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Jean Piaget - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jean Piaget (French pronunciation: [ʒɑ̃ pjaʒɛ]; 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Frenchspeaking Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. He was the eldest son of Arthur Piaget (Swiss) and Rebecca Jackson (French). His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology". Piaget placed great importance on the education of children. As the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared in 1934 that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual." Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva in 1955 and directed it until 1980. According to Ernst von Glasersfeld, Jean Piaget is "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing."
Jean William Fritz Piaget
Piaget at the University of Michigan, c. 1968 Born 9 August 1896 Neuchâtel, Switzerland 16 September 1980 (aged 84) Geneva, Switzerland Developmental Psychology, Epistemology
1 Personal life 2 Career history 2.1 Piaget before psychology 2.2 The sociological model of development 2.3 The sensorimotor/adaptive model of intellectual development 2.4 The elaboration of the logical model of intellectual development 2.5 The study of figurative thought 3 Theory 3.1 Stages 3.2 The developmental process 3.3 Genetic epistemology 3.4 Schemata 3.4.1 The physical microstructure of
Known for Constructivism, Genetic epistemology, Theory of cognitive development, Object permanence, Egocentrism Influences Immanuel Kant, Henri Bergson, Pierre Janet, James Mark Baldwin Influenced Bärbel Inhelder, Jerome Bruner, Kenneth Kaye, Lawrence Kohlberg, Howard Gardner, Thomas Kuhn, Seymour Papert, Umberto Eco
Jean Piaget - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"schemes" 4 Research methods 4.1 Issues and possible solutions 4.2 Development of new methods 4.2.1 Criticism of Piaget's research methods 4.3 Development of research methods 5 Influence 5.1 Developmental psychology 5.2 Education and development of morality 5.3 Piaget and the Cognitivists 5.4 Historical studies of thought and cognition 5.5 Non human development 5.6 Origins 5.7 Primatology 5.8 Philosophy 5.9 Artificial intelligence 6 Challenges 7 List of major works 7.1 Exemplars 7.2 Superclassics 7.3 Classics 7.4 Major works 7.5 Works of significance 7.6 New translations 8 Major commentaries and critiques 8.1 Exemplars 8.2 Classics 8.3 Major works 8.4 Works of significance 9 List of Major Achievements 9.1 Appointments 9.2 Honorary doctorates 10 Quotations 11 See also 11.1 Collaborators 11.2 Translators 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links
4. but that young children consistently made types of mistakes that older children and adults did not. This led him to the theory that young children's cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults. Piaget was invited to serve as chief consultant at two conferences at Cornell University (March 11– 13) and University of California. Every year. can also be dated to this period.10/5/12 Jean Piaget . During this time. in the Francophone region of Switzerland.Wikipedia. the elaboration of the logical model of intellectual development. Career history Harry Beilin described Jean Piaget's theoretical research program as consisting of four phases: 1. he published two philosophical papers that showed the direction of his thinking at the time. Arthur Piaget." en. France after his graduation and he taught at the GrangeAuxBelles Street School for Boys. Piaget did not focus so much on the fact of the children's answers being wrong. He was educated at the University of Neuchâtel. It was while he was helping to mark some of these tests that Piaget noticed that young children consistently gave wrong answers to certain questions. and Piaget assisted in the marking of Binet's intelligence tests. 2. In 1979 he was awarded the Balzan Prize for Social and Political Sciences. His early interest in zoology earned him a reputation among those in the field after he had published several articles on mollusks by the age of 15. was a professor of medieval literature at the University of Neuchâtel. In 1921.wikipedia. the biological model of intellectual development. at the time a burgeoning strain of psychology. The school was run by Alfred Binet." More recently. Jeremy Burman responded to Beilin and called for the addition of a phase before his turn to psychology: "the zeroeth Piaget. the couple had three children. In 1964. Piaget moved from Switzerland to Paris. In 1923. whom Piaget studied from infancy. The resulting theoretical frameworks are sufficiently different from each other that they have been characterized as representing different "Piagets. the sociological model of development. the study of figurative thought. he drafted his "Director's Speeches" for the IBE Council and for the International Conference on Public Education in which he explicitly addressed his educational credo. His father. he married Valentine Châtenay; together. Ultimately. 3. Piaget was a precocious child who developed an interest in biology and the natural world.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 3/27 . The conferences addressed the relationship of cognitive studies and curriculum development and strived to conceive implications of recent investigations of children's cognitive development for curricula. Piaget returned to Switzerland as director of the Rousseau Institute in Geneva. His interest in psychoanalysis. but which he later dismissed as adolescent thought. Jean Piaget accepted the post of Director of the International Bureau of Education and remained the head of this international organization until 1968. he was to propose a global theory of cognitive developmental stages in which individuals exhibit certain common patterns of cognition in each period of development. and studied briefly at the University of Zürich. the free encyclopedia Personal life Piaget was born in 1896 in Neuchâtel. the developer of the Binet intelligence test. Berkeley (March 16–18). In 1929.
