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QUESTION BANK 1. Define SAMA. Spread Aloha Multiple Access is a combination of CDMA and TDMA.

The CDMA better suits for connection oriented services only and not for connection less bursty data traffic because it requires to program both sender and receiver to access different users with different codes.

2. Define CDMA. Code Division Multiple Access systems use codes with certain characteristics to separate different users. To enable access to the shared medium without interference. The users use the same frequency and time to transmit data. The main problem is to find good codes and to separate this signal from noise. The good code can be found the following 2 characteristic 1.Orthogonal. 2.AutoCorrelation.

3..What are the several versions in CSMA? There are several versions in CSMA, they are as follows a) non-persistent CSMA b) p-persistent CSMA c) 1-persistent CSMA 4.What is meant by non-persistent CSMA? In, non-persistent CSMA, stations sense the carrier and start sending immediately if the medium is idle., if the medium is busy, the station pauses a random amount of time before sensing the medium again and repeating this pattern. 5.What is meant by p-persistent CSMA? In p-persistent CSMA system nodes also sense the medium, but only transmit with a probability of p. With the station deferring to the next slot with the probability 1-p, i.e. access is slotted in addition. 6. What is SDMA?

Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) is used for allocating separated spaces to users in wireless networks. The basis for the SDMA algorithm is formed by cells and sectorized antennas which constitute the infrastructure implementing space division multiplexing (SDM) 7. What is FDD? In FDMA, the base station and the mobile station establish a duplex channel. The two directions, mobile station to base station and vice versa are separated using different frequencies. This Scheme is called Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) 8. What are the 2 sub layers in DLC? Logical Link Control(LLC) Media Access Control(MAC) 9) What is EY-NMPA? Elimination yield –Non Pre-emptive Multiple Access (EY-NMPA) is a scheme which uses several phases to sense the medium. access the medium and for contention resolution.. Priority schemes can also be included. This is actually used in HIPERLAN1 specification. 10) What do you mean by Polling? Polling is a strictly centralized scheme with one master and several slave stations. The master can collect the list of stations during the contention phase and can poll these slaves according to many schemes like round robin, random access, reservation scheme etc. 11) What are the four types of handover available in GSM? 1.Intra cell Handover 2.Inter cell Intra BSC Handover 3.Inter BSC Intra MSC handover 4.Inter MSC Handover 12) What is TETRA? TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) systems use different radio carrier frequencies, but they assign a specific carrier frequencies for a short period of time according to demand.

TETRA’s are highly reliable and extremely cheap. 13) what are the categories of Mobile services? · Bearer services · Tele services · Supplementary services 14) What are the services provided by supplementary services? · · · · · User identification Call redirection Call forwarding Closed user groups Multiparty Communication

15) What are types of Handover? Intra-cell handover Inter-cell ,intra- BSC handover Inter-BSC, intra-MSC handover Inter MSC handover 16.What is meant by GPRS? The General Packet Radio Service provides packet mode transfer for applications that exhibit traffic patterns such as frequent transmission of small volumes. 17) What are subsystems in GSM system? · Radio subsystem(RSS) · Network & Switching subsystem(NSS) · Operation subsystem(OSS) 18) What are the information in SIM? · · · · card type, serial no, list of subscribed services Personal Identity Number(PIN) Pin Unlocking Key(PUK) An Authentication Key(KI)

19) Define Normal Burst? The frame used for normal data transmission within a time slot is called Normal Burst.

2. Examples are almost all TV and radio broadcast satellites.Intra Satellite handover: 2. additional instance of handover are necessary due to the movement of the satellite 1. and releases channels for higher layers by activating and deactivating physical channels.20) What are the logical channels in GSM? · Traffic channel(TCH) · Control channel(CCH) 23) What is the function of Medium Access Control Layer? The functions of Medium Access Control Layer is responsible for establishes.V and radio broadcasting. no adjusting is needed. 25) what are the advantages of GEO? Three GEO satellites are enough for a complete coverage of almost any spot on earth. 24) What is meant by GEO? GEO means Geostationary or Geosynchronous earth orbit. 3.Inter Satellite handover. 3. GEO satellites have a distance of almost 36000 km to the earth.Inter System handover. 26)What is Handover? The satellite is the base station in satellite communication systems and that it self is moving. many weather satellites and satellites operating as backbone for the telephone network. So.Satellite User Mapping Register(SUMR). 27) What are the registers maintained by the gateway of satellite? 1. .Home Location Register(HLR). Therefore GEO’s are ideal for T.Gateway handover. maintains. 4.Visitor Location Register(VLR). senders and receivers can use fixed antennas positions.

