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ADAMSON UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF MINING, GEOLOGY AND CERAMICS ENGINEERING

ANOMIE OR ALIENATION,

WORST STEPS IN THE FUTURE OF OUR SOCIETY

Impartial Fulfillment for the Course Requirement in Society and Culture with Family Planning and Population Education

Submitted By: Mendoza, Aran Khristian A. Mondala, April Kayte P.

Submitted To: Prof. Don Emmanuel Nolasco October 8, 2012

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Introduction

In our society, anomie and alienation gives new definition on the norms of the people. These two theories by Durkheim and Marx respectively show that our society is now broken down to pieces and humans are becoming foreigners on their own country. Anomie describe that we human are becoming “normlessness”. It describes the breakdown of social bonds between an individual and their community, if under unruly scenarios possibly resulting in fragmentation of social identity, which is the disintegration of social norms governing behavior and thought and social relationships, and rejection of self-regulatory values. According to Emile Durkheim, introducer of anomie theory, he used to describe that our society is deregulated. He describes anomie as "a rule that is a lack of rule", "derangement", and "an insatiable will". Yes, our society is deregulated because the government has no control in our society especially for those companies that are privately owned.

Alienation according to the developer of this theory, Karl Marx, alienation is the separation from that which is desired or desirable. It is the systemic result of living in a socially stratified society, because being a mechanistic part of a social class alienates a person from his and her humanity. From philosophical point of view stratified society means a society in which competing groups have unequal access to power and/or resources, some groups being subordinate to others. It thus creates superiority and inferiority complexes among citizens. These theories define problems between an individual and the society.

In our society, anomie and alienation give new definition on the norms of the people. These two theories show that our society is now broken down to pieces and humans are becoming strangers on their own country.

One of the reasons of this anomie situation is that the community or society is deregulated. Deregulation is the removal of government controls from an industry or sector, to allow for a free and efficient marketplace. With this situation, people living in their own place lost their identity, dignity and even power. In the case of the Philippines, our own government has no control on the price that oil companies are charging to us because of what they called deregulation. They can change the price, of course for their

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advantage, any time they want it. This anomie practice controls the development of any society or country.

These theories surely being showed in our present time, especially alienation, we can relate alienation to those who are in deputy that is feeling to give up race to become a man he desired. Desired is the thing you want to be while desirable is the thing you and other wanted to be and desirable is being desired because it is right.

In the Philippines society, there are more people who acts and portray other people than being themselves. This kind of misappropriate action may cause the society to break into pieces and that when anomie is present. Anomie will be seen if an individual in a certain society misunderstood himself and the society he is moving with.

Anomie and Alienation is two theories that are very interesting because it show the negativity or dysfunction of a certain individual and ruined the society. We can say that anomie is better than alienation or alienation is better than anomie but no, these theories are both wrong and inappropriate, the real question is which of these theories is worst and proving it is worst? Conducting researches that proves that this theories clash, the society will be destroyed. Our society is being destroyed by the people making the two theories created by Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim possible. These are focused on Filipinos that are self-reluctant, they don‟t believe on what they can do and perform. In this case we can relate some Filipinos that use more imported products than local products because they may think that our own product are too low in quality not knowing that Filipino products are high in quality. Purchasing these products may influence other people to also use these kind products until no single Filipino avail their own product. It is like combining a rotten tomato to fresh tomatoes, the main point of this is influencing other people causing these theories to occur in our own country.

Anomie is said to be just a product of alienation but is that true? We can see that they are both a dysfunction to our society and to each other. This dysfunction may lead our society to the worst scenarios can ever happened. We can observe that the aspect

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affecting the society created and influenced by anomie and alienation is not just economical but also political, cultural and social aspects of life.

This will clarify if these theories is happening or still happening up to now. The objective of these theories is to ruin a specific society and our objectives are to prove that human make the society ruined, these theories are only the basis of why they ruin a particular society. Is the source of this problem economical or the people who is making the economy?

Anomie and alienation are two theories that are should be given emphasis, since these show the negativity or dysfunction of a certain individual and directly or indirectly ruined the society. If we want progress and individual happiness, it is about time to eradicate the practice of these two theories.

In anomie we lost our identity, dignity, personality, and the power while alienation exhibits discrimination among people. In short both anomie and alienation are not good.