one is. Piaget was looking for what he called "spontaneous conviction" so he often asked questions the children neither expected nor anticipated. which is from the first stage. he would ask them a series of nonstandard questions. The theorist we recognize today only emerged when he moved to Geneva. For this explanation he combined the use of psychological and clinical methods to create what he called a semiclinical interview. and Paris (1919–1921). they would pick up actual objects and put them in their mouths. the free encyclopedia Piaget before psychology Before Piaget became a psychologist. Because the two are often in conflict. The constant need to balance the two triggers intellectual growth. For Piaget. This is the second division of adaptation known as accommodation.wikipedia. Piaget also observed his children not only assimilating objects to fit their needs.Wikipedia. en. To test his theory. The first part. He argued infants were engaging in an act of assimilation when they sucked on everything in their reach. He believed this process of thinking could be regarded as an extension of the biological process of adaptation. the infants only engaged in primarily reflex actions such as sucking. He began the interview by asking children standardized questions and depending on how they answered. The children were assimilating the objects to conform to their own mental structures. The sensorimotor/adaptive model of intellectual development In this stage. Piaget theorized children did this because of the social interaction and the challenge to younger children’s ideas by the ideas of those children who were more advanced. to work for Edouard Claparede as director of research at the Rousseau Institute. Piaget proposed that children moved from a position of egocentrism to sociocentrism. The elaboration of the logical model of intellectual development In the model Piaget developed in stage three. he argued the idea that intelligence develops in a series of stages that are related to age and are progressive because one stage must be accomplished before the next can occur. it also led to an honorary doctorate from Harvard in 1936. Adaptation has two pieces: assimilation and accommodation. Piaget then made the assumption that whenever one transforms the world to meet individual needs or conceptions.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 4/27 . Piaget observed the habits in his own children. Piaget described intelligence as having two closely interrelated parts. He investigated the hidden side of children’s minds. He claimed infants transform all objects into an object to be sucked. He received his doctorate in 1918 from the University of Neuchatel. they provide the impetus for intellectual development. He then undertook postdoctoral training in Zurich (1918– 1919). was the content of children's thinking. they modify their reflex response to accommodate the external objects into reflex actions. in 1922. he noticed there was a gradual progression from intuitive to scientific and socially acceptable responses. he trained in natural history and philosophy. but also modifying some of their mental structures to meet the demands of the environment. but not long after. Geneva Piaget first developed as a psychologist in the 1920s. The second part was the process of intellectual activity. This work was used by Elton Mayo as the basis for the famous Hawthorne Experiments.10/5/12 Jean Piaget . To start out. In his studies. in a way. The sociological model of development Bust of Jean Piaget in the Parc des Bastions. When they do this. assimilating it.