Depending on the inclination a MEO can cover larger populations. The inclination angle is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the plane described by the satellite orbit. If the satellite does not have a circular orbit.28)Advantages of MEO Using Orbits around 10. 29) Applications of Satellite ? Satellites can be used in the Following Areas · Weather Forecasting · Radio and TV broadcast Satellites · Military Satellites · Satellites for Navigation 30) What are the applications in satellites? · · · · · Weather forecasting satellites Radio & TV broadcast satellites Military satellites Satellites for navigation Mobile communication 31) What are the advantages of LEO? · · · · Data rate is 2400 bit/s Packet delay is relatively low Smaller footprints of LEO allows frequency reuse Provide high elevations 32) Define the inclination angle and perigee. the closest point to the earth is called the perigee. An inclination angle of 0 degrees means that the satellite is exactly above the equator. but much less than a LEO system. the system only requires a dozen satellites which is more than the GEO system. .000Km. thus requiring less handovers. 33) Define the elevation angle and footprint. Further more these satellites move slower relative to the earth’s rotation allowing a simpler system design.

An FIC carries all control information which is required for interpreting the configuration and content of the MSC. 36) What is FIC? The Fast Information Channel(FIC) contains Fast Information Block(FIB) with 256bits each(16 bit checksum). power. Seven bytes field contains the sizes of the header and the body. 35) What is MSC? Main Service Channel(MSC) carries all user data. cpu.The elevation angle is defined as the angle between the centre of satellite beam and the plane tangential to the earth’s surface. The foot-print can be defined as the area on earth where the signals of the satellite can be received. multimedia data. 34) Define Header core. 39) Name some of the formats supported by MOT?. the receiver may decide if it has enough resources(memory. audio. Depending on this header information. ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Multimedia and Hypermedia information coding experts group(MHEG) Join photograph’ s experts group(JPEG) American standard code for information interchange(ASCII) Moving pictures expert group(MPEG) Hypertext markup language(HTML) Hypertext transfer protocol(HTTP) Bitmap(BMP) . display etc) available to decode and further process the object. eg. 37) What are the different types of disk? · A flat disks · Skewed disks · Multi disks 38) What are the goals of DVB? The goal of DVB is to introduce digital TV broadcasting using satellite transmission (DVB-5) cable technology (DVB-c) and terrestrial transmission (DVB-7). the content type of the object.

DAB can offer sound in CD like quality. 6. 42) What are the advantages of DAB? 1. 3.¨ Graphics interchange format(GIF) 40) Give structure MOT object.A4) a single repetition pattern would be A1A2A3A4A1A2A3A4A1A2A3A4……. 2.. 4. 41)What are different interleaving and repetition schemes applied by DAB to objects and segments? 1.DAB use VHF and UHF frequency bands.A3. .DAB uses DQPSK modulation scheme. segmentation information and priority of the data.DAB user COFDM and FEC. 5. 7bytes variable size variable size Header core Header Extension Body Header core : contain the size of the header and body and the content type of the object.A2. Header Extension : contains additional object handling data such as repetition distance to support caching. If an object A consists of four segments(A1. 3.Segment repetition.DAB can use single frequency network where all senders transmitting the same radio program can operate at the same frequency.Header repetition. 44) What is EIT? Event Information Table(EIT) contains status information about the current transmission and some additional information for set-top boxes.Object Repetition.DAB can transmit up to six stereo audio programmes with a data rate of 192kbit/s each. 2. 43) What is object repetition? DAB can repeat objects several times.Interleaved Objects. 4. Body : contains arbitrary data to be transmitted.

Data rates planned for users are 6-38mbit/s for the downlink and 33-100kbit/s for the uplink. 47) what is meant by beacon? A beacon contains a timestamp and other management information used for power management and roaming. 2.45) What are the service information sent by DVB? Digital Video Broadcast Containers are basically MPEG-2 frames.Time and Date Table(TDT) 46) What are the advantages of DVB? 1. WLAN which offers time bounded and asynchronous services also it should be able to operate with multiple physical layers. 49) What is Passive Scanning? Passive Scanning Simply means listening into the medium to find other networks. 4.Can be used in remote areas and developing countries where there is no high band width wired network. e.Transmitted along with TV programmes and doesn’ t require additional lines or hardware per customer. 3. 3.g.11? The primary goal of the standard was the specification of a simple. receiving the beacon of another network issued by the synchronization function within an access point 50) what is the primary goal of IEE 802. Beacon and Probe response contain the information necessary to join the new BSS.Event Information Table(EIT).Network information table(NIT). . identification of the base station subsystem(BSS) 48) What is Active scanning? Active scanning comprises sending a probe on each channel and waiting for response. i. 2. These information are.e.Service Description Table(SDT). DVB sends service information.. robust. 1.

