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CHAPTER 5 : CHEMICAL BONDS COVALENT BONDS 1.

Covalent bonding is another way for atoms to achieve the stable arrangement of electrons of the noble gases. It involves ________________________________ 2. In covalent bond, atoms share ____________________ to achieve ____________ ___________ electron arrangement. 3. Each atom contributes an ____________ number of electrons for sharing. 4. The shared pair of electrons forms a _______________ bond between two atoms. 5. Covalent bonds are usually formed between atoms of non-metals which are elements from Group _____, _____ and ____. 6. Carbon and silicon from Group ____ can also form covalent bonds. 7. Covalent bonds bind atoms together to form a group called a covalent _____________. TYPES OF COVALENT BONDS 1. There are 3 types of covalent bonds: A ) ____________________________ B ) ____________________________ C ) ____________________________ 2. During the formation of a covalent bond between 2 atoms, each atom may contribute 2 or 3 electrons for sharing. 3. When 2 atoms share one pair of electrons, a ____________________________ formed. 4. When 2 atoms share two pairs of electrons, a ____________________________ formed. 5. When 2 atoms share three pairs of electrons, a ____________________________ formed. EXAMPLES OF FORMATION OF SINGLE COVALENT BONDS A ) HYDROGEN, H2 1. Hydrogen atom has a proton number of _____, an electron arrangement of ____ and 1 valence electron. 2. Each hydrogen atom needs one more electron to fill the _____________ shell. Hence, each hydrogen atom contributes one electron for sharing. 3. Two hydrogen atoms share ______ pair of electrons so that both atoms can achieve a stable __________ electron arrangement similar to helium.

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Each nitrogen atoms share ________ pairs of electrons so that both atoms can achieve a stable octet arrangement similar to the noble gas neon. 3. EXAMPLE OF FORMATION OF TRIPLE COVALENT BONDS A ) NITROGEN. each oxygen atom contributes _________ electrons for sharing. Oxygen atom has  A proton number of ______  An electron arrangement of ______  __________ valence electrons 2. Each oxygen atom needs __________ more electrons to fill the valence shell and achieve a stable octet electron arrangement similar to neon. Nitrogen atom has  A proton number of _______  An electron arrangement of _______  __________ valence electrons 2. O2 1. N2 1. Two oxygen atoms share two pairs of electrons so that both atoms can achieve a stable noble gas arrangement similar to neon which is _______. .EXAMPLE OF FORMATION OF DOUBLE COVALENT BONDS A ) OXYGEN. Hence.