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MAKERERE

UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, DESIGN, ART AND TECHNOLOGY Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering KEVIN ACUNGKENA Bsc Telecommunications Engineering 09/U/550

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT 18th June 2012-1st August 2012

Faculty supervisor: Mr. Nsubuga Edward Signature……………………………… Date ……………………………………

Department supervisor: Mr. Wokulira Miyingo Edward Signature………………………………… Date……………………………………

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Declaration I Kevin Acungkena declare to the best of my knowledge that the content in this report is original and has been to the best of my ability. This work is a partial requirement to the award of a Bachelor of Science degree in Telecommunications Engineering at Makerere University Kampala.

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Dedication I dedicate this report to my close friends, my volleyball team mates and my family. They have helped me come this far with my education. .

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Acknowledgement I am grateful to all those who contributed to my industrial training in all possible ways for their time, Inspiration and clarity most especially Mr. Nsubuga Edward who took us through the training exercise from Bukasa Telecom. The training was under the technical department transmission Bukasa telecom. I also acknowledge the advice, love and financial support from my parents and above all the hand of the Almighty God.

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..........................18 3...................4 Technical Department and Industrial training..............19 3.................................................5 VSAT............1.......3 Addressing.........................................10 2........................................iv List of figures..........................................1: Networking.................................................................................................10 2...............................................................................4 Wireless standards.........................................2 1.........2 Bukasa Telecom Limited ..................................14 2.............................i Dedication........1 Basic router configuration......................................................................................................16 2................................................................2 Logging into the router..........................................................................................................................3 Services offered by Bukasa Telecom Limited.............................................Table of contents COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.............................................1 Basic subdivisions of a network.. vi List of symbols................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Types of Networks................................5 2.......................................................1 1.........1 Declaration..............................4 2........iii Table of contents.................................1.............2 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW........1.....................................................................................................................................................................................2.......................................................................1 1...........................4 2.......................................3...........................7 2.....................13 2...............1 Industrial Training........................18 3.....................................2 Configuring Network Address translation and Access List..........................................................................18 3....ii Acknowledgement............21 iv ....1 Network addressing..................................................................................2 Subnetting..................................1................................2 Types of Routing..................................................1 Routing protocols.................3.....................1 The CISCO router...................................15 2...............................................9 2............................................17 CHAPTER 3: PRACTICAL WORK DONE.........................................1 1... ART AND TECHNOLOGY..................................................................................3 Network address translation (NAT)....................2 Routing..................3.............1..................................................................................................................................4 2......2 Reference models..................................................................................................1............12 2.............................................. DESIGN........15 2.....................................2.....................vii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.............4 Basic hardware components......

......................................................................................................... (BGP)............................6...4 Configuring Routing protocols ......................................................................................................................1 Challenges........1 Objectives of the project.....................................................................................................................................6............................................................................28 Border gateway protocol....43 References......................4 Configuring the (nano-station2) microwave radio as the access point.........42 Chapter 4:................32 3..3The Makerere site....27 3.............................................................38 3....35 3...........................................43 4....30 3..........................................6 Requirements and equipment specifications at all sites.............................6......................................................................................................................................................................................4The Lubya site...................................................6.....28 Network cabling......................................32 3............................6..................................24 3...........................5 Kisimbiri site........................6 Broadband coverage project.........................................33 3...................36 3............................................................................................................................3 Recommendations........................................6...2 Conclusion..............2 Overview of broadband................................................................VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) configuration................................... 44 v ..... 43 4.27 Ospf ......................43 4........................................

..............................................................................................35 Figure 27: Location of the Makerere site...............................................................................................................................................25 Figure 16: VPN configuration on Kampala.............................26 Figure 18: VPN configuration on Nairobi Router...........30 Figure 25: The ethernet cable....................37 Figure 29: the instructor making analysis............................................24 Figure 15: VPN configuration setup..29 Figure 23: BGP configuration on MTN.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................22 Figure 12: Configuring Makerere router..............................................................................................15 Figure 5: CISCO router.......................................................................................25 Figure 17: Layer 2 Security on Kampala........................................36 Figure 28: Currently generated traffic capacity at Lubya ...............................................................................................................................................................................6 Figure 3: Router.............................................................30 Figure 24: Straight through and cross over cables................................................................................19 Figure 7: Configuring the Kampala router.................................................................................20 Figure 9: Pinging from one router to the other.................................................................. RJ-45 and the crimping tool.......40 vi ..27 Figure 20: OSPF configuration on Kampala..............................................................29 Figure 22: BGP 70 on UTL.......26 Figure 19: Interface showing the configured microwave radio................................................21 Figure 10: NAT lay out configuration..............28 Figure 21: scenario for BGP configurarion..............................................................List of figures Figure 1: Organogram of Bukasa Telecom.........................................................................................................20 Figure 8: Configuring the Jinja router...................................................................................................................38 Figure 31: Availability of three phase power at Kisimbiri.........................31 Figure 26: Sites that were visited...............3 Figure 2: OSI reference model............21 Figure 11: Configuring SEACOM router.............................................................................................................23 Figure 13: Configuring NAT on the Makerere router...............................................................................................10 Figure 4: classes of IP addresses...............38 Figure 30: The fiber access point at Lubya..........18 Figure 6: Basic router configuration lay out...............................23 Figure 14: Configuring the Technology router..............................39 Figure 32: Availability of land at Kisimbiri.............................................................................................................................