What is digital sense multiple access? 12. Explain about UTRAN (16) UNIT-2. What is the 3 different basic shemes analog modulation? 5. Explain about transparent mode? 20.Mobile computing UNIT-1 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS Part-1 (2 Marks) 1. Write brief about UMTS and IMT-2000(16) 5. What are the basic classes of handovers? Part -B 1. Specify the security services offered by GSM. Explain briefly about TETRA (16) 4. What is the use of Phase Lock Loop (PLL)? 6. What is hopping sequence? 7. What is guard space? 4. What are the 3 fundamental propagation behaviors depending on their frequency? 2. Specify the steps perform during the search for a cell after power on? 19. What is OVSF? 18. What is Network and Switching subsystem? 13. What is browsing channel allocation and fixed channel allocation? 10. What are the disadvantages of cellular systems? 11. Explain about Mobile services (16) 2. Explain System architecture (16) 3. What is authentication centre? 14. What is dwell time? 8. . What is called burst and normal burst? 15.TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS Part -1(2 Marks) 1. Define traffic multi frame and control multi frame? 17. What are the advantages of cellular systems? 9. What is multipath propagation? 3. What are the basic groups of logical channels? 16.

lower frequencies allow carriers to provide coverage over a larger area. while higher frequencies allow carriers to provide service to more customers in a smaller area. carriers acquired licenses in the 1800 MHz band. radio frequencies used for cellular networks differ in the Americas. Europe. or "UHF". What is the frequency range of uplink and downlink in GSM network? . This is achieved by the use of different channels to carry data. for example. which was in the 450 MHz band. local carriers received licenses for 450 MHz frequency to provide CDMA mobile coverage area. GSM had already been running for some time on US PCS (1900 MHz) frequencies. The actual frequency used by a particular phone can vary from place to place. including IS-95 (often known as "CDMA". (Generally speaking.. They had to develop their existing networks and eventually introduce new standards. D-AMPS. This portability is not as extensive with IS-95 phones. Initially. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth transmission. depending on the settings of the carrier's base station. which was in the 800 MHz frequency band. one can find both AMPS and IS-95 networks in use on the same frequency in the same area that do not interfere with each other. Mobile networks based on different standards may use the same frequency range. Moreover. IS-136 on these frequencies was replaced by most operators with GSM. The cellular frequencies are the sets of frequency ranges within the ultra high frequency band that have been allocated for cellular phone use. the analog AMPS standard that used the cellular band (800 MHz) was replaced by a number of digital systems. initially used the 900 MHz band too. As demand grew. AMPS. 2. mobile providers encountered a problem because they couldn't provide service to the increasing number of customers. which appeared in Europe to replace NMT-450 and other standards. Some European countries (and Japan) adopted TACS operating in 900 MHz. The ultra high frequency band is also shared with television. or world phones. for the transmission and reception of their signals. systems based upon the AMPS mobile phone model were popular. and are usually referred to as tri-band and quad-band phones.) In the U. The GSM standard. with such a phone one can travel internationally and use the same handset. N-AMPS and IS-95 all use the 800 MHz frequency band. some NMT-450 analog networks have been replaced with digital networks using the same frequency. Digital AMPS. the first widespread automatic mobile network was based on the NMT-450 standard. The first commercial standard for mobile connection in the United States was AMPS. Due to historical reasons.All cellular phone networks worldwide use a portion of the radio frequency spectrum designated as ultra high frequency. Africa and Asia.S. as IS-95 networks do not exist in most of Europe. Eventually. or "TDMA". the air interface technology it uses) and IS136 (often known as D-AMPS. In Russia and some other countries. As mobile phones became more popular and affordable. In Nordic countries of Europe. however. And. often based on other frequencies. Many GSM phones support three bands (900/1800/1900 MHz or 850/1800/1900 MHz) or four bands (850/900/1800/1900 MHz). the air interface technology it uses).

What are the two basic groups of logical channels in GSM? The GSM system divides up the RF communications channel into logical channels that serve different purposes. 4. Broadcast Channels .0 880.0 1710.0 .915. List out the numbers needed to locate an MS and to address the MS.0 .0 512 .0 1 . Control channel transport signaling messages.810 3.973 1805.915.1880.0 .124 925.1023 921.0 935.ABC Control Channels .0 512 . Common Control Channel Signaling .Transfers command messages to users that are sharing the channel (such as sending paging messages to mobile devices that are listening to the paging channel).960.0 955 .925.2 .0 . What are the four possible handover scenarios in GSM? 7.Transfer command messages.1785.1910. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response. Communications .0 .0 . 975 . This can be system identification information (such as the name of the system). Traffic Channels .0 876.Continuously transmit information to all users in the radio coverage area.0 .960.124.0 .0 0 . What are the control channel groups in GSM? 5.1990.885 1930. 6.2 .Sending command messages to specific devices (such as sending a power level adjustment message to a mobile device). Dedicated Control Channel Signaling . Traffic channels carry user data (voice and data).Uplink downlink GSM 900 (P-GSM) GSM 900 (E-GSM) GSM-R (R-GSM) DCS 1800 PCS 1900 [2] 900 900 900 1800 1900 890.0 1850. What are the security services offered by GSM? GSM service security See also: UMTS security GSM was designed with a moderate level of service security.880.

that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security.[11] According to Nohl.[14] New attacks have been observed that take advantage of poor security implementations. and no non-repudiation. The most commonly deployed GPRS and EDGE ciphers were publicly broken in 2011. and details these concerns: Nohl said that he was able to intercept voice and text conversations by impersonating another user to listen to their voice mails or make calls or send text messages. architecture and development for smart phone applications. He also said that it is possible to build "a full GSM interceptor . A5/2 is weaker and used in other countries.. malware or a virus and might be detected by security software. Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: it is possible to break A5/2 in real-time with a ciphertext-only attack.[10] The system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one. 27.[citation needed][original research?] GSM uses General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for data transmissions like browsing the web. The development of UMTS introduces an optional Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM). from open source components" but that they had not done so because of legal concerns. and in January 2007..com quotes Nohl as a "security expert". UMTS builds on the success of the ‘second generation’ GSM system.[12] An update by Nancy Owano on Dec. but limited authorization capabilities.[13] GSM was also mentioned in a Reuters story "Hackers say to publish emails stolen from Stratfor" on Yahoo! News. The A5/1 and A5/2 stream ciphers are used for ensuring over-the-air voice privacy. Even more troubling was that he was able to pull this off using a seven-year-old Motorola cellphone and decryption software available free off the Internet. he developed a number of rainbow tables (static values which reduce the time needed to carry out an attack) and have found new sources for known plaintext attacks. One of the factors in the success of GSM has . Some wiretapping and eavesdropping techniques hijack[15] the audio input and output providing an opportunity for a 3rd party to listen in to the conversation. and the evidence indicates that they were once again intentionally left weak by the mobile industry designers.[16] UMTS Security The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the new ‘third generation’ 3G mobile cellular communication systems. At present such attacks often come in the form of a Trojan. The Hacker's Choice started the A5/1 cracking project with plans to use FPGAs that allow A5/1 to be broken with a rainbow table attack. GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user – whereas GSM only authenticates the user to the network (and not vice versa). A5/1 was developed first and is a stronger algorithm used within Europe and the United States. The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication.between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. On 28 December 2009 German computer engineer Karsten Nohl announced that he had cracked the A5/1 cipher. 2011 on PhysOrg.

IP networks. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. o The TD-SCDMA radio interface was commercialised in 2009 and is only offered in China. The following standards are typically branded 3G: • the UMTS system. HSPA+. often denoted 3. also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s (about 0. However.5G and 3. certain real and perceived shortcomings of GSM security need to be addressed in UMTS. • 8.7 Mbit/s downstream. can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink. Services advertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical standards. it mediates access to network resources on behalf of mobile subscribers (MS) and implements the packet scheduling policy . sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G wireless network. standardized by 3GPP. o The latest UMTS release.2 Mbit/s). standardized by 3GPP2. Recent 3G releases. Several radio interfaces are offered. including standards for reliability and speed (data transfer rates). The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14. 9. sharing the same infrastructure: o The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA. first offered in 2002. What is meant by SGSN? Short for Service GPRS Support Node. What is meant by GGSN? Short for gateway GPRS support node it is the gateway between the GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) wireless data network and other external packet data networks such as radio networks. To meet the IMT-2000 standards. first offered in 2001. Japan. In addition. used primarily in Europe.been its security features. the CDMA2000 system. GGSN provides network access to external hosts wishing to communicate with mobile subscribers (MS). 3G Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G. many services advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service.75G. China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM 2G system infrastructure. used especially in North America and South Korea. or private networks. New services introduced in UMTS require new security features to protect them.

20. software and choice of BlackBerry mobile device. What are the two basic classes of handover? 16. BlackBerry is currently available in the United States. is an efficient use of limited bandwidth and is particularly suited for sending and receiving small bursts of data. Canada and the United Kingdom. Define the terms: 19. Define Elevation Angle. which supports a wide range of bandwidths. In the United States and Canada. In the UK. as well as large volumes of data. What are the steps perform during the search for a cell after power on? 15.between different QoS classes. How many ITU standardized groups of 3G radio access technologies are there in IMT-2000? 14. What is meant by BSSGP? Short for Packet Data Protocol. The PDP data structure is present on both the SGSN (Service GPRS Support Node) and the GGSN (gateway GPRS support node) that contains the subscriber's (MS) session information during an active session 11. BlackBerry's popularity may be attributed to its easy-to-use interface and keyboard. a standard for wireless communications which runs at speeds up to 115 kilobits per second. such as e-mail and Web browsing. compared with current GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) systems' 9. BlackBerry depends on either narrowband PCS 800 MHz DataTAC networks or narrowband PCS 900 MHz Mobitex networks. What are the two transport modes defined for MSC? 18. What are the two basic transport mechanisms used by DAB? 17. [Source: Adapted from Motorola Worldwide] 10. 13. BlackBerry works over GPRS networks. BlackBerry is a complete package that includes airtime. What are the factors limited the number of sub channels provided within the satellite channel? GPRS Short for General Packet Radio Service. Specify the standards offered by TETRA. it is a network protocol used by packet switching external networks to communicate with GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) networks. . GPRS. BlackBerry BlackBerry is a line of mobile e-mail devices and services from Research In Motion (RIM). Define the protocol architecture of DECT.6 kilobits. It is responsible for establishing the Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context with the GGSN (gateway GPRS support node) upon activation. 12.

