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VISHVESHWARA INSTITUTE OF ENGG & TECH S UMMER TRAINING REPORT ON INDIAN RAILWAY

SUBMITTED TO H.C.SHARMA HOD,EN DEPARTMENT

SUBMITTED BYAVANISH KUMAR VERMA EN-VII A

Generation alternators
The KEL 4.5KW Train Lighting System consists of a three-phase homopolar inductor type alternator and a static Regulator-cum-Rectifier Unit. Such brushless alternators render a trouble free long service without practically any maintenance, as it is completely free for many moving contacts or winding on rotor. The regulator has been designed for a reliable performance in any operational conditions by eliminating transistors and thyristors, which are comparatively less reliable. Brushless Alternator type KELA 45135-D is of totally enclosed construction capable of developing a constant voltage of 120V at a load current of 37.5A from minimum speed for full output to maximum speed. The machines are used for: 1. Charging 2. Operation of the fans, lights coach etc. in the battery coach

 Principle of operation
The alternator consists of two sets of winding namely AC winding and field winding, both accommodated in the stator. The AC windings are distributed in the small slots and field windings are concentrated into two slots. Each field coil spans half the total number of stator slots. AC coils are connected in star and field coils are connected in series. The rotor consisting of stacked stampings resembles a cogged wheel having eight sets of teeth and slots, uniformly distributed on the rotor surface skewing the rotor axis. The core of the stator, which is completely enclosed by field coils, will retain a residual magnetism if excited by battery once. The flux produced by the field coils find its path through the rotor. When the rotor is rotated, the passage of the rotor teeth and teeth alternately under the field offers a varying reluctance path for the flux produced by the field coils. This flux, which varies periodically links with the AC, coils and induces an alternating voltage in the AC coil. The frequency of the induced voltage depends upon the speed of the rotor. The magnitude depends on the speed of rotation and level of excitation. The field is strengthened by a positive feedback system in the regulator to attain the desired outputvoltage.

Regulating the output current at the set value.   Power-rectifier This consists of six numbers of silicon diodes. Each diode is protected against transient surge voltage by capacitor C1. Regulator-rectifier unit The regulator rectifier unit has mainly following functions: Rectifying the three phase AC output of the alternator to DC using full wave rectifier bridge  Regulating the voltage generated by the alternator at the set value. The whole bridge is protected against high frequency surges by . The three phase dC output of the alternator is rectified by these diodes to obtain DC output terminals +DC and –DC of the regulator-rectifier Unit. connected in three-phase full wave bridge.

 Voltage-regulation The voltage induced in the AC winding of the alternator is dependent on the speed of the alternator. In the absence of a voltage regulator. The control circuit is wired in a rack consisting of the following parts:  Excitation transformer This is a double winding transformer with tappings for input and output. The transformer has five sets of terminals brought to a terminal strip. The voltage regulator monitors the voltage and passes a command to the control circuit to reduce the excitation current to reduce the excitation current as soon as the output voltage reaches the set value. . the output voltage will rise indefinitely due to positive feedback to the field.capacitor C3 and DC output is filtered by capacitor C2. the excitation current and the load current. The transformer steps down the voltage for the field coils.

The zener diode starts conducting only at a designated voltage (zener voltage).  Voltage detector – DT The voltage detector serves the function of providing necessary ‘error signal’ for voltage regulation. A rotary switch is provided for setting the voltage at 120. . maintaining the output voltage of alternator at set value. It consists of a network of zener diode. Thus it serves as a base for comparison.Terminal 14 and 15 – Input from the two phases of Alternator Terminal 19 – Center tapping of the transformer going to the negative terminal of field supply Terminal 18 and 161 – Output of the transformer going to the respective terminals of Magnetic Amplifier. potential divider and rheostat. When the output voltage of the alternator exceeds the set value. 122 and 124V. The voltage across zener will be maintained even if the voltage input to the circuit is increased. the voltage drop across the resistance R1 reaches sufficient value to cause the zener break breakdown and this will sent a current through the control winding of Magnetic Amplifier. which causes in the impedance of load winding decreasing the field current.