memory. The perceptual concepts Piaget studied could not be manipulated. Piaget considered cognitive structures development as a differentiation of biological regulations. In one of his last books.wikipedia. During the sensorimotor stage children are extremely egocentric. Logical concepts are described as being completely reversible because they can always get back to the starting point. Piaget and his colleague Inhelder also published books on perception. the child must keep up with earlier level of mental abilities to reconstruct concepts. The sensorimotor stage is divided into six substages: 1. the free encyclopedia that are related to age and are progressive because one stage must be accomplished before the next can occur. Children experience the world through movement and senses (use five senses to explore the world).org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 5/27 . following to the next levels. first habits and primary circular reactions; en. Piaget concluded intellectual development as an upward expanding spiral in which children must constantly reconstruct the ideas formed at earlier levels with new. as belonging not only to biological interactions but also to cognitive ones. For each stage of development the child forms a view of reality for that age period. since its elementary forms. Pictures can’t be separated because contours cannot be separated from the forms they outline. interested in the process of the qualitative development of knowledge. Piaget uses pictures as examples. Stages The four development stages are described in Piaget's theory as: Sensorimotor stage: from birth to age 2. "simple reflexes; 2. The study of figurative thought Piaget studied areas of intelligence like perception and memory that aren’t entirely logical. or better proposed.Wikipedia. It is primarily the Third Piaget that was incorporated into American psychology when Piaget's ideas were "rediscovered" in the 1960s. It is never completely reversible. higher order concepts acquired at the next level. he intends to explain knowledge development as a process of equilibration using two main concepts in his theory. if one looked to the genetic aspect of it. Memory is the same way. assimilation and accommodation. At the next stage. To describe the figurative process.10/5/12 Jean Piaget . Equilibration of Cognitive Structures: The Central Problem of Intellectual Development (ISBN 978 022666781). As he says in the introduction of his book Genetic Epistemology (ISBN 9780 393005967): "What the genetic epistemology proposes is discovering the roots of the different varieties of knowledge. Theory Jean Piaget defined himself as a 'genetic' epistemologist. and other figurative processes such as learning. During this last period of work. meaning they cannot perceive the world from others' viewpoints." He believed answers for the epistemological questions at his time could be answered. hence his experimentations with children and adolescents. including also the scientific knowledge.
During this time infants learn to coordinate sensation and two types of scheme (habit and circular reactions). Kaye's "apprenticeship theory" of cognitive and social development refuted Piaget's assumption that mind developed endogenously in infants until the capacity for symbolic reasoning allowed them to learn language. At this time infants use reflexes such as rooting and sucking. but that he didn't offer explanation of the processes in real time that cause those developments. secondary circular reactions. At this time they might accidentally shake a rattle and continue to do it for sake of satisfaction. During this stage they can do things intentionally." Simple reflexes is from birth to 1 month old. Formal operational stage: from age 1116 and onwards (development of abstract reasoning).org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 6/27 . A primary circular reaction is when the infant tries to reproduce an event that happened by accident (ex: sucking thumb). and curiosity; and internalization of schemes. That is. Egocentrism begins strongly and then weakens. Children develop abstract thought and can easily conserve and think logically in their mind. such as Kenneth Kaye argue that his contribution was as an observer of countless phenomena not previously described. Coordination of secondary circular reactions is from 8 months to 12 months old. they understand that objects continue to exist even when they can't see them. Preoperational stage: from ages 2 to 7 (magical thinking predominates; motor skills are acquired). They are no longer egocentric. occurs when the infant is 4 to 8 months old.wikipedia. Concrete operational stage: from ages 7 to 11 (children begin to think logically but are very concrete in their thinking). At this time they become aware of things beyond their own body; they are more object oriented. novelty.Wikipedia. Some followers of Piaget's studies of infancy. 5. en. Children can now conserve and think logically but only with practical aids. Broadly speaking it consisted of a cycle: The child performs an action which has an effect on or organizes objects. beyond analogizing them to broad concepts about biological adaptation generally. the free encyclopedia 3. and the child is able to note the characteristics of the action and its effects. 6. 4. The third stage. The developmental process Piaget provided no concise description of the development process as a whole. secondary circular reactions; coordination of secondary circular reactions; tertiary circular reactions. First habits and primary circular reactions is from 1 month to 4 months old. They also understand object permanence during this stage. The fifth stage occurs from 12 months old to 18 months old. They can now combine and recombine schemes and try to reach a goal (ex: use a stick to reach something). Children cannot conserve or use logical thinking. During this stage infants explore new possibilities of objects; they try different things to get different results.10/5/12 Jean Piaget .