41 Figure 34: Distance to the main road....... Routing Information Protocol Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Virtual Private Network Very Small Aperture Terminals Wide Area Network vii ................................42 List of symbols BGP DSL GSM HAN IEEE IGP ISP LAN MAC NAT OSI OSPF PAN PSTN RIP SCADA VPN VSAT WAN Border Gateway protocol Digital Subscriber Line Global System for Mobile communications Home Area Network Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer Interior Gateway routing Protocol Intenet Service Provider Local Area Network Media Acess Control Network Address Translation Open Systems Interconnection Open Shortest Path First Personal Area Network Public Switched Telephone Network......................................................................Figure 33: Low traffic intensity at Kisimbiri.............................

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microwave radio links installation and commissioning of GSM base stations. ONATEL and TELCEL in Burundi and BUKASA Telecom is a major contractor for CELTEL Uganda. To enable them identify the job requirements and the work ethics.1 Industrial Training Industrial training is a requirement for the award of the Bachelors Degree of Engineering in Telecommunications Engineering at Makerere University Uganda. Uganda. Bukasa Telecom International offers first class services to its clients in Uganda and beyond.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1. installation of RF and BTS networks. upgrading and installation of CDMA telecom network. BUKASA telecom has extensive local and international experience and its major contractors are Plessey Uganda which sub-contracts BUKASA Telecom for MTN Uganda. Huaweii Technologies. which contracts it projects for Uganda Telecom. Development of design and technical skills by having hands on working experience at the training places and enable them attain knowledge that is not taught in schools. The objectives of industrial training to the student are: • • • Learning to adapt to new working environment and coping with the various working challenges. 1 . The company premise is currently at Ntinda plot 19 off martyrs’ way Kampala. The company currently deals in radio path profiling.2 Bukasa Telecom Limited BUKASA telecom is a private limited liability company incorporated in the republic of Uganda that was effectively born in January 2004 and went in operation in 2005. BUKASA telecom also involves in installation works of Radio and Television broadcasting. 1.

cables between Cabinets and RF part.2.2 Mission The mission of the company is to focus on providing quality services and improving on the lives of the clients by offering affordable communication services. BTS. 1.4 Technical Department and Industrial training To keep up with the fast growing communication technologies the company makes arrangements for its technical staff refresher courses that are normally provided by the main contractors. Feeder Cables. BSC. BATTERRY. SDH& PDH Radio.1 Company Vision The company vision is to expand communication by embracing modern technologies with the aim of providing access at affordable costs to the entire population in Uganda and beyond. UPS. RECTIFIERS.5 Administration and Organization Structure of Bukasa Telecom Limited 2 .C Distribution. 1. Installation of GSM RF network equipment from D. Omni. 1.3 Services offered by Bukasa Telecom Limited Bukasa Telecom Ltd is a Telecommunication Company that offers various Telecom services which include Internet Providing. 1. installation of Microwave links. They also carry out installation of RF Cables like GSM antenna.1. The company also endeavours to offer training to its non-technical staff in the same services as they are recommended to have some elementary knowledge about the technical section since they work hand in hand with the technical team.2. GPS Antennas.

Figure 1: Organogram of Bukasa Telecom 3 .

1 Basic subdivisions of a network A network is generally subdivided into three main sectors which include Core. Core network: A core network is the central part of a telecommunication network that provides various services to customers who are connected by the access network.1: Networking A network is a collection of devices interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. One of the main functions is to route telephone calls across the PSTN. 4 . It also allows for voice and data transmission cheaply as compared to the circuit switched systems. The devices and facilities in the core networks are switches and routers. These nodes can be various BTS sites. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics.1. 2. computer terminals. etc. hence telecommunication. It allows for network resource sharing such as printers. Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remote device. such as the medium used to transport the data. and servers. among others. Networking can also be referred to as the interconnection of various nodes to allow communication between them. and organizational scope. scale. Transmission and Access.CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Typically the term refers to the high capacity communication facilities that connect primary nodes. Core network provides paths for the exchange of information between different sub-networks.1. topology. Networking in the telecommunication field is of great importance as. communications protocol used. then the two devices are said to be in a network. 2. Their interconnection allows for data transfer from one node to the other.

ii. It prevents changes in one layer from affecting other layers. error control. (Lammle.Transmission network: In telecommunications. It also allows different types of network hardware and software to communicate. demodulation. This model was developed by the International Organisation of Standardisation (ISO) to allow for the interoperability of network devices from different manufacturers. iii. either wired. and protocols. bit synchronization and multiplexing. design and troubleshooting. It allows multiple vendor development through standardisation of network components.1. Network communication processes are divided into smaller and simpler components. thus aiding development. 2005) The advantages of this model include. The OSI reference model The OSI reference model is used in this development. It is contrasted with the core network. 5 .i. 2. The processes involved in communication are split into layers hence a layered architecture. optical fibre or wireless. line coding. Access network: An access network is that part of a telecommunications network which connects subscribers to their immediate service provider. such that development is not hampered. propagating and receiving an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium. a layered approach is used to determine how communication over the network will take place. transmission is the process of sending. The access network may be further divided between feeder plant or distribution network. and drop plant or edge network. Transmission technologies and schemes typically refer to physical layer protocol duties such as modulation.2 Reference models In network development. However it does not only apply to the network modelling but to software development. (for example the Network Switching Subsystem in GSM) which connects local providers to each other. equalization. iv.

tracks the location of devices on the network and determines the best way to move data implying that it transports information between devices that 6 . managing and tearing down sessions between presentation layer entities and also provides a dialog control between devices and nodes. Network layer: This manages device addressing.v. It’s also responsible for identifying the viability and availability of the intended communication partner and whether the sufficient resources for communication exist. Session layer: This is responsible for setting up. industry standardisation is encouraged. It comes into play when access to the network is going to be needed soon. Figure 2: OSI reference model Application layer: This involves the part of the network through which the human being communicates. Transport layer: This segments and reassembles data into a data stream. Since functions at each layer are defined. Presentation layer: This presents data to the application layer and is responsible for data translation and code formatting.

often a broadband service through a cable TV or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) provider. 2. fax machines.3 Types of Networks. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers. scanners. Data link layer: This provides the physical transmission of data and also handles error notification. country. Physical layer: It sends and receives raw bits of information. using a communications channel that 7 . or closely positioned group of buildings. network topology and flow control. Wide area network (WAN) A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a city.aren’t locally attached. An important function is the sharing of Internet access. school. Personal area network (PAN) A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. usually a small number of personal computers and accessories. LANs can be connected to Wide area network by using routers.1. Local area network (LAN) A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home. or spans even intercontinental distances. Each computer or device on the network is a node. telephones. computer laboratory. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. Routers are specified at the network layer routing services at the network layer. Home area network (HAN) A home area network (HAN) is a residential LAN which is used for communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home. and even video game consoles. PDAs. such as printers and mobile computing devices. printers. office building.

using the Internet Protocol and IP-based tools such as web browsers and file transfer applications that are under the control of a single administrative entity. academic. and often standardized. forming a redundant worldwide mesh of transmission paths. an intranet is the internal network of an organization. Virtual private network (VPN) 8 . authorized users. An intranet is a set of networks. A WAN often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers. usually a LAN. Service providers and large enterprises exchange information about the reachability of their address spaces through the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). That administrative entity closes the intranet to all but specific. Intranets and extranets Intranets and extranets are parts or extensions of a computer network. and private computer networks Participants in the Internet use a diverse array of methods of several hundred documented. public. An extranet is a network that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity and also has limited connections to the networks of one or more other usually. but not necessarily. Internetwork An internetwork is the connection of multiple computer networks via a common routing technology using routers. Most commonly. and air waves. Internet The Internet is a global system of interconnected governmental. cables. trusted organizations or entities—a company's customers may be given access to some part of its intranet —while at the same time the customers may not be considered trusted from a security standpoint.combines many types of media such as telephone lines. corporate. such as telephone companies. protocols compatible with the Internet Protocol Suite and an addressing system (IP addresses) administered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and address registries. The Internet is an aggregation of many connected internetworks spanning the Earth.

regenerates it. It provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses.A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. VPN may have best-effort performance. the Internet) instead of by physical wires. However. A repeater with multiple ports is known as a hub. 2. a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point. bridges do not promiscuously copy traffic to all ports. so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. Repeaters and hubs: A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet. but a VPN need not have explicit security features. Repeaters work on the Physical Layer of the OSI model. or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. and retransmits it at a higher power level. Once the bridge associates a port and an address. for example. repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters.4 Basic hardware components Network interface cards (NIC): A NIC (network interface card) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to physically access a networking medium. as hubs do. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations. can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features. VPNs. A switch is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the frames to the ports involved in the communication rather than all ports connected. Bridges: A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Generally. but learn which MAC addresses are reachable through specific ports. such as authentication or content encryption. Bridges broadcast to all ports except the port on which the broadcast was received. it will send traffic for that address to that port only. Switches make forwarding 9 . cleans it of unnecessary noise.g.. A switch breaks the collision domain but represents itself as a broadcast domain.1. or to the other side of an obstruction. Switches: A network switch is a device that forwards and filters between ports (connected cables) based on the MAC addresses in the packets. Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal.

2. gateways. the choice of the route being done by routing algorithms. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks. Routers use routing tables to determine what interface to forward packets (this can include the "null" also known as the "black hole" interface because data can go into it.decisions of frames on the basis of MAC addresses. including the telephone network (Circuit switching). Each router has a priori knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. Routers: A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing information found in the datagram or packet (Internet protocol information from Layer 3 of the OSI Model). as well as devices that may distribute traffic on load or by application content. In many situations. A routing protocol shares this information first 10 . the transit of logically addressed packets from their source toward their ultimate destination through intermediate nodes. Figure 3: Router 2. and transportation networks. this information is processed in conjunction with the routing table (also known as forwarding table). and cascading additional switches. these are called multilayer switches. or switches. firewalls. routing directs packet forwarding. 2.2 Routing Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. In packet switching networks. Some switches are capable of routing based on Layer 3 addressing or additional logical levels. The term switch is used loosely in marketing to encompass devices including routers and bridges.1 Routing protocols A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate with each other. A switch normally has numerous ports. disseminating information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network. typically hardware devices called routers. bridges. electronic data networks (such as the Internet). facilitating a star topology for devices. no further processing is done for said data). hubs. however.

Distance-vector routing protocol Link-state routing protocol Distance-vector routing protocol Distance-vector routing protocols use the Bellman-Ford algorithm. BGP v4 is the routing protocol used by the public Internet Interior gateway routing An interior gateway protocol (IGP) is a routing protocol that is used to exchange routing information within an autonomous system The interior gateway protocols can be divided into two categories: i.among immediate neighbors. Some examples of Distance Vector routing protocol are: 11 . routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network. In these protocols. three major classes are in widespread use on IP networks: • • Interior gateway routing via link state routing protocols. and then throughout the network. such as IGRP and EIGRP • Exterior gateway routing. Some of these protocols have the disadvantage of slow convergence. This way. a router advertises updated information from its routing table. Although there are many types of routing protocols. each router does not possess information about the full network topology. It advertises its distance value (DV) calculated to other routers and receives similar advertisements from other routers unless changes are done in local network or by neighbors (Routers). ii. In the next advertisement cycle. This process continues until the routing tables of each router converge to stable values. such as OSPF and IS-IS Interior gateway routing via path vector or distance vector protocols. Using these routing advertisements each router populates its routing table.

3. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). Each router then independently calculates the best next hop from it for every possible destination in the network using local information of the topology. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). 2.2 Types of Routing There are two kinds of routing which include Static and Dynamic routing. This contrasts with distance-vector routing protocols. The collection of best next hops forms the routing table. Boarder Gateway protocol (BGP). 12 .1. In a link-state protocol. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Routing Information Protocol Version 2 (RIP) Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Link-state routing protocol In the case of Link-state routing protocols. Some examples of Link-State routing protocol are: 1.2. This can be done using the statement below. It is used by routers to exchange routing data within an autonomous system. Dynamic routing: Dynamic routing is majorly of five forms which are. the only information passed between the nodes is information used to construct the connectivity maps. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Intermediate system to intermediate system (IS-IS) 2. which work by having each node share its routing table with its neighbors. • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Is a distance vector interior routing protocol (IGP) invented by Cisco. Static Routing: Static routing occurs when you manually add routes in each router’s routing table. 2. each router possesses information about the complete network topology.

Internet protocol addresses (IP) 2. EIGRP is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol. An IP address is a software address. with optimizations to minimize both the routing instability incurred after topology changes. as well as the use of bandwidth and processing power in the router. Media Access Control (MAC) address A MAC address is hard coded into the network interface card of the machine and is used to find the device on a local network IP terminology 13 .• Boarder Gateway protocol (BGP) Is the protocol which is backing the core routing decisions on the Internet. • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol loosely based on their original IGRP.3 Addressing There are two kinds of addresses used to identify equipment on a given network. 2. operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It maintains a table of IP networks or 'prefixes' which designate network reach-ability among autonomous systems (AS). It is described as a path vector protocol. These are: 1. • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Is an adaptiverouting protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. Media Access Control addresses (MAC) Internet protocol (IP) addresses An IP address is a numerical identifier assigned to each machine on an IP network. It uses a link state routing algorithm and falls into the group of interior routing protocols. It designates the specific location of a machine on the network. IP addressing was designed in order for a host on a network to communicate with one on another network regardless of the type of LANs the hosts are participating in.

16. Subdividing an IP address into a network and a node is determined by the class designation of one’s network. Examples include 255. 14 .255 which is all subnets and hosts on a network. For a small number of networks possessing a very large number of nodes.0 and 192.0. 2.1 Network addressing A network address uniquely identifies each network and every machine on that network shares that network address as part of its IP address.168. A byte and an octet are completely interchangeable.0. they created the Class A network and for a numerous number of networks with a small number of nodes was designed Class C.0. Designers of the internet decided to create classes of networks depending on the network size.0 • Broadcast address The address used by applications and hosts to send information to all nodes on a network is called the broadcast address.255. 172.255.3.10. either a 1 or a 0 Byte A byte is 7 or 8 bits. It’s an ordinary 8 bit number. 172. • Network address This is a designation used in routing to send packets to a remote network for example 10. Internet designers defined a mandate for the leadingbits section of the address for each different network class.16.0. The figure below summarizes the three classes of networks. To ensure efficient routing.• • Bit A bit is one digit.255.255 which is all networks all nodes.

This is designed in order to create security but also conveniently save valuable IP address space. 2.2 Subnetting Subnetting is a set of techniques used to efficiently divide the address space of a unicast address prefix for allocation among the subnets of an organization network. The variable portion of a unicast address prefix includes the bits beyond the prefix length that are set to 0. 2. into public (inside global) addresses before any packets are forwarded to another network. The fixed portion of a unicast address includes the bits up to and including the prefix length that have a defined value.3 Network address translation (NAT) NAT operates on a Cisco router—generally only connecting two networks together—and translates your private (inside local) addresses within the internal network. Subnetting makes use of the variable portion of a unicast address prefix to create address prefixes that are more efficient for assignment to the subnets of an organization.Figure 4: classes of IP addresses Private IP addresses These are addresses that can be used on a private network but are not routable throughout the internet.3. This functionality gives you the option to configure NAT so that it will advertise only a single address for your entire 15 .3.

network to the outside world.11b at supporting multimedia voice. This is done using the network address translation (NAT). This however means that the private addresses should be translated into public ones for those user to access the internet. This address is usually assigned to the customer’s network edge router (Gateway router). NAT translates all outing source address to a single public address assigned to that customer and also all in-bound destination addresses to corresponding private addresses. Products that adhere to this standard are considered "Wi-Fi Certified." Eight available channels. giving you some much-needed additional security. the ISP assigns each customer only one public IP address to connect to them. Better than 802. Less potential for RF interference than 802. NAT is configured at the edge router to execute this fuunction 2. 14 channels 16 Up to 2Mbps in FHSS or DSSS the 2.4 Wireless standards Some of the wireless standards we looked at are shown below.4GHz band IEEE 802.11a." Not interoperable with 802.11b.11b and 802.11 Modulation Scheme Security WEP & WPA Pros/Cons & More Info This specification has been extended into 802. It is public addresses used over the internet.11b (Wi-Fi) Up to DSSS with CCK WEP & 11Mbps in WPA the 2. To allow for IP reuse over the internet and to allow for more uses.4GHz band .11b.11b. Products that adhere to this standard are considered "Wi-Fi Certified. Furthermore. Requires fewer access points than 802. Standard Data Rate IEEE 802.11a (Wi-Fi) Up to 54Mbps in OFDM the 5GHz band WEP & WPA IEEE 802. Doing this effectively hides the internal network from the whole world really well.11a for coverage of large areas. some IP addresses were reserved for private us within private networks in each class as the rest were left for public use and these are refered to as public addresses. Not interoperable with 802. video and large-image applications in densely populated user environments.11g. Relatively shorter range than 802. Offers high-speed access to data at up to 300 feet from base station.

11b. due to FCC regulations) with only three nonoverlapping channels.S. VoIP. polling.S. They will often transmit narrowband data. due to FCC regulations) with only three non-overlapping channels. such as the transactions of credit cards. and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition). 14 channels available in the 2. These VSATs' primary job is accessing the satellites in the geosynchronous orbit and relaying data from terminals in earth to other terminals and hubs. or broadband data. 17 .4GHz band (only 11 of which can be used in the U.4GHz with CCK below WPA band 20Mbps 2.11.4GHz band (only 11 of which can be used in the U. Improved security enhancements over 802.2 m tall) dish antenna stationed. such as satellite Internet.11b." May replace 802. DSSS WEP & the 2. Compatible with 802. It is basically a two-way satellite ground station with a less than 3 meters tall (most of them are about 0. Products that adhere to this standard are considered "Wi-Fi Certified.5 VSAT VSAT is an abbreviation for a Very Small Aperture Terminal.available in the 2. However. The transmission rates of VSATs are usually from very low and up to 4 Mbit/s. RFID (radio frequency identification ) data.11g (Wi-Fi) Up to OFDM above 54Mbps in 20Mbps. and videos. the VSAT technology is also used for various types of communications.75 m to 1. IEEE 802.

• Figure 5: CISCO router 18 . and check statistics. verify its configuration. Telnet is a terminal emulation program that acts as though it’s a dumb terminal. You can use Telnet to connect to any active interface on a router.1. there’s no password set. • The console port is usually an RJ-45 (8-pin modular) connection located at the back of the router—by default.CHAPTER 3: PRACTICAL WORK DONE 3. through the program. such as an Ethernet or serial port. There are different ways to do this.1 The CISCO router You can connect to a Cisco router to configure it.1 Basic router configuration 3. • You can also connect to a Cisco router through an auxiliary port The third way to connect to a Cisco router is in-band.

2 Logging into the router We were expected to connect to routers and enable them communicate. Some of the important things that the Cisco router IOS software is responsible for include • • • • • Carrying network protocols and functions Connecting high-speed traffic between devices Adding security to control access and stop unauthorized network use Providing scalability for ease of network growth and redundancy Supplying network reliability for connecting to network resources We connected to the router using the command line interface enabled by the use of software called GNS3 as the CISCO IOS. They show the status of the router interfaces at the end of each command. This involved configuring the following: • Host name • Passwords (Secret and telnet) • Interfaces The routers were arranged as shown in the figure below. such as the Catalyst 2950.The Cisco IOS was created to deliver network services and enable networked applications. 3. In this scenario. The following screen shots show the command line interface configuration. It runs on most Cisco routers and on an ever-increasing number of Cisco Catalyst switches. the initial router configuration was carried out.1. Figure 6: Basic router configuration lay out 19 .

it should show that packets are being transferred as shown below. 20 .Figure 7: Configuring the Kampala router Figure 8: Configuring the Jinja router The console enables you to put passwords and secrets and if the two routers are connected. once you ping one router from the other.

access lists and putting a default gateway for the Makerere Router. This router however receives internet connectivity from the Seacom router. The Makerere router is the point at which other compasses like CEDAT receive internet connectivity. 21 . Figure 10: NAT lay out configuration NAT is only needed at the Makerere router since it contains public IP addresses that are translated to private IP addresses at the department (technology).Figure 9: Pinging from one router to the other 3. The scenario is as shown in the figure below.2 Configuring Network Address translation and Access List In doing so we had three routers: 1) From an ISP called SEACOM 2) Makerere Router 3) Department router The following configuration included applying Network Address Translation.

Figure 11: Configuring SEACOM router 22 .

Figure 12: Configuring Makerere router Figure 13: Configuring NAT on the Makerere router 23 .

3. Encryptiom methods. 3. md5 24 .1Importance of VPN: • • For security and data protection.Figure 14: Configuring the Technology router VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) configuration A virtual private network is a private ‘network’ over the network. It is configured to be accessed by specific individuals with the right credentials. Uses encryption at both ends.

. Figure 16: VPN configuration on Kampala 25 ..We also looked at access lists. Standard access lists Extended access lists. The command is: Crypto isakmp policy 1 Hash md5 Authentication pre-share Exit Crypto isakmp key KAMPALA address (net hop ip address) Figure 15: VPN configuration setup.

Using wildcard masks and access list. Deals with network to network (internal networks) (conf)Crypto ipsec transform-set stanbic ah-sha-hmac esp-des Crypto map kla 1 ipsec-isakmp Figure 17: Layer 2 Security on Kampala On the Nairobi router. Figure 18: VPN configuration on Nairobi Router 26 .Layer 2 security.

When configuring the cable the following procedure was followed: • • • • Power the radio Reset the IP address Configure the network. All routers within an 27 .1. Figure 19: Interface showing the configured microwave radio 3.168.0.3. An IP address of 192. we powered the radio using a power over Ethernet cable.50 and a secondary DNS of 196.4 Configuring Routing protocols Configuring IGRP Routing The command used to configure IGRP is the same as the one used to configure RIP routing with one important difference: you use an autonomous system (AS) number.4 Configuring the (nano-station2) microwave radio as the access point It is capable of transmitting to 10km.3. The picture shows the display if the configured radio. The radio operated on the 802. using an Ethernet cable.20. Input the MAC id. the radio had the following specifications.50. We set the data rate to 54 and enabled a primary DNS of 196.0.70.11 wireless standard.

Figure 20: OSPF configuration on Kampala The networks shown in the diagram above are those connected to the Kampala router. or they won’t communicate with routing information. Border gateway protocol. Ospf Open shortest path first is a link-state routing protocol used on routers to determine path for packets. The same is done for the other router. This number advertises only to the specific routers you want to share routing information with. It is a dynamic routing protocol hence automatically changes its routing table depending on the link state. while putting those networks connected to them.10. 28 . (BGP) Border routers are those at the network edge routing traffic out or into the network. BGP allows these routers to acquire network status updates. BGP advertises the internal networks served by one gateway router to the neighboring border router in a different Autonomus system. Notice that the configuration in the above router commands is as simple as in RIP routing except that IGRP uses an AS number.0 4.168. Here’s how to turn on IGRP routing: 1. Lab A#config t 2. It also allows routers to send their routing tables to other routers connected to it advertising routes in it to them. The area served by the border gateway is know as an autonomus system (AS). Lab A (config-router) #network 192. Ospf determines the best route based on the link state at the time. Lab A (config) #router igrp 10 3.autonomous system must use the same AS number.

The AS number is used to advertise the destination of the traffic. Public ip addresses are assigned by specific registration bodies such as AFRINIC for Africa. Border routers peer with each other to communicate. Usually. in a different autonomous system in this case MTN AS number 80. 29 . This AS is managed by a border gateway router which will only advertise the AS number to neighbouring Border routers. ISPs are assigned these autonomus numbers. This is done by BGP. Each Isp is assigned a bundle of addresses in a specified AS number. Scenario for BGP configuration. Figure 21: scenario for BGP configurarion Figure 22: BGP 70 on UTL The neighbour is the adjacent router interface. The ISP is responsible for all the assigned addresses and the traffic therein.

Figure 24: Straight through and cross over cables b) CROSSOVER CABLES . the color schemes are the same at both terminals.Ethernet cables are the standard cable used for almost all purposes.Category 5 or CAT5 Bulk RJ45 Crimpable Connectors RJ-45 Crimping tool 30 .The purpose of a Crossover Ethernet cable is to directly connect one computer to another computer (or device) without going through a router. switch or hub. STRAIGHT THROUGH . It is far easier to simply buy a box of bulk Category 5 Ethernet cable and then attach your own RJ-45 connectors to the cut ends to your preferred length. The following equipment was used Bulk Ethernet Cable .Figure 23: BGP configuration on MTN Network cabling How to make an ethernet cable Purchasing fully made Ethernet cables from the store can be quite expensive. a) There are two kinds of Ethernet cables that can make that is Straight Through and Crossover.

Figure 25: The ethernet cable. b) Unwind and pair of the similar colours. Noted the position of the blue plastic shielding. RJProcedure 45 and the crimping tool a) Cut into the plastic sheath 1 inch from the end of the cut cable. d) Pushed the wires into the connector. The crimping tool has a razor blade that we used to cut the cable. c) Pinched the wires between my fingers and straighten them out as shown. 31 . Also noted how the wires go all the way to the end.

3.6 Broadband coverage project 3.9%. 32 . When I removed the cable from the crimper. There is also a locking tab that holds the blue plastic sleeve in place for a tight compression fit.e) A view from the top. repeated all steps on the other end of the Ethernet cable exactly. All the wires are all the way in. To maintain Service Level Agreement (SLA) of 99.6. cost of radios etc. power. To meet high demand for bandwidth.e. To increase broadband coverage capacity for greater Kampala. f) For a standard cable. There are no short wires. The copper splicing tabs on the connector pierced into each of the eight wires. the cable was ready to use.1 Objectives of the project The main objectives of carrying out the project are as follows: • • • • • • To reduce telecomm costs i. Carefully placed the connector into the Ethernet Crimper and cinch down on the handles tightly. To unify the transmission network into a single unit. To ensure that all base stations are run by a Giga-Ethernet interface. security.

a T-1 or an E-1 circuit from your friendly local phone company. a video conference should not take a lot of time buffering as time lags cause inconveniences. given the same channel quality. • • • • Reduction in telecom costs. a broadband signalling method is one that handles a wide band of frequencies. the greater the information-carrying capacity. a DSL circuit. Each channel is 6 MHz wide and it uses an extensive range of frequencies to effortlessly relay and receive data between networks. a generator. As there exists about 5 telecom companies. The term broadband in our case study will be any high speed data links needed in an area. For example. In telecommunications. Reduction in the number of radios used at a site per provider. we strengthen the capacities of the existing base stations. if the total number of base stations at a site were reduced. each company has a base station. In short. we assume there are no base stations present. That tends to be a cable modem circuit from your friendly local cable TV provider. 33 . The wider (or broader) the bandwidth of a channel. And in some.3. This is because the telecom industry is no longer about voice only. In this survey we are expected to put into consideration the following: • • In some case scenarios. the term "broadband" can mean anything you want it to be so long as it's "fast.6. and a piece of land. and at each site.2 Overview of broadband Today's common definition of broadband is any circuit significantly faster than a dial-up phone line. understood according to its context. there are various new multimedia services. These services require a lot of bandwidth and high speed transmission links. Broadband refers to a communication bandwidth of at least 256 Kbps. Broadband is a relative term. the following could be achieved. Reduction in the cost of land acquisition." In short. Reduction in power bills as lesser generators are used. broadband is now more a marketing term than a technical term.

5. The number of access (current traffic location). Existence of fiber links. The three sites we visited are located as shown in figure 1.We set out to a site in Lubya. we were expected to answer questions such as. Greater power consumption. What changes we could make to the existing plan. Existence of three phase power. At the start of the survey. 34 . 3. 4. At this site location. Wastage of man power for example the security guards could be deployed elsewhere as they are redundant on site. 1. Increase in the levels of noise due to the many generators. we made a map we would follow. The disadvantages of having many base stations in a small area are: • • • • Increased risk of radioactive interference to the surrounding inhabitants. How many providers are in the location and the disadvantage associated with this are: 2.

00"N and Longitude 32°33'55. it’s elevation above sea level is 4149 ft. 3. it is a very good location for a base station.Figure 26: Sites that were visited. At this site. there are 5 base stations as shown in the figure. there was availability of three phase power and the site is easily accessible. The main problem with this site is that it is near a school and the children are under constant radiation otherwise.6. The site is located at Latitude 0°20'19.32"E.3The Makerere site At this site. 35 .

Observations during the study at Lubya At the site we found four base stations. three of them were using at least two microwave radios for transmission.8441.7117. There were four masts. There was a three phase power line extending to the site and a fibre cable belonging to Airtel. the house needed to house the equipment like routing engines and others 36 . It was also noted that the place had good accessibility with land available for our site. this is the space required to set up the tower. Requirements for the broadband site at Lubya We needed land of dimensions 10by 10 meters. Longitude of lubya is 32°E 32.6.Figure 27: Location of the Makerere site 3.4The Lubya site Lubya hill is found on latitude of N 019°. three phase power supply was also available and noted that there was land available. The view of Lubya hill from Google earth is as shown in the figure 28. Altitude is 4174ft.

Two generators will be required where one is for backup in case the first one fails Two rectifiers A battery bank The site will have a radio capacity of 1500MB capacity.The land owner has to be known such that he can be contacted to know the amount of money needed for it to be leased • Towers of height 50m Small structure that can house racks for the different operators. • • • • • Figure 28: Currently generated traffic capacity at Lubya 37 .

The site is easily accessible from the main road. 3.00"N and Longitude 32°28'0.07"E.6. it’s elevation above sea level is 3918 ft. 38 .Figure 29: the instructor making analysis Figure 30: The fiber access point at Lubya.5 Kisimbiri site The site is located at Latitude 0°24'35.

Figure 31: Availability of three phase power at Kisimbiri 39 .Observations at Kisimbiri • There was a transformer on site indicating the availability of three phase power.

This can be possible by digging from the main road if there is a fiber access point along the road. 40 .• There was availability of land to set up sites as shown in figure 34 Figure 32: Availability of land at Kisimbiri • There was no fiber access point indicating that we would have to create a fiber link. • The population in the surrounding area is very low indicating low traffic intensity.

Solutions to any problems at Kisimbiri • Seeing that there was no fiber access point near the site.Figure 33: Low traffic intensity at Kisimbiri Plans for the broadband site at Kisimbiri • A piece of land of dimensions 10by 10 meters is required to set up the tower. We made an assumption that there will be future development from the low traffic to high. This is so as to determine how much fiber is needed to be laid in terms of the cost of the installation. The location of the site from the main road is as shown 41 . a small house needed to house the equipment like routing engines and others • • • We planned for a site with 600MB capacity. We needed two 30-40kVA generators. it was necessary to estimate the distance from the site to the main road as 2km with the assumption that the main road has an access point.

At all sites. Power Requirements.6 Requirements and equipment specifications at all sites. there was availability of three phase power.Figure 34: Distance to the main road 3. All the sites had security personnel who could be used as guards if the new site comes up. The generators to be used have the following specifications 30 or 40kVA generators will be needed at Kisimbiri. At Lubya hill. Cable Internetworking. Security. Land: All areas had available land for the site. 42 .6. fiber was available hence it would be the major transmission media unlike Kisimbiri where fiber would have to be dug from the main road to the site. hence the generators.

2 Conclusion Training with Bukasa Telecom Limited was a great eye opener where there was opportunity to appreciate the practical work done in the field and relate it to the theory covered in class including learning about the technological advancements in the telecommunications engineering field. It stimulated my thinking ability and as such learning how to work while considering practically viable options.1 Challenges i. Due to lack of insurance we missed chances of climbing up the towers to do some installations. The university should introduce a system where by students are insured because some of the companies could not train students because they were not insured. Most of the concepts covered during training were very new and this posed a great challenge to the trainees because and difficult to keep up with the trainer during the training process.Chapter 4: 4. All in all it was a wonderful experience. ii. also got new friends as well as gaining more confidence in practical skills. iii. It was difficult for most of the trainees to get involved in the training process due to limited tools and equipment. 4. 4.3 Recommendations The College of Engineering Design Art and Technology should come up with a more convenient and strategic way of industrial training placement since a lot of time is wasted within the first weeks of training as students try to place themselves in different organizations. Developed working relations and got to learn more of the working ethics and discipline. 43 .

References • Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide 5th Edition by Todd Lammle • Wikipedia.com 44 .