What are the three phases of medium access in EY-NPMA? 18. What are the advantages of WLANS? 2. Mention the features of infrared transmission? 7. Mention the features of radio transmission? 10. What is Traffic Indication Map? 13. Explain the MAC layer in IEEE802. What is Delivery Traffic Indication Map? 14. Write short notes on DVB (16) 5. Explain Satellite networks in detail (16) 3. What are the disadvantages of infrared transmission? 8. Explain GSM architecture (16) 2. Write short notes on DAB (16) 4. What is the purpose of sniff state? 20. Explain about WATM (16) . Explain the architecture of IEEE 802. Define random back off time? 12. Mention the design goals of WLANS? 4. What is the use of hold state? 21. Mention the features of HIPERLAN1? 17. What is the purpose of park state? Part-B 1. Explain HIPERLAN 1 in detail HIPERLAN 1(16) 4. What is the difference between infrastructure and ad-hoc networks? 6. What is meant by roaming? 16.11(16) 2.Part-B 1. Mention the elements of Bluetooth core protocols? 19.11 (16) 3. Define frequency hopping spread spectrum? 11. Explain about DECT (16) UNIT-III WIRLESS LAN IT 1402 – MOBILE COMPUTING Part-A (2 marks) 1. What is Ad-hoc TIM? 15. Mention some of the disadvantages of WLANS? 3.

Define an outer header. What is encapsulation? 6. What is slow start? . What is meant by a binding cache? 13. Explain tunneling and encapsulation in mobile IP. Define triangular routing. How the dynamic source routing does divide the task of routing into two separate problems? Part -B 1. Explain binding acknowledgement. What is meant by generic routing encapsulation? 10. What are the requirements of mobile IP? 2.MOBILE NETWORK LAYER Part –A (2 marks) 1.5. Explain routing in IPv6. What is known as Binding update? 15. What are the two things added to the distance vector algorithm? 22. What is decapsulation? 7. 14. Define an inner header. 16. What are the requirements of a mobile IP? (16) 2. (16) UNIT-V TRANSPORT AND APPLICATION LAYERS Part-A (2 marks) 1. 17. (16) UNIT: 4. (16) 4. What is known as mobility anchor point? 20. Writ e short notes on Bluetooth. Define binding warning. Mention the different entities in a mobile IP. What do you mean by mobility binding? 4. 9. What are the entities in mobile IP? (16) 3. 5. 12. Explain destination sequence distance vector routing 21. Describe Dynamic host configuration protocol. Explain cellular IP. (16) 5. What are the advantages of cellular IP? 19. Define binding request. 3. 8. 18. Define a tunnel. What is the use of network address translation? 11.

What do you mean by persistent mode? 6. (16) 2.5G/3. State the requirements of WAP. What are the features of WML? 16. What is WML? 15. 18. Name the operations performed by PAP. What is WTP? What are its classes? 12. 9. What are the classes of libraries? 19.2. What are the characteristics of 2. 11. Name some features of WSP adapted to web browsing. Name some ICMP messages. What is WSP? 13. What are the advantages of WML Script over WML? 17. Explain traditional TCP. 20. 10. Write short notes on WAP (16 . What is the goal of M-TCP? 5. What is the use of congestion threshold? 3. Name the libraries specified by WMLScript. Name the layers of WAP. What are the configuration parameters to adapt TCP to wireless environments? 8.0? Part-B 1.5G wireless networks? 7. Explain classical TCP improvements (16) 3. What are the components of WAP2. What led to the development of Indirect TCP? 4. IT 1402 – MOBILE COMPUTING 14.

11a.2 Marks 1.11b offering 11 Mbit/s at 2. 802. operating at 5 GHz and offering gross data rates of 54 Mbit/s • uses the same physical layer as HiperLAN2 does – tries to give QoS guarantees .Name some WLAN standards. • Several WLAN standards: – IEEE 802.4 GHz – The same radio spectrum is used by Bluetooth • A short-range technology to set-up wireless personal area networks with gross data rates less than 1 Mbit/s – IEEE released a new WLAN standard.

a campus. simple management • protection of investment in wired networks (support the same data types and services) • security – no one should be able to read other’s data. single rooms etc. • The global goal of WLANs is toreplace office cabling and. furniture etc. additionally.. e. • Typically restricted in their diameter to buildings. group meetings. safety – low radiation 4. seamless operation of WLAN products • low power for battery use (special power saving modes and power management functions) • no special permissions or licenses needed (license-free band) • robust transmission technology • easy to use for everyone. or directed light .g. diffuse light reflected at walls. 2.Explain WLAN design goals • global.– IEEE 802. privacy – no one should be able to collect user profiles.WLAN definition • A fast-growing market introducing the flexibility of wireless access into office. home. to introduce a higher flexibility for ad hoc communication in. or production environments.Explain Infrared light : uses IR diodes.11g offering up to 54 Mbit/s at 2.4 GHz. 3.

• Communication typically takes place only between the wireless nodes and the access point. furniture etc. available in many mobile devices (PDAs.Explain Infrastructure networks. • The access point does not just control medium access.) – higher transmission rates (~11 – 54 Mbit/s) 6. laptops. cheap. but also acts as a bridge to other wireless or wired networks.4 GHz Advantages: – experience from wireless WAN (microwave links) and mobile phones can be used – coverage of larger areas possible (radio can penetrate (thinner) walls. mobile phones) no licenses needed 5. • Infrastructure networks provide access to other networks. .if a LOS exists btn sender and receiver Advantages: simple. but not directly between the wireless nodes.Explain Radio : Typically using the license free frequency band at 2.

• Use different access schemes with or without collision. • Network functionality lies within the access point (controls network flow). • Several wireless networks may form one logical wireless network: – The access points together with the fixed network in between can connect several wireless networks to form a larger network beyond actual radio coverage. – Useful for quality of service guarantees (e.11 : • As the standards number indicates. which additionally support ad-hoc networking • Bluetooth is a typical wireless ad-hoc network 9. .g.Explain Logical wireless network. – Collisions may occur if medium access of the wireless nodes and the access point is not coordinated. • If only the access point controls medium access. minimum bandwidth for certain nodes) 8.11 and HiperLAN2 are typically infrastructure-based networks.x LAN standards.Explain IEEE 802. no collisions are possible. whereas the wireless clients can remain quite simple.7.Explain then functioning of Adhoc networks. • Nodes within an ad-hoc network can only communicate if they can reach each other physically – if they are within each other’s radio range – if other nodes can forward the message • IEEE 802.. this standard belongs to the group of 802.

Explain the functions of AP. form a basic service set (BSS). The APs support roaming (i. and can control medium access to support time-bounded service. • Furthermore. changing access points).What is ESS – A distribution system connects several BSSs via the AP to form a single network and thereby extends the wireless coverage area. but offers the same interface as the others to higher layers to maintain interoperability. • AP: station integrated into the wireless LAN and the distribution system – The stations and the AP. 11.e.• This means that the standard specifies the physical and medium access layer adapted to the special requirements of wireless LANs. APs provide synchronization within a BSS.. the distribution system then handles data transfer between the different APs. 12. This network is now called an extended service set (ESS). 13.What is AP. 10. .What is the basic task of MAC. support power management. which are within the same radio coverage (use the same radio frequency). • The primary goal of the standard was the specification of a simple and robust WLAN which offers time-bounded and asynchronous services.

What are the serices provided by Medium Access Control – The basic services provided by the MAC layer are the mandatory asynchronous data service and an optional time-bounded service 16. 15. fragmentation of user data. – This signal is needed for the MAC mechanisms controlling medium access and indicates if the medium is currently idle.Explain the functions of physical layer. – IEEE 802.– The basic tasks of the MAC-medium access control protocol comprise medium access.11 – Three basic access mechanisms have been defined for .11 offers only the asynchronous data service in ad-hoc network mode – Both service types can be offered using an infrastructurebased network together with the access point coordinating medium access.11 functioning. – Includes the provision of the Clear Channel Assessment-CCA signal (energy detection). and packet exchange is based on a “best-effort” model 17. – The asynchronous service supports broadcast and multicast packets. and encryption 14.Explain the mechanisms of IEEE 802.Explain IEEE 802.

– The medium can be busy or idle (detected by the CCA) – If the medium is busy this can be due to data frames or other control frames – During a contention phase several nodes try to access the medium • Short inter-frame spacing (SIFS) – the shortest waiting time for medium access – defined for short control messages (e.IEEE 802.g.. ACK of data packets) • PCF inter-frame spacing (PIFS) – an access point polling other nodes only has to wait PIFS for medium access (for a time-bounded service) – SIFS + one slot time • DCF inter-frame spacing (DIFS) – the longest waiting time used for asynchronous data service within a contention . 18.Explain features of contension. while PCF offers both asynchronous and time-bounded service.11 • CSMA/CA (mandatory) • Optional method avoiding the hidden terminal problem • A contention-free polling method for time-bounded service – access point polls terminals according to a list – The first two methods are also summarized as distributed coordination function (DCF) – The third method is called point coordination function (PCF) – DCF only offers asynchronous service. but needs an access point to control medium access and to avoid contention.

period – SIFS + two slot times 19. the station has to wait for a free DIFS. the station can start sending 21.How to Send unicast packets with RTS/CTS control .What is Unicast data transfer – station has to wait for DIFS before sending data – receivers acknowledge after waiting for a duration of a Short Inter-Frame Space (SIFS).Explain CCA – a random access scheme with carrier sense (with the help of the Clear Channel Assessment-CCA signal of the physical layer) and collision avoidance through random backoff. then the station must additionally wait a random back-off time (collision avoidance) – if another station occupies the medium during the back-off time of the station. if the packet was received correctly 22. the back-off timer stops (fairness – during the next phase this node will continue its timer from where it stopped) – if the medium is free for the duration of a Distributed Inter-Frame Space (DIFS). • The standard defines also two control frames: – RTS: Request To Send – CTS: Clear To Send 20.What is Broadcast data transfer – station ready to send starts sensing the medium (Carrier Sense based on CCA-Clear Channel Assessment) – if the medium is busy.

Explain hyperlan/1. making it very expensive 26.11 : the requirements are tight and the protocol complex. The main deficiency of Hiperlan standard is that it doesn\'t provide real isochronous services (but comes quite close with time to live and priority). This standard has been designed by a committee of researcher within the ETSI. and MAC level retransmissions. The CAC layer defines how a given channel access attempt will be made depending on whether the channel is busy or idle. and 5 fixed channels are defined.11.we are now only waiting for the products).3 GHz.Explain the deficiency of hyperlan. uses some advanced features. and so doesn\'t have to include spread spectrum. and is quite different from existing products. and at what priority level the attempt will be made. without strong vendors influence. HiperLan suffers from the same disease as 802.NAV (RTS) S) – station can send RTS with reservation parameter after waiting for DIFS (reservation determines amount of time the data packet needs the medium and the ACK related to it). and has already been ratified a while ago (summer 96 . HiperLan is the total opposite of 802. Overhead tends also to be quite large (really big packet headers).1 to 5. The protocol includes optional encryption (no algorythm mandated) and power saving.Explain hyperlan. doesn\'t fully specify the access point mechanisms and hasn\'t really been proved to work on a large scale in the real world. acknowledgement via ACK – acknowledgement via CTS after SIFS by receiver (if ready to receive) – Other stations store medium reservations distributed via RTS and CTS 23. Every node receiving this RTS now has to set its net allocation vector – it specifies the earliest point at which the node can try to access the medium again – sender can now send data at once. if contention is necessary. 24.5 Mb/s. The signalling rate is 23.Explain the advantages of hyperlan. 25. Non-pre-emptive Priority Multiple Access (NPMA) mechanism 27. It is the CAC layer which implements the hierarchically independent. The first main advantage of Hiperlan is that it works in a dedicated bandwidth (5. . allocated only in Europe). The standard is quite simple.Explain about CAC layer. The protocol uses a variant of CSMA/CA based on packet time to live and priority.

.What is Multi-Hop Routing HIPERLAN uese \"Hello\" message to do Neighborhood Discovery. The physical layer determines the bit rate 31. An analogy of this layer in a physical mail network would be the roads along which the vans carrying the mail drive. One type of \"Hello\" packet will carry a list of sender\'s neighbors. 29. Today.The physical layer is the most basic network layer. This is just one of many exciting applications for this new technology! Can you imagine walking into a store and having all the sale items items automatically available on your cell phone or PDA? It is a definite possibility with Bluetooth. every device can communicate directly with each other 28. there is no such controler. what modulation scheme to use and similar low-level things are specified here. The physical layer provides an electrical. Then it can decide which device will be the next hop for a given destination and it can forward packets from on hop to another. Each device will periodically send a \"Hello\" packet to its neighbors. which is transmitted over a physical transmission medium. you would have to either manually enter the names and phone numbers of all your contacts or use a cable or IR link between your phone and your PC and start an application to synchronize the contact information. No packet headers nor trailers are consequently added to the data by the physical layer. providing only the means of transmitting raw bits rather than packets over a physical data link connecting network nodes. The bit stream may be grouped into code words or symbols.Explain Bluetooth. In infrastucture topology. and converted to a physical signal. It performs services requested by the data link layer. to do list. 30..HIPERLAN/1 support both infrastucture and ad-hoc topology.Explain the function of physical layer. you can easily see this expanding to include your calendar. In ad-hoc topology. Bluetooth was designed to allow low bandwidth wireless connections to become so simple to use that they seamlessly integrate into your daily life. The shapes of the electrical connectors. Forwarder constructs the whole map of the HIPERLAN using this information. mechanical. and procedural interface to the transmission medium. each HIPERLAN device will select one and only one neighbor as Forwarder and transmits all traffic to the Forwarder. With Bluetooth. which frequencies to broadcast on. The physical layer is level one in the seven level OSI model of computer networking as well as in the five layer TCP/IP reference model.Explain the functions of physical layer. etc. A simple example of a Bluetooth application is updating the phone directory of your mobile phone. email. this could all happen automatically and without any user involvement as soon as the phone comes within range of the PC! Of course. memos.

In a snailmail network. half duplex or full duplex transmission mode 32. mesh or star network • Serial or parallel communication • Simplex. which is a 128-bit random number used for authentication purposes. ring. If two people speak at the same time. there are four entities used for maintaining the security at the link level. In every Bluetooth device. Private authentication key. Private encryption key. There are generally two forms of media access control: distributed and centralized. the Bluetooth security is divided into three modes: Security Mode 1: non-secure . you first\".Explain about MAC LAYER : The sublayer below it is Media Access Control (MAC). they will back off and begin a long and elaborate game of saying \"no. which is a frequently changing 128-bit random or pseudo-random number that is made by the Bluetooth device itself. The Bluetooth device address (BD_ADDR). Sometimes this refers to the sublayer that determines who is allowed to access the media at any one time (usually CSMA/CD). And a random number (RAND).Explain about 3 modes of Bluetooth security. In Bluetooth Generic Access Profile. 8-128 bits in length that is used for encryption. i. Both of these may be compared to communication between people. Other times it refers to a frame structure with MAC addresses inside. we look for clues from our fellow talkers to see if any of them appear to be about to speak.The physical layer is also concerned with • Point-to-point. 34. In a network made up of people speaking. for example bus. and one can tell where it begins and ends because it is inside an envelope 33.The Media Access Control sublayer also determines where one frame of data ends and the next one starts.e. a conversation.Explain about Bluetooth security. each letter is one frame of data. multipoint or point-to-multipoint line configuration • Physical network topology. which is a 48-bit address that is unique for each Bluetooth device and defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

the switches. The regular 4-digit code is sufficient for some applications. are not presented 38. or network interconnection via satellite or microwaves links. but higher security applications may need longer codes.Explain Fixed Wireless Components In fixed wireless LANs. and wireless Lans.Explain Mobile End Users In digital cellular. which communicate directly with wireless station or wireless end user devices. To support the ATM connections.Security Mode 2: service level enforced security Security Mode 3: link level enforced security 35. are mobility enhanced ATM switches. The length of the Personal Identification Number (PIN) code used in Bluetooth devices can vary between 1 and 16 octets. the data transmissions are wireless. yet without mobility. the end user devices are required to be equipped with a Wireless Terminal Adaptor which communicates with the Wireless Access Point in the fixed switching elements (mobility enhanced ATM switches)[ Baseline for WATM]. They serve as the \"entrance\" to the infrastructure wired ATM networks. which are mobile. the end user devices and switching devices are fixed. 37.Explain PIN. the radio access segment falls into a number of areas which may need different solutions. and re-routing. The PIN code of the device can be fixed. . Another possibility is that the PIN code must be entered to the both devices during the initialization 36.g. They establish connections with each other via wireless channel. Based on the different types of wireless applications. so that it needs to be entered only to the device wishing to connect. In the fixed ATM network. location management. handover. e. communicate directly with the fixed network switching devices via wired or wireless channels.What is Wireless ATM The overall system consists of a fixed ATM network infrastructure and a radio access segment. The other ATM switching elements in the wired ATM networks remain unchanged. some design issues. the end user devices. PCS. These switches setup connections on behalf of the wireless devices. Since the user devices do not roam around. In these kinds of applications. not through cable.

These switches setup connections on behalf of the wireless devices. 40. In the fixed ATM network. MAC.Explain Radio Resource Control (RRC) RRC is needed for support of control plane functions related to the radio access layer. and interface to ATM layer have not been proposed yet.Write note on Data Link Control (DLC) Data Link Control is responsible for providing service to ATM layer. The overall system consists of a fixed ATM network infrastructure and a radio access segment. interface to MAC layer. 41. the switches. Based on the different types of wireless applications. Currently.What is BRAN In response to growing market pressure for low-cost.39. are mobility enhanced ATM switches. meta-signaling support for mobile ATM. MAC and DLC layers. the radio access segment falls into a number of areas which may need different solutions 42.Explain Wireless ATM Reference Models : A system reference model for WATM is shown in Figure 1. the DLC protocol and syntax. It should support radio resource control and management functions for PHY. which communicate directly with wireless station or wireless end user devices. The design issues of RRL will include control/management syntax for PHY. In order to fulfill this requirement. error detection/retransmission protocols and forward error correction methods are recommended. and interface to ATM control plane. The other ATM switching elements in the wired ATM networks remain unchanged. ETSI BRAN is the successor of the former Sub-Technical Committee RES10 which developed the HIPERLAN/1 specifications . They serve as the \"entrance\" to the infrastructure wired ATM networks. high capacity radio links. Mitigating the effect of radio channel errors should be done in this layer before cells are sent to the ATM layer. ETSI established a standardization project for Broadband Radio Access Networks (BRAN) in the spring of 1997. and DLC layers.

the HiperLAN2 Global Forum.php? action=view&listid=377&subject=95&semester=60#ixzz1l8rNhW1F Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Enter to win a free tech book 101 Free Tech Books . close relationships have been or are being established with the ATM Forum. the IEEE Wireless LAN Committees P 802.MOBILE COMPUTING . the International Telecommunication Union Radio sector (ITU-R) and a number of internal ETSI Technical Bodies.11a and IEEE 802.Anna University Engineering Question Bank 4 U http://questionbank4u. the MMAC-PC High Speed Wireless Access Systems Group. routing signaling is a little bit different from that for the wired ATM network.16.Explain Routing : Due to the mobility feature of mobile ATM. First. mapping of mobile terminal routing-id\'s to paths in the network is necessary.43.What is ETSI BRAN ETSI BRAN assists regulatory bodies with issues such as the requirements for spectrum and the radio conformance specifications that will be required to implement the new broadband radio networks.in/index. To ensure overall coherence with other existing and emerging technologies. Also rerouting is needed to re-establish connection when the mobiles move around Read more: MC1633 . the Internet Engineering Task Force. 44.