Once a new level of organization. As a result. This process may not be wholly gradual. giving us a gradual realization of the world around us. the child is able to identify the properties of objects by the way different kinds of action affect them. and synthesis of new structures out of the old. At the same time. For example. By repeating this process across a wide range of objects and actions. "fish". the child is able to differentiate and integrate its elements and effects. once a young child can consistently and accurately recognize different kinds of animals. knowledge and insight proves to be effective. However. but new evidence shows that the passage into new stages is more gradual than once thought. The bulk of the time spent in a new stage consists of refining this new cognitive level however it is not always happening quickly. Each new stage emerges only because the child can take for granted the achievements of its predecessors. "valid". a child may learn that two different colors of PlayDoh have been fused together to make one ball. This is the process of "reflecting abstraction" (described in detail in Piaget 2001). For example. by reflecting on their own actions. it will quickly be generalized to other areas if they exist. transitions between stages can seem to be rapid and radical. These levels of one concept of cognitive development are not realized all at once. then the sugar "disappeared" and therefore does not exist. and so on. it is through the process of objectification. once the child has constructed these new kinds of knowledge. which will only be completed when all the child's activity and experience have been re organized on this still higher level.10/5/12 Jean Piaget . Because it covers both how we gain knowledge about objects and our reflections on our own actions. This dual process allows the child to construct new ways of dealing with objects and new knowledge about objects themselves. but oftentimes the child has grasped one aspect of the new stage of cognitive functioning but not addressed others. However. "proper". Piaget's model of development explains a number of features of human knowledge that had never previously been accounted for. they are able to organize their knowledge in increasingly complex structures.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 7/27 . by showing how children progressively enrich their understanding of things by acting on and reflecting on the effects of their own previous knowledge. he or she starts to use them to create still more complex objects and to carry out still more complex actions. This is significant because they are now able to know things about a new animal simply on the basis of the fact that it is a bird – for example. he or she then acquires the ability to organize the different kinds into higher groupings such as "birds". en.wikipedia. the child establishes a new level of knowledge and insight. Thus. This is the process of "empirical abstraction". the child develops an increasingly sophisticated awareness of the "rules" that govern in various ways. At the same time. "necessary". and so on. in which each new stage is created through the further differentiation. the free encyclopedia the characteristics of the action and its effects. reflection and abstraction that the child constructs the principles on which action is not only effective or correct but also justified. integration. For example. if sugar is mixed into water or iced tea. This is the process of forming a new "cognitive stage". based on the color.Wikipedia. and yet there are still more sophisticated forms of knowledge and action that are capable of being developed. Thus a new stage begins. that the sequence of cognitive stages are logically necessary rather than simply empirically correct. the child starts to recognize still more complex patterns and to construct still more complex objects. perhaps with variations or in different contexts or on different kinds of objects. it is by this route that Piaget explains this child's growing awareness of notions such as "right". In other words. Through repeated actions. It is because this process takes this dialectical form. As a result. that it will lay eggs.
and one with the same number of sweets in a line placed more closely together. For example. By the end of this experiment several results were found. 2 months and 4 years. younger children have a discriminative ability that shows the logical capacity for cognitive operations exists earlier than acknowledged. these children are operating based on a simple cognitive schema that things that move are alive. He began the study by taking children of different ages and placing two lines of sweets. because if at four years old a child could not conserve quantity. He defined this field as the study of child development as a means of answering epistemological questions. Piaget believed he could test epistemological questions by studying the development of thought and action in children. The original idea was proposed by philosopher Immanuel Kant as innate structures used to help us perceive the world. 6 months old and 3 years. and especially the psychological origins of the notions and operations upon which it is based". and do not recover it until four and a half years old. symbolic schemata. it can be used to represent objects. genetic epistemology "attempts to explain knowledge. scenarios or sequences of events or relations.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 8/27 . the child will count the sweets to decide which has more.wikipedia. Moreover. the free encyclopedia One of Piaget's most famous studies focused purely on the discriminative abilities of children between the ages of two and a half years old.10/5/12 Jean Piaget . A schema (pl. This study also reveals that young children can be equipped with certain qualities for cognitive operations. Schemata A Schema is a structured cluster of concepts. its sociogenesis. on the basis of its history. which correlates more candy with a longer line of candy. According to Piaget. and operational schemata. 6 months they again discriminate correctly" (Cognitive Capacity of Very Young Children. 141). Genetic epistemology According to Jean Piaget. and four and a half years old.Wikipedia. children rely on their current cognitive structures to understand the world around them. depending on how logical the structure of the task is. Initially younger children were not studied. This attribute may be lost due to a temporary inability to solve because of an overdependence on perceptual strategies. schemata) is the mental framework that is created as children interact with their physical and social environments. and in particular scientific knowledge. but as they get older they lose this quality. The results show however that children that are younger than three years and two months have quantity conservation. 2 months old correctly discriminate the relative number of objects in two rows; between 3 years. many 3yearolds insist that the sun is alive because it comes up in the morning and goes down at night. Research also shows that children develop explicit understanding at age 5 and as a result. As a result Piaget created a field known as genetic epistemology with its own methods and problems. First. younger and older children may often interpret and respond to the same objects and events in very different ways because cognitive structures take different forms at different ages. one with the sweets in a line spread further apart. then a younger child presumably could not either. "Children between 2 years. or due to the inability for a four year old to reverse situations. He found that. Piaget (1953) described three kinds of intellectual structures: behavioural (or sensorimotor) schemata. p. Finally the study found that overall quantity conservation is not a basic characteristic of humans' native inheritance. At any age. 6 months they indicate a longer row with fewer objects to have "more"; after 4 years. en.
