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John Arvi V.

Armildez AC09301
CHAPTER 9: Communicating in Teams and Organizations LO1. Explain why communication is important in organizations, and discuss four influences on effective communication encoding and decoding. Communication is the process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more people. Communication supports work coordination, organizational learning, decision making, and employee wellbeing. The communication process involves forming, encoding, and transmitting the intended message to a receiver, who then decodes the message and provides feedback to the sender. Effective communication occurs when the sender’s thoughts are transmitted to and understood by the intended receiver. Four ways to improve this process is for both sender and receiver to be proficient with the communication channel, have similar codebooks, and have share common mental models of the communication context and for the sender to be experienced at sending that message. LO2. Compare and contrast the advantages and problems with electronic mail, other verbal communication media, and nonverbal communication. The two main types of communication channels are verbal and nonverbal. Various forms of computer-mediated communication are widely used in organizations, with e-mail being the most popular. Although it is efficient and serves as a useful filing cabinet, e-mail is relatively poor at communicating emotions; it tends to reduce politeness and respect; it is an inefficient medium for communicating in ambiguous, complex, and novel situations; and it contributes to information overload. Facebook-like web sites, wikis, virtual reality platforms, and other forms of virtual social networking are also gaining popularity in the workplace. Social media include Internetbased tools (websites, applications, etc.) that allows user to generate and exchange information. They serve several functions, including presenting the individual’s identity, enabling conversations, sharing information, sensing the presence of others in the virtual space, maintaining relationships, revealing reputation or status, and supporting communities. Nonverbal communication includes facial gestures, voice intonation, physical distance, and even silence. Unlike verbal communication, nonverbal communication is less rule-bound and is mostly automatic and nonconscious. Some nonverbal communication is automatic, through a process called emotional contagion. LO3. Explain how social acceptance and media richness influence the preferred communication channel. The most appropriate communication medium partly depends on social acceptance and media richness. Social acceptance refers to how well the communication medium is approved and supported by the organization, teams, and individuals. This contingency includes organization and team norms, individual preferences for specific communication channels, and the symbolic meaning of a channel. A communication medium should also be chosen for its data-carrying capacity (media richness). Nonroutine and ambiguous situations require rich media. However, we also need to recognize that lean media allow people to multi communicate, that the capacity of computer-mediated communication is varied due to the proficiency of individual users, and that social distractions can reduce the efficient processing of information in high-mediarichness channels. These contingencies also should be considered when selecting the best channels for persuasion. LO4. Discuss various barriers (noise) to effective communication, including cross-cultural and genderbased differences in communication. Several barriers create noise in the communication process. People misinterpret messages because misaligned codebooks due to different languages, jargon, and use of ambiguous phrases. Filtering messages and information overload are two other communication barriers. These problems are often amplified in cross-cultural settings because of language barriers and differences in meanings of nonverbal cues. There are also some communication differences between men and women, such as the tendency for men to exert status and engage in report talk in conversations whereas women use more rapport talk and are more sensitive than are men to nonverbal cues. LO5. Explain hoe to get messages across more effectively, and summarize the elements of active listening. To get a message across, the sender must learn to empathize with the receiver, repeat the message, choose an appropriate time for the conversation, and be descriptive rather than evaluative. Listening includes sensing, evaluating, and responding. Active listeners support these processes by postponing evaluation, avoiding interruptions, maintaining interest, empathizing, organizing information, showing interest, and clarifying the message. LO6. Summarize effective communication strategies in organizational hierarchies, and review the role and relevance of the organizational grapevine. Some companies try to encourage communication through workspace design, as well as through Webbased sites. Some executives also meet directly with employees, such as through management by walking around (MBWA), to facilitate communication across the organization. In any organization, employees rely on the grapevine, particularly during times of uncertainty. The grapevine is an unstructured and informal net work founded on social relationships rather than or ganizational charts or job descriptions. Although early research identified several unique features of the grapevine, some of these features may be changing as the Internet plays an increasing role in grapevine communication.

