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INTRODUCTION TO FUZE & IT’S FUNCTION

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CONTENTS
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PREFACE EXPLOSIVE TRAIN OF ARTILLERY AMMUNITION INTRODUCTION GENERAL REQUIREMENT OF FUZE VARIOUS SAFETY DEVICES IN FUZE FUZE CLASSIFICATION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION INITIATION PART MIDDLE MECHANISM MAGAZINE PART SAFETY IN FUZES FUNCTIONAL ASSURANCE OF THE FUZE FAILURE OF THE FUZES A LIST OF FUZES MANUFACTURED/USED BY ORDNANCE FACTORIES IS APPEN FUZES AT OF KHAMARIA UNDER PRODUCTION FUZES AT OF KHAMARIA UNDER R&D

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PREFACE
While doing Newton’s thinking & Marathon efforts for production of fuze “Brain of the ammunition”, we normally forget that one big hole is sufficient in the cat’s house for mother cat & child cat. The same situation happens during fuze production sometimes. Every scientist / officers/staff starts their thinking with Einstein's solution and generally forgets the basic of the start.
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EXPLOSIVE TRAIN OF ARTILLERY AMMUNITION FUZE BURSTING CHARGE EXPLOSIVE TRAIN (UPON IMPACT) BURSTING CHARGE SHELL CARTRIDGE CASE PROPELLING CHARGE PROPELLING CHARGE EXPLOSIVE TRAIN (UPON FIRING) PERCUSSION ELEMENT FIRING PIN OF WEAPON PRIMER CONTENTS 4 .

INTRODUCTION It is known that in any conventional ammunition. propellant. Fuze is generally a mechanical device in a projectile designed to initiate its action at a predetermined time & place CONTENTS 5 . Tracer. Cartg. Case. tail unit etc. primer. FUZE is one of the most important parts apart from shell.

Proper shape for ballistics efficiency. Good streamlined shape. It must have a body to contain. CONTENTS 6 . 2. Must have enough strength to withstand the various forces acting on the the fuze. 6. 3. 4.General requirement of fuze • • • • • • 1. A detonator. A striker to function the detonator. 5.

General requirement of fuze • 7. It must be air-tight. On long storage the explosive content should not get deteriorated. • 8. CONTENTS 7 .

8 . c) Large numbers are produced quickly and easily machined .Metals used in the manufacture of fuzes • 1. d) The mechanical strength is sufficient to withstand the stresses encountered during use. The advantage are :b) Do not corrode easily. The bulk of material is non-ferrous. The various forms of brass (Copper Zinc alloys) are most widely used.

Mazak is used for shutters and magazines. 4. Ferrous materials are used for various components:b) Steel for set screws. 3.Metals used in the manufacture of fuzes • 2. 9 .1 % Lead to minimize the formation of sensitive Picrates. d) Tinned steel for spring. washers and safety caps. c) Stainless steel for strikers needles. Metals for manufacture of fuzes used with Lyddite are Shellite filled shell must not contain more than 0.

Safety cap pin It is removed before loading manually CONTENTS 10 . 2. Gets removed due to set-back force. 1. Creep spring Provides safety during flight by preventing the inertia pellet from hitting the striker thus preventing pre-matures. ----DO---- 3. Detent with detent spring Provides safety while handling storage and safety on transport. Thr creep spring over comes the striker due to rapid deceleration or set forward motion of the projectile on impact.Various safety devices in fuze Safety Device Purpose for which used How it gets removed.

Various safety devices in fuze Safety Device 4. shutter. By centrifugal force and shock of discharge. Making bolt shutter segment. How it gets removed. Purpose for which used To mask the detonator from striker. Gets removed on centrifugal force. masking bolt etc. Pea ball. CONTENTS 11 .Centrifugal bolt . striker and collars to provide safety in the bore. Safety lever and safety catch 5.

By gas pressure. Spindle 8. How it gets removed. Segment. CONTENTS 12 . Plunger and Pawl Purpose for which used Prevents shutter to reach detonator.Various safety devices in fuze Safety Device 6. By air pressure. Tape and Collar 7. On shock of discharge. Seals fire channel Provides safety in the bore.

Fuze Fz-104. Based on assembly with shells :- 1.g. Fuze A 670M (OFK). Fuze L29A3 (OFCh).g. 1.2 Base fuze – The fuze is assembled at the rear portion of the shell e. CONTENTS 13 .1 Nose fuse – The fuze is assembled at the top/nose of the shell e.Fuze can be classified as under:1.

2 Igniferous type – In which the magazines are filled with gunpowder & produce only a flash. HEAT shells. Used only with HE. 2. Based on magazine filling :2. CONTENTS 14 .1 Disruptive type – In which the magazines are filled with HE & produce a detonation wave.Generally used with a powder filled shell but can also be in conjunction with a gaine.Fuze classification 2.

g. 3. Fuze A 670M has Mechanical Delay whereas Fuze Fz-104. It may be mechanical or chemical delay.g.2 Delay action – The fuze has in-built delay.3 Graze action – The fuze is capable to function on glancing blow/grazing of ammunition on ground e. Fuze DA 4A (OFCh).Fuze classification 3.1 Direct action – The fuze requires head-on impact & it functions instantaneously e. Based on fuze function :3. CONTENTS 15 . 3. Fuze B-429. Fuze Mine-1C (OFK). Fuze 259 have Chemical Delay (OFK). Fuze B-429E.

4. 3.4 Time action – Designed to function the projectile at the end of a predetermined time of flight.1 Combustion type – The required delay is given by train of powder which begin to burn as soon as shell is fired from the gun. These fuzes are subdivided into the following types. one of which can be adjusted to give various times of burning by altering the effective length of the powder train.Fuze classification 3. The powder contained in two time rings. CONTENTS 16 . the time being adjusted by the gunner before the round is loaded.

CONTENTS 17 .4.Fuze classification 3.3 Proximity action (Variable time (VT))– It functions on reaching within a critical distance from the target e. 3.g.4. Fuze VT-8A (OFCh).2 Mechanical Type – The delay is obtained by the unwinding of the spring of a clock work mechanism which is set to a definite tension by the gunner before loading.

It ensures actuation of un-used ammunition in trajectory after firing at specified time limits.4 All fuzes used for surface to Air ammunitions have in-built self destruction which simultaneously works after firing from gun. CONTENTS 18 .4.Fuze classification 3.

Due to this. first two parts are exposed over the shell whereas the third part is within the shell in assembly. all threads for first two parts are RHT and for third part is LHT. CONTENTS 19 . (exception –Fuze B429 & B429E) since gun rifling gives clockwise spinning normally.Fuze classification In most of the nose fuzes. The above theory is viseversa for base fuzes.

General Construction Fuze can be divided in mainly three parts 1. Initiation part (Striker part) 2. Magazine part CONTENTS 20 . Middle mechanism (Delay &/or Safety part) 3.

The striker moves forward to penetrate/impinge the detonator or detonator moves backward to get penetrated which is considered as first action of the explosion train. CONTENTS 21 . piezo generator gets crushed enabling to generate high value of current for a small time which enables the continuity of subsequent actions of the explosive train. In electrical/electronics fuzes.Initiation part This part is generally activated on impact.

The fuze is allowed to penetrate to the required depth into the target by imposing delay in its function to get maximum lethality/damage.Middle Mechanism In most fuzes middle mechanism is a delay device. By mechanical delay CONTENTS 22 . By chemical delay 2. Delay in fuze function is achieved 1.

Mechanical delay is achieved generally by a clock mechanism. specified pressure & dwell time to achieve a specified density to attain a specified delay time limit.Middle Mechanism The chemical delay is achieved by introducing chemical powder of required sieve size limits. CONTENTS 23 .

CONTENTS 24 .Magazine part Magazine part has chemical pallet(s) which have less VOD than detonator but more flashes to transmit the detonation wave to the chemicals of shell.

Fuze production 2.Safety in fuzes Our essential requirement of any fuze being that the fuze MUST NOT function at my courtyard but MUST function at neighbour’s/enemy courtyard compels introduction of safety parameters in the fuzes. Storage. Safety is required during :1. handling & transportation CONTENTS 25 .

Muzzle safety ( example-SDA) The devices incorporated in a fuze to attain the above objectives are called safety devices. the safety is removed. By hand/manually 2. By overcoming/attaining required forces. Shock of discharge from the weapon 4.Safety in fuzes 3. Flight of the ammunition 5. 1. In order to make the fuze function. CONTENTS 26 .

2.2 by centrifugal force due to rotation.3 by set forward force due to retardation 2. 2.1 by set back force due to acceleration.4 by removal of chemical safety.Safety in fuzes The safety devices get removed or the fuze gets armed normally after overcoming the desired value of the following forces(especially for mechanical fuzes) 2. CONTENTS 27 .

Delay mode 3. Safety of the gun CONTENTS 28 .Functional assurance of the fuze Functional assurance of the fuzes is ensured by proof at all related parameters 1. Instant mode 2.

Fuze fails to transmit its detonation Blind wave to shell resulting non-function of the ammunition termed as blind.Fuze in safe mode should failure not function but it functions in static proof in unarmed condition. fuze may either partially function or may not function at all.FAILURE OF THE FUZES The fuzes may have following failures 1. Blind. Sealing failure. 2. CONTENTS 29 . In this case.

CONTENTS 30 . Premature.Fuze functions before or delay after the specified time limits of delay. 3. Improper delay. 5. 6. There may be other defects specific to the type of fuzes.FAILURE OF THE FUZES Low detonation-Fuze functions with weak detonation detonation resulting failure of the fuze function. 4.Fuze functions either inside Premature the bore of the gun or at the muzzle or in the trajectory within the specified safety distance.

SWEDEN ACTION. 104 M-12 2.A list of fuzes manufactured/used by Ordnance Factories is appended below:FUZE 1. DASD 7. SWEDEN FFV. SWEDEN ROYAL ORD. SWEDEN FFV. FFV 651 4.. 213 MK-5 11.UK OFK/ARDE USSR BOFORS. FFV 64 C 5. SWEDEN FFV. PDM 572C1 9. A670 M 8. VT 8A AMMUNITION 40 MM L/70 84 MM RCL/HE 84 MM HEAT 84 MM ILLG ROUND 30 MM ADEN GUN 30 MM NAVAL 30 MM BMP-II 155 MM AMMN 106 MM RCL 105 MM IFG 130 MM RVC/FVC ORIGINAL DESIGN BOFORS. BD 2B 10. 933 6. USA UK USSR CONTENTS 31 . FFV 447 3.

B-429E 18.. B-429 17.. L106 A3(NOSE) 15. 259 AMMUNITION ORIGINAL DESIGN 81/120 MM MORTER 57 MM ROCKET 155/105/130MM 105 ANTI TANK 130 MM RVC/FVC 125 MM HE 105 IFG 23 MM GHASHA 23 MM GHASHA 23 MM SCHILKA 40 MM L/60 PEPA. MG-25 22. UK USSR USSR USSR ROF. FRANCE USSR BRITISH AEROSPACE ROYAL ORD. FAIR WEATHER FZ 21. B-5K 14.FUZE 12. L29-A3 UK 16. 117 19. ALL WEATHER FZ 20. USSR USSR ROYAL ORD. UK CONTENTS 32 . DA 4A 13.

AFRICA NESHCHEM. AT-4A ND 26. FZ KONKURS 28. B-15 25.FUZE 23. FZ B-25 34. UK USSR ARDE ARDE USSR ROF. FZ PROXIMITY 32. FZ PROXIMITY 76. 162 MK-9 M1 24. FBN 3-I 31. FBN 2-I 30. UK NESHCHEM.AFRICA USSR CONTENTS 33 . FZ AVU-ETM AMMUNITION 120 MM MORTAR 125 MM HEAT BAR MINE BAR MINE KONKURS MISILE 76. PD M9030 33.2 29.2 MM NAVAL 250 KG/450 KG 250 KG/450 KG 76/62 MM SRGM 76/62 MM SRGM 140 MM ROCKET AREAL 100-120KG ORIGINAL DESIGN ROF. FZ MINE 27.

FFV 651 4. SWEDEN FFV. FFV 447 3.Fuzes at OF Khamaria under production FUZE AMMUNITION ORIGINAL DESIGN 1. FFV 64 C 5.. DASD 7. 104 M-12 2.UK OFK/ARDE USSR USSR ROF. 259 40 MM L/70 84 MM RCL/HE 84 MM HEAT 84 MM ILLG ROUND 30 MM ADEN GUN 30 MM NAVAL 30 MM BMP-II 23 MM SCHILKA 40 MM L/60 BOFORS. SWEDEN FFV. 933 6. MG-25 9. SWEDEN FFV. SWEDEN ROYAL ORD. UK CONTENTS 34 . A670 M 8.

ALL WEATHER FZ 7. FZ AVU-ETM 4.Fuzes at OF Khamaria under R&D FUZE 1. PD M9030 2. B-5K 5. FZ B-25 3. FAIR WEATHER FZ AMMUNITION ORIGINAL DESIGN 76/62 MM SRGM NESHCHEM. Fuze multi mode hand grenade 6.AFRICA 140 MM ROCKET AREAL 100-120KG USSR 57 MM ROCKET USSR Multi Mode Hand Grenade TBRL (DRDO) 23 MM GHASHA 23 MM GHASHA USSR USSR CONTENTS 35 .

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