Although he started researching with his colleagues using a traditional method of data collection. The physical microstructure of "schemes" In his Biology and Knowledge (1967+ / French 1965). these concepts become refined and more detailed. However. At the time. and subsequently use this knowledge to solve more complex problems. interpret their own experiences and knowledge. there was much talk and research about RNA as such an agent of learning. and enhances understanding. which included: naturalistic observation.wikipedia. making sense of the world from a child’s perspective is a very complex and time consuming process. children use the process of assimilation and accommodation to create a schema or mental framework for how they perceive and/or interpret what they are experiencing. he was not fully satisfied with the results and wanted to keep trying to find new ways of researching using a combination of data. the early concepts of young children tend to be more global or general in nature. and confessed that this was beyond his area of expertise. he wrote a book called The Language and Thought of the Child. In doing this children create their own unique understanding of the world. adapts/modifies new information. Piaget tentatively hinted at possible physical embodiments for his abstract "scheme" entities. Gallagher and Reid (1981) maintained that adults view children’s concepts as highly generalized and even inaccurate. interactions. As a result. usually based on experience or prior knowledge. in order to have a less guided form of research that would produce more genuine results.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 9/27 . he did not offer any firm conclusions. and the psychiatric clinical examination. the free encyclopedia Behavioural schemata: organized patterns of behaviour that are used to represent and respond to objects and experiences. Piaget died in 1980. Operational schemata: internal mental activity that one performs on objects of thought. As Piaget developed new research methods. and maturity. Symbolic schemata: internal mental symbols (such as images or verbal codes) that one uses to represent aspects of experience. Research methods Piaget wanted to revolutionize the way research methods were conducted. which aimed to synthesize the methods he was en. In a neurological sense. Overall. Similarly. and by then the RNA theory had lost its appeal. With added experience. and Piaget considered some of the evidence. Schemata are: Critically important building block of conceptual development Constantly in the process of being modified or changed Modified by ongoing experiences A generalized idea.10/5/12 Jean Piaget .Wikipedia. These schemata are constantly being revised and elaborated upon each time the child encounters new experiences. According to Piaget. psychometrics. the brain/mind is constantly working to build and rebuild itself as it takes in.
which was a psychometric technique of research. in order to examine their thought processes (Mayer. 1987). p. Children would likely respond according to the way the research is conducted. Issues and possible solutions After conducting many studies. Soon after drawing conclusions about psychometric studies. it is very difficult to know with certainty if a child who has a conversation with a toy believes the toy is alive or if the child is just pretending. Piaget wanted to examine the limits of naturalistic observation.10/5/12 Jean Piaget .Wikipedia. For example. In his third book. as he thought it was insufficiently empirical (Mayer. The clinical method included questioning a child and carefully examining their responses in order to observe how the child reasoned according to the questions asked and then examine the child’s perception of the world through their responses. Piaget was able to find significant differences in the way adults and children reason; however. Piaget recognized the difficulties of his prior techniques and the importance of psychiatric clinical examination. The Child’s Conception of the World. In the experiment. as it is hard to know if a child is pretending to believe their thoughts or not. It was also difficult to know if the results of child examination reflected what children believed or if it is just a pretend situation. he was still unable to find the path of logic reasoning and the unspoken thoughts children had. The purpose of using such method was to examine the unconscious mind.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 10/27 . the free encyclopedia wrote a book called The Language and Thought of the Child. or the familiarity they have with the environment. Piaget recognized the difficulties of interviewing a child and the importance of recognizing the difference between "liberated" versus en. Piaget was the pioneer researcher to examine children’s conversations in a social context starting from examining their speech and actions where children were comfortable and spontaneous (Kose. Piaget argued that children and adults used speech for different purposes. Piaget also used the psychoanalytic method initially developed by Sigmund Freud. in order to understand a child’s reasoning. 