or otherwise respect them. that is. Individuals and work units are more powerful when they are nonsubstitutable. This power has restrictions represented by the target person’s zone of indifference. There are five sources of power. lower. organizations) that are connected to one another through one or more forms interdependence. when the number of people affected is large and people are quickly affected by their actions. and labor and by differentiating themselves from competitors. and organizations reduce substitutability by controlling tasks. work units. People have more power when they have high centrality. Armildez AC09301 CHAPTER 10: Power and Influences in the Workplace LO1. establishing a free flow of information. The most widely studied influence tactics are silent authority. Discretion. upward appeal. having weak ties with people from diverse networks can be more valuable than having strong ties with the people in similar networks.g. visibility. People also gain power by bridging structural holes –linking two or more clusters of people in a network. Employees. It exists when one party perceives that he or she is dependent on the other for something of value. supporting team norms and a corporate culture that discourage dysfunctional politics. Power increases when people have freedom to use their power. organizational. the dependent person must also have countervailing power—some power over the dominant party—to maintain the relationship and the parties must have a level of trust. LO4. including the extend to which you are located between others in the network (betweenness). A second contingency is centrality. Organizational politics can be minimized by providing clear rules for resource allocation. persuasion. and referent power Employees gain social capital through their relationship in the social network. Organizational politics refers to influence tactics that others perceive to be self-serving behaviors at the expense of others and sometimes contrary to the interests of the entire organization.. LO3. three consequences of influencing others. Discuss the four contingencies of power. the most appropriate influence tactic also depends on the influencer’s power base. and on personal. on whether the person being influenced. how many direct ties you have (degree). like them. Explain how people and work units gain power through social network. and having leaders who role-model organizational citizenship rather than political savvy. It also includes the norm of reciprocity (a feeling of obligation to help someone who has helped you). Three main resources from social networks are information. is higher. It is more common when scarce resources are allocated using complex and ambiguous decisions and when the organization tolerates or rewards political behavior. . Describe eight types of influence tactics. Weak ties provide more resources that we do not already possess. Influence refers to any behavior that attempts to alter someone’s attitudes or behavior. which is goodwill and resulting resources shared among members in social network. coalition formation. and cultural values regarding influence behavior. Describe the dependence model of power as well as the five sources of power in organizations. LO5. An important form of expert power is the (perceived) ability to manage uncertainty in the business environment. Another influence on social capital is the person’s centrality in the network. compared with the influencer. social capital tends to increase with the number of network ties. Four contingencies determine whether these sources of power translate into real power. departments. ingratiation and impression management. Expert power is the capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge or skills that they value. and the closeness of these ties. People have referent power when others identify with them. Reward power is derived from the ability to control the allocation of rewards valued by others and to remove negative sanctions. the fourth contingency of power. visibility. However.John Arvi V. is the freedom to exercise judgment. and exchange. Individuals with a high need for personal power and strong Machiavellian values have a higher propensity to use political tactics. Coercive power is the ability to apply punishment. People receive in social network through social capital. assertiveness. Network centrality is determined in several ways. and three contingencies to consider when choosing an influence tactics. is the idea that power increases to the extent that a person’s or work unit’s competencies are known to others. Legitimate power is an agreement among organizational members that people in certain roles can request certain behaviors of others. information control. Social network are social structures of individuals or social units (e. that is. LO2. ―Soft‖ influence tactics such as friendly persuasion and subtle ingratiation are more acceptable than ―hard‖ tactics such as upward appeal and assertiveness. However. when there is a lack of alternatives. knowledge. The third contingency. However. strong ties (close-knit relationships) can also increase social capital because these connections offer more resources and offer them more quickly. or at the same level in the organization. as well as ways to minimize organizational politics. Power is the capacity to influence others. Identify the organizational conditions and personal characteristic that support organizational politics. using education and involvement during organizational change.

Organizational culture three main functions: a form of social control. LO5. taken-for-granted perceptions or beliefs that have worked so well in the past that they are considered the correct way to think and act toward problems and opportunities. that is.Describe the organizational socialization process and identify strategies to improve that process. the relative ordering of values. the culture should not be so strong that it drives out dissenting values. and attracting. Organizations should have adaptive cultures so that employees support ongoing change in the organization and their own roles. This problem can be minimized by performing a bicultural audit to diagnose the compatibility of the organizational cultures. List four categories of artifacts through which corporate culture is deciphered. The four main strategies for merging different corporate cultures are integration. LO3. including the application of attraction-selection-attrition theory. Organizational socialization is the process by which individuals learn the values. retain people with values and personality characteristics are consistent with the organization’s character. and a way to help employees make sense of the workplace. Four strategies for changing and strengthening an organization’s culture are the actions of founders and leaders. aligning artifacts with the desired culture. Identify four strategies for changing or strengthening an organization’s culture. and role management. deculturation. Values are stable. There are several classifications of organizational culture. Attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) theory states organizations have a natural tendency to attract. introducing culturally consistent rewards. Organizational culture is very difficult to change. which may form emerging values for the future. the ―social glue‖ that bonds people together. Employees typically pass through three socialization stages: preemployment. Shared assumptions are nonconscious. LO2. Organizational culture consists of the values and assumptions shared within an organizational. that and that in a LO6. Organizational culture clashes are common in mergers and acquisitions. language. rituals and ceremonies. Also.John Arvi V. Discuss the importance of organizational culture and the conditions in which organizational culture strength improves organizational performance. Four broad categories of artifacts include organizational stories and legends. Organizations have subcultures as well as a dominant culture. Socialization agents provide information and social support during the socialization process. and separation. assimilation. select. They are also source of emerging values that replace aging core values. organizations should introduce realistic job previews (RJPs) and recognize the value of socialization agents in the process. but culture change is possible and sometimes necessary for a company’s continued survival. and socializing employees. selecting. Describe the elements of organizational culture and discuss the importance of organizational subcultures. LO4. RJPs give job applicants a realistic balance of positive and negative information about the job and work context. Artifacts are the observable symbols and signs of an organization’s culture. and social knowledge necessary to assume their roles in the organization. team norms. and behaviors. Compare and contrast four strategies for merging organizational cultures. evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences for outcomes or courses of action in a variety of situations. It is a process of both learning about the work context and adjusting to new work roles. resulting more homogeneous organization and a stronger culture. expected behaviors. Organizations differ in their cultural content. encounter. Armildez AC09301 Chapter 14: Organizational Culture LO1. To manage the socialization process. but they tend to oversimplify the wide variety of cultures and completely ignore the underlying assumptions of culture. but only when the cultural content is appropriate for the organization’s environment. Understanding an organization’s culture requires assessment of many artifacts because they are subtle and often ambiguous. Subcultures maintain the organizations standards of performance and ethical behavior. . Companies with strong cultures generally perform better than those with weak cultures. and physical structures and symbols.

