¸

Ω

Ω

,

_

¸

¸

·

−

−

p

s

N

1

1

cosh

cosh

ε

λ

where

1 10

1 . 0

− ·

p

α

λ

1 10

1 . 0

− ·

s

α

ε

18.What are the properties of Chebyshev filter?

1. The magnitude response of the Chebyshev filter exhibits in ripple either in

pass band or in the stop band according to the type.

2. The magnitude response approaches the ideal response as the value of N

increases.

3. The Chebyshev type – 1 filters are all pole designs.

4. The poles of Chebyshev filter lies on an ellipse.

5. The normalized magnitude function has a value of

2

1

1

ε +

at the cutoff

frequency

c

Ω

.

19. Compare the Butterworth and Chebyshev Type -1 filter.

Sl.No Butterworth filter Chebyshev filter

1. All pole design All pole design

2. The poles lie on a circle in s-plane The poles lie on a ellipse in s-plane

3. The magnitude response is

maximally flat at the origin and

monotonically decreasing function

of Ω.

The magnitude response is equiripple in

pass band and monotonically decreasing in

the stop band.

4. The normalized magnitude response

has a value of

2

1

at the cut off

frequency

c

Ω

.

The normalized magnitude response has a

value of

2

1

1

ε +

at the cut off frequency

c

Ω

.

5. Only few parameters has to be

calculated to determine the transfer

function.

A large number of parameter has to be

calculated to determine the transfer function.

20.What are the different types of filters based on the frequency response?

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

26

The filters can be classified based on frequency response. They are (i) low

pass filter (ii)high pass filter (iii)Band pass filter (iv)Band reject filter.

21. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

Sl.No FIR filter IIR filter

1. These filters can be easily designed

to have perfectly linear phase.

These filters do not have linear phase.

2. FIR filters can be realized

recursively and non – recursively.

IIR filters are easily realized recursively.

3. Greater flexibility to control the

shape of their magnitude response.

Less flexibility , usually limited to specific

kind of filters.

4. Error due to round off noise are

less severe in FIR filters , mainly

because feedback is not used.

The round off noise in IIR filters are more.

22. What are the design techniques of designing FIR filters?

These are three well-known methods for designing FIR filters with linear phase.

These are (1) Windows method (2) Frequency sampling method (3) Optimal or

minimax design.

23.What are the properties of FIR filter?

1. FIR filter is always stable because all its poles are at the origin.

2. A realizable filter can always be obtained.

3. FIR filter has a linear phase response .

24. What are the steps involved in the FIR filter design?

i) Choose the desired (ideal ) frequency response

) (ω

d

H

.

ii) Take inverse Fourier transform of

) (ω

d

H

to get

) (n h

d

.

iii) Convert the infinite duration

) (n h

d

to a finite duration sequence

) (n h

.

iv) Take Z – transform of

) (n h

to get the transfer function

) (z H

of the FIR

filter.

25. How the constant group delay and phase delay is achieved in linear phase FIR

filters.

Frequency response of FIR filter with constant group and phase delay

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

27

) (

) ( ) (

αω β

ω ω

−

t ·

j

e H H

The following conditions have to be satisfied to achieve constant group and phase

delay.

Phase delay,

2

1 −

·

N

α ( i.e., phase delay is constant )

Group delay,

2

π

β t · ( i.e., group delay is constant)

Impulse response , h(n) = - h( N -1 – n ) (i.e., impulse response is anti symmetric )

26. What are the possible types of impulse response for linear phase FIR filters.

There are four types of impulse response for linear phase FIR filters

1. Symmetric impulse response when N is odd.

2. Symmetric impulse response when N is even.

3. Antisymmetric impulse response when N is odd.

4. Antisymmetric impulse response when N is even.

27. Write the procedure for designing FIR filter by Fourier series method.

i) Choose the desired (ideal ) frequency response

) (ω

d

H

of the filter.

ii) Evaluate the Fourier series co-efficient of

) (ω

d

H

which gives the

desired impulse response

) (n h

d

.