372). which aimed to synthesize the methods he was using in order to study the conclusion children drew from situations and how they arrived to such conclusion. The researcher believed that the way clinical examinations were conducted influenced how a child’s inner realities surfaced. he experimented analyzing a child’s interpretation of a story. The clinical examination conducted for his third book provides a thorough investigation into a child’s thinking process. Development of new methods Piaget recognized that psychometric tests had its limitations. 2005). the child listened to a story and then told a friend that same story in his/her own words.wikipedia. Piaget started developing the clinical method of examination. The purpose of this study was to analyze the thinking process the boys had and to draw conclusions about the logic processes they had used. which could allow him to study a child’s intellectual development over time (Mayer. The purpose of this study was to examine how children verbalize and understand each other without adult intervention. as children were not able to provide the researcher with their deepest thoughts and inner intellect. the questions asked. 2005). as well as to continue parallel studies using different research methods. Psychoanalysis was later rejected by Piaget. The main idea was to observe how children responded and articulated certain situations with their own reasoning. In order to confirm his argument. An example of a question used to research such process was: "Can you see a thought?" (Mayer. 2005). He realized the difficulty of studying children's thoughts. 2005. Piaget administered a test in 15 boys with ages ranging from 10–14 yearsold in which he asked participants to describe the relationship between a mix bouquet of flowers and a bouquet with flowers of the same color.
is still largely clinical". Piaget also probably introduced confounding variables and social desirability into his observations and his conclusions based on his observations. While this clearly presents problems with the sample size. He observes a child's surroundings and behavior. Criticism of Piaget's research methods "The developmental theory of Jean Piaget has been criticized on the grounds that it is conceptually limited.Wikipedia. Development of research methods Piaget wanted to research in environments that would allow children to connect with some existing aspects of the world. 1969) Influence Despite his ceasing to be a fashionable psychologist. p.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 11/27 . The sample was also very homogenous. as all three children had a similar genetic heritage and environment. or philosophically and epistemologically untenable. after carefully analyzing previous methods. his initial sample sizes were inadequate. Later. 1992). have larger sample sizes during his later years. "Piaget is often criticized because his method of investigation. the magnitude of Piaget's continuing influence can be measured by the global scale and activity of the Jean Piaget Society. His theory of cognitive development has proved influential in many different areas: Developmental psychology Education and Morality Historical studies of thought and cognition en. the free encyclopedia "spontaneous" responses (Mayer. Piaget developed a combination of naturalistic observation with clinical interviewing in his book Judgment and Reasoning in the Child.10/5/12 Jean Piaget . 143) Piaget responded to criticism by acknowledging that the vast majority of critics did not understand the outcomes he wished to obtain from his research (Lourenço & Machado. however. The idea was to change the approach described in his book The Child’s Conception of the World and move away from the vague questioning interviews. rather than having an understanding of object permanence. As Piaget believed development was a universal process. Piaget’s theories of infant development were based on his observations of his own three children." (Lourenço & Machado. his children might have learned to behave in a manner that indicated they understood object permanence. This new approach was described in his book The Child’s Conception of Physical Causality. 1996. 2005) Piaget’s research provided a combination of theoretical and practical research methods and it has offered a crucial contribution to the field of developmental psychology (Beilin. where children were presented with dilemmas and had to think of possible solutions on their own. empirically false. Piaget was convinced he had found a way to analyze and access a child’s thoughts about the world in a very effective way. though somewhat modified in recent years. particularly in the formulation of his theory of infant development. 372). Piaget did. 2005. He then comes up with a hypothesis testing it and focusing on both the surroundings and behavior after changing a little of the surrounding. It is entirely possible Piaget conditioned his children to respond in a desirable manner. p.wikipedia. (Phillips. 1996). where a child's intellect was tested with questions and close monitoring. (Mayer. which holds annual conferences and attracts very large numbers of participants. so.
occurs as a result of experience. with the objects themselves and how they are acted upon. Learning. children developed best in a classroom with interaction. Thus. Good teaching. and "operate on" