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Classification of Living Organisms Paper- I Genetics COP- Diploma in Bioinformatics

Important Terms:
Evolution, Adaptation, Extinction

Diversity:

Biodiversity, Chemodiversity, Phytodiversity, Faunal Diversity, Floral diversity, trophodiveristy, habitat diversity

Classification & Identification Producers, Consumers, Decomposers Taxonomy & Phylogeny

History of Taxonomy

Charaka – 200 animal species and 340 plant species

Aristotle - also classified many plant as well as animal species John Ray - introduced the term ‘species’ and listed and collected various plant species across Europe.

Contributions of Carlous Linnaeus (1707-1778)

Binomial nomenclature (2-word Latin name) An artificial sexual system of classification Based on morphological & reproductive characteristics

‘Species plantarum’ & ‘Systema Naturae’ cataloguing around 5900 plant species and 4200 animal species

Work of Carlous Linnaeus

Biological species concept Modern biological species concept described by Mayr: Species consist of populations Have ‘reality’ An internal genetic programme .

Taxonomic Hierarchy .

Linneal system had only two kingdoms Plants and Animals He did not consider……. Bacteria and Viruses Prokaryotes and Eucaryotes .

Whittaker (1869) gave a five kingdom system Complexity of cell structure Complexity of the organism’s body Mode of obtaining nutrition Monera Protista Plantae (plants) Fungi Animalia (animals) .

They are also seen to be extremophilic and also known as Archae bacteria They are important decomposers and mineralizers. Their cell wall is generally rigid. They are either Heterotrophs or autotrophs. and Nutritional diversity: They decompose and absorb organic matter in solution.single cell: includes prokaryotes like bacteria. actinomycetes cyanobacteria They are microscopic and possess genetic material. .The kingdom of prokaryotes Monos.Monera.

feeding on other protests.Protista. . The most common ones are collectively known as Phytoplanktons which are microscopic. These include diverse kinds of unicellular and primarily aquatic eucaryotes. Protozoans are parasites in other animals or are inhabitant in other animals like in the digestive tract. They contain all the eucaryotic organelles and also possess flagella or cilia for locomotion. They are Protozoa (First animals) and lack the cell wall.The kingdom of unicellular Eucaryotes Protisto. chief producers in the oceans.primary. Some protests are predatory. The absence of cell wall helps in the ingestion of other protests. floating photosynthetic organisms. Nutritional diversity: They are photoauthotrophs.

Plant cells possess a rigid cellulose cell wall. immobile and exhibit no locomotion as seen by many animals. . There are certain paratisitc plants which have evolved to thus become heterotrophic.Plantae. cannot contract and relax like animal cells can. multicellular photosynthetic plants which we see around. Plants are photosynthetic in nature and generate their own food.the kingdom of multicellular producers Coloured. They are therefore.

. resulting into absorptive organic matter.Fungi. They liberate various enzymes in the surrounding. They absorb organic matter made soluble by decay and also known as saprotrophs. which helps in solublization and decaying of the surrounding.the kingdom of multicellular decomposers Diverse eucaryotic heterotrophic organisms.

Their mode of nutrition is pursuit and ingestion of food. They are parasitic or symbiotic. This kingdom has the highest number of species and thus exceeds all the other classes of living organisms. They are very mobile and can transmit impulse through nerve cells. .Animalia.The kingdom of multicellular consumers Also called Metazoa. They are placed as the consumers in the food chain. Sponges are the primitive metazoas which lack nerve cells.

And while writing the scientific name should be underlined. These latin/ scientific names should always be written or printed in Italics while the name of the Taxonomists should be in normal fonts.Few points of general importance: A generic name always begins with a capital and the species name never begins with a capital. .

Internal structure Cytology.Ontogeny Reporduction.Some guidelines for classification: There are certain set principles and criteria to determine the position of an organism in a natural system of classification. The characteristics include: Morphology – study of form Anatomy. behaviour and Biochemistry .Physiology Development.Cell structure Life processes.

Kingdom Phylum (p: phyla) Class Order Family Genus (p: genera) Species .

