You are on page 1of 4

DIESEL HYDRO-DESULPHURIZATION ( DHDS

)

OBJECTIVE:

Desulphurize Diesel to meet EURO standards.

FEED TO DHDS: Diesel from CDU’s and FCCu’s (1.6 % wt. Of sulphur) PRODUCTS: CAPACITY: Diesel meeting EURO specifications (0.25 % wt. Of sulphur), Nitrogen(200 Nm3/hr) 2.4 MMTPA

MAJOR EQUIPMENTS: Reactor, MGC, RGC, Feed Filter, Stripper, Stabilizer, Heat Exchanger, Hot Separator, Cold separator, Coalescer.

INTRODUCTION:

The DHDS (Diesel Hydro De-Sulphurization) is the unit designed to reduce the sulfur contents of diesel from 1.6 wt % to 20 ppm wt.

The H2S rich gases thus obtained are further processed for recovery of elemental sulfur before letting the net gases to atmosphere.

The DHDS unit consists of following sections :

DHDS Reaction section ( High pressure ) Amine Absorption Section ( High & Low pressure ) Stripping section ( Low pressure section ) Naphtha stabilization section ( Low pressure section )

Following are the processing units implemented in DHDS :

DHDS Unit Hydrogen Plant Sour Water Stripping Unit Amine Regeneration Unit Sulfur Recovery Unit

The feed to the DHDS unit, a blend of straight run and cracked gas oil’s is mixed with recycle hydrogen and heated in the heat exchanger train. The stream is fed into the first reactor, which includes catalyst in three beds followed by second reactor which also has three beds. Cold quenches of hydrogen is added to control the bed temperature.

The reactor effluent is collected in the hot and cold separator drums where three phrases are separated. One part is sent to sour water stripper. The gas phase goes to HP amine absorber where H2S is removed. The hydrocarbon liquid phase is routed to stripper. Medium pressure steam is injected at the bottom of the stripper to produce diesel with correct flash point and H2S content. In Hydro treating process, two different kinds of reactions occur. MAIN FEATURES OF THE HYDRO-TREATING PROCESS: Two different kinds of chemical reactions that take place (a) Refining reactions (b) Hydrogenation reactions

(A) REFINING REACTIONS: Desulphurization : Mercaptides, sulfides and disulfides easily react, leading to the corresponding saturated (or) aromatic compounds. Sulfur, combined into cycles of aromatic structure like thiophene, is more difficult to eliminate. These reaction lead to H 2S formation and hydrogen consumption.

Denitrification : The denitrification reaction is lower than that of desulphurization. It occurs mainly in many case of heterocyclic compounds having an aromatic structure. These reaction lead to NH3 formation and hydrogen consumption. (B) HYDROGENATION REACTIONS: These reactions affect the diolefins, aromatics and are highly exothermic. Diolefins and olefins are converted into saturated compounds. The hydrogenation rate of aromatics is limited. PROCESS: The feed to the DHDS is a blend of straight run and cracked gas oil. The feed blend is filtered through feed filter package and sent to feed surge drum. The liquid phase feed is pumped under flow control by feed pump mixed with hydrogen recycling compressor. The feed blend is filtered through stream delivery stream and mixing of recycle hydrogen with feed ensures an adequate hydrogen partial pressure at the inlet of reactor train. Polymerization inhibitor is injected by anti-fouling agent pumps in the fresh feed before the feed pump.

The hydrogen make-up gas is coming from battery limit is routed to Cl2 absorbent pot to make-up knockout drum. It is compressed by make-up compressor. The make-up gas flow rate to the reaction section is controlled by means of a compressor spill back which is sent back to the make-up knock out drum after cooling to split back in a water cooler. The make-up gas joins the recycle gas upstream in the recycle knock out drum. The combined make-up and recycle stream is routed to the recycle gas compressor. A part of the compressed gas from hydrogen recycle compressor is sent as quench gas to reactor. The mixed stream is heated in first feed/ effluent exchanger and then in 2 nd feed/effluent exchanger and finally in reactor heater to required inlet temperature.

The reactor inlet temperature is maintained by controlling the fuel gas/ fuel oil through heater burners and the stream is then led in the first reactor followed by second reactor which includes catalyst installed in three beds in each reactor. Cold quenches of H2 coming from recycle compressor are added at each new feed to control the bed inlet temperature. The reactor effluent is split into two.

In order to maximize heat recovery, one part exchanges heat with the stripper feed in the stripper pre-heater while the remaining part exchanges within the reactor feed in 2 nd feed off exchanger. The two streams are mixed together before entering feed off heat exchanger. To avoid ammonium salt deposit and risk of corrosion, water injected at the inlet of effluent air condenser by wash water pump.

The stream is then led to hot and cold separators where little amount of water is added. A part of stream from 1st reactor feed exchanges is also added to this cold separator by routing through hot HP steam, effluent air condenser and effluent trimmer cooler. Part of the stream is cooled and sent to HP Amine absorber K.O drum and then through a HP Amine surge drum. The stream is then pumped by DEA Booster pumps into lean amine absorber and then to recycle gas compressor. The remaining part of the stream is then send through several preheat exchanger trainers to get the diesel which is sent to R/D. A small part of the stream from the preheat exchange trainers is sent through stripper feed preheat exchangers to stripper and stabilizers from where we get the stabilized naphtha.