You are on page 1of 23

CHAPTER

19

GROUNDING
Original Author:

OF POWER

SYSTEM

NEUTRALS
Revised by:

S. B. Griscom HE method of power-system grounding is perhaps more difficult to select than any other feature of its design. The large number of factors that must be considered is partly responsible, but primarily it is because most of these factors cannot individually be set up in terms of dollars and cents, and thus weighed, one against the other, to get the best compromise between conflicting influences. Historically, there has been a gradual trend in American practice from ungrounded, to resistance grounded, to solid or effective grounded. The main reasons for these trends can readily be traced. Most systems were initially operated with their neutrals free, that is, not connected to ground. This was the natural thing to do as the ground connection was not useful for the actual transfer of power. The method had a strong argument in its favor, since an insulator failure on one of the phases could be tolerated for some little time until the fault could be located and repaired. Also most lines then were single circuit, and the free-neutral feature permitted loads to be carried with fewer interruptions than had the neutral been grounded and considerable fault current flowed. Another important consideration was that relaying had not come into general use, so that many prolonged outages were avoided by the ungrounded operation. Limitations to ungrounded operation began to develop with the growth of systems, both as to mileage and voltage. This increased the currents when a ground occurred, so that an increasing proportion of transient grounds (from lightning, or momentary contacts) were no longer self-clearing. Furthermore, the phenomena of “arcing grounds” became prominent in the eyes of utility engineers. By arcing grounds was meant a process by which alternate clearing and restriking of the arc caused recurring high surge voltages. This phenomena proved quite elusive and long defied conclusive confirmation, but the theory gained many adherents, so that by 1920 the majority of systems were grounded either solidly or through resistance. Subsequently progress has been made in analyzing this phenomena, and recently an accumulation has been made of operating records of isolated-neutral systems. More recent transient-overvoltage comparisons between isolated and grounded systems have shown the former to give higher overvoltages, both during faults and switching operations, although not as high in magnitude as formerly suspected. Furthermore the operating records of ungrounded systems in recent years with proper surge protection and coordination of insulation do not show pronouncedly greater equipment failure rates than on the grounded systems. It therefore appears logical to conclude

S. B. Griscom

T

that, while ungrounded operation is more hazardous to equipment than grounded, the degree of difference was somewhat masked by improvement in the apparatus itself while changeovers to grounded operation were taking place. The first tendency in grounding was to limit the maximum amount of fault current by means of neutral resistances. A number of empirical formulas were advanced in an attempt to rationalize the procedure of determining the maximum value of resistance that could be used. These formulas were variously expressed in terms of line or cable lengths, charging current to ground, and some involved the connected generating kva of the system. More recent investigations seem to confirm that the maximum permissible neutral-grounding resistance is inversely proportioned to the total line-to-ground charging kva. However, it appears that other practical considerations, such as relaying, will dictate a lower maximum limit to grounding resistance than the arcing phenomena would require. On systems whose voltage is higher than generated voltage, particularly 115 kv and above, a saving in system cost became available by the use of transformers having the insulation graded from the line terminal to the neutral, if the neutral was solidly grounded. The cost of the grounding resistor and the space required by it were also saved. Consequently, the next major trend, particularly in the transmission field, was toward solid or effective grounding. For the higher voltages, this is now the most prevalent grounding procedure in the United States. In individual locations on some systems, particularly in the vicinity of GS-kv nominal system voltage, instances have occurred where high concentrations of power have led to ground-fault currents so high as to be deemed objectionable from the standpoint of conductor burning and inductive influence on communication circuits. In several of these instances, neutral-grounding reactors of moderate ohmic size have been used in the grounding of certain transformer banks. In Europe, the last thirty years have seen considerable use of ground-fault neutralizers (Petersen coils). In many instances they have materially reduced outages caused by ground faults. There are about 50 installations in this country, most of which were made in the last 15 years, indicating an increasing interest. I. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SYSTEM GROUNDING 1. Ungrounded Systems A simple ungrounded-neutral system is shown in Fig. 1 (a). The line conductors have capacitances between one

644

Grounding

of Power

System

Neutrals

Chapter

19

,

Fig.

l—Simple

ungrounded-neutral

system.

tral of the transformer bank is also at ground potential, being held there by the balanced electrostatic capacitance to ground. In a sense, the system is therefore capacitance grounded. If one conductor, phase a for example, becomes faulted to ground, there will no longer be any current flowing in the capacity branch between that phase and ground, because the difference of potential no longer exists. However, the voltage across the other two capacity branches will increase because the voltage across them rises to phase-to-please voltage. Moreover, as shown by Fig. 2 (b), the voltages to ground are no longer 120 degrees out of phase, but 60 degrees. Hence the sum of the currents is no longer zero, but is three times the original current to neutral. In phase position the current Ir flowing from the faulted conductor to ground, which is the usual convention, leads the original phase-to-neutral voltage by approximately 90 degrees. The actual solution for voltages and currents is most conveniently carried out by means of the method of symmetrical components as given in Chap. 2. The current in the faulted phase is then -- 3& &+&+zo In this connection, two points are of interest. Zo, the zero-sequence impedance at the point of fault will, for an be predominantly capacitive, ungrounded neutral system, whereas Z1 and XZ are predominantly inductive. Consequently, the two tend somewhat to neutralize one another. On long lines, this is particularly so, as 21 and 22 increase with length, whereas z decreases. A further effect not noted on long lines is that the zero-sequence charging currents for remote sections must be drawn through the series reactance of intervening sections, causing a zero-sequence volt age rise toward the far end. This can result in the ground or “neutral” point lying outside of the triangle of line voltages as shown by Fig. 3. This situation is rarely

another and to ground, as represented by the delta- and star-connected sets of capacitances. The delta set of capacitances has little influence on the grounding characteristic of the system and will therefore thenceforth be disregarded. In a perfectly transposed line, each phase conductor will have the same capacitance to ground. With balanced three-phase voltage applied to the line, the current in each of the equivalent capacitances will be equal and displaced 120 degrees from one another. The voltages across each branch are therefore equal and also displaced 120 degrees from one another. Consequently, there will be no potential difference between the neutral points of the supply transformer bank and that of the capacitances. These vector relations are shown by Fig. 1 (b). Since the neutral of the capacitances is at earth potential, it follows that the neu-

Fig.

3—Neutral

displacement outside long lines.

triangle

of voltage

on

Fig. 2—Ground

fault

on simple

ungrounded-neutral

system.

of importance unless the line lengths exceed about 200 miles. If the generating capacity is small, the additional charging current caused by a ground fault may materially increase the phase-to-phase voltages. The electrostatic capacitances of each line to ground were assumed in the discussion above to be the same. This will be substantially the case for a transposed line. With untransposed lines this will not be true, particularly if the configuration of the conductors is flat or vertical. The exact amount of unbalance can be calculated by determining the capacity coefficients of the conductors.* In extreme cases, the unbalance with either configuration may *See Chapter 3.

Chapter 19

Grounding

of Power

System

Neutrals

645

give as much as five percent zero-sequence voltage. Therefore, in practice, the system neutral on an ungroundedneutral system may be displaced from ground as much as five percent of the normal line-to-neutral voltage under unfaulted conditions. This may not be objectionable, although sometimes interference may be caused with communication circuits. 2. Resistance-Grounded Systems

A typical resistance-grounded neutral system is shown in Fig. 4. As commonly installed, the resistance has a

Fig. 4—Simple

resistance-grounded

system.

considerably higher ohmic magnitude than the system reactance at the resistor location. Consequently, the lineto-ground fault current is primarily limited by the resistor itself. Other than in exceptional cases, such as long lines at high voltage, or extensive cable systems, the capacitive current is small compared to the resistive current, and can be neglected. An important consideration in resistance-grounded systems is the power loss in the resistor during line-to-ground faults. The power loss is shown in Fig. 3 as a percentage

For this example, 20 = 3R +jS; Zl= O+j24; 2, = O+j24. The per unit fault current is given by the expression If = 300/ (3K +j56). The voltage developed across the grounding resistor is IfR. The power loss in the grounding resistor is IfER or If*R. If and ER are both in terms of normal values per phase. The power loss obtained by their product is therefore in terms of normal value per phase. Consequently, if the power loss in the resistor is to be expressed in terms of total three-phase system kva rating, it must be divided by three. Thus resistor power loss in percent is Ir2R j’3, when If is in per unit and R in percent. The maximum power loss for this case is 89.3 percent of the system rated capacity if three times the resistance in the neutral has the same ohmic magnitude as the reactantes determining the ground-fault current. If the generator reactances are lower, still higher power will occur during grounds and may cause violent swinging of generator phase position or instability. Resistances in this region are to be avoided, and since there is always some additional resistance in the fault, it is preferable that the grounding resistors alone be sufficient to carry well beyond the peak.

Fig.

5—Power

loss in neutral resistor faults.

during

line-to-ground

of the kva rating of the entire connected generating capacity on the system, and as a function of the value of the neutral resistance. The latter is expressed in percent on the system kva. A generator reactance of 16 percent and a transformer reactance of 8 percent were used in the preparation of the curve.

Fig. 6—Effect of system size and operating voltage on size of neutral resistor to limit ground fault current to one-quarter full-load system current.