Discussion

Based on the statement of Karl Marx, Alienation is the process whereby people become foreign to the world they are living in. The concept of alienation is deeply embedded in all the great religions and social and political theories of the civilized epoch, namely, the idea that sometime in the past people lived in harmony, and then there was some kind of rupture which left people feeling like foreigners in the world, but sometime in the future this alienation would be overcome and humanity would again live in harmony with itself and Nature.

This Statement is relevant to our term paper since it is our bases of defining and further understanding for our term paper and how we could understand and come up with a concrete data or information. With this statement we also want to open minds and the eyes of the people who are concerned with their society. According to the study “Alienation, Anomie, and Combat Effectiveness” by Major Daniel W. Jacobowitz, et al. Alienation and anomie are similar psychological states.

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Alienation is a "withdrawing or separation of a person or his affections from an object or position of former attachment"; while anomie is a "state of normlessness or lawlessness . . . characterized by individual disorientation, anxiety, and social isolation". Alienated individuals do suffer from the same anxiety and social isolation experienced by anomic individuals. Without power, faith, and commitment, alienated and anomic individuals become intensely self-centered. They distrust all commitments to the community, to any institution, or even to themselves and feel only anger and anxiety. This dangerous combination can cause catastrophic social problems, including collapse of a society. Revolution may result when the extremely alienated rush to accept any regime which or demagogue who promises to relieve the unbearable anxiety of their isolation. Even at a level below active rebellion, anomic individuals will actively resist healthy and normal community social relations.

Variables in this study being reviewed are somehow similar to our term paper. Where not just focusing on relationship of Alienation and Anomie in our society but we are connecting this two by many aspects of our society. We are connecting it to our politics, Economy and religion. We are using all the references that can help us in researching and for us to gain more knowledge about our topic. The following discussion presents an overview of Marx‟s theory of alienation. In contrast to the usual presentation of the subject, we will demonstrate that Marx‟s theory of alienation is unintelligible without a prior assimilation of the philosophical method by which it was derived. This in turn leads to a major problem. The philosophical outlook and categories employed by Marx are quite foreign to those, particularly in the Englishspeaking world, who have been trained in the school of empiricism and its descendants, positivism and analytic philosophy. The process of misapprehension can be likened to an attempt to appropriate the great literature of a foreign language by reference to a phrase book. Compounding the problem is the hostility to socialist politics that is

engendered by powerful class interests, generating the grossest caricatures of Marxism which find their way into the popular media. On top of this, a further layer of confusion has been sown by the distorted and vulgar interpretations of Marxism that were spread for decades by the heirs of Stalin. The prognosis for breaking through this logjam is nevertheless far from hopeless. Indeed, the demise of the Soviet Union has opened up the possibility for a genuine renewal of authentic Marxism. The stultifying pressure of an

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official brand of “Marxism” which functioned as the ideological legitimating of the bureaucracy in the Soviet Union no longer commands any credibility. This is the other side of the coin of the so-called “new world order”, which appeared too many as heralding the ultimate triumph of capitalism. Marx‟s theory of alienation has often been presented as something entirely separate, if not completely at odds with his scientific work. Marx the philosopher is counter posed to Marx the author of Capital and the relationship of each to Marx the revolutionary remains a mystery. Depending on the preferences of the author, either the “young Marx” is favored over the “mature Marx” or vice-versa. We will show that maintaining this dichotomy is only possible if the body of Marx‟s work is either deliberately distorted or misunderstood. Our term paper is that the theory of alienation lays the foundation for a scientific analysis of the capitalist mode of production. Neither is understandable without the other. The critique of political economy in turn results in the identification of the working class as the sole agency capable of transforming society and thereby overcoming the proximate cause of alienation. In the course of our investigation, we will engage a number of authors who have contributed to the debate on alienation. In doing so, we make no pretense at providing anything like an exhaustive review of the literature on the subject. That would probably 1From Alienation to Revolution: A Defense of Marx‟s Theory of Alienation requires several volumes. Our intent is to clarify the differences and raise the level of discussion through a critique of the work of several representatives of current ideological trends opposed to Marxism. Whereas the scope of this essay limits the discussion to those concepts that most directly bear on the theory of alienation, it is not possible to completely avoid many other issues of Marxist philosophy. This should not be surprising. A dialectical cognition of any part of an object of investigation cannot be isolated from a comprehension of the whole. At the same time, the part must not be conflated into the whole. Keeping this in mind, we have sought to explore the theory of alienation through an explication of Marx‟s essentialism and his understanding of human nature. This narrowing of our focus enables us to clarify certain issues that may otherwise remain obscure in the context of a more generalized discussion.

In beginning a discussion of alienation, it may be helpful to start from a model of a society that is free from this blight. Unfortunately, recorded history does not provide us with an example of such a society. This is no accident. The phenomenon of alienation and recorded history are bound together. Both are coeval with class society. In the

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discussion that follows we will be examining the specific form of alienation endemic to capitalist society. Yet it is undoubtedly a fact that alienation predates capitalism. A brilliant analysis of the origin of alienation in the life of ancient Greece is provided by Hegel in his Phenomenology of Spirit. According to Hegel, ancient Athens provides us with the one shining example of a society in which there is no contradiction between ones instincts and one‟s social obligations. This state is described as follows: “The true ethical life of the ancient world has as its principle that each man should abide in his duty. An Athenian citizen did what was expected of him, so to speak, instinctively.” Hegel called this harmonious state the Ethical Life. Hegel‟s exposition of the Ethical Life in ancient Athens was not meant to be a historically accurate account of life in the Greek polis. Rather, it served as a point of reference for his subsequent exposition of the genesis of alienation in human society. This is a society as yet untouched by

discordance. As soon as man reflects on his actions, he initiates a process that starts to break up the idyllic Ethical Life. Divine Law, man‟s original law, comes into conflict with Human Law. In Hegels‟ view Greek Tragedy provides the first voice of the conflict between Divine Law and Human law. The Oedipus story provides a striking example. “…the son does not recognize his father in the man who has wronged him and whom he slays, nor his mother in the queen whom he makes his wife. In this way a power which shuns the light of day ensnares the ethical self-consciousness, a power which breaks forth only after the deed is done…In this truth therefore the deed is brought out into the light of day, as something in which the conscious is bound up with unconscious, what is one‟s own with what is alien to it, as an entity divided within itself.” The story of Antigone provides a more developed form of the antithesis between Divine Law and Human Law. Antigone, knowingly carries out the dictates of Divine Law, the burial of her brother‟s corpse, in the face of the sanction of Human Law. The ruler of the city of Thebes, Creon, had forbidden the burial to serve as an example of the punishment awaiting those who rebelled against the city. Antigone cannot allow her brother‟s body to rot outside the city gates. For her deed, at once affirming Divine Law and defying human law, she is put to death. The pathos of Greek tragedy is the first form of alienation understood and expressed as such. In the history of philosophy, the conscious reflection of the conflict between Divine Law and Human Law was first articulated by the Sophists. They challenged the traditional notion that the laws of the city were derived from the gods. They propounded the notion that laws were made by men and can therefore be changed by men. Their philosophical nemesis, Socrates, opposed the caprice of the Sophists‟

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conventionalism. Socrates however did not return to a veneration of custom and tradition in defending the necessity of human law. Far from it, Socrates was put to death for the crime of „corrupting the youth‟ by spreading impious teaching. Socrates and the Sophists set into motion a great flowering of philosophical speculation about the nature of human society and its inner conflicts. These speculations reached their height with the philosophical and practical search for the best society in the works of Plato and Aristotle. Following the demise of the ancient societies of Greece and Rome, the philosophical investigation of social antagonism fell into decline as well. Social antagonism of course remained, but the possibility for its articulation in philosophy was closed at the same time as open political options disappeared. The relatively democratic regimes of the Greek poleis gave way to the centralized and authoritarian Roman state. As political engagement became further constricted, Christian messianism replaced philosophy and politics as an avenue for articulating the pathos of humanity. With Christianity, the concept of alienation is defined in theological terms. The “fall of man” inaugurated the condition of separation of man from god. The myth of the first man and woman being cast out from the Garden of Eden provides us with a new paradigm of man‟s selfalienation. The original unity that existed between god and his creation was disrupted by man asserting his will, thereby attaining the knowledge of good and evil. Conversely, the dream of a return to the primal unity of man with god becomes the passion of the mystic and messiah. This is according to the Alex Steiner, May 1997

First question that we want to know is how these theories affect our society. So you could see that our society is affected by these theories in many aspects like in religion, politics and even in education. Also these theories affect the society by the people inside the society itself. The people just represent or act a certain action that

these theories are representing, therefore it is not the theories itself that affect the society but the doer of this society. The people also create the conflict with themselves and the society itself. The doer or human creates these conflicts starting the real deal between the society and these theories. The main catch is these theories are not the destroyer but the people affected by these theories such as power hunger people, social climber and even our government.

Second question is which is worst Anomie or Alienation? For us they are just the same. Because they are both negative they both create a conflict in our society. There

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are characteristics they both have examples are “estranged from others, anticommitment, self-indulgent, rebellious and powerless. With these characteristic, is shown that these theories do not control the society they are just powerless. They are the one who give power to the doer to continue spreading this kind of action. It just shows the negativity of Anomie and Alienation. So which is really the worst, none of them, they just like two people competing for the worst to happen.

Conclusion

To summarize our report let start again in explaining these two theories, anomie and alienation. Anomie describes the lack of social norms or simply being normlessness while alienation is the systematic result of socially stratified society . These theories are presented by Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx respectively. These two theories are greatly affecting our society from our economy. These two theories are greatly affecting our society from our economy, government, religion, mass media and family.

Which of these theories are really much better? Or may I say which of these theories are much worst? Our answer is none of them because these theories are affecting the society but not leading to a greater nation but leading our nation to the worst scenarios can ever happened. Alienation and anomie will bring us the dysfunction of all our country‟s social institution. For a broad example, just this past month or weeks, the cybercrime law has been approved by the government and the society specially the mass media will be crumpled. In our society, anomie and alienation give new definition on the norms of the people. These two theories show that our society is now broken down to pieces and humans are becoming strangers on their own country.

Our research just revolves around the topic of the theories, alienation and anomie. Once again we have proven that alienation is no better than anomie and anomie is also no better than alienation. They are just both giving problems in our society. The main functions of these theories are to destroy our country, our institution and our people. These theories also influenced lot of people how they act, feel and must represent.

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Dysfunctions causing the breakdown in our society and with this breakdown we people are being normless and changing our society half dead and making our country stratified. Stratified making our country poor and poorer, and when this happened a larger breakdown will occur, the survival of the fittest will be arisen and people will fight for each other for their own right. The day will come that these theories will the only preference in changing the rules, the law and the people. These theories will control our society and bringing our society in the dumpster. It is very scary that this sill be an example to the people who are dreaming to be a part of the society has no choice but to surrender to these theories and make them slaves of these theories in their own land. We must open our mind to clear up things a little bit.

We conclude that these theories will just be removed in our society if and only if the mindset of our people will change and how to do that? The only way is to focus; there will be no shortcuts in resolving these issues. We must face a bitter-sweet experience and challenges that will come in our way in resolving these problems. We must face the truth that if we don‟t change our lifestyle one day we will wake-up in another country full of bastards. Change is not an option is a choice, choice leading us in a great tomorrow and choice that change our society. We are now ready to face the truth. We are now ready to change the world. And we are now ready to take the first step, analyzing where the problem really comes from.

Recommendation

Our main endeavor on choosing this topic is to us to know why alienation and anomie is negative and how it affects the study of our society. We are also aiming to know if there is a relation between Anomie and Alienation. Based on the given Conclusions, we recommend the following for the betterment of this term paper.

For future students that will choose this topic could opt to choose and research for different variables and used different articles. Also they could use different books and magazine. We highly suggest that they should also conduct a survey for who are familiar with alienation and anomie this would be a big help. We also suggest that they should have more time and be more curious and be more open-minded. Because we have only

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limited time our research is not us accurate as we want to have. We have only limited options of references.

For the teachers to be having more knowledge on this topic we highly recommend that they should study again and use more references like Books and Articles involving Alienation and Anomie. They should also read term papers and thesis about this topic it can give them more information and can give them new techniques on how to teach this topic effectively. We are recommending also those who will likely be benefitted on this topic to use more references and give more time in researching for this topic because it will give them more accurate and precise data.

References

Websites

http://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/a/l.htm This site introduced the basic thought of alienation. In this site, it describes alienation as a process whereby people become foreign to the world they are living in. Also I the site, we can see the different laws that questioned and proved that alienation is destroying our society. The site also showed the critiques of Hegel and Marx regarding to alienation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anomie Wikipedia showed us the brief meaning of anomie, and with this site we truly understand the meaning and effect of anomie in our society.

http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1980/sep-oct/jacobowitz.html This site introduces to us the difference and the similarities of these theories. Like other site it described both theories, from Karl Marx‟s alienation theory proceeding to Emile Durkheim‟s anomie theory. It also stated the different characteristic of anomie and alienation.

http://ezinearticles.com/?Alienation-and-Anomie&id=433311

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Here is being stated the state of anomie and alienation. This site compares the two theories. It described both theories with analytical thinking

Journal From Alienation to Revolution: A Defense of Marx‟s Theory of Alienation. Alex Steiner