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Volume 144, number 6,7

PHYSICS LETTERS A

12 March 1990

CHAOTIC NEURAL N E T W O R K S

K. A I H A R A I, T. T A K A B E and M. T O Y O D A Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, 2-2 Nishiki-cho, Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo IOL Japan Received 15 March 1989; revised manuscript received 2 October 1989; accepted for publication 9 January 1990 Communicated by A.P. Fordy

A model of a single neuron with chaotic dynamics is proposed by considering the following properties of biological neurons: ( 1) graded responses, (2) relative refractoriness and (3) spatio-temporal summation of inputs. The model includes some conventional models of a neuron as its special cases; namely, chaotic dynamics is introduced as a natural extension of the former models. Chaotic solutions of both the single chaotic neuron and the chaotic neural network composed of such neurons are numerically demonstrated.

1. Introduction

The recent activity o f studies on neurocomputing is forming a new trend toward parallel distributed processing based upon artificial neural networks [ 1,2]. Artificial neural networks are composed o f simple elements o f artificial neurons modeling biological neurons. A usual neuron model is a simple threshold element transforming a weighted summation o f the inputs into the output through a nonlinear output function with threshold. However, from the viewpoint o f neurophysiology, there is firm criticism that real neurons are far more complicated than such simple threshold elements [ 3,4 ]. One o f the typical characteristics which biological neurons have but the usual artificial neurons lack is chaotic behavior experimentally observable in a single neuron [ 5 - 1 0 ] . For instance, it has been clarified not only experimentally with squid giant axons but also numerically with the H o d g k i n - H u x l e y equations [ l 1 ] that responses o f a resting nerve membrane to periodic stimulation are not always periodic and that the apparently nonperiodic responses can be understood as deterministic chaos [ 7-9,12 ]. Although there exist interesting neural and similar netPresent address: Department of Mathematics, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia.

work models the macroscopic or systemic behavior o f which is chaotic [ 13-24], there are few simple models o f a single neuron with chaotic dynamics. On the other hand, celebrated models o f nerve membranes as the Hodgkin-Huxley equations [11 ] and the F i t z H u g h - N a g u m o equations [25,26] are too complicated for elements o f artificial neural networks even if these equations and their modified or generalized models [18,27,28] can reproduce the experimentally observed chaos [ 8,12,18,27-32 ]. In this report, we propose a model o f a single neuron which can describe the experimentally observed chaotic responses qualitatively but still is simple.

2. Complete devil's staircases in reponses of a neuron model

The history o f modeling the dynamics o f biological neurons traces back to early prominent models such as the McCulloch-Pitts neuron [33] and Caianiello's neuronic equation [34]. Caianiello's neuronic equation, which includes the McCuUochPitts model as a special case, reads (1)
j~ I r=0

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333

(7) where k=0. (4) and (5) with the bifurcation parameter a of eq. Fig. T~f ~= . (4) and ( 5 ) [ 3 5 ] : iT. -1 _= ¢= rr 1I C y(t+ 1 ) = A ( t ) . a(t) of eq. a = l . Tbr> (for i¢j) is the connection weight with which the firing of the jth neuron affects the ith neuron after the r + 1 timeunits. where (4) (5) 1 a(t) = A ( t ) . While the dynamical behavior of the neuron is calculated with eq.E t.1 ) . (4) on the internal state y. a=(A-O)(1-k).i" tl /J "/ /. Response characteristics ofeqs. Nagumo and Sato [35] analysed response characteristics of a neuron with a single input on the basis of a modified Caianiello model. number 6. the value of the output is obtained by transforming the inter334 .o t ~ k ~ x ( t . when the input stimulation is composed of periodic pulses with the constant amplitude A as frequently used in electrophysiological experiments. (2) shows the Nagumo-Sato model [35]: nal state y into the output x with eq.. The discontinuous output function u in eq.%J/ jj~/ -10 0.Volume 144. O) eq.1: (a) the bifurcation diagram. r=0 (3) . In 1971. ~ -o.5 Q C O eJ X UJ > O b x ( t + l ) = u ( A ( t ) . x(t+ l )=u(y(t+ l ) ) .ak ~where k takes a value between 0 and 1 and ot is a positive parameter. By defining a new variable y ( t + l ) corresponding to the internal state of the neuron as follows.7 PHYSICS LETTERS A 12 March 1990 where x~(t + 1 ) is the output of the ith neuron at the discrete time t + 1.~. namely. and 0~is the threshold for the all-or-none firing of the ith neuron. In particular. (2) where A (t) is the strength of the input at the discrete time t.O . (4) and (5) with the bifurcation parameter a have been analysed in detail [35. T~f~ is the memory coefficient of relative refractoriness with which the firing of the ith neuron retains influence on itself after the r + 1 time-units.k ) . x~ takes either 1 (firing) or 0 (nonfiring). lb and lc are the cor- 1 a . ( 1 ) is a mathematical representation of the socalled all-or-none law that the output of a neuron has the alternatives of presence and absence of a full size of action potential depending upon whether the strength of stimulation is more than the threshold or not.36 ]. O. and k is the damping factor of the refractoriness. (b) the Lyapunov exponent 2 and (c) the average firing rate p. la shows an example of the bifurcation diagram with changing value of the bifurcation parameter a. .0 ( 1 . (6) is temporally constant as follows. Figs.kA ( t . They assumed that the influence of the refractoriness due to a past firing decreases exponentially with time [ 35.37.~//f" I~ / . (2) can be simplified as eqs. u is the unit step function such that u(y)= 1 for y>~0 and u ( y ) = 0 for y < 0 . M is the number of the neurons in the neural network. Eq. (6) Bifurcation Parameter a Fig. 0 and y(0)=0.38].r ) .5 Q O~ @ y(t+ 1 ) =ky(t) -otu(y(t) ) +a(t) ).5. (5). (7) Response characteristics of eqs. 1.s Q.O t ~ok~X(t-r)-O).

This disagreement between the model and the experiment requires a modification of the basic equations (1) and (2).n~. ~ + ~ n tffi0 lim .38 ] that the response characteristics ofeqs.9 ].43]. ( 1 0 ) t o the following equations. (4) and (5).~ In . [43] clearly showed both experimentally with squid giant axons and numerically with the Hodgkin-Huxley equations that the stimulus-response curve is not discontinuously all-or-none but continuously graded for the ease of spatial uniformity. 335 . the chaotic responses are experimentally detectable. namely the stimulus-response property of the nerve membrane is described not by an all-or-none step function such as the function u in eqs.a ~ k'g(x(t-r))-O rmO (11) reduces eq.Volume 144. Although the function g may be complicated as discussed later on.number 6. Since negative values of the Lyapunov exponent characterize periodic solutions.42. defining the internal state 1 ) by g(x) =x y(t+ y ( t + l ) = A ( t ) . though almost all the solutions ofeqs. or the excitation number p. Chaotic responses of a biological neuron In order to verify the response characteristics of complete devil's staircases predicted by eqs. Although the space-clamp condition may seem to be too artificial.37.I 1 -r/ t = o (8) (9) p= n~+ao x(t). Moreover. which takes an analog value between 0 and 1. Therefore. that not only periodic but also chaotic responses can be observed easily and reproducibly and that the response characteristics of the real nerve membranes form imcomplete devil's staircases with obvious chaos [ 7. lb implies that almost all the responses are periodic. respectively. and g is a function describing the relationship between the analog output and the magnitude of the refractoriness to the following stimulation. the corresponding experiment was carried out by stimulating squid giant axons with periodic pulses under a space-clamp condition keeping potentials and currents spatially uniform over some length of the axon [7. where 2 and p are defined as follows: 1 n--I 2= lim . not obey the strict all-or-none law under the spaceclamp condition [25. the length of the trigger zone. we assume that the output function of artificial neurons is a continuously increasing function f a n d replace the unit step function u in eq.7 PHYSICS LETTERSA 12 March 1990 responding characteristics of the Lyapunov exponent 2 and the average firing rate. the equations have chaotic solutions only at a self-similar Cantor set of the parameter values with zero Lebesgue measure. (4) and (5) form complete devil's staircases [39-41 ]. we keep g the identity function for the sake of simplicity and focus on effects of the continuous output function f i n this report. Modeling chaotic responses of a biological neuron As is discussed in sections 2 and 3. e. 3. In particular.9]. (4) and (5) are periodic. (4) and (5). It should be noted that the generation of action potentials by current stimulation of a single pulse does where x ( t + 1 ) is the output of the neuron.42. f is a continuous output function. Cole et al. (2) by a continuous function f a s follows. contrary to the prediction by eqs. [43]. which was estimated to be about 1 mm by the experiment with squid giant axons in the state of a self-sustained oscillation of action potentials [44]. that is. it should be noted that action potentials are actually initiated at a limited portion of the axon called an axon hillock or a trigger zone. As is the case with the Nagumo-Sato model. ( 1 ) and (2) but by a continuously increasing function [25.43 ]. fig. approximately agrees with the length of the spatial uniformity in the experiment by Cole et al. Thereupon the experimental results demonstrated.g. or a graded action potential generated at the time t + 1. x(t+l )=f(A(t)-ot r~0 krg(x(t-r) )-O) ' = (10) f(y) 4. the logistic function = 1/( 1 + e -y/') with the steepness parameter ¢. It is actually clarified [ 35.

Bubbles in shaded regions denote existence o f small regions o f periodic solutions with higher periods. n u m b e r 6. (12) and ( 13 ) with the bifurcation parameter a where kffi0.7 PHYSICS LETTERS A 12 March 1990 y(t+ 1 ) = ky(t) -otg(f(y(t) ) ) +a. 0. X ~-2 -3 T 1 nr t~ C . Fig. (12) in the parameter space a X k.E ~.5. 2 shows an example of the response characteristics in eqs.5 '.3 0. 336 . 3 demonstrates that the cha2 6 5 5 6 2 1t" _1/ 0 ~ ~ = f --~. (12) (13) Fig. where a = 1. shaded regions correspond to chaotic solutions. The periodicity and the Lyapunov exponent of each solution were examined with changing the parameter values of a and k by l / 500 and 1/ 300 in (a) and by 0. f(y) = 1/( 1 + e -y/°'°4) and y ( 0 ) = 0 .4 0.. 2. Classification of solutions to eq. (b) the Lyapunov exponent 2 and (c) the average firing rate p. an all-or-none law holds for the propagation of action potentials along the axon if the length of the axon is sufficiently long [ 25. i 1 i i I o 1 Bifurcation Parameter a Fig. respectively. ~ . Fig. 0. It should be noted that unlike the space-clamp condition.0 and e=0. The response characteristics in fig.5/300 in (b). 3 shows the classification of solutions to eq.5 0. .5 and h ( x ) = 0 for x<0.46] and assumed to be h(x)= 1 for x>~0. 5 : (a) the bifurcation diagram.0. While each natural n u m b e r designates a region of periodic solutions with the corresponding period.. L J ~ 1 1 b o 0 0./.31 ]. Shaded regions in fig. 3 correspond to chaotic solutions.43. Response characteristics of eqs.5. (12) and ( 13 ) with the logistic function f The excitation number p is defined as p= lim -1 "-~ h ( x ( t ) ) . a = 1. Fig.5 . x(t+ 1 ) = f ( y ( t + 1 ) ) .45.Volume 144.02.. ( 12 ) in the parameter space a×k. (b) is an enlargement of an upper-middle part of (a). 2 qualitatively reproduce alternating periodic-chaotic sequences of responses experimentally observed in squid giant axons [7-9.+oo n t=o (14) where h is a function which denotes waveform-shaping dynamics of the axon with a strict threshold for propagation of action potentials initiated at the trigger zone [25.. 3.5 1 9 8 1 Ill e" a.2/ 500 and 0.46 ].

The dynamics of the ith chaotic neuron in a neural network composed of M chaotic neurons can be modeled as (M j N t . In eq. (15): )--O') ' (15) where xi(t+ 1 ) is the output of the ith chaotic neu- feedback/ inputs / / hI (xI (t)) hj(xj(t?~.f. In summary eq.r . (12) and (13) has chaotic solutions in wide regions of the parameter space. N is the number of externally applied inputs. 5. M is the number of the chaotic neurons in the neural network.. (2) an accumulating relative refractoriness with exponential temporal damping and (3) spatio-temporal summation of both feedback inputs Xj=I WoXt=okrhj(xj(t-r) ) and external inputs ~'~N= 1 VoXt~fok%(t-r). A neuron model as an element of chaotic neural networks. namely feedback inputs from component neurons such as Hopfield networks [ 1 ] and externally applied inputs such as back-propagation networks [ 2. Generally speaking. in order to design arbitrary architectures of artificial neural networks. VUis the connection weight from the jth externally applied input to the ith chaotic neuron.r ) j= 1 rffiO --Or r=O krgi(Xi(t--r) ~ ron at the discrete time t + 1. number 6. Eqs. (15).is the continuous output function of the ith chaotic neuron. 4. WOr2okrh (x (t-r)) = + ~ Vo ~. Ij(t-r) is the strength of the jth externally applied input at the time t . Fig. (16) and (17) are the reduced forms of eq. we need to consider two kinds of inputs as shown in fig. 4. and gi is the refractory function of the ith chaotic neuron. 337 . hj is the transfer function of the axon for the propagating action potentials in thejth chaotic neuron.7 PHYSICS LETTERS A 12 March 1990 otic neuron model of eqs.47 ].Volume 144. (15) is a neuron model with the following three properties: (1) a continuous output function with graded action potentials. Wo is the connection weight from the jth chaotic neuron to the ith chaotic neuron. k % ( t . A model of chaotic neural networks The neuron model with chaotic dynamics explained above can be generalized as an element of neural networks which we call "chaotic neural networks". effects of the past inputs are assumed to decay exponentially with time in the form of T~r) = W~jkr or Vokr where k is the damping factor the same with that of refractoriness. W ~ Vil{ Yi (t+l) / output xi (t+l) externally inputs applied ~ J (t) IN(t) / / "iN .