646

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

Chapter

19

The actual ohmic value of the grounding resistor required will vary widely depending upon the circuit voltThis effect is shown in Fig. 6, age and system capacity. which assumes arbitrarily that the ground-fault current is to be limited to x of full-load system current. By “fullload system current” is meant the summation of the rated currents of all generating capacity, converted to the voltage base of the line. In terms of the rated line currents, the fault currents may still be several times full load, depending upon the number of lines. Fig. 6 is principally for illustrative purposes, and quite wide variations from the resistor ohms shown are satisfactory in practice. It should be understood that the resistance value indicated by Fig. 6 is the paralleled value of all resistors, if multiple grounding is used. 3. Effectively Grounded Systems The term “effectively grounded” has replaced the older term “solidly grounded,” for reasons of definition. A transformer neutral may be “solidly grounded” in that there may be no impedance between the neutral and earth. However, the transformer capacity thus “solidly grounded” may be too small in comparison with the size of the system to be effective in stabilizing the voltages from phases to ground, when ground faults occur. This is particularly the case when small grounding transformers are used to provide a source of ground current for relaying. The effect of different degrees of grounding is illustrated in considerable detail in Chap. 14. From Fig. 5, Chap. 14, the range of ground-fault currents is from 0 to 3.0 times the three-phase short-circuit current. As shown in Fig. 6, the line-to-ground voltage on an unfaulted phase ranges from about 0.6 to 2.0 times the normal line-to-neutral voltage during a line-to-ground fault. These figures are the rms dynamic quantities, as distinguished from transient voltages or currents. These curves make it apparent that the term “solidly grounded” is too indefinite to describe a grounding procedure that varies over such a wide range. A designation in terms of the ratio of zero sequence to positive sequence reactance X,/X,, is much more logical and definite. Section 32-1.05 of AIEE Standard No. 32, May 1947, defines effective grounding as follows: “A system or portion of a system can be said to be effectively grounded when for all points on the system or specified portion
thereof the ratio of zero-sequence reactance to positive-sequence reactance is not greater than three and the ratio of zero-sequence resistance to positive-sequence reactance is not greater than one

only, the positive- and negative-sequence reactances for faults at station A are each 25+7=32 percent, this being the sum of the generator and transformer reactances. The 100 three-phase fault current is therefore 32 =3.12 times fullload current. The fault current for a single line-to-ground 300 = 4.23 times full-load current. The ratio fault is -__I 32+32+7 X,/Xl is :2 = 0.219.

For a fault at station B, 80 miles away, the positiveand negative-sequence reactances are increased by 34 percent and the zero-sequence reactance by 120 percent, by fault current is the transmission lines. The three-phase tg = . 1.51 times full load. 300 127 The single-phase fault current

ls 66+66+

= 1.16 times full load.

The ratio X0 /X1 is

The voltage of the sound or unfaulted phases can be conveniently read from Chap. 14, Fig. 6. For a fault at station A, where the ratio X0/X1 is 0.219, Fig. 6 shows that the line-to-ground voltage is approximately 0.9 of normal line-to-neutral voltage (Ro/ is about 0.1 if there is no fault resistance). For a fault at station B, the corresponding ratio X,/X, is 1.92 and the line-toground voltage on an unfaulted phase is about 1.15 times normal. 4. Reactance-Grounded Systems

AIEE Standard No. 32-1.08 states: “Reactance Grounded-Reactance grounded means grounded through impedance, the principal element of which is reactance. (Modified from 35.15.215.)
NOTE: The reactance may be inserted either directly, in the connection to ground, or indirectly by increasing the reactance The latter may be done by inof the ground return circuit. tentionally increasing the zero-sequence reactance of apparatus connected to ground, or by omitting some of the possible connections from apparatus neutrals to ground.”

for any condition of operation and for any amount of generator capacity.” An example of an effectively grounded system is shown by Fig. 7. On the basis of generating capacity at station A

Fig. 7—Typical

solidly

grounded

system.

As thus defined, “reactance grounded” implies the insertion of a reactance in the ground connection. Within this meaning a reactance-grounded system is not solidly grounded; it may or may not be effectively grounded, and it may or may not be resonant grounded. For the discussions in this chapter, “reactance grounded” is defined in terms of x0/X1 ratio, a system being reactance grounded if X,/X, exceeds 3.0, but is less than the value necessary Thus defined, putting a low refor resonant grounding. actance between a generator or transformer neutral and ground such that X0/x1 remains less than 3.0 does not constitute reactance grounding. Similarly, if a grounding transformer has its neutral solidly grounded, but X,/X, exceeds 3.0, the system is presumed to be reactance grounded. The system of Fig. 7 can be converted to a reactancegrounded system if a reactor of sufficiently high reactance is connected between the transformer neutral and ground at station A. If a reactor having a 60-cycle reactance of

Chapter 19

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

16 ohms is used, this will be the equivalent of 8.4 percent on 25 000 kva. When multiplied by 3 (See Chap. 2) and added to the transformer reactance of seven percent the zero-sequence reactance becomes equal to the positiveand negative-sequence reactances. The current for a lineto-ground fault at station A then becomes equal to that for a three-phase fault. If therefore, the high ground-fault current with transformers solidly grounded had necessitated circuit breakers with greater interrupting ability than required for three-phase faults, the addition of the reactor would make the larger breakers unnecessary. 300 At station = 1.06 times B, the ground full load. The fault current X,/X, is 66+66+152 is 1$= 2.30.

ratio

From Chap. 14, Fig. 6, the maximum line-to-ground voltage on an unfaulted phase is about 1.18 times normal. Thus, the addition of a neutral reactor at a generating station may equalize the three-phase and single-phase short-circuit currents without greatly changing the minimum line-to-ground fault current, or the voltage from maximum phase to ground. The installation of such a nominal amount of reactance is not sufficient to change the classification of the system from effectively grounded to reactance grounded, inasmuch as excessive neutral displacements do not occur with ground faults. This applies particularly in the vicinity of station A, but to a lesser extent in the vicinity of station B. If a 50-ohm neutral reactor is installed at station A, the effective zero-sequence reactance at that point becomes 86%. station The ratio X0/X1 at station B the ratio X,/X, A is then g-2.7. At

is 206 = 3.1. Therefore on the 66 basis of the AIEE definition cited above, the system would be regarded as effectively grounded at station A but not at station B. On the basis of the treatment in this chapter the system of Fig. 7, with the 50-ohm grounding reactor is considered reactance grounded. 5. Resonant-Grounded Systems

A resonant-grounded system is one in which the capacitance current is tuned or neutralized by a neutral reactor or similar device. The principle of operation of the groundfault neutralizer is quite simple. As commonly used, the neutralizer is simply a tapped reactor connected between a transformer neutral and ground. When one phase of the system is grounded, a lagging reactive current flows from the neutralizer through the transformer to the fault and thence to ground. At the same time the capacitance current will be flowing from line to ground (See Sec. 1). The lagging current from the reactor and the leading current from line capacitance are practically 180 degrees out of phase and therefore the actual current to ground at the fault is equal to the difference between them. By properly tuning the reactor (selecting the right tap) the two currents can be made almost exactly equal, so that their difference is substantially zero. Under this condition the current in the fault is so small that in general the arc will not main-

Fig.

8—Illustration of operation of ground by principle of superposition.

fault

neutralizer

tain itself, and the fault is extinguished or “quenched.” This condition is shown in Fig. 8. When extinguishing a ground fault, the combination of neutralizer reactance and line capacitance constitutes a parallel resonant circuit. This is brought out clearly by the zero-sequence diagram as shown by Fig. 9. In this diagram XL is the neutralizer inductive reactance and Xo the line capacitive reactance. “G” is an equivalent generator of zero-sequence voltage numerically equal to the system line-to-neutral voltage and X the fault. With X closed, there will be a current circulating between Xo and XL but no current through the fault X. If X be assumed

648

Grounding

of Power

System

Neutrals

Chapter

19

I
Fig. 9--Zero-sequence reactance diagram of system with ground fault neutralizer showing parallel resonant circuit where zero-sequence voltage is created by fault to ground.

to open, as by the extinguishment of the arc, the resonant combination of XL and Xo will continue to produce an alternating voltage of about the same frequency and magnitude as the original applied voltage from G. Consequently, the actual voltage across the arc is small when it first extinguishes. This is a condition favorable to preventing restriking. In other words, the successful extinguishing of ground faults by neutralizers results in part from the low current and in part from the low voltage appearing across the arc when it goes through a “current zero.” It is of interest to note that the ground-fault neutralizer also constitutes a series resonant circuit in case there are any zero-sequence voltages on the system. In Sec. 1 on Ungrounded Systems, reference was made to the fact that with unsymmetrical line configurations a difference of several percent may exist in the charging current to ground of the three phases, resulting in a residual voltage. A zerosequence voltage created by line or transformer unbalances is the equivalent of an actual source of voltage between the system neutral and ground, as shown in Fig. 10. Here

voltage, and X’o is the zero-sequence capacitive reactance per phase. The ground-fault neutralizer current rating is made equal to or greater than the total system charging current in a ground fault. A standard reference on methods of calculating these currents is the Joint EEI Bell Telephone systems report Vol. IV, Reports 26-38 dated January, 1937. However, it has been found that all the methods available for calculating this current invariably give lower than the corresponding measured ones. For results that are estimates, the data of Table 1 can be used:
TABLE 1—GROUND FAULT NEUTRALIZER CURRENT PER MILE OF SINGLE CIRCUIT OVERHEAD LINE

Fig. 10---Zero-sequence reactance diagram of system with ground fault neutralizer showing series resonant circuit where a zero-sequence voltage is created by unbalanced capacitances to ground.

For double-circuit lines on the same tower or poles, reduce the particular line sections to equivalent single-circuit miles of overhead line by increasing the mileage by 1.3 for 34.5 kv and 1.6 for 69 kv lines. For overhead ground wires, convert the particular line sections to equivalent single-circuit miles of overhead line by increasing the line mileage by 1.08 for one ground wire and 1.15 for two ground wires. For cables, reduce sections to equivalent sections of overhead lines by the following factors: 1 mile of three-conductor cable=25 miles of overhead line. 1 mile of single-conductor cable=50 miles of overhead line. The neutralizer selected should have a current rating at least 20 percent in excess of the maximum total current obtained by using the above figures. On lines shorter than 200 miles calculations made in the above manner will be well within the engineering accuracy required. For longer lines, the zero-sequence inductive reactance of the line should be considered, as it may have some influence on the size of reactor required. II. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS SYSTEM GROUNDING IN

Xo and XL are the same as in Fig. 9, but the generator G equivalent to the zero-sequence voltage is now in series with the combination. The result of this connection is that a relatively small zero-sequence voltage is capable of producing a fairly high voltage across the reactor and capacitor. This, of course, causes the neutral to be considerably displaced, perhaps 10 or 15 times the amount of the original zero-sequence voltage. This situation must be watched in the application of ground-fault neutralizers, and if the fundamental frequency zero sequence voltage is in excess of about 1% percent, transposition of this line will probably be necessary. Except for extremely long lines, the zero-sequence capacitive reactance alone can be used to calculate the current rating of the ground-fault neutralizer from the rela3Jf-L tion I f=-.-.- ) where If is the fault-to-ground current when rf L-J operated with neutral isolated, E, is the phase to neutral

The broad objective in selecting a type of system grounding is to secure the best compromise of the conflicting advantages and disadvantages of the various methods. The first column of Table 2 lists items affected by the method The subsequent columns give in abbreviated of grounding. form the attributes of the particular type of grounding. The following sections discuss the features of the different methods of grounding in more detail. 6. Ungrounded Systems The principal virtue of an ungrounded-neutral system is its ability, in some cases, to clear ground faults without interruption. The self-clearing feature disappears when the length becomes appreciable. This effect is one of

Chapter 19

Grounding

of Power
TABLE

System 2

Neutrals

649

650

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

Chapter 19

TABLE 2—CONTINUED

probability, but completely satisfactory results probably cannot be secured above 100 miles of 11-kv circuits or 25 miles of 69-kv circuits. On total circuit lengths of this order or lower the ungrounded-neutral systems will probably have fewer tripouts than any form of grounded system, and, where feeds are essentially single-circuit radial, better service to customers can be rendered. Lightning arresters must, be applied on the basis of full line-to-line voltage, which increases the expense of protection and somewhat reduces their effectiveness. Selective relaying on ground faults is practically impossible for these short line lengths so that the detection and isolation of faulty lines is likely to be quite long. In some instances, for example with a line down, this circumstance may present a hazard to life. If the circuits are long enough to

give sufficient fault current for relaying, then the selfclearing advantage is lost and the system might as well be grounded in some manner. The ungrounded-neutral system is not likely to cause high voltages to be induced in neighboring communication circuits because the ground-fault currents are ordinarily low. However, on early designs or lines in a poor state of maintenance, this is not necessarily so, as the full displacement of neutral accompanying a ground fault on one phase is conducive to producing a fault on one of the other phases, thus producing a double fault with earth currents comparable with systems of solidly grounded neutral. Furthermore, the influence on communication systems is not alone a matter of current magnitude; it also involves duration and wave form of the earth current. Because of

Chapter 19

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

651

the absence of or ineffectiveness of ground relaying on ungrounded systems, such faults will persist for some time. Also, the arcing condition with the capacitance current is productive of badly distorted wave forms, throwing a good part of the energy into the higher frequencies where the In several instances it has actually influence is greater. been found true in practice that inductive influence has been decreased following adoption of some form of grounding. As a general statement therefore, ungrounded operation cannot be considered superior to grounded operation from the inductive influence point of view. While it is likely that the destructive effects of “arcing grounds” has been exaggerated in the past, all of the accumulated opinion in this regard cannot be discarded. More recent studies (See Chap. 14) also bear out the higher “switching surges” existent on ungrounded-neutral systems. It therefore seems necessary to assume that an ungrounded-neutral system will result in more equipment damages and “unaccounted for” interruptions than some form of grounded system. Transformers must be designed on the basis of full neutral displacement and in the higher voltage classes this will result in a somewhat higher cost. 7. Resistance-Grounded Systems

Fig. 11—Low- or medium-voltage looped transmission system with single grounding point presents difficulties in relaying ground faults unless a neutral grounding resistor is employed.

Grounding through resistance immediately disposes of two defects of the ungrounded system: it permits ready relaying of ground faults and it minimizes the hazard of arcing grounds. In general the grounding resistances used have limited the ground-fault current to a magnitude much less than the three-phase short-circuit current. This is almost imperative in order to limit the power loss in the grounding resistor to a reasonable figure as discussed in Sec. 2. However, the result is that the system neutral will almost invariably be fully displaced in case of a ground fault, thereby necessitating the use of full-rated lightning arresters at an increase in cost and sacrifice in protective performance. The latter is not particularly a handicap with modern arresters and modern transformers, but it may be important with older transformers having materially lower impulse strength. In certain instances, the use of grounding resistances may improve the stability of a power system during ground faults by replacing the power dropped, as a result of low voltage, with an approximately equal power loss in the resistor, thus reducing the advance in phase of the generators. This scheme was used on the 15-Mile Falls development of the New England Power Company. In general, a resistance-grounded system will have materially lower ground-fault current than a solidly grounded system and hence will have less inductive influence on paralleling communication circuits. In some instances this may be of considerable practical importance On systems of lower voltage, say up to and including 46 kv, ground relaying may play an important part in the selection of a grounding procedure. Consider, for example, the 22-kv system of Fig. 11 where the three-phase shortcircuit rurrent at station A is 12 500 amperes and the lineto-ground fault current with zero-fault resistance is 9700 amperes. The zero-sequence voltage at station A, if calculated will be found to be about 48% of normal phase to

If a ground fault having a resistance of neutral voltage. 10 ohms occurs, the fault current will be reduced to 1320 amperes, and the zero-sequence voltage to about 6.5 percent of the normal phase-to-neutral value. This voltage is insufficient for dependable directional ground relaying if fault resistances of 10 ohms and upward are encountered, as they ordinarily will be unless the lines are on steel towers, and connecting ground wires are used. In cases like this, impedance, preferably resistance, in the neutral On a smaller system, is necessary for satisfactory relaying. where the maximum short-circuit current is much less than the example given, there may always be sufficient residual voltage without the necessity of a neutral-impedance device. Furthermore, on simple radial systems where zerosequence voltage is not required for polarizing of directional relays, this factor need not be considered. A typical stainless steel grounding resistor is shown in Fig. 12.

Fig.

12—30-ohm

stainless

steel grounding

resistor.

652

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals cepted

Chapter

19

8. Effectively Grounded Systems In all voltage classes, effectively grounded systems are less expensive than any other type of grounding. This is because “arresters for solidly grounded neutral service” can bc applied, and because no auxiliary grounding devices in the form of resistors, reactors, neutralizers, etc., are This statement implies either a new ordinarily required. system, or an addition to a system. It may also apply to an existing system if sufficient star-connected apparatus is available. On a system n-here only delta-connected transformers are available, any form of grounding of the existing system On systems 115 kv and above, will involve extra expense. additional savings are available because transformers for solidly grounded neutral service can be purchased, with the insulation graded toward the neutral end, at less cost. On an effectively grounded system all faults including grounds must be cleared by opening the line. (This is also true of resistanceand reactance-grounded systems, and partly on ungroundedand neutralized-grounded systems.) Close to the grounding points, the ground-fault currents arc high, in some cases exceeding the three-phase shortIn a few instances higher interrupting circuit currents. capacity breakers may be required over that necessary for three-phase short-circuit interruption. The higher currents also produce more conductor burning. The greater currents result in lower positive-sequence voltages with a tendency toward a lower stability limit for line-to-grolmd faults. The higher earth currents may in some cases interfere with communication circuits. Most unfavorable influences from the above high-current phenomena have largely been removed, so far as system extensions are concerned, by the availability of the newer high-speed relays and circuit breakers. These comments apply particularly to such items as stability, conductor burning and communication circuit influence. The interrupting requirements of circuit breakers can be brought to equality with that for the three-phase fault condition by the addition of a moderate-sized grounding reactor where necessary. When the reduction in current is no more than this, the system will still retain the classification of “effectively grounded,” although the transformers grounded through reactance will require greater neutral insulation, but will not necessarily be fully insulated. On grounded neutral systems, it is usual for the transformers in generating stations to be connected delta on the generator side and grounded star on the high voltage side. Practice varies with regard to step-down transformers, some being connected star and others delta on the high voltage side. The latter is perhaps the more usual, particularly if the secondary transmission or distribution circuits are also grounded neutral. Systems laid out in this manner are in some instances subject to abnormally high voltages in the event of single conductor breaks in the line. The same comment may be made with regard to fusing and single pole switching. The circumstances required to produce these abnormal voltages rarely occur, but, the phenomena warrants consideration. See reference 10. 9. Reactance-Grounded Reactance-grounding grounding and resonant Systems

standard, the criterion will here be taken in terms -Xl A ratio of more than three requires the use of the ratio, -. Xl of full-rated arresters, so the range between this point and the reactance for ground-fault neutralizers should logically be considered as reactance grounded. At points on the system where X0/X1 = 3 or less, the ground-fault currents will be of the same order as those on effectively grounded systems, and the same comments as for effective grounding will apply except that the transformer insulation may need to be graded at the neutral end, if a neutral reactor is used. For neutral reactances, the ground-fault currents decrease and the neutral displacements increase. The transient overvoltages resulting from arcing increase as the reactance is increased, up to a reactance of about 1/3 that required for ground-fault neutralizing, beyond which point they again decrease, reaching another minimum at the tuned reactance. Further increases in reactance again reDuring switching operations the sult in higher voltages. indications are that the higher the reactance, the higher the surge voltage to be expected. See Fig. 36 in Chap. 14. The general indication is that there is no merit in purposely increasing the grounding reactance of a system beyond that required to keep currents within nondestructive range, except of course, for the special case of groundfault neutralizers. Systems grounded through high-reactance are uncommon except where delta-connected ungrounded systems have been grounded by means of ground-

falls somewhere between effective grounding. In the lack of an ac-

Fig.

13—Typical

grounding

transformer,

Chapter 19

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

653

Here, the element of expense has freing transformers. quently caused small grounding transformers to be used, the principal object usually being to secure enough ground current for relaying. Grounding transformers are usually wound “zig-zag” For temporary jobs, or where idle transfor economy. formers are available, conventional star-delta transformers are sometimes used. When this is done, care must be exercised that the transformers are not burned out by excessive fault duration, as the current through the transformers during ground faults will usually be nearly the full shortcircuit value. A typical grounding transformer is shown in Fig. 13. 10. Resonant-Grounded Systems

reactance device. A typical connection diagram is shown in Fig. 15. The value of ground fault neutralizers to a system depends upon its type and construction. If the system is predominantly of multi-circuit or loop-feed construction, the principal advantages are those resulting from small

When a system is equipped with ground-fault neutralizers, the neutral is displaced over all parts conductively tied together when a ground fault occurs. This means that two phases are at full line-to-line voltage above ground. Full-rated lightning arresters are therefore required. All line switching must be coordinated centrally in order to determine the proper neutralizer taps. Interconnected systems must be included in this coordination, or else isolated by two-winding transformer banks. An alternative zero-sequence isolating device is shown in Fig. 14. The principle of operation is that for three-phase currents whose sum total is zero, the device presents only the leakage reactance of the windings whereas for zero-sequence currents flowing in the same direction in each winding, only the high magnetizing impedance is effective. In general, the use of ground-fault neutralizers will decrease the number of line interruptions from ground faults to 20 or 30 percent of those obtainable with some form of

Fig. 15—Method of short-circuiting after predetermined duration

ground fault of ground-fault

neutralizer current.

Fig. 14--Zero-sequence isolator. The positive- and negativesequence reactance between Q, b, c and a’, b’, and c’ are low, but the zero-sequence reactance is high.

grounded operation. Complete effectiveness cannot be attained, because some faults will be caused by physical line damage and a proportion will fail to clear as a result of other causes, such as improper tuning. Interruptions caused by initial involvement of more than one phase are practically unchanged but the tendency of a single-phase ground fault developing into a two- or three-phase fault will be decreased. Ground relays must be retained to clear those ground faults not extinguished by neutralizer action. They are brought into play after a predetermined duration of ground-fault current by short-circuiting the neutral-

ground currents-less likelihood of communication-circuit interference, conductor burning and light flicker. In individual cases these favorable influences may be of value. If the lines are predominantly of wood-pole construction with high insulation to ground, a greater proportion of the faults will be line-to-line and the neutralizer will therefore not be so effective. On systems having a large proportion of single-circuit radial lines the value of neutralizers may be considerable. In addition to the items mentioned above is the fact that a large proportion of ground faults will be cleared without With radial feeds this is important, as line interruption. it may avoid construction of paralleling lines for service continuity alone, and thus be productive of considerable capital savings. Ground-fault neutralizers cannot be used on systems where fully graded insulation transformers are in service, as these neutrals are not sufficiently well insulated. If line sectionalizing switches are used, they should be gang operated. Fuses should not be used in series with any appreciable length of line. Ground-fault neutralizers should not be used on systems employing auto-transformers having a greater ratio than 0.95 to 1.00. Ten-minute time-rated ground-fault neutralizers are used on systems on which permanent ground faults can be located and removed promptly either by ground relays

654

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

Chapter

19

or other suitable means. Continuous time-rated groundfault neutralizers are used on all other systems. No general rule on the number of neutralizers to use in a given application can be stated. A neutralizer in each section of the system that may become sectionalized during disturbances will give the utmost in protection and simThe increased flexibility of operation plicity of operation. must be weighed against the increased cost for the larger number of neutralizers in making the final decision on what is to be undertaken. Occasionally a situation arises wherein it is desired to use a ground-fault neutralizer in conjunction with a threewinding star-delta-star transformer bank. If the neutralizer is connected between one neutral point and ground, and the other neutral point is solidly grounded, serious overvoltages on the neutralizer grounded system may ensue, when a ground fault occurs on the solidly-grounded side of the transformer bank. Figure 16 illustrates in (a) the system connection, and in (b) the equivalent zero-sequence impedance diagram.

erally, this is quite expensive. An alternative procedure is to induce an equal and opposite voltage in the neutralized system by means of reactors fed from current transformers This entails much engineering in the delta windings. study and adjustments when placing in operation. Generally, the best procedure is to avoid the condition by not grounding the other neutral point, and seeking other locations for grounding the system. 11. General Summary Grounding on Transmission System

Fig.

16-(a)

Hypothetical system using ground fault neutralizer with three-winding transformer. (b) Zero sequence impedance diagram applying to (a).

In the latter, it will be noted that branch n of the transformer equivalent circuit is common to both star connected circuits. A ground fault on the grounded neutral side therefore causes a zero-sequence voltage to be applied to the neutralized system. The neutralizer inductive reactance and system zero sequence capacitance are in series relationship to this voltage. Series resonance therefore occurs, and due to the high X/R ratio of neutralizers, the applied voltage may be amplified ten or more times, When it is known that such usage is contemplated at the time of purchase of the transformer bank, it may be possible to design it so that branch n has zero impedance. Gen-

The preceding discussion brings out that the various methods of grounding have their peculiar advantages and disadvantages so that individual circumstances can be exa few combinapected to decide the issue. Nevertheless, tions of conditions cover the great majority of systems, and some generalization is possible for these combinations. In the vicinity of our larger cities and in industrialized areas, continuity of service is regarded as of such importance that multiple circuit lines and two direction feeds are the rule. On such systems a momentary line tripout does not interrupt service, because additional circuits are available for the worse eventuality of physical damage to a line. These lines are usually relayed to clear a fault in from 0.15 to 0.5 seconds. They are usually tied in conductively with lines of the same voltage operated by conThere is a large amount of equipment tiguous companies. tied to these lines, and lightning protection and confinement of trouble to a small area is desirable. For systems of this character, effective grounding appears to be the best practice. At some locations, ground fault current limitation may be necessary from the standpoint of circuit breaker interrupting duty or inductive effects, but this can probably be accomplished without exceeding a zero sequence ratio of three, thus permitting application of “lightning arresters for grounded neutral service.” In less densely populated regions, the relation between loads and transmission distances is frequently such that only single-circuit lines are justified. Systems of this type are good fields for the application of ground-fault neutralizers. The number of interruptions can be greatly reduced at moderate cost by such means. While full-rated lightning arresters and transformers are required, the spacing of substations will usually be large enough that this does not unduly increase the cost. Where only a few lines are single-circuit radial, improvement of these lines by “lightning proofing” or the application of lightning protector tubes may be the most economical solution. In some instances of long-distance power transmission, the overall cost can be decreased by using one transmission circuit at a high voltage rather than two or more circuits at a lower voltage. Where other power sources are available when the line is out for maintenance or repair, the use of the single-circuit line with ground-fault neutralizers becomes a feasible way of limiting the total investment. This method should be compared in cost and other features with the use of high-speed reclosing breakers. The question of the number of grounding points is frequently asked. On systems in the effectively grounded class, there is no reason why all available neutrals should not be grounded, so long as the ground-fault current does

Chapter 19

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

655

not require the application of breakers having larger interOn resistanceor reactance-grounded rupting capacity. systems, or with ground-fault neutralizers, each additional grounding point increases the total cost. In these cases, the number of grounding points will largely be dictated by the ability to secure satisfactory ground relaying. On other than radial systems, at least two and preferably more grounding points are desirable to get most satisfactory directional ground relaying. Grounding practice should be considered in the light of improvement in other branches of central-station work. Relays and breakers have been improved so that they will clear both phase and ground faults with a reliability and speed greatly exceeding those obtainable a few years ago. Complaints from flicker, and unnecessary operation of low-voltage releases are correspondingly fewer. Automatic high-speed reclosing is available for transmission service and affords a means of avoiding outages from momentary causes from both phase and ground faults. Lightning proofing of transmission lines is markedly effective in reducing the total number of flashovers. In most instances these factors will indicate a preference for the effectively between grounded system. A chart showing a comparison the various ground procedures is given in Table 2. 12. Trends and Practices in Transmission Grounding System

Fig.

18—Relative United transmission

States use of grounding methods systems from 71 kv up.

on

Figures 17 and 18 are plotted from data obtained from the Third AIEE Report on System Grounding.12 The data used in that report was collected by questionnaires, and according to the definitions used, “solid” means that no extra impedance is inserted between apparatus neutral points and ground. “Reactance” grounded means that in some instance, neutral reactors are used on an otherwise solidly-grounded system; in other instances, it means the

use of grounding transformers. In the majority of cases, “solid” grounding means that the systems are effectively grounded (X,/X, is three or less). Likewise, many of the “reactance” grounded systems are effectively grounded. For purpose of classification, a system is still considered if the only ground is through potential “ungrounded”, transformers. Figure 17 shows the relative use of grounding methods on transmission and distribution systems in the voltage range of 22 to 70 kv. There has been a steady decrease in the ungrounded category, and an approximately like increase in solid grounding. Ground-fault neutralizers are being used to an increasing extent, although still a small portion of the total. Their use in the United States is still largely confined to single-circuit lines serving large areas. Figure 18 is for systems 71 kv and up. These curves show the dominant use of effective or solid grounding in the United States. The majority of “reactance grounded” systems are effectively grounded. III. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES GENERATOR GROUNDING OF

Fig. 17—Relative United States use of grounding methods on transmission and distribution systems in the voltage range of 22 to 70 kv.

There are even more ramifications of generator grounding than for transmission-system grounding. The many possible combinations of connections between generators and outgoing lines is responsible for this. The more common connections in use in generating stations are shown in Figs. 19 to 23. The so-called unit system, Fig. 19 is one in which each generator is directly connected to its individual transformer bank, the low-voltage side being delta, and the high-voltage side, star. So far as ground currents are concerned the machines are isolated from one another

656

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

Chapter

19

and the high-voltage system. A variation of this arrangement is sometimes used where two generators supply a An arrangement using both common transformer bank. high- and low-voltage buses is given in Fig. 20. The individual machines are therefore tied, insofar as the flow of ground current is concerned. Fig. 21 is for power

Fig.

19—Unit

system-power

transmitted

at high

voltage.

Fig. 22—Power

transmitted

at generator system.

voltage-four-wire

Fig.

20—High-

and low-voltage
mitted

bus system-power at high voltage.

trans-

Fig. 21--Power

transmitted

at generator system.

voltage-three-wire

distribution over a three-wire system at generator voltage. Fig. 22 is the same as Fig. 21 except the distribution system is four-wire. A system where the generator voltage is doubled or increased by 3 by auto-transformers for distribution is shown in Fig. 2.3. In general the unit scheme of Fig. 19 gives the greatest freedom in the selection of a grounding procedure, while the other schemes place various restrictions on the choice.

Fig.

23—Power

transmitted at double auto-transformers.

generator

voltage

by

Chapter

19

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals The three-phase
1 *

657
fault current full of an individual load. Consequently, generator in the will cause it would

13. Ground Currents
The ground-fault current for one phase of a three-phase system is given by the expression 3Eg &+&+~2’ If a generator is operating as an isolated current so calculated will be the current faulted phase. If 20 is less than 21 or Zz as the case, the ground-fault current will be the three-phase fault current 2. If I, = (IrJ+Il+I2) =

is s-100 8 8 = 11.4 times X case illustrated, grounding

only one generator or twice the current

machine, the through the is commonly greater than machines

that generator

to carry ‘g

several

are operated in parallel, and only one machine grounded, this effect is accentuated in the grounded machine. For example, consider four generators operating in parallel as shown in Fig. 24 (a). The reactances shown are in percent based on the individual machine ratings.

have on a three-phase fault. Since mechanical stresses are proportional to the square of the current, they would be equal to four times the three-phase short-circuit stresses. The effect of different numbers of machines operating in parallel, with all neutrals grounded, and with only one machine grounded is illustrated in Fig. 25. These curves were computed on the basis of Xi =X*=8.8 percent and X0=2.2 percent, and for the machines paralleled directly at their terminals. It will be observed that the line-toground fault current is always greater than the three phase fault current, and that the situation becomes par-

Fig. 24—Single line-to-ground fault on four generators erating in parallel with only one machine grounded.

op-

The phase-sequence-reactance diagram is shown by Fig. 24 (b) from which 20=2.2; Z1=2.2 and Z2=2.2. The sequence components for a line-to-ground fault are 100 Ii)=II=I2= = 15.2 2.2+2.2+2.2 times full-load current of one generator. The total fault current = l0+1,+1, = 45.6 times full load of one generator. The components generator are : of fault current through the grounded

Fig. 25—Total fault and machine currents for single line-toground and three-phase faults.
A-Current in any machine-three-phase fault. B-Current in one machine-single line-to-ground fault with all machines grounded. C-Total current-three-phase fault. D-Total current-single line-to-ground fault with all machines grounded. E-Current in grounded machine-single line-to-ground fault with only one machine grounded. F-Total current-single line-to-ground fault with only one IUchine grounded.

I =I0 &+I, I a2=4 ‘I

= 15.2 times full load. = 3.8 times full load. 3.8 times full load. 2=

The fault current through the faulted phase of the grounded generator = laO+lal+laP = 22.8 times full load.

658

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

Chapter

19

titularly serious as the number of paralleled machines In an installation of this kind, some form of increases. neutral impedance device is a necessity. In order to determine the size of neutral reactor to limit the generator winding current for a single line-toground fault to the generator winding current on a threephase fault the constants of the generator and the constants of the system must be known. The system constants must include all circuits and sources of supply to the fault except the machine under consideration. Five groups of formulas are listed below for single line-toground faults depending upon the reactance values. Group 1 is perfectly general and the other groups are simplified. e = percent X~=percent kva base IR = percent current generated reactance reactor voltage of neutral reactor on generator generator System 81 & so XR=
SOS,)

Fig. 26—Two generators

operating voltage.

in parallel at generated

current

based on normal Generator

Pos. seq. reactance Neg. seq. reactance Zero seq. reactance Group 1.
SO(XlX2 +

on gen. kva on gen. kva on gen. kva values
+

Xl X2 x0 and different.
x2&! X2So

All reactance
2XlS2 XzS2)

finite

XO(XlS2

~(X,~~+~~S~--XIS~+SO~~~

-

-

-’

Group 2.

So= infinite;

others I

finite

and different. 300e

XR=

Xl --x-o f&(X1 -x2> 3 + 3(x,+&) ;

Group

3. X1=X:!;

&--X0
3 Group

others finite and different. 1 300eSo 81 Sz+Sa x1+s1+x1+s2 ( others finite

XR=

; IR=x~(X,+so)

-&+-so 1 and different,

4. X1=X2; So= infinite;

Group 5. X1=X2;

&= S2; X0 = finite; IR-300e Xl+& Xl ( x,+3& >

So = infinite,

x1-x0 &--...-d
3

,

14. Neutral Displacement
When a ground fault occurs, there is a tendency for a neutral shift with consequent change in voltage on the unfaulted phases. The phenomenon is the same as discussed in Part I; and Fig. 6, Chap. 14, can be used to determine the voltage to which apparatus on the unfaulted phases will be subjected.

15. Circulating

Harmonic Currents

When two generators are operated in parallel at generated voltage as in Fig. 26, there is the possibility of cir-

culating harmonic currents. This is true whether the neutrals are interconnected or not. The two conditions necessary for the flow of harmonic current are: the presence of a resultant harmonic voltage, and a path for the flow of current. It is important to note the term “resultant.” If the two machines are duplicates and are being operated under identical conditions, they will probably generate the same harmonics of about the same magniIf the harmonics are thus equal tude and phase position. and opposite, there will be no resultant voltage available to circulate harmonic current. If, however, the machines are dissimilar, one may generate harmonic voltages that the other does not. There will then be a circulating harmonic current between them whose magnitude is equal to the resultant harmonic voltage divided by the impedFor line-to-line harance at the harmonic frequency. monics the latter is approximately equal to the negativesequence reactance in ohms at rated frequency times the For two machines as illustrated, order of the harmonic. the resultant reactance would be the sum of the harmonic reactances of the two machines, as they are in series for harmonic-current flow. If more than two machines are in parallel, but only one generating a high-harmonic voltage, the harmonic reactance of the one machine is added in series with the paralleled reactance of the remaining generators. If all machines are generating considerable harmonic voltage, an analysis is almost impossible because slight shifts in fundamental frequency phase position with load will greatly alter the resultant harmonic voltages. The situation with respect to neutral harmonics is much similar to that for line harmonics except that only triple series harmonics, 3rd, 9th, 15th, 21st, etc., can flow in the neutral. This is because the 120 degrees relationship of phases causes all other harmonics to be balanced and thus total to zero in the three phases. Also the zero sequence impedances apply rather than the negative sequence. Referring again to Fig. 26, it is apparent that neutral circulating harmonic currents cannot flow unless both neutral circuit breakers are closed. Then, if there is a resultant zero-sequence harmonic voltage, a current will flow equal to the voltage divided by the zero-sequence reactance at the harmonic frequency. The harmonic currents circulating in the neutral are likely to be somewhat higher in magnitude than the lineto-line harmonic currents. This is because the third harmonic voltage is usually higher than any other and be-

Chapter

19

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

659

cause the zero-sequence reactance is usually lower than the negative-sequence reactance. In the case of twothirds pitch machines, the triple series (neutral) harmonics will be practically zero, so that it will not create harmonic currents. On the other hand, the zero-sequence reactance of a two-thirds pitch machine is quite low so that it is a likely path for the flow of triple harmonics generated by other machines. Circulating harmonic currents between apparatus in a station are not particularly objectionable unless unusually large. A circulating neutral harmonic current of 30% would offhand appear to be of an order to be injurious to a machine. However, this means only 10 percent harmonic current per phase. The rms value in combination with full-load current would be d1002+ 102= 100.5 percent. The heating effect will be somewhat greater than this, but probably not more than another x percent so that the loss of load-carrying capacity is inappreciable.

grounding of the generators, removing the ground from a particular generator may correct the situation, but may require additional equipment to establish a ground to Neutral filters are sometimes permit proper relaying. applicable. A detailed study of each situation is necessary to determine the best overall engineering solution. A further discussion of this question is given in Chap. 23.

19. Mechanical

Stress in Generator Winding

Paragraph 3.130 of ASA Standard C-50 Rotating Electrical Machinery, 1943 Edition, reads as follows: “A machine shall be capable of withstanding without injury the stresses of a IO-second, 3-phase short circuit at its terminals when operated at rated kva, power factor and 5-percent overvoltage or any other lo-second short circuit provided the machine phase currents under the fault condition are limited by means of suitable reactance or resistance to a value which does not exceed the maximum phase current obtained from a 3-phase fault.” Reference to Sec. 12 shows that when X0 is less than X1, which is usually the case, some form of impedance is required in the generator neutral to permit grounded operation.

16. Communication-Circuit

Influence

Where generator neutrals are grounded and distribution is done at generated voltage, whatever residual harmonics arc present in the generator wave form are impressed on the lines. Residual harmonics are more likely to cause inductive effects in nearby communication circuits than line-to-line harmonics because the return circuit is through the earth at a considerable depth. When the distribution circuits are in underground cables the likelihood of inductive effects is small. On overhead lines, however, consideration should be given to this question.

20. Transient

Overvoltages

17. Surge Protection
This question is covered in detail in Chap. 18. It is related to grounding methods in that “grounded neutral service” arresters can be applied if the system is effectively grounded, whereas arresters rated at maximum line-toline voltage are necessary if the system is not effectively grounded. Because of space limitations and costs, it is not practical to insulate generators to the same impulse levels as oil-insulated apparatus of the same voltage class. Therefore, the protection margin is decreased for ungrounded, resistance-grounded and high-reactance-grounded generators. This situation has been helped to a degree by the use of “rotating machine” arresters. The experience so far indicates that full-rated arresters afford sufficient protection. Therefore, if other circumstances warrant the use of a non-effectively grounded system, the matter of surge protection need not prohibit such use.

18. Inductive Coordination
It is practically impossible to predetermine inductive coordination situations, because they arise from the interrelation of three factors; inductive influence of the supply system, inductive susceptiveness of the communication circuits, and the coupling between the two types of circuits. Therefore, remedial measures may involve reduction in the supply circuit influence, or in the susceptiveness of the communication circuits, or in the coupling between the two; or in a combination of two or more of the above. When the remedial measures can best be applied to the

This subject is treated in detail in Chap. 14. In any discussion of this subject, it should be recognized that numerous field tests have been made in an attempt to set up and measure high transient voltages resulting from phase-to-ground arcing faults in air. Generally speaking, the overvoltages thus measured have been lower than those indicated by pure theory, or by transient-analyzer studies, and rarely exceeded three times the normal line-to-neutral crest. However, because of the random nature of arcs, it is difficult to capture the maximum overvoltages, unless numerous tests are made and high grade equipment such as a cathode-ray oscillograph is used. Studies on the transient analyzer are usually made by controlling the restriking of the arc to produce the maximum overvoltage. Therefore, the results of transient-analyzer studies are of more value in comparisons of methods of grounding, rather than in accurately predetermining magnitudes. Switching operations may cause relatively high transient overvoltages, if restriking occurs in the breaker. Accordingly, in evaluating any method of grounding from the viewpoint of transient voltages, it is well to consider whether there will be switching at generator voltage either initially or some time in the future. Transient overvoltages due to switching have caused electrical failure of equipment, circuit insulation, and lightning arresters. Generally, lightning arresters are not considered as being applied for protection against such transient overvoltages, but, evidence is available that shows arresters have operated on transient overvoltages, thus protecting equipment. It is good practice to design the system and to ground it in such a manner, whenever possible, that transient voltages are below arrester breakdown voltage. For generator grounding, it is commonly accepted that transient overvoltagcs will be within acceptable limits if the following conditions are met:

660

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

Chapter

19

1. For application of generator neutral reactors, X,/X, as determined at the machine terminals should be three or less. For purposes of this determination, X0 and X1 are the resultant of the generator and system reactances, paralleled. 2. For application of generator-neutral resistances (or the equivalent through a grounding transformer), the current passed through the resistor during ground faults should equal or exceed the capacitive current that would flow during a line-to-ground fault with the resistor disconnected. See Section 18 for a fuller discussion of this point. The upper limit of current passed through a generator neutral resistor is fixed by the desire to avoid excessive power loss, and is customarily held to 1$/2 times full load generator current, or less. The ratio of Xo/Ro should preferably not exceed 1.0, including the reactance of the resistor. Cast-iron grid resistors may have power factors of 0.98 and sometimes less, which means that their reactance may be about 20 percent of their resistance, at system frequency.

23. Damage at Point of Fault
When a fault occurs within a generator, the affected coils must be replaced. While this is a large job, it is not nearly as serious as the problem of replacing damaged stator iron and restacking the laminations, should that be Fortunately, such cases have been rare, found necessary. but they are nevertheless important. Laboratory studies and field investigations of generator coil failures have been made with the view of determining the relation between fault, current, fault duration, and iron burning. So far, these investigations have been non-conclusive, although service experience indicates that if the fault is cleared with standard differential relays and circuit breakers, the damage will be limited to minor burning of the iron, which can be cleaned up without restacking. There is every indication that low fault currents plus fast clearing, however, minimizes fault damage. At present, the industry attitude seems to be tolerant of moderate to high ground fault currents, where other conditions require it, but to work toward low ground-fault currents, where conditions permit-this occurring mainly with the “unit system” of connection. The more conservative attitude in the latter cases is to trip immediately, even though the fault current be but a few amperes.

21. Generator Relaying
It is necessary to consider the effect of the generator grounding device on the operation of protective relays. Most large generators are provided with differential relays. These are fully effective against phase-to-phase faults within the machine. When the generator is effectively grounded, the differential relays also give fairly effective protection against faults to ground. When the generator neutral is grounded through high impedance, the differential relays lose a considerable amount of their effectiveness against ground faults. This is particularly the case for ground faults near the neutral of the machine. It will usually be necessary to provide a supplementary relay actuated by neutral or zero-sequence current when the machine is grounded through high impedance.

24. Generator Neutral Breakers
When a fault occurs within a generator, it is customary to trip the generator armature and field circuit breakers and shut off the input to the prime mover. These operations do not necessarily stop the current through the fault, because a certain time is required for the generator field flux to decay. If a generator neutral breaker is employed, and it also is tripped on the incidence of a ground fault, the fault current immediately drops to a very low value as determined by capacitance effects. In general, the smaller the ground-fault current (limited by a neutral device), the less justification there is for an automatic neutral circuit breaker. In some cases non-automatic neutral breakers or disconnect switches are used. These are not operated during faults, but are used to disconnect the neutral for safety or Where several generators are conoperational reasons. nected to a common neutral bus, which in turn connects to a single neutral grounding device, these breakers or disconnect switches can be used to ground the desired generators to the neutral bus.

22. Relaying of Feeders at Generator Voltage
When power is distributed at generator voltage, it is necessary that the grounding method be selected giving consideration to that fact. The generator grounding device determines to a large extent the magnitude of the feeder line-to-ground fault current and thus the type and effectiveness of the feeder ground relays. There has been some European use of grounding schemes that limit the ground fault current to around 50 amperes. With feeders having full-load currents of GO0 amperes or more, fairly sensitive ground relays are required. Such relays are available, but require more than usual care in selection of current transformers, determination of settings, and maintenance. While their use is, or probably can be made practical, the more usual practice in the IJnited States is to select a grounding scheme that causes the ground fault current to equal or exceed full-load current on the feeders. With reactor or conventional reactor grounding, adequate current for relaying is readily obtained. Ungrounded operation, or the use of the transformer-resistor combination are not suited for systems having feeders at gcnerator voltage, as there is not sufficient current to permit ready selection of the faulted circuit.

25. Time Rating of Neutral Devices
The following is Section 32 for Neutral Grounding
“Rated

Time-Standard and extended time. “It shall be assumed, unless otherwise specified, that a oneminute rating is intended for neutral grounding devices except for ground-fault neutralizers and grounding transformers for use with ground-fault neutralizers, for which a ten-minute rating is

32-2.05 of AIEE Standard No. Devices, dated May, 1947: rated time shall be 10 seconds, 1 min-

ute, 10 minutes

assumed.” When grounding reactors are used on the unit system, a IO-second rating is usually employed as this is consistent with the thermal ability of the generator, and the operation is non-repetitive.

Chapter

19

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

661

When grounding resistors, reactors, or grounding transformers are used with systems having feeders at generator voltage, a one-minute rating is usually employed, thus allowing for repetitive feeder faults and also for the fact that the neutral device must carry current whenever a ground fault occurs on any of the three phases. When the distribution-transformer-resistor scheme is used, it has generally been the practice to apply extended time ratings to the resistor. This is done primarily because of the small cost of the resistor, and partly because of the possibility that time-delay tripping might be contemplated in the future.

IV. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS GENERATOR GROUNDING

IN
Fig. 27—Alternative methods of ground fault detection isolated neutral generators. on

The broad objective in grounding a generator system is to gain additional protection to the generators and other equipment without introducing disproportionate hazards. In the sections which follow, the various generator connections are analyzed with the view of selecting the method of grounding most suitable.