∫

−

·

π

π

ω

ω ω

π

d e H n h

n j

d d

) (

2

1

) (

iii) Truncate the infinite sequence

) (n h

d

to a finite duration sequence

) (n h

.

iv) Take Z – transform of

) (n h

to get a noncausal filter transfer

function

) (z H

of the FIR filter.

v) Multiply

) (z H

by

,

_

¸

¸ −

−

2

1 N

z

to convert noncausal transfer function

to a realizable causal FIR filter transfer function.

· ) (z H ( )

1

1

1

]

1

¸

+ +

∑

−

·

−

,

_

¸

¸ −

− 2

1

1

2

1

) ( ) 0 (

N

n

n n

N

z z n h h z

28. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

28

One possible way of finding an FIR filter that approximates ) (

ω j

e H would

be to truncate the infinite Fourier series at n=

1

]

1

¸

−

t

2

1 N

.The abrupt truncation of the

series will lead to oscillation both in passband and in stopband. This phenomenon is

known as Gibbs phenomenon.

29. What is window and why it is necessary?

One possible way of finding an FIR filter that approximates ) (

ω j

e H would be to

truncate the infinite Fourier series at n=

1

]

1

¸

−

t

2

1 N

. The abrupt truncation of the series

will lead to oscillation both in passband and in stopband. These oscillations can be

reduced through the use of less abrupt truncation of the Fourier series. This can be

achieved by multiplying the infinite impulse response with a finite weighing

) (n w

,

called a window.

30.Give the equation specifying Hanning windows.

The equation for Hanning window is given by

1

2

cos 5 . 0 5 . 0 ) (

−

+ ·

N

n

n w

n H

π

for

2

) 1 (

2

) 1 ( −

≤ ≤

−

−

N

n

N

= 0 Otherwise.

31.Give the equation specifying Hamming windows.

The equation for Hamming window is given by

1

2

cos 46 . 0 54 . 0 ) (

−

+ ·

N

n

n w

H

π

for

2

) 1 (

2

) 1 ( −

≤ ≤

−

−

N

n

N

= 0 Otherwise.

32.Give the equation specifying Blackman windows.

The equation for Blackman window is given by

1

4

cos 08 . 0

1

2

cos 5 . 0 42 . 0 ) (

−

+

−

+ ·

N

n

N

n

n w

B

π π

for

2

) 1 (

2

) 1 ( −

≤ ≤

−

−

N

n

N

= 0 Otherwise.

33.Give the equation specifying Bartlett windows.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

29

The equation for Bartlett window is given by

1

2

1 ) (

−

− ·

N

n

n w

T

for

2

) 1 (

2

) 1 ( −

≤ ≤

−

−

N

n

N

= 0 Otherwise.

34.Give the equation specifying Kaiser windows.

The equation for Bartlett window is given by

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

−

·

) (

1

2

1

) (

0

0

α

α

I

N

n

I n w

k

for

2

) 1 ( −

≤

N

n

= 0 Otherwise.

Where

α

is an independent parameter.

0

I

(x) is the zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind

2

1

0

2 !

1

1 ) ( I

∑

∞

· 1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

k

k

x

k

x

35.Write the characteristics features of Triangular window.

i) The mainlobe width is equal to

N

π 8

.

ii) The maximum sidelobe magnitude is -25dB.

iii) The sidelobe magnitude slightly decreases with increasing

ω

.

36. Compare the Rectangular and Hanning window.

Sl.No Rectangular window Hanning window

1. The width of mainlobe in window

spectrum is

N

π 4

The width of mainlobe in window spectrum

is

N

π 8

2. The maximum sidelobe magnitude

in window spectrum is -13dB.

The maximum sidelobe magnitude in

window spectrum is -31dB.

3. In window spectrum the sidelobe

magnitude slightly decreases with

increasing

ω

In window spectrum the sidelobe

magnitude decreases with increasing

ω

4. In FIR filter designed using

rectangular window the minimum

stopband attenuation is 22dB.

In FIR filter designed using Hanning

window the minimum stopband attenuation

is 44dB.

37.Compare the Rectangular and Hamming window.

