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# Experiment #6 COOLING OF A HOT MATERIAL

Group 2
ALCISO, Hannah-lyn CASADIA, Ariel DUENAS, Princess Marie GABRAL, Genikka NAQUITA, Marjorie PABAS, Caryl L. * III-31 BSE General Science August 24, 2012

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted to determine the factors that affect the rate of cooling of a hot material. The material that was tested is the hot water. The container that was used is 250 ml and 100 ml of beakers. Also different volume of water was added in the same beakers and different beakers. These three variations will tell us if these three trials were able to affect the rate of the cooling. Every 3 minutes the temperature was monitored after getting the initial thermal equilibrium. The amount of water and the size of the beaker didn’t affect the rate of cooling. The result of the experiment shows that the higher the initial temperature of the material the faster the rate of cooling down of it. The graph of this is inversely proportional. The temperature curve has an upward direction when the initial temperature is less than the surrounding temperature.

This experiment is conducted to determine the factors affect the rate of cooling of water. THEORY: Temperature difference in any situation results from energy flow into a system or energy flow from a system to surroundings. . it is cooling down and rate of change of temperature is negative.Introduction: The important concept here that needs to be considered here is how fast the water cool off or how it’s the temperature change. Newton’s law of cooling states that the rate of temperature of the body is proportional to the difference between the temperature of the body and that of the surrounding medium. And also to prove the Newton’s Law of cooling to answer the question that we encounter in everyday life. since the temperature of the body is higher than the temperature of the surroundings then T-T2 is positive. (1) Where k is a positive proportionality constant. Let the temperature of the body be °C at time t. There is a law – Newton’s law of cooling – that treats this observable fact. The former leads to heating whereas latter leads to cooling of an object. including the discharge of a capacitor and the decay in radioactivity.e. Newton’s Law says that the time a substance takes to cool off depends on the temperature difference between the substance and the surroundings. Suppose that a body with initial temperature T 1°C. Newton's Law of Cooling is useful for studying water heating because it can tell us how fast the hot water in pipes cools off. Also the temperature of the body is decreasing i. This statement leads to the classic equation of exponential decline over time which can be applied to many phenomena in science and engineering. Then by Newton’s law of cooling. is allowed to cool in air which is maintained at a constant temperature T 2°C. Need to find out the essential factors that affect the rate of cooling. and also tells us how fast a water heater cools down if you turn off the breaker when you go on vacation.

The constant ‘k’ depends upon the surface properties of the material being cooled. This will be the initial temperatures at the time 0 minutes. Add a legend for each curve too. Where. k = positive constant and t = time Methodology: To make experiment successful these procedures should be follow. TA = Ambient temperature (temp of surroundings). Repeat the same procedure in the first part. The graph drawn between the temperature of the body and time is known as cooling curve. In general. Next filled up the 250 ml and 100 ml beakers with hot water at 80 °C or higher. Or we can say that the temperature of the body approaches that of its surroundings as time goes. Initial condition is given by T=T1 at t=0 This equation represents Newton’s law of cooling. lim t --> ∞. T (t) = Temperature at time t. TH = Temperature of hot object at time 0. Record all the observation in the data or table given. The slope of the tangent to the curve at any point gives the rate of fall of temperature. e-kt = 0 and T= T2 . If k <0. Then make a graph of the temperature of hot water with the time and draw a best fit line. . First filled the 250 ml beaker with 100 ml of hot water at 80 °C or higher and the other 250 ml beaker with the same amount of water at 50 °C or lower. Make sure to monitor the temperature of hot water every 3 minutes for at least 30 minutes or until it reached thermal equilibrium.

867 100 mL of water in 250 mL of beaker at t1 y = -3.867 100 mL of water in 250 mL of beaker at t2 Linear (100 mL of water in 250 mL of beaker at t1) Linear (100 mL of water in 250 mL of beaker at t2) TIME 6 9 12 15 .DATA AND RESULTS: Table 1.0571x + 89. Cooling of a Hot Material Temperature in °C Time in minutes 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 100 mL of water in 250 mL of beaker at t1 100 mL of 250 mL of water in 250 water at t mL of beaker at t2 100 mL of water at t 100 mL of water in 250 mL beaker 100 mL of water in 100 mL beaker 85 70 61 59 55 51 48 46 44 42 40 65 60 55 53 50 48 46 44 43 41 40 80 74 70 66 63 61 58 56 54 51 49 80 69 67 62 59 52 46 44 42 40 39 80 70 61 55 53 50 48 46 44 42 41 80 71 60 56 52 50 48 45 42 41 40 Title of graph: Variation of the temperature of 100 ML of water in 250 ml beker with t1 and t2 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 3 y = -7.3429x + 66.

393 100 mL of water in 250 mL beaker 100 mL of water in 100 mL beaker Linear (100 mL of water in 250 mL beaker) Linear (100 mL of water in 100 mL beaker) .Title of graph: Variation of the temperature of 100 ML and 250 ml water in a beaker 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 3 6 9 y = -5.857 y = -4.6x + 83.5595x + 78.6905x + 78.6x + 84 Title of graph: Variation of the temperature of 100 mL of water in 250 mL beaker and 100 mL of water in 100 mL beaker 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 y = -4.5 250 mL of water at t 100 mL of water at t Linear (250 mL of water at t) Linear (100 mL of water at t) y = -4.

the water in 250 ml and 100 ml of beaker also cooled down as the time increases every 3 minutes. Many factors may affect the cooling of a hot material. 4. Still has doesn’t affect the rate of cooling of water. 6. safety precaution is very much necessary because we are dealing with the hot water. Physics: Principles with Application/ Douglas C.ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS: In this experiment. These three variations almost the same in their initial temperature ranges from 85-80 °C because hot water is still used and it cools down at the rate of 39-40 °C. 100 ml of water in 250 ml beaker when it reached thermal equilibrium at 85 °C. 5. the following graphs just tell us that the rate of cooling of a hot material was the higher the body’s temperature which was the initial temperature. As we can see in the first graph. 2. Lastly. Conceptual Physics/ Paul G. http://en. . 6.math.ca/coursedoc/math100/notes/diffeqs/cool. the temperature curve has an upward direction when the initial temperature is less than the surrounding temperature. The amount of water and the size of the beaker didn’t affect the rate of cooling. 6thed. Douglas C. Paul G.ugrad. the faster the rate of cooling.html Laboratory Manual in Heat and Thermodynamics. Sears and Zemanky’s University Physics 12thed. the initial temperature only affects the cooling of hot material because the higher the initial temperature the faster the rate of cooling. Same with the 2 nd graph. These are the temperature of the surrounding is higher than then initial temperature the cooling of hot material is slow. Hewitt. Reference: 1. 5. Giancoli. the cooling process is faster. Conclusion: Experiment aims to determine the factors affect the rate of cooling of a hot material. The result of the experiment shows that the higher the body’s temperature the faster the rate at which it cools down.org/wiki/Lumped_capacitance_model http://www. The 3rd graph differs in the beakers that was used. equal volume of water in a different beakers and the values obtain has the same with the first and second table. But when the initial temperature is higher than on the temperature of surrounding. Recommendation: In performing the experiment. In addition. the temperature easily cools down as the time increases every 3 minutes. Make sure that you are handling the beaker with care so that the water will not spill on you.ubc.wikipedia. Hewitt. 10thed. The amount of water and the different beakers that we used doesn’t affect the rate of cooling even though 250 ml is larger than 100 ml of water. 3. Giancoli.