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Achievement orientation is high in American societies. Chinese Culture Chinese culture has been influenced for thousands of years by Confucian culture. In daily life. With oneeye on costs and the other on retention. valuing individual achievement." and flexible work arrangements become more common. independence. trustworthiness" have become the particular cultural factors associated with Chinese culture. promote individual accomplishments. that traditionally permit individual social mobility and hence America is a country of immigrants. the people value freedom. the core values embedded throughout modern Chinese culture include: respect for hierarchy; building relationships through guanxi (face) and harmony (connections. duty. and are full of the competitive spirit and challenge. work teams become"virtual. politeness. and “benevolence. courtesy. peaceful coexistence.American Culture America is a country. People advocate values like harmony. Moreover. Americans strive for equality. reciprocal obligations); group­orientation; and mianzi . modesty. and welcome direct communication. kindness. whose culture is characterized by advocating individualism. pursuing egalitarianism. expressing individual character. employers are increasinglyoffering part-time or shared jobs. The American working environment has changed drastically. focus on tasks over relationships. wisdom.Change is constant as companies are restructured. order for old and young. and so on. or outsourcing to external contractors.democracy. honesty and sincerity in interpersonal relationships.

In return for this open approach. This reciprocity of relationship forms thebasis of good management and teamwork .The key task for a Japanese manager is to provide the environment inwhich the group can flourish.Japanese Culture Japanese management emphasises the need for information flow fromthe bottom of the company to the top.The higher a Japanese manager rises within an organisation. The strength of this approach is obviously that those taskedwith the implementation of decisions have been actively involved in theshaping of policy. As a result. This results in senior management having a largely supervisory rather than 'hands-on'approach. the moreimportant it is that he appears unassuming and unambitious. Individualpersonality and forcefulness are not seen as the prerequisites for effective leadership. he expects team members to keep himfully informed of developments. it has been noted that policy is often originated atthe middle-levels of a company before being passed upwards for ratification. In order to achieve this he must beaccessible at all times and willing to share knowledge within the group.