Sl.No Rectangular window Hamming window

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

30

1. The width of mainlobe in window

spectrum is

N

π 4

The width of mainlobe in window spectrum

is

N

π 8

2. The maximum sidelobe magnitude

in window spectrum is -13dB.

The maximum sidelobe magnitude in

window spectrum is -41dB.

3. In window spectrum the sidelobe

magnitude slightly decreases with

increasing

ω

In window spectrum the sidelobe

magnitude remains constant.

4. In FIR filter designed using

rectangular window the minimum

stopband attenuation is 22dB.

In FIR filter designed using Hamming

window the minimum stopband attenuation

is 51dB.

38.Compare the Rectangular and Hamming window.

Sl.No Hanning window Hamming window

1. The width of mainlobe in window

spectrum is

N

π 8

The width of mainlobe in window spectrum

is

N

π 8

2. The maximum sidelobe magnitude

in window spectrum is -31dB.

The maximum sidelobe magnitude in

window spectrum is -41dB.

3. In window spectrum the sidelobe

magnitude decreases with increasing

ω

In window spectrum the sidelobe

magnitude remains constant. Here the

increased sidelobe attenuation is achieved

at the expense of constant attenuation at

high frequencies.

4. In FIR filter designed using Hanning

window the minimum stopband

attenuation is 44dB.

In FIR filter designed using Hamming

window the minimum stopband attenuation

is 51dB.

39. Compare the Hamming and Blackman window.

Sl.No Hamming window Blackman window

1. The width of mainlobe in window

spectrum is

N

π 8

The width of mainlobe in window spectrum

is

N

π 12

2. The maximum sidelobe magnitude

in window spectrum is -41dB.

The maximum sidelobe magnitude in

window spectrum is -58dB.

3. In window spectrum the sidelobe

magnitude remains constant with

increasing

ω

In window spectrum the sidelobe

magnitude decreases rapidly with

increasing

ω

4. In FIR filter designed using

Hamming window the minimum

stopband attenuation is 51dB.

In FIR filter designed using Blackman

window the minimum stopband attenuation

is 78dB.

5. The higher value of sidelobe

attenuation is achieved at the

expense of constant attenuation at

The higher value of sidelobe attenuation is

achieved at the expense of increased

mainlobe width.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

31

high frequencies.

40 .Compare the Hamming and Kaiser window.

Sl.No Hamming window Kaiser window

1. The width of mainlobe in window

spectrum is

N

π 8

The width of mainlobe in window spectrum

depends on the values of α and N.

2. The maximum sidelobe magnitude

in window spectrum is -41dB.

The maximum sidelobe magnitude with

respect to peak of mainlobe is variable

using the parameter α.

3. In window spectrum the sidelobe

magnitude remains constant with

increasing

ω

In window spectrum the sidelobe

magnitude decreases with increasing

ω

4. In FIR filter designed using

Hamming window the minimum

stopband attenuation is 51dB.

In FIR filter designed using Kaiser window

the minimum stopband attenuation is

variable and depends on the value of α.

41.How can you design digital filters from the analog filters?

1. Map the desired digital filter specifications into those for an equivalent analog

filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

3. Transform the transfer function of the analog prototype into an equivalent

digital filter transfer function.

42.Mention any two procedures for digitizing the transfer function of an analog

filter.

The two important procedures for digitizing the transfer function of an analog filter

are

1. Impulse invariance method.

2. Bilinear transformation method.

43.What are the advantages and disadvantages of digital filters?

Advantages:

1. High thermal stability due to absence of resistors , inductors and capacitors.

2. The performance characteristics like accuracy, dynamic range, stability and

tolerance can be enhanced by increasing the length of the registers.

3. The digital filters are programmable.

4. Multiplexing and adaptive filtering are possible.

Disadvantages:

1. The bandwidth of the discrete signal is limited by the sampling frequency.

2. The performance of the digital filter depends on the hardware used to

implement the filter.

44.What is impulse invariant transformation?

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

32

The transformation of analog filter to digital filter without modifying the impulse

response of the filter is called impulse invariant transformation (i.e., in this

transformation the impulse response of the digital filter will be sampled version of the

impulse response of the analog filter.)