26-27. It works on the principle of saturation of Magnetic core. manifested through control windings.  Field rectifier unit – D2-D3 Silicon diodes D2 and D3 act as a full wave rectifier for the field supply. Magnetic amplifier – MA The Magnetic Amplifier forms the nucleus of the regulator circuit. load winding offers a variable impedence to the field thereby regulating the voltage and current at set value. current control and gain control. It has 6 sets of winding designated as follows: Load windings – Two sets (18-162 and 17-161) Control windings – Four sets (10-11. Subject to the command from the voltage and current sensing circuits. The load winding is connected in the field circuit and the field current passes through this winding. These diodes conduct alternately as the terminals 18 and 161 . 29-30 and 20-40) Of these four sets of control windings only three sets are used in the circuit for voltage control.

the free wheeling diode will conduct avoiding creepage of surge voltage to important components like Magnetic Amplifier. 20 and 19 the positive and negative terminals for the field supply.  Rectifier bridge – RT It consists of three silicon diodes connected for three phase full wave rectification with the negative terminal taken from the Power Rectifier Bridge PR. which will have a polarity opposite to that of excitation.It rectify the AC output of the alternator and supplies DC voltage to the voltage detector for voltage sensing.become positive with respective to the center tapping. .  Free wheeling diode – D4 In case there is a voltage surge from the field circuit. The rectified current from the diodes is taken through the feedback winding of Magnetic Amplifier to the terminals.

It can also be mounted inside the coach. Current regulation Current regulation circuit consists of a variable shunt (SHR) connected in series with the load circuit and a diode D1.1mm dia as per the RSDO specification. the drop across the shunt will be sufficient to drive the diode D1 into conduction and pass a current through the control winding of Magnetic Amplifier.When the load current exceeds the set value. The current limiting circuit prevents the alternator from over loading.75 + 0. provided. The effect of this control current is to retain the current at the limited value reducing the output voltage on further loading.  Alternator The alternator is provided with two cast nylon suspension bushes to accommodate a suspension pin of 31.  Rectifier – Regulator The rectifier – regulator box is designed for under frame mounting. The tension mechanism should also be mounted accordingly. sufficient ventilation is .

In these trains. In RAJADHANI EXPRESS&SHATABTI EXPRESS. There are two generators of rating 250kvA. they are using this type of AC unit.provided. Care must be taken to fix the box firmly to the underframe. It should be ensured that all enclosures are water tight. Air Conditioning Unit Air 1. in this type generators are at the end of the coaches. before mounting.End 2. 750V.AC 2.Self-generation conditioning unit GENERATION OF to AC classified on the basis of PLANT it on is again classified as generation. generation  End on generation As the name suggests.TYPE According 1. the provision of dedicated rakes llows the use of a separate ‘power-car’ to supply electricity for all the . 3phase.

these EOG cars tend to be different from the ones used for Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains. A very small number of other trains also use such EOG cars for power. and one in the middle of the rake. With these.coaches. which is then distributed across the train. There are usually 2 generators in each power car. Axle driven brushless alternator 2. The power car capacity is 250kVA. most Rajdhanis and Shatabdis needed three power cars — one at either end. each generator (an ‘end-on generator’ (EOG)) generates 3-phase 750V AC power. 1. there was no way to get from one portion of the rake to the other while the train was in motion. These 250kVA power cars were introduced in 1992. Before that the power cars in use had a capacity of 125kVA and used 440V as the AC distribution voltage. As the power cars are (were) not equipped for anyone to walk through. Battery . or 110V (single-phase) for other appliances. The elimination of generation equipment also allows the coach bogies to be designed with higher speeds in mind. Self generation Here there are three power supply arrangements. which split the rake into two portions (termed ‘Unit I’ and ‘Unit II’). and stepped down to 415V AC (3-phase) for the air-conditioning.

There is one Regulation cum rectifier unit. So in this condition. Pre cooling Arrangement: This is essential because when the train happens to halt in a station for more than say half an hour it is not economical to switch on the air conditioning unit by the battery. they were using Lead acid cell batteries of 800AH capacity. which step down 440V to 110V. Roof Mounted Ac Package to type of plant they are again classified into Slung Unit . Precooling Arrangement In axle driven brushless alternator. But due to its severe drawbacks like frequent addition of distilled water. we tap the 440V ac supply from the station itself using an arrangement. According 1. There is also an Over voltage protection circuit to prevent the damage due to over voltages.3.Its lifetime is around 4years. The capacity of this alternator is 25KW or 18KW. which senses the variation in voltage and current and accordingly regulates the field excitation. sulphonation etc now they are using Valve regulated lead acid battery popularly known as Maintenance free battery of capacity 1100AH. Battery unit: Some years back. Here also there is magnetic amplifier. Then there is a step down transformer. practically 98-103V is generated. Under 2.