26. Unit System-Fig.

19

From the discussion under Sec. 12, it is evident that solid grounding of the generator neutrals, whether one machine or all of them, will usually result in ground fault currents exceeding the three-phase fault current. From the standpoint of mechanical strength of the generator winding, this situation requires that any grounding of the generator neutrals be through an impedance sufficient to limit the ground-fault current to the three-phase value. If the neutrals are to be grounded, and no further limitation of ground current is required, other than to secure protection against winding distortion, a neutral reactor is suitable. As to transient overvoltages it is safe, and in the larger sizes has the advantage of lower cost and smaller space as compared with a resistor. A neutral breaker should usually be provided to limit burning in case of internal generator faults because of slow decay of field current and residual voltage even when the field breaker is opened. However in small stations the saving in cost may be worth weighing against the possibility of increased damage to the machine. An advantage sometimes attributed to grounding generators with the unit system of operation is that most armature-winding faults start as grounds. By grounding the neutral, positive current flow is obtained in case of a fault so that quick and positive relaying is obtained. It is doubtful if there is any pronounced advantage insofar as relaying is concerned over that obtainable with ungrounded operation and ground-fault detectors. Three forms of ground-fault detection are illustrated in Fig. 27. A single potential transformer from neutral to ground is utilized in Fig. 27 (a). A ground fault on any part of the circuit comprising the low-voltage winding of the transformer, connecting leads, or generator winding will produce a voltage on the relay that can be used for tripping or alarm purposes. In Fig. 27 (b) three potential transformers are connected in star, and function in a similar manner. This scheme has an advantage over that of Fig. 27 (a) in that

it can be set more sensitively. In addition for 27 (b) the alarm will be given in case of an open circuit in the primary In 27 (a), if there is sufficient of a potential transformer. bus and transformer capacitance the triangle of line voltage will tend to be stabilized with reference to ground and the residual harmonics will appear between neutral and ground. The relay must be set above any such harmonic voltage, which therefore decreases its sensitivity. Usually this will not be a serious handicap although in extreme cases harmonic voltages as much as 15 percent of normal phase-to-neutral voltage might exist between neutral and ground. The scheme of Fig. 27 (b) avoids this situation. In the scheme of both Figs. 27 (a) and (b), the sensitivity of protection decreases as the ground-fault approaches the neutral point. This is not often a serious handicap as most faults are near the line end. For complete protection anywhere within the windings, the scheme of 27 (c) suggested by R. Pohl can be used. As shown, this involves displacing the neutral continuously by means of an auxiliary windTherefore, when a ing on one potential transformer. ground occurs anywhere-even on the neutral lead itselfa voltage will appear across the relay. This scheme is limited to stations where the generator leads and buses are isolated from the system by transformers. Otherwise, capacity effects or neutral grounds on other equipment would cause a continuous indication. These ground fault detectors are in addition to the customary differential protection. In all of the schemes of Figs. 27 (a), (b) and (c), there is some risk of false indication caused by ground faults on This can arise as a result of zerothe high-tension system. sequence capacitive coupling between high-voltage and low-voltage windings of the step-up power transformers. The zero-sequence diagram of part of the system is illustrated in Fig. 28. As there shown, the capacity effect of the power-transformer windings can be represented by an voltage on the equivalent star. Part of the zero-sequence high-voltage side created by a ground fault is transferred to the low-voltage side by capacity potentiometer effect, and will give some voltage across the fault-detector relay. The magnitude of this voltage is determined by the ratio of transformation, type of high voltage grounding, proximity of fault, amount of capacitances in the transformer

662

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

Chapter

19

Fig. 28—HOW zero-sequence capacitive false indications.

coupling

may cause

(a) Internal capacitances of two-winding transformer. (b) Zero-sequence diagram showing how zero-sequence voltages may be transferred from the high-voltage to the low-voltage side of a transformer where the low-voltage side is ungrounded and of low electrostatic capacity to ground.

branches and the generator, and the burden of the relay. In general, the larger the transformer bank and the higher the voltage, the greater the risk of false operation. The difficulty can be eliminated by paralleling the relay with a dummy load or by using a low-impedance current relay, without interfering with the sensitivity of the protection. While the conditions necessary to such false indication are not likely, one such case has actually been observed. Because of this electrostatic coupling, it is probably undesirable to operate the generators without some form of drainage to ground. A scheme which avoids the principal objections to ungrounded neutral is shown in Fig. 29. This consists of

Fig. 30—Capacitance values for grounding through distribution transformer fix kw loss value of secondary resistor.

The zero-sequence capacitance per phase of each circuit component are listed below and totalled. Generator Generator surge capacitor Generator leads Power transformer Total At 60 cycles, this is a capacitive 0.320 0.250 0.060 0.004 0.634 reactance mfd mfd mfd mfd mfd of -

1 or 27rfC

Fig. 29—Grounding

scheme for unit system.

connecting the primary of a distribution type transformer between the generator neutral and ground. The secondary of this transformer is shunted by a resistor and by a potential relay for tripping or alarm, as desired. The size of the transformer and resistor depend upon the charging current in case of a line-to-ground fault. This charging current can be obtained by summing up the various components of circuit capacitance, and determining the current that flowx if one phase is grounded. The system of Fig. 30 is used for an example. This covers an 11.5-kv, 75 OOO-kva, 1800-rpm, 60-cycle turbine generator having surge-protective capacitors at its terminals.

__. lo6 -~ or 4180 ohms. The zero-sequence current is 377(0.634) equal to the normal phase to neutral voltage divided by this reactance or 6620/4180= 1.58 amperes. The total capacitive fault current is three times the zero-sequence current or 4.74 amperes. Transient-analyzer studies have been made to determine the influence of the size of the resistor upon the transient overvoltage produced during an arcing fault. This subject is treated in more detail in Chap. 14. In general, it was found that as the kilowatts dissipation in the resistor is increased, the transient voltages steadily decrease until the resistor kilowatt loss equals the capacitive kva. Increasing the resistor energy loss further gave but little additional reduction in transient overvoltage. The total current at the point of the fault to ground is the vector sum of the capacitive component of current, and the resistive component. If the resistive component is made equal to the capacitive component, the sum is 1.41 times as much as the capacitive component. Increasing the resistive current beyond equality with the capacitive current products little further reduction in transient overvolt age, but increases the energy in the arc and the damage therefrom. It has become more or less standard practice to apply the resistor to develop an energy loss equal to or slightly exceeding the capacitive kva during groundfault conditions. ‘l’hc kvu of the transformer is determined by the product of the primary current and the rated primary voltage,

Chapter divided

19 by an overload 1 5 30 1 2 factor

Grounding from the following Factor 4.7 2.8 1.8 1.6 1.4

of Power table:

System Neutrals

663

Time Minute Minutes Minutes Hour Hours

The rated primary voltage of the transformer should be approximately lyz times the generator line-to-neutral voltage, in order to avoid excessive magnetizing inrush, when a ground occurs. It is preferable to disconnect a generator from the system, and remove excitation immediately upon the occurrence of a fault, in order to confine the damage On small systems, some operators as much as possible. prefer to have a ground relay sound an alarm, giving the system operator a chance to make provision for the loss of the generator. In any case, automatic tripping should follow after a reasonable time delay. For the system of Fig. 30, the capacitive kva developed is (11.5/l .732) (4.74) = 31.5 kva. The resistor should dissipate 31.5 kw. If a transformer of 11 500 volts primary, 460 volts secondary were selected, the open-circuit secondary volt age would be 460,!1.732 or 265 volts. The current rating of the resistor would be 31 500 watts,‘265 volts or 119 amperes, and its resistance 2651119 or 2.23 ohms. The kva dut,y on the transformer is (11.5) (3.74) or 54.5 kva. Kate that this exceeds the actual loading, due to the use of a transformer rated on the basis of line-to-line voltrated 5-1.5,‘1.6 age. For a l-hour duty cycle a transformer or 3-l kva can be used. A standard 37.Skva transformer can be selected on this basis. For a 5-minute duty cycle a rating of 51.6,‘2.8 or 19.5 kva would suffice, and a standard 25-kva transformer can be selected. In general, it is preferable to be conservative on the transformer rating in order that its reactance not be an appreciable factor. It is prefcrable to apply the resistors on the basis of cont,inuous duty, as their size and cost are usually not significant factors. Oil-immersed, askerel-immersed, and air-cooled transformers can be used, based on user preference. Either currt>nt- or voltage-actuated relays can be used, as indicated by Fig. 30. The sc+cme is, in effect, a generator-neutral grounding device of very high resistance in which a fragile and bulky high-voltage resistor is replaced by a, step-down transformer and low-resistance resistor. With the proportioning suggested, the possibility of ferro-resonance with an unshun ted transformer is avoided, transicn t overvoltages from sivitching or arcing are reduced, and there is a reduct ion in harmonic voltage in the potential indication, making it possible to use lower settings for the ground relay.

tices as to neutral grounding have been employed, perhaps the commonest of which is to provide a neutral bus to which one or more machine neutrals are tied, with a resistor from this bus to ground. The resistance is usually such as to limit the ground-fault current to 0.5 to 1.5 times fullload current of the smallest machine, however no hard and profast rule can be given. With the sensitive differential tection now used, this permits satisfactory tripping for Grounding transformers on the grounds in any machine. low-voltage bus have also been used to insure a source of ground current for relaying. However, it is difficult to hold X0/S, to 3.0 and transient overvoltages may be excessive.

28. Power Transmitted at Generator Three-Wire System Fig. 21

Voltage,

The problem of selectively isolating ground faults will usually require that a system of this kind be grounded in some manner. I,ikewise if cables are used for the distribution circuits, thrl matter of neutral stabilization and suppression of arcing grounds n-ill require that the grounding impedance be moderately low. One machine alone can be grounded and satisfy these requirements, but a neutralimpedance device will be necessary to limit the maximum Because of the various current through the machine. combinations of machines that may be in service at different times there is some operating complication in insuring that a system ground is always available, and for this reason it is probably desirable that all neutrals be grounded. If a neutral bus is employed, each neutral can be connected to this and a single grounding resistor or reactor used. An alternative and probably more desirable arrangement is to ground Mach neutral through sufficient impedance that the ground-fault current through each individual machine will never exceed its safe value. The influence on communication circuits is almost impossible to forecast, because most cases arise out of resonance between the ground reactance and the capacitance With these constantly changing to ground of the circuits. with the growth of the system, about the only course that can be pursued is to consider each case as it arises. Usually a parallel tuned filter in the neutral connection of one generator will cure a specific case of trouble.

29. Power Transmitted at Generator Four-Wire System Fig. 22

Voltage,

27. Power Transmitted at High Voltage, Low-Voltage Bus System Fig. 20
A good many of the arguments with reference to Fig. 19 also apply to I‘i g. 20, particularly i to limitation of groundfault current. If the neutrals are all ungrounded, however, it is notI possible to secure individual selection of the machine developing a grotmd fault, as the low-voltage tie puts the residual voltage on all machines. Various pray-

The general situation with this system connection is the same as on the three-wire system. However since loads are connected from phase wires to the neutral wire, the question of neutral displacement during faults becomes much more important. Otherwise, during a ground fault on one phase, the voltage on the other phases will rise, and lamps, radios and other utilization devices will be flashed. It is therefore essential on a four-wire system that no more impedance be inserted in the neutral connection than necessary to protect the generators against excessively high currents during ground faults. The proper impedance can be calculated by the method of symmetrical components. If all generators are grounded, the generator making 2 = 1.0

for each generator

will satisfy

requirements.

664

Grounding

of Power

System Neutrals

Chapter

19

If ‘=

1 for the entire

system,

this will hold the line-to-

neutial voltage down to normal value (as shown by Fig. 6, Chap. 14) and thus satisfy the load requirements. It is probable that a moderate increase in line-to-neutral voltage during ground faults is permissible because the condition is temporary, so that ratios of = 1.5 or even 2.0 for

the system may be feasible. These’ figures are approximate, as resistance has not been considered, and in some cases, it will be important. Three possible ways in which neutral impedances can be employed are presented in Figs. 22 (b), (c) and (d). The first is shown merely for the sake of completeness; it serves no necessary function in limitation of current and would prove a liability in excessive neutral displacement and regulation with unbalanced loads. In both Figs. 22 (c) and (d), the neutral impedance is between generator neutral and ground where it is effective in reducing ground-fault currents. In 22 (c) the regulation to unbalanced loads is slightly better than in 22 (d), but the impedances necessary for neutral stabilization will be usually low compared to the line impedances where there are a number of individual feeders and this point will ordinarily not be important. On many systems the fourth wire will be grounded at each transformer installation, and 22 (d) is necessary in this event. In general 22 (d) represents a more satisfactory connection. In most power stations, there is considerable shifting of generators in and out of service. With the four-wire system, the dual requirements of prevention of high individual generator currents during ground faults, and restriction of neutral displacement are necessary. The most satisfactory method of maintaining these requirements is to use individual grounding devices with each generator. The generator-neutral breaker may be left closed whether the generator is in or out of service, and only opened in case of a generator fault. For this type of service reactors are preferable as grounding devices. For a given limitation of current, the distortion of phase voltages to ground will be less than for a resistor because the voltage drop is in phase with the phase-to-neutral voltage of the faulted phase. The cost and space requirements will usually be less. The likelihood of excessively high transient voltages during arcing grounds is small because system. the 2
1

ratio

must

be kept

low

on the four-wire

large systems employing 24 kv or 27.6 kv underground cable distribution systems. Interconnecting and grounding the neutrals of the generators and auto-transformers stabilizes the neutral and prevents excessive voltage stresses in the event of ground faults. Any triple series harmonics present in the generator wave form are passed to the outside lines. On cable systems there is little likelihood of this causing interference with communication circuits. Where the distribution is by overhead lines there

30. Power Transmitted at Double Generator Voltage by Auto-Transformers, Fig. 23 Figure 23 (b) is being used to a considerable extent on

exists some possibility of communication circuit interference. In fact, the case is exactly analogous to that discussed in Section 28. Figure 23 (c) is similar to 23 (b) except that a delta tertiary has been added. The effect of the tertiary is to decrease the magnitude of the triple series harmonic voltages applied to the outgoing lines and to cause a circulatIn most ing current to flow in the neutral interconnection. cases it is doubtful whether either of these influences exists in sufficient magnitude to be of any practical importance. Assume for example that the delta winding is rated at onehalf the kva parts of a one to two ratio auto-transformer. It will then be one-fourth the generator kva rating. The reactance from generator winding to tertiary winding may be 8 percent on the tertiary kva or 32 percent on the generator kva. If the generator zero-sequence reactance is 8 percent, the triple harmonic voltages at the generator 3(32) or four-fifths terminals will be reduced to about 3(8+32) the value without a tertiary. This reduction would ordinarily not be sufficient to correct interference to a satisfactory level. The harmonic circulating current is similarly of small importance from the standpoint of heating. For example, assume 10 percent third harmonic voltage in the generator phase to neutral wave form (a very high figure for modern generators). This would be acting on an impedance of 3 X(8+32) or 120 percent. The circulating 10 current would then be -X 100 or 8 percent per phase 120 increasing the 12R by only G percent. See Sec. 15 of this chapter. (NOTE: In both of the above calculations, it was assumed that the generator reactance would increase as the order of the harmonic.) The foregoing discussion shows that where both the generator and auto-transformer are to be grounded and are in the same station, there is little point to adding a delta tertiary winding to the autotransformer. Should there be an appreciable distance between the generator and the transformer, and particularly if there are paralleling communication circuits this question should be carefully considered, as the flow of transformer magnetizing current or generator triple harmonic circulating current may cause inductive influence. In Fig. 23 (d) the generator neutral is ungrounded, and the auto-transformer neutral grounded, with a delta tertiary provided. This minimizes all communication circuit influence and generally gives satisfactory stabilization of voltages in the event of ground faults. Generator differential protection is less sensitive for faults in the vicinity of the generator neutral point. Figure 23 (e) shows the generator neutral grounded and the auto-transformer neutral ungrounded. This connection puts the generator triple series harmonics on the outgoing circuits, but facilitates generator differential protection. The line voltages are properly stabilized in the event of ground faults. If both generator and auto-transformer grounds are omitted, the generator insulation will be overstressed in the event of a ground fault on the high voltage side of the auto-transformer and this connection should therefore not be used. If the high voltage side of a grounded neutral auto-transformer is connected to an effectively grounded

Chapter

19

Grounding

of Power

System

Neutrals

Fig. 31—Relative United States use of grounding methods generators without feeders at generated voltage.

ofl

Fig. 32—Relative United States use of grounding methods on generators with feeders at generated voltage.
2. General Considerations in Grounding the Neutral of Power Systerns, by H. H. Dewey, A.I.E.E. Transactions, April 1923, pages 405-416. Voltages Induced by Arcing Grounds, by J. F. Peters and J. Slepian, A.I.E.E. Transactions, April 1923, pages 473-489. Experimental Studies of Arcing Faults on a 75-Kv Transmission System, by Eaton, Peck, and Dunham, A.I.E.E. Transaclions, December 1931, pages 1469-1478. Present-Day Practice in Grounding of Transmission Systems (Committee Report), A.I.E.E. Transactions, September 1931, pages 892-900. Petersen Coil Tests on l40-Kv System, by J. R. North and J. R. Eaton, A.I.E.E. Transactions, January 1934, pages 63-74. Some Engineering Features of Petersen Coils and Their Application, by E. M. Hunter, A.I.E.E. Transactions, January 1938, pages 11-18. System Analysis for Petersen-Coil Application, by W. C. Champe and F. Von Voigtlander, A.I.E.E. Transactions, December 1938, pages 663-672. Power System Faults to Ground, by C. L. Gilkeson, P. A. Jeanne, J. C. Davenport, Jr., and E. F. Vaage, A.I.E.E. Transactions, April 1937, pages 421-433.

system (preferably with grounded star-delta transformers at the same station) the tertiary may be omitted whether the generator neutral is grounded or not. The generator neutral will be shifted from ground potential in the event of a ground fault on the system, but not sufficient to overstress the generator insulation. Generally, a fault to ground on the high-voltage side of the auto-transformer will not result in generator currents For ground faults on the lowexceeding those permissible. voltage side, the generator currents may exceed permissible values unless a reactor is placed between the generator neutral and ground. 31. Trends and Practices

3. 4.

5.

6. 7.

in Generator

Grounding

Figures 31 and 32 are plotted from data obtained from the Third AIEE Report on System Grounding12. In most of the cases of “reactance grounding,” the grounding reactors are of low ohms, resulting in “effective grounding.” “Solid” and “reactance” grounded may therefore be combined as “effective” grounding, and as such, about half of the systems are so grounded. The percentage of effectively grounded systems is decreasing slightly. The “ungrounded” classification includes potential transformer grounding.

8.

9.

REFERENCES
1. Present-Day
Practices in Grounding by Woodruff and Stone (Committee actions, April 1923, pages 446-464. of Transmission Systems, Report), A.I.E.E. Trans-

10. Abnormal Voltage Conditions in Three-Phase Systems Produced by Single-Phase Switching, by Edith Clarke, H. A. Peterson, and P. H. Light, A.I.E.E. Technical Paper 40-105. 11. American Standards Association Standards for Neutral Grounding Devices, January 30, 1941. 12. Present-Day Grounding Practices on Power Systems-Third A.I.E.E. Report on System Grounding (Committee Report), A.I.E.E. Technical Paper 47-237.