45.What is the main objective of impulse invariant transformation?

The objective of this method is to develop an IIR filter transfer function whose

impulse is the sampled version of the impulse response of the analog filter. Therefore

the frequency response characteristics of the analog filter are preserved.

46.Write the impulse invariant transformation used to transform real poles with

and without multiplicity.

The impulse invariant transformation used to transform real poles (at s = - p

i

)

without multiplicity is

1

1

1 1

− −

−

→

+ z e

to d transforme is

p s

T p

i

i

The impulse invariant transformation used to transform multiple real pole (at

s = - p

i

) is

( )

1 1

1 1

1

1

) 1 (

) 1 ( 1

− − −

− −

− −

−

→

+ z e dp

d

m

to d transforme is

p s

T p m

i

m m

m

i

i

47.What is the relation between digital and analog frequency in impulse invariant

transformation.

The relation between analog and digital frequency in impulse invariant

transformation is given by

Digital frequency, T Ω · ω

Where,

Ω - Analog frequency and

T - Sampling time period

48.What is Bilinear transformation?

The Bilinear transformation is a conformal mapping that transforms the s-plane

to z-plane . In this mapping the imaginary axis of s-plane is mapped into the unit circle in

z-plane, the left half of s-plane is mapped into interior of unit circle in z-plane and the right

half of s-plane is mapped into exterior of unit circle in z-plane . The Bilinear mapping is a

one – to-one mapping and it is accomplished when

1

1

1

1 2

z

z

T

s

+

−

·

−

49. What is the relation between digital and analog frequency in Bilinear

transformation?

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

33

In Bilinear transformation , the digital frequency and analog frequency are related

by the equation,

Digital frequency,

2

tan 2

1

T Ω

·

−

ω or

Analog frequency

2

tan

2 ω

T

· Ω

Where,

Ω - Analog frequency

T - Sampling time period

50. What is frequency warping?

In bilinear transformation the relation between analog and digital frequencies is

nonlinear. When the s-plane is mapped into z-plane using bilinear transformation , this

nonlinear relationship introduces distortion in frequency axis, which is called

frequency warping.

51. What is prewarping? Why it is employed?

In IIR filter design using bilinear transformation , the conversion of the specified

digital frequencies to analog frequencies is called prewarping.

The prewarping is necessary to eliminate the effect of warping on amplitude

response.

52. Explain the technique of prewarping.

In IIR filter design using bilinear transformation the specified digital frequencies

are converted to analog equivalent frequencies, which are called prewarp frequencies.

Using the prewarp frequencies, the analog filter transfer function is designed and then it

is transformed to digital filter transfer function.

53. Compare the impulse invariant and bilinear transformations.

Sl.No Impulse Invariant transformation Bilinear transformation

1. It is many – to – one mapping It is one – to – one mapping.

2. The relation between analog and

digital frequency is linear.

The relation between analog and digital

frequency is nonlinear.

3. To prevent the problem of aliasing the

analog filters should be band limited.

There is no problem of aliasing and so the

analog filter need not be band limited.

4.

The magnitude and phase response of

analog filter can be preserved by

choosing low sampling time or high

sampling frequency.

Due to the effect of warping, the phase

response of analog filter cannot be

preserved . But the magnitude response

can be preserved by prewarping.

PART – B

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

34

1)Obtain the Direct form –I , Direct form – II , Cascade form and Parallel form

structure for the system described by

) 1 ( ) ( ) 2 ( 25 . 0 ) 1 ( 5 . 0 ) ( ) (

) 2 ( 6 . 0 ) 1 ( 6 . 3 ) ( 3 ) 2 ( 2 . 0 ) 1 ( 1 . 0 ) ( ) (

− + + − + − ·

− + − + + − + − − ·

n x n x n y n y n y b

n x n x n x n y n y n y a

2)Obtain the cascade realization of

,

_

¸

¸

+

,

_

¸

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

+

+ +

·

− − −

− −

1 1 1

2 1

8

1

1

4

1

1

2

1

1

2

) (

Z Z Z

Z Z

z H

3)Realize the following system functions using a minimum number of multipliers

( )( )

2 1 2 1

3 2 1

4 3 2 1

4

1

1

2

1

1 ) ( ) (

2

1

2

1

1 ) ( ) (

2

1

4

3

2

1

1 ) ( ) (

− − − −

− − −

− − − −

+ + + + ·

+ + + ·

+ + + + ·

z z z z z H c

z z z z H b

z z z z z H a

4)Design both (a)a Butterworth (b) Chebyshev filter analog low pass filter that have

-3dB cut off frequency of 100 rad/sec and a stop band attenuation of 25 dB or greater

for all radian frequencies past 250 rad/sec.