.The blower motor can be opened without disconnection. gas charged and Hermetically sealed refrigerant system.whereas the return air filters can be pulled out from under the unit by opening the access door. by opening the central access door .The blower assembly is hinged and opens to hang vertically down. in the corridor of the coach . blower motors and blowers .The condenser fans and evaporator blower motor are common to both the circuits. condensate drain pan and drain outlet. Each circuit has its own fresh air and return air filters. It has two Hermetically sealed. The condenser fans and compressors can be accessed from the top of the unit. This provide access to heaters. Condensor fan motors are 3 phase motors whereas the blower motor is double shaft 3phase motor. two vertical flow condenser fans and one blower motor with two forward curved blowers.To open this access this access door remove all bolts while supporting the motor disengage the safety leych and gradually lower the central access door. condensor coil and evaporator (cooling) coil . heaters and safety controls can be accessed by opening the access door at the center of corridor of the coach . Roof mounted ac package unit The roof mounted package unit is factory assembled.The blower. There are two independent refrigerant circuits in each roof mounted package units having a compressor. 3phase reciprocating compressors.

Power Consumption Current : 22 Amps Conditioned Air flow rate : 4000M³ /Hr at 20mm . 3. As the roof mounted package unit is modular Hermetically sealed type. 2. 5.5kW Roof Mounted 3Ø.Care should be taken while doing this. Package 50Hz 415V±5%AC. Unit Power type Supply : : : 13. as the weight of blower motor and blower are supported on the central access door. 4. it requires minimum maintenance . Air-conditioning unit specifications 1. loss of air and over heating of heating elements.The safety devices are provided to protect against abnormal operating refrigerant pressures. low voltage and high voltage.The refrigerant system is Hermetically sealed and has no fittings or gauge ports . The terminals for connecting cables are located below the evaporator area and are accessible directly once the coach access door in the false ceiling is opened.

Refrigerant Dimensions : R-22. 7. Weight 9. Evaporator Fan Motor unit 15.  Control and Power Circuitry . Condenser Fan Motor VAC 3Ø.50Hz 13.4 kg per circuit 8. per unit : 6 pole (2 Nos. : CC-90012 (alt d) Compressor Kirloskar Condenser Fan : Hermetic MG52/Maneurop reciprocating type MT57HL4 11.75kW 2 : 4 pole.6. per unit) 0.55kW 415 12. 10. : Direct drive propeller fan 2 Nos. 50Hz. Heaters : Direct driven centrifugal fan 0. per unit 415 VAC 3Ø. per unit 14. 1 No. 50 Hz. 2. Evaporator Fan Nos. 415 VAC. 3Ø. Outline : Length * Width * Height 2150mm 2250mm 600mm : Approx.580kg Drawing No. per : 3kW 2 Nos.

two heaters and two condensor motor through 6 contactors . 50 Hz power supply is used to operate two Hermetically Sealed Compressors.single phase to control circuit. One double shaft blower motor .However . Three 2.The equipments are protected by using MCBs and Overload relays.PCBs and other interlocking devices operate on control voltage for protection of various equipments . Control Circuit A step down transformer of 415/110 V is used to provide 110 V .the Crank Case Heaters of both compressors are operated on 415 V and are kept energized all the time and are not . The thermostats . V. Single phase phase ac power circuit at at 415 V. 50 50Hz Hz control circuit 110  Power Circuit- The 3 phase 415 V.The electrical circuit of ac package unit is divided into two sections: 1.

This will ensure that during compressor start up .switched off even when it is switched off . Red lights indicate overload tripping in case of the heaters .Red . The control circuit is designed such that in case of power failure the machine shuts down and when the power is restored the machine restarts automatically .and Green .C during summer (for cooling) and 19 to 21 deg.Yellow . Green lights indicate the manual/auto and heating/cooling status of the unit.  Rotary switch .In addition for the compressors Red indicators are provided for low and high pressure trip.Medium and High positions of rotary switch respectively . The incoming power is indicated by three lights .no liquid refrigerant is present in the compressor crank case to cause foaming of the oil and consequent compressor damage due to absence of lubricant .C during winter(for heating) at Low .This is to ensure that the crank case lubricating of the compressor is kept warm during Off cycle and machine shut down so that refrigerant does not migrate into the compressor crank case . Three stage thermostats are provided for cooling and heating to maintain 24 to 26 deg.A normally ON status of each equipment is indicated by Green lights .

Overload protection used for blower motor . . 2.   Control/protection components in electrical power and control circuit. RSW5 to select the working of compressors on/ bypass. RSW4 to select the three stage of temperature low/ medium/ high by operating thermostat . 1. RSW1 RSW2  on  RSW3 to select auto / manual heat /manual cool /vent mode as per requirement of inside condition.condenser motor and compressor. Time delay relay (TDR) used for compressor motor.There  are mainly to to five switch switch types on/off of rotary mains blower switches. . supply.

The Supply Authorities supply power at 220/132/110/66 kV EHV at each traction sub-station. Transformer  Functioning of various equipments  Power supply 1. Vane with relay used LEDs for for air for status SPDT protection used for heater. circuit. Contactors used for blower motor . Overheat 5. PCB 8. Cooling 6. 2.3. relay relay indication.The Railways receives three phase power supply from Supply Authority at a single point near the grid sub-station from where the Railway runs its own transmission lines providing its own traction . 4. compressor and heater. Heating 7. which is under the control of the Railway. switches. proving control 9.condenser motor .

. 25kV feeders carry the power from sub-stations to feeding posts located near the tracks. so that the power supply for electric traction is maintained under all conditions. normally 2 single-phase transformers are installed one of which is in service and the other is 100% stand by. so that even if one source fails. These transformers step down the grid voltage to 25kV for feeding the traction OHE. Suitable protective equipment is installed at the sub-stations to ensure rapid isolation of any fault in transmission lines and sub-station equipment. 3. At each traction sub-station.  Duplicate supply To ensure continuity of supply under all condition. All EHV and 25kV equipment is under the control of the Supply Authority except 25Kv feeder circuit breaker which are the under the control of the Railway. the high voltage feed to the traction sub-station is invariably arranged either from two sources of power or by a double circuit transmission line. The present standard capacity is 21. All EHV and 25kV equipment is under the control of the Supply Authority but 25kV feeder circuit breakers alone are operated on remote control by the Traction Power Controller (TPC).sub-station. 4. the other remains in service. Each feeder is controlled by a single pole circuit breaker equipped with protective devices.6MVA.

 Voltage regulation The permissible variation of the bus bar voltage on the bus bars at the grid sub-stations is +10% and-5% i.  OVERHEAD EQUIPMENT The fundamental aim of design overhead equipment is to install the contact wire at the requisite height and to keep it within the working range of the pantograph under all circumstances. The catenary and contact wire together have an equivalent copper section of 157 mm². . 1. The current normally permissible on single track is 600 A approximately. because of cross-sectional area of OHE. tramway type OHE having only grooved hard drawn copper contact wire of 107 mm² section is provided. sidings. between 27500V and 23750V.5kv at the feeding post at any time.e. For loop lines. The tappings on the transformer are on the secondary winding and are set to ensure that the voltage is maintained as high as possible but not exceeding 27. 2. yards and spur lines excluding the main running lines and first loop or lines taking off from main running line.

 Stagger . it is 5. the spans depending upon the degree of curvature.  span of supportingmast/structures The span normally used for supporting the OHE from masts/structure using the cantilever type bracket assembly varies from maximum 72 m on straight track to 27 m on curved track. such as under over-line structures.60 m (with 10 cm presag for 72 m span) above rail level.02 m on MG. The catenary system is normally supported on straight tracks at maximum intervals of 72 m (63 m on MG) by cantilever type arms fixed to galvanized broad flange or I section steel masts or fabricated steel structures. the height may be as low as 4. For unregulated OHE in areas with a temperature range of 4ºC to 65ºC. this figure is 5. in certain cases. special precautions have to be taken. the spans adopted depending upon the degree of curvature. On curves the catenary is supported at closer intervals.65 m.75 m and in areas with a temperature range of 15ºC to 65ºC. For passing oversize consignments on such lines.65 m on BG and 4. Height of contact wire The normal height of contact wire for regulated OHE is 5.

There are two types of overlap spans as under: 1.Uninsulated overlap spans where the distance of separation between two contact wires is 200 mm 2.Normally the electrical discontinuity at insulated overlaps is bridged by interruptors or isolator except at neutral sections.The contact wire is staggered so that as the pantograph glides along.  Overlaps The OHE conductors are terminated at intervals of about 1.  Mechanical independence of OHE trackstructures .5 km with an overlap.Insulated overlaps. where the two OHE systems are kept apart at a distance of 500mm. This ensures a uniform wear of the current collecting strips of the pantographs. the conductor height being so adjusted that the pantograph glides from one conductor to the other smoothly. the contact wire sweeps across the current collecting strips of the pantograph up to a distance of 200 mm on either side of the centerline on straight runs and 300 mm on one side on curves.

where difficulty is experienced in locating individual supporting structures between the tracks. Any irregularity or damage or maladjustment of the OHE of one track will not. complete mechanical independence of each OHE is secured. Where the OHE has to be regulated.  Droppers The contact or trolley wire is supported from the catenary or messenger wire by means of droppers.The existing system is generally at for 140kmph with AM-12 pantographs now in use on ac locomotives.By providing independent structures for supporting the OHE of each track. a catenary wire system called flexible head-span is provided to maintain two or more catenaries and their contact wires at the appropriate heights and locations. therefore. The droppers are made of solid copper of usual cross section of 5 sq mm and are spaced closely along the contact wire at 9m distance from one another.  Flexible head-span and rigid portals In large yards. rigid portal structures are used. affect the performance of the other.  Maximum speed  The OHE with maximum span of 72m and with presag of that span of 10mm and with tension of 1000kgf in contact and catenary wire is designed for a speed potential of up to 160kmph. The lengths are so adjusted so .

The return conductor is connected to the rails and earthed. contact wire is practically level. Such earth currents are higher if the conductive path in the rails is degraded because of rail joint problems. pipes. etc. Periodically. the inductive interference from the catenary current is nearly cancelled by that from thereturn current. The current that flows through the loco goes to the rails but then up through a connecting wire to the return conductor. The 1:1 turns ratio of the BT means that the current in the catenary will be very nearly the same as the current in the return conductor . thus minimizing the . there are breaks in the catenary where the supply current is forced to flow through one winding of a booster transformer . and through it back to the substation. At all other places. Some of the return current also flows in the earth causing conductive interference and corrosion problems in buried cables. a wire that is close to and parallel to the catenary wire. In booster transformer (BT) feeding system there is now a return conductor.that although there is a sag in the messenger wire. there can be severe inductive interference in telecom lines and other equipment because of the large loop area between the catenary and the rails which carry the return current.  Booster transformer (BT) system : In the simple AC system. the other winding is in series with the return conductor. Insulated rail joints are also provided — this ensures that current flows in the rails only in the particular section where the loco is present.

AM12 pantograph of Faively design has been adopted by Indian Railways for 25kv ac electric locomotives and EMUs. in order to increase the life of contact wire. This pantograph is a single pan design having two o-springs mounted on it. as well as radio frequency interference. The suspension of pan is on plungers. use of carbon strips have also been tried. One disadvantages in this system is that as a loco passes a booster transformer. For keeping the pantograph in the lowered condition. Pantograph For collecting power from 25kv ac contact wire pantographs are mounted on the roof of the traction vehicles. Further.  IMPORTANT EQUIPMENTS OF ELECTRIC LOCO / EMU 1. improved pantograph with lower dynamic mass and independent pan heads have been used. The raising and lowering of a pantograph is by means of a pneumatically operated servo motor.interference effects. This pantograph is suitable for operation up to 140km/h. there is a momentary interruption in the supply (because of the break in the catenary) with the attendant problems of arcing and transients on the line. These pantographs are provided with steel strips for current collection. main springs have been used. . For increasing the speed potential. The problem of stray earth currents is also reduced.

The transformer for thyristorised convertor becomes a two limb construction and a traction secondary winding split into 4 windings for two step sequence control. Transformer Power to traction vehicles is available at 25kv ac single phase from the contact wire. The regulating winding is designed for choosing appropriate voltage for the traction motors. the design of the traction transformer has undergone simplification with the deletion of regulating winding. oil cooler and blower form an integral part of the traction transformer. For this purpose oil pump. the traction power transformers are provided on the traction vehicles. These transformers generally have a primary winding. With the introduction of thyristorised convertors. In order to step down the voltage as well as to control the same for feeding to the traction motors. a regulating winding.1. The auxiliary winding is required for feeding the auxiliary motors on the locomotive. . The traction transformer necessarily has to have forced oil circulation and forced air cooling. traction secondary windings and auxiliary windings.

A circuit breaker can disconnect the faulty element of the system when it is called upon to do so by the protective relay. In case of traction motors great emphasis is being given to improve power to weight ratio. PROTECTIVE RELAYS A protective scheme includes circuit breakers and protective relays to isolate the faulty sections of the system from the healthy sections. at the same time more reliable. The function of the protective relay is to detect and locate the fault and issue a command to . Improvements in the basic design of traction motors have become possible due to availability of new insulating materials with high thermal margins. Traction-motor Traction motors power the driving wheels which actually move the locomotive. keeping in view the limited space available on locomotive for mounting the same. the specification now covers the combination and system as a whole. Instead of dealing with individual insulating material.1. There is a continuous effort to improve the performance of traction motors by making them lighter/compact. The new feature is added because of thermal endurance of the system which may not be directly related to the thermal capability of individual materials.

an impedance relay measures the line impedance between the relay location and the point of fault and operates if the point of fault lies within the protected section. 1.  Remote Control System . Protective relays can be classified into the following categories depending on the duty they are required to perform. Over 2. Underfrequency 5. Many other relays specifying their duty they perform can be put under this type of classification. The above relays may be electromagnetic. Impedance 4. Directional current relays relays relays relays relays These are some important relays. The duty which a relay performs is evident from its name. static or microprocessor-based relays. Undervoltage 3. For example. Directional relays check whether the point of fault lies in the forward or reverse direction.the circuit breaker to disconnect the faulty element. an overcurrent relay operates when the current exceeds a certain limit.

The RCC has the control and monitoring equipment for the electric traction in the areas controlled by the traffic control centre. These are still in use in some places. Now. station masters offices. feeding posts. 1. current.) . This is the purpose of a remote control centre (RCC). etc. The in charge of a remote control station is called traction power controller (TPC). SCADA allows remote monitoring of electrical parameters (voltage. power factor. Frequency Modulated Voice Frequency Telegraph (FMVFT). important signaling cabins. Each remote control centre is connected to grid substations. sectioning and sub sectioning post . divisional office and traffic control office.The TPC monitors the remote control centre around the clock He is responsible for carrying out all switching operations on the electric supply system. In order to ensure this it becomes necessary to have a comprehensive picture of supply conditions and arrangement to operate switchgear with minimum delay. IR has been installing a microprocessor-based system called ‘SCADA’ (Supervisory Remote Control and Data Acquisition System) for remote control of electric substations and switchgear.To maintain continuity of electric supply to track is of utmost importance. Earlier Indian Railways used an electromechanical control system. A central SCADA facility (the division control centre) can control a region extending to about 200-300km around it. All the interruptors at various control posts and circuit breakers at various substations are controlled by what is called a remote control system .Control and Monitoring: A Remote Control Center (RCC) is located at or near the divisional traffic control centre.

It is a system that provides a real time diagrammatic representation of the entire traction system. Three consecutive error messages trigger a warning indicating that the system is malfunctioning. Its predecessor was a mimic diagram installed at every remote control system. transformers etc. Colour coding is used to . troubleshooting . allowing better control of maximum demand.in real time and remote operation of switchgear. circuit breakers. Data is relayed through a network of optical fibers to a master server placed at the RCC. A front end processor(FEP) analyses the acquired data.etc.  SCADA The term SCADA is an acronym for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. A remote terminal unit is installed at every switching station this unit relays data to the remote control centre regarding various station parameters. The receipt of valid data is noted on a counter as is the receipt of invalid data. The display is in the form of a diagram showing the complete traction system. The data is not received continuously but at predetermined intervals from each station. The processed data is displayed at a number of computer nodes or workstations. as well as automatic fault detection and isolation. Different symbols are used to represent equipment such as interrupters.

For e. The program is protected by authorisation codes which ensure that only authorized personnel can carry out switching operations or access data. fast response and greater coordination and control over the entire system. Operations such as closing an interrupter or isolating a faulty section can be done by clicking on the concerned symbol. This redundancy minimises the probability of failure. green lines may indicate a healthy section of track while red would indicate a fault. If a fault occurs immediate isolation of the faulty section and rerouting of power to healthy sections can be carried out.represent the status of the equipment.g. . This kind of a display allows easy analysis of the situation at any given instant. The advantages of using the SCADA system are ease of operation. Relevant data such as the voltage and current output of a substation is also displayed alongside.