Kingdom.species is that specific organism which is somewhat related to many others but has still some unique characteristics and thus deserve a different name from the rest of the members of the same genus.The way genera are the group of species having common characteristics. genera having common characteristics are then classified into a family. is also now seen in many plants also).It is a group of related species. the taxonomists identify sub species and thus the name becomes trinomial instead of binomial. The zoologists use the work Phylum while the Botanists use the term Division.which has been discussed in detail earlier. Sub species. .features and characteristics and have correlated phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Species. Order.Families having common characteristics are classified into order.and orders having common are classified into phylum or division.In some animals especially (however. Genus. The species put under the same genus generally share lot many things in common. Phylum/ Division . Family. The genus has a special importance in classification as no species can be named unless it can be associated with a genus.

Growth and Cell Division .

Growth Cell size Cell population .

cell begins to divide 4. DNA consist of single loop 2. Make copy of DNA 3.Prokaryotes Binary fission 1. 2 identical daughter cells Bacteria can divide every 20-30 minutes .

Stages in Cell Growth Mitosis (division of nucleus) Cytokinesis (division of cytoplasm) Apoptosis (cell death) decreases the number of cells. . Both cell increase and apoptosis occur during normal development and growth.

Most of the cell cycle is spent in interphase. .The Cell Cycle The cell cycle is an orderly sequence of events that occurs from the time when a cell is first formed until it divides into two new cells. Following interphase. the mitotic stage of cell division occurs.

The stages of interphase G1 stage – cell growth. and DNA replication results in duplicated chromosomes G2 stage – cell synthesizes proteins needed for cell division . accumulates materials for DNA synthesis S stage – DNA synthesis occurs. cell doubles its organelles.

The cell cycle .

including mitosis and cytokinesis. During mitosis. and become the nuclei of the two daughter cells. is complete.The Mitotic Stage Following interphase is the M stage. The cell cycle ends when cytokinesis. sister chromatids of each chromosome separate. . the cleaving of the cytoplasm.

.Control of the cell cycle The cell cycle is controlled at three checkpoints: During G1 prior to the S stage During G2 prior to the M stage During the M stage prior to the end of mitosis DNA damage can also stop the cell cycle at the G1 checkpoint.

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Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes. the DNA and associated proteins is a tangled mass of thin threads called chromatin.Maintaining the Chromosome Number When a eukaryotic cell is not dividing. the chromatin condenses to form highly compacted structures called chromosomes. At the time of cell division. .

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle .

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Cytokinesis The basic point of cytokinesis is to – Divide the cytoplasm of the original cell – So that each of the nuclei from mitosis gets roughly equal amounts of cytoplasm and the organelles. .

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Overview of meiosis .

Humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. During meiosis I.Overview of Meiosis Meiosis requires two nuclear divisions and four haploid nuclei result. or 46 chromosomes total. . synapsis occurs. DNA replication occurs. Prior to meiosis I.

Meiosis I separates homologous pairs of chromosomes. but chromosomes are still in duplicated condition. Daughter cells are haploid. . No replication of DNA occurs between the two divisions.

Meiosis II separates sister chromatids. Fertilization restores the diploid number of chromosomes during sexual reproduction. . In many life cycles. haploid daughter cells mature into gametes.

.Genetic Recombination & Meiosis There are two sources of genetic recombination during meiosis: crossing-over of nonsister chromatids and Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes.

Synapsis and crossing-over .

Independent assortment .

Meiosis compared to mitosis .

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Cytokinesis .

Mitosis .

Histologic picture of Mitosis .

Cell division .

The binding of growth factors to specific receptors on the plasma membrane is usually necessary for cell division .

Cell Cycle Regulation Cyclins G1 cyclin (cyclin D) S-phase cyclins (cyclins E and A) mitotic cyclins (cyclins B and A) Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) G1 Cdk (Cdk4) S-phase Cdk ((Cdk2) M-phase Cdk (Cdk1) The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) Also called the cyclosome and so often designated as the APC/C. sister . Triggers the events leading to destruction of the cohesins thus allowing the chromatids to separate Degrades the mitotic cyclin B.

Summary: Mitosis & Meiosis Mitosis Daughter cells Type of cells produced Function of cells Somatic cells Growth/repair Asexual reproduction Same as parent cell Identical to parent cell Meiosis Daughter cells Gametes Sexual reproduction Chromosome number Genetic material Reduce to haploid Half of genetic material in new gene combinations Gametes not identical to parents .