Action research is a highly participative. and using coercion (sparingly and as a last resort). such as future-search conferences.John Arvi V. and refreezing. breaking routines. problem oriented process that diagnoses the need for change. Resistance to change should be viewed as a resource. Also. teaching employees valuable skills for the desired future (learning). fear of the unknown. Resistance to change may be minimized by keeping employees informed about what to expect from the change effort (communicating). This occurs by applying the MARS model. not an inherent obstacle to change. Urgency to change also develops by putting employees in direct contact with customers. . Discuss how leadership. Refreezing realigns the organization’s systems and structures with the desired behaviors. dreaming. LO6. Lewin’s force field analysis model states that all systems have driving and restraining forces. coalitions. LO4. composed of people from most levels of the organization who follow the action research model to produce meaningful organizational change. so it may omprove procedural justice. including motivating employees to adopt the pilot project’s methods. helping clarify how the pilot can be applied to different areas. organizational change practices can raise one or more ethical concerns. The main reasons why people resist change are direct costs. training people to know how to adopt these practices. Large-group interventions. and incongruent organizational systems. Organizational change requires employees to have urgency for change. They also need the assistance of several people (a guiding coalition) who are located throughout the organization. and delivering. relies on social structures developed alongside the formal hierarchy with the purpose of increasing the organization’s learning. It tries to break out of the problem solving mentality that dominates organizational change through the action research model. Every successful change also requires change transformational leaders with a clear. saving face. undermining individual self-esteem. not an inherent obstacle to change. They are highly participative arrangements. Employee resistance is a resource in three ways: (1) it is a signal that the conditions for effective change are not yet in place. Change occurs through the process of unfreezing. and providing time and resources to support this diffusion. and (3) it is a form f voice. appreciative inquiry. social networks and pilot projects influence organizational change. Viral change operates through social networks using influencers. open-systems approach to change management that combines an action orientation (changing attitudes and behavior) with research orientation (testing theory). Outline six strategies for minimizing resistance to change. introduces the intervention. and parallel learning structures as formal approaches to organizational change. are highly participative events that typically try to get the entire system into the room. Discuss the reason people resist organizational change and how change agents should view this resistance. well-articulated vision of the desired future state. Leaders often need to create an urgency to change before the external pressures are felt. Appreciative inquiry embraces the positive organizational behavior philosophy by focusing participants on the positive and possible. incongruent team dynamics. designing. LO2. LO5. helping employees cope with the stress of change. It is a data-based. Discuss two cross-cultural and three ethical issues in organizational change. called parallel learning structures. threatening individual privacy rights. and this can occur through a vision of a more appealing future. The success of the pilot project is then diffused to other parts of the organization. LO3. Many organizational change initiatives begin with a pilot project. large group interventions. Resistance to change should be viewed as a resource. Describe the elements of the Lewin’s force field analysis model. Restraining forces are manifested as employee resistance to change. Armildez AC09301 Chapter 15 Organizational Change LO1. involving them in the change process. Unfreezing produces disequilibrium between the driving and restraining forces. A fourth organizational change approach. One significant concern is that organizational change theories developed with a Western cultural orientation potentially conflict with cultural values in some other countries. and making clients dependent on the change consultant. This typically occurs by informing them about driving forces in the external environment. The four stages of appreciative inquiry include discovery. changing. Describe and compare action research. (2) it is a form of constructive conflict. Change also occurs more informally through social networks. negotiating trade-offs with those who will clearly lose from the change efforts. and debate ways to effectively create an urgency for change. including increasing management’s power over employees. and then evaluates and stabilizes the desired changes.