5)Design a (a)a Butterworth and (b) a Chebyshev analog high pass filter that will pass

all signals of radian frequencies greater than200rad/sec with no more than 2 dB

attenuation and have a stop band attenuation of greater than 20 dB for all Ω

less than 100rad/sec.

6)Design a Butterworth high pass filter satisfying the following specifications:

π α

π α

2 . 0 1

4 . 0 1

· Ω ·

· Ω ·

S S

P p

dB

dB

7) Design a Butterworth low pass filter satisfying the following specifications:

Hz dB

Hz dB

S S

P p

15 . 0 30

1 . 0 5 . 0

· Ω ·

· Ω ·

α

α

8)For a given specifications design an Butterworth filter

π π

π

≤ Ω ≤ ≤ Ω

≤ Ω ≤ ≤ Ω ≤

5 . 0 1 . 0 (

1 . 0 0 9 . 0 ( 7 . 0

for j H

for j H

9)Obtain an analog Chebyshev filter transfer function that satisfies the constraints

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

35

4 1 . 0 ) (

2 0 1 ) (

2

1

≥ Ω ≤ Ω

≤ Ω ≤ ≤ Ω ≤

for j H

for j H

10)Design an FIR linear phase, digital filter approximating the ideal frequency

response

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

≤ ≤

≤

·

π ω

π

π

ω

ω

6

, 0

6

, 1

) (

for

for

H

d

(a) Determine the coefficients of a 25- tap filter based on the window method with

a rectangular window.

(b) Determine and plot the magnitude and phase response of the filter.

(c) Repeat parts (a) and (b) using Hamming window.

(d) Repeat parts (a) and (b0 using a Bartlett window.

11) Design a FIR filter having following specification

( )

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

≤ ≤ −

·

otherwise

for

e H

jw

d

, 0

6 6

, 1

π

ω

π

and given that N=7. Using

(a) Hanning Window

(b) Hamming Window

(c) Blackman Window

12) Design a FIR high pass filter to meet the following specification

( )

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

≤ ≤

·

−

otherwise

for e

e H

w j

jw

d

, 0

6

,

5

π ω

π

Using

(a) Hanning Window

(b) Hamming Window

(c) Blackman Window

13) Design a FIR Band pass filter having a following specification

( )

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

≤ ≤

·

−

otherwise

for e

e H

w j

jw

d

, 0

2 4

,

5

π

ω

π

Using

(a) Hanning Window

(b) Hamming Window

(c) Blackman Window

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

36

14) Design a FIR band stop filter having following specification

( )

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

·

·

−

otherwise

radian

radian for e

e H

c

c

w j

jw

d

, 0

4

2 ,

2

5

1

ω

ω

Using

(a) Hanning Window

(b)Hamming Window

(c) Blackman Window

15 )Design a FIR low pass filter having a cut off frequency f

c

= 1 KHz and sampling

rate f

s

= 4 KHz, using 11 samples compute filter coefficient Using

(a) Hanning Window (b) Hamming Window (c) Blackman Window

16) Explain the method of obtaining digital filter from analog filters.

(a)Impulse invariant method (b)Bilinear transform method.

17) Explain the pole mapping procedure of

(a)Impulse invariant method (b)Bilinear transform method.

18)Determine H(z) using impulse invariant method.

(a)

) 2 )( 1 (

2

) (

+ +

·

s s

H

S a

(b)

) 2 5 . 0 )( 5 . 0 (

1

2

) (

+ + +

·

s s s

H

S a

19) Convert analog filter

) 2 )( 1 (

2

) (

+ +

·

s s

H

S a

into digital filter by means of bilinear transformation T

= 1 sec

20) Determine the order of filter N and cut off frequency

c

Ω

for the specification

π ω π ω

π ω ω

≤ ≤ ≤

≤ ≤ ≤ ≤

6 . 0 2 . 0 ) (

2 . 0 0 1 ) ( 8 . 0

for j H

for j H

UNIT –V

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

37

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR

1.What are the classification digital signal processors?

The digital signal processors are classified as

i. General purpose digital signal processors.

ii. Special purpose digital signal processors.

2. Give some examples for fixed point DSPs.

TMS320C50, TM 320C54, TM 320C55, ADSP-219x, ADSP-219xx.

3. Give some examples for floating point DSPs.

TMS320C3x, TMS320C67x, ADSP-21xxx.

4. What are the factors that influence selection of DSPs?

1.Architectural features

2.Execution speed

3.Type of arithmetic

4.Word length

5. What are the applications of PDSPs?

Digital cell phones, automated inspection, voicemail, motor control, video

conferencing, Noise cancellation, Medical imaging, speech synthesis, satellite

communication etc.

6. What is pipelining?

Pipelining a processor means breaking down its instruction into a series of discrete

pipeline stages which can be completed in sequence by specialized hardware.

7. What is pipeline depth?

The number of pipeline stages is referred to as the pipeline depth.

8. What is the pipeline depth of TMS320C50, TM 320C54x?

TMS320C50 – 4

TM 320C54x – 6

10. What are the different stages in pipelining?

i. the Fetch phase

ii. the Decode phase

iii. Memory read phase

iv. the Execute phase

11.What are the different buses of TM 320C5x and their functions?

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

38

The ‘C5x architecture has four buses

1.program bus (PB)

2.Program address bus (PAB)

3.Data read bus (DB)

4.Data read address bus (DAB)

The program bus carriers the instruction code and immediate operands from program

memory to the CPU.

The program address bus provides address to program memory space for both read

and write.

The data read bus interconnects various elements of the CPU to data memory spaces.

The data read address bus provides the address to access the data memory spaces.

12. List the various registers used with ARAU.

Eight auxiliary registers (AR0 –AR7)

Auxiliary register pointer (ARP)

13. What are the elements that the control processing unit of ‘c5X consists of

1.Central arithmetic logic unit (CALU)

2.Parallel logic unit (PLU)

3.Auxiliary register arithmetic unit (ARAU)

4.Memory mapped registers

5.Program controller

14. What is the function of parallel logic unit?

The parallel logic unit is second logic units, which execute logic operations on data

without affecting the contents of accumulator.

15. List the on chip peripherals in ‘c5x .

The on-chip peripherals interfaces connected to the ‘c5x CPU include

(i) Clock generator

(ii) Hardware timer

(iii) Software programmable wait state generators

(iv) General purpose I/O pins

(v) Parallel I/O ports

(vi) Serial port interface

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

39

(vii) Buffered serial port

(viii) Time-divisions multiplexed (TDM) serial port

(ix) Host port interface

(x) User unmaskable interrupts

16. What are the general purpose I/O pins?

Branch control input ( ) O BI

External flag (XF)

17. What are the arithmetic instructions of ‘C5x?

ADD, ADDB, ADDC, SUB, SUBB, MPY, MPYU

18. What are the logical instructions of ‘c5x?

AND, ANDB, OR, ORB, XOR, XORB

19. What are the shift instructions?

ROR, ROL, ROLB, RORB, BSAR

20. What are load/store instructions?

LACB, LACC, LACL, LAMM, LAR, SACB, SACH, SACL, SAR

PART – B

1. Enumerate various applications of DSP processors.

2. Describe in detail the architecture of TMS 320C 54 DSP processor and state the

main features of this processor.

3. Explain the following with reference to DSP processors.

(i) Barrel Shifter

(ii)MAC

(iii)CSSU

(iv) Harvard Architecture

4. Explain a typical application in which a DSP processor can be used.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

40

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING S. Krishnakumar & N. Chidambararaj

41

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