..... . the initial conditions are yj ( 0 ) .-.. Wijhj(j~j(yj(t) ) )+ ~ ~jIj(t) j= 1 j= 1 x.1 ) =f(yi(t+ 1 ) ) ..~(y~(t) ) ) -0~(1 ... 2 3 ..0 . ..... (2) the approximately exponential decay of relative refractoriness after firing [ 50 ] and the superposition of refractory effects due to preceding action potentials [ 51 ] and (3) the spatio-temporal summation of inputs through many synapses [52].. and (0.... b '... 6... respectively.10... 7 9 ) in (b).."..0 and y3(0) =0.'.o2) and both ht and g~ are the identity functions for i-..13.. (15).'... ....~ t • Fig.0.".. .(t+ 1 ) = E Wo ~ k~hj(xJ(t-r)) j= 1 + ~ V~j ~ kr[j(t-r) j~l r=O --or ~.. The Lyapunov spectra are (0.1.-.. . (19) includes conventional models of neural networks such as McCulloch-Pitts networks [33 ]. ... '.. ..... .. • . =/ll" m/| °-"'°" ...0 . When k and o~ tend to 0 in eq. .0 . Although the output function f is .-......0 .. .'.'......'. The model can qualitatively reproduce alternating periodic-chaotic sequences of responses experimentally observed with squid giant axons [ 7-9."....1..0. 2 and 3..".. .....'.'........ M Thus eq."l.1 l...- ...... ..f'.l-. .0..0.... associative memory networks [49 ] and back-propagation networks [ 47 ].".. The values of k are (a) 0. Temporal output patterns o f chaotic neural networks composed o f three neurons....." .42. (19): We have proposed a neuron model with chaotic dynamics. r=O (18) Examples of dynamical behavior in simple chaotic neural networks are shown in fig.71 and (c) 0...(t+ l ) = f j= Wahj(xj(t) )+ j= [ Vqlj(t)-O. a :...29) in (c). krg~(x~(t-r) )-O~." •.'. 1 1 .. f ( y ) = 1/( 1 + e-y/o... Wt2 = W23-.43].k ) .'... The temporal patterns with bursts of firing in fig.... (16) and (17) are: M .. .1. (0. 5 are actually chaotic because the maximum Lyapunov exponents are positive.0......".'. The size of each square is proportional to the strength of the output. (16) (17) where yRt+ 1 ) is the internal state of the ith chaotic neuron and defined as follows. The parameter values in eqs..'..'.v'.... //. ... all V0 are 0.. Discussion r=O y. y2(0) --0....'. • .. xi(tJt.. ( 15 ) is transformed into eq.....~....... respectively.... 0r = 0.. f/... ... ".'/.... (19) -ag..5 and the other Wo are 0..7 PHYSICS LETTERS A 12 March 1990 yi(t+ l )=ky~(t) M N q....'..'.. The properties of the model are relevant to the following ones of biological neurons: ( 1 ) the continuous stimulus-response curve with graded action potentials [25... 5. 5 4 ) in (a). 3 3 . .....3 and a .".'.'. (b) 0.- .... .0.'. 5 with the Lyapunov spectra [48]. . c ".67503./.769231.. 338 .'.W31 = 0..0 .1.." . . number 6.Volume 144. eq.31 ]..

S. Takabe. Takahashi. Biol. K. Carpenter and S. ( 1 2 ) a n d ( 1 3 ) keep the similar chaotic d y n a m i c s for other continuous o u t p u t functions such as f ( y ) = (lY+e[ . in: Chaos in biological systems. Proc. A 106 (1984) 343. 5 (1986) 1. The refractory function g in eq. Inf. Huxley. 4 (1988) 39. the excitability fluctuations [ 3 ] a n d the s u p e r n o r m a l phase [ 50 ]. Commun. Rapp.F. I~gn. which is neglected a n d a s s u m e d to be the identity function in this report.M.C. Cohen and S. or less than . H. Haydon. A 28 (1983) 1204. [ 17 ] M. Harth.Y.A.G. [ 14] M. Hanyu. [24] H. Olsen (Plenum. Proc. Aihara and G. Matsumoto. Although it is still an open problem to explore applicability o f chaotic d y n a m i c s in neurocomputing. N. eds. H. Recently interesting studies have been progressing t o w a r d ( 1 ) possible functional roles o f chaotic dyn a m i c s [16.V. IRE 50 ( 1962 ) 2061. Chaos in biological systems. Shimizu.V.Y. Winlow and P.A. H. Yamamoto. As the value o f the d a m p i n g factor k in eq. Kiihn and J. Sci. 1987)p.F. SMC 13 (1983) 815. Ermentrout. McClelland and the PDP Research Group. Natl. Degn. 2 (MIT Press. (London) 117 (1952) 500. Hayashi and S. Yoshizawa. Cambridge. Sommers. o r between 0 a n d 1. Rev. Electron. IEEE Trans. Pros. Albano. [9] G. [ 16 ] E. Grossberg. O n the o t h e r hand. ( 1 2 ) is between 0 a n d 1. [ 11 ] A.D.29.E. Huberman. Rev. Cybern. 143. Math. Oiscn (Plenum. Phys. 1987) p. 1969) p. Phys. 1987) p.e l ) / 4 E + ½ and y/E m o d e l s o f artificial neural networks as its special cases.B. Schwan (McGraw-Hill. FitzHugh.E. ( 1 2 ) . H.P. Phys. in: Biological engineering. S. Biol. Holden and L. Theor.21. Rumelhart. [2] D.28. Nagumo. Lett. Clark. eqs. Takahashi and Y.22. Segund. Olsen (Plenum. Parallel distributed processing. Holden and L. 78 (1987) 51.1 i f the steepness par a m e t e r ~ o f the logistic o u t p u t function f is sufficiently small. Hopfield. Yoshizawa and J.L. Y.+ ) successive signs o f the slope on the three m o n o t o n i c intervals [ 53 ]. N.J. A.V. 1986). Rev. Zimmerman. A 38 (1988) 1105. [25] R. G. Theor.W. USA 79 (1982) 2554. Future Generations Comput. 48 ( 1983 ) 35. Grossberg. Acad. A. b o t h o f which seem to have close relations to neural networks. New York. Phys. Chaos in biologicalsystems. Aihara. Phys. Dcguzman and N.V. Lett. 1.Volume 144. 44 (1984) 80. Lett. B 28 (1983) 2547. Arimoto and S. New York. van Hemmen. Cybern. [ 13 ] M. Choi and B. Phys. o u r framework o f the chaotic neural networks at least m a k e s it possible to introduce functions o f the d e t e r m i n i s t i c chaos into artificial neural networks w h e n e v e r necessary because the chaotic neural network m o d e l includes some c o n v e n t i o n a l . Biol. Appl. Aoki. Specification o f the refractory function g would be necessary for m o r e precise d e s c r i p t i o n o f response characteristics o f biological neurons. Phys. E. Hanyu. A 110 ( 1985 ) 335. A. A. Inst. SMC 13 ( 1983 ) 782. Phys. 43 (1982) 169. ed. Aihara and G. Ishizuka. [ 22 ] I. Choi and B. Physiol. Huberman. Holden. References [ 1] J. Nagumo.N. [ 18l G.7 PHYSICS LETTERS A 12 March 1990 assumed to be the logistic function in this report. A 144 (1986) 413. [ 15 ] G. A 123 (1987) 162. Eng.L. m a y be actually complicated with not only the absolute a n d relative refractory phases b u t also the e n h a n c e d a n d depressed phases [25 ]. Cybern.F. Len. [26]J. ( 1 2 ) a d d s a new family o f b i m o d a l m a p s related to neural d y n a m i c s to various b i m o d a l m a p s such as cubic m a p s a n d circle m a p s which have been studied extensively [ 5 3 61]. 339 The o n e . Syst. Kiirten and J.F. Hodgkin and A. Koerner and H. eds. [ 20 ] K. New York. I. 61 (1988) 259. [5] A. [ 10] H. [23 ] U. eds.l Y . [3] J. Holden and L. Rev. Matsumoto. Lett.P. SIAM J. J.d i m e n s i o n a l m a p o f eq. J. Crisanti and H. Neurobiol. [6] P. [21 ] W.62-65] a n d ( 2 ) complex s p a t i o .t e m p o r a l d y n a m i c s in high-dimensional chaotic systems such as coupled chaotic m a p s on lattices [ 6 6 . the average gradients o f the ( + ) branches which correspond to resting and firing states are stable.A. Tsuda. Ikezawa and K. Trans.) branch which corresponds to the c o n t i n u o u s threshold p h e n o m e n o n [25 ] is unstable. 121. [8] K. Phys. ( 1 2 ) is a k i n d o f b i m o d a l m a p with the ( + . Matsumoto. Matsumoto. Riedel.L. R. Degn. Sompolinsky. 56 (1987) 139. the average gradient o f the ( . New York. [12]T. Matsumoto. IEEE Trans. J.A. [7] G. J71-A (1988) 744 [in Japanese ]. number 6. W.6 8 ]. O. 1. A. 157.J. Vols. K. Greenbaun. Thus the m o d e l o f e q .J. Freeman. [ 19] K. [ 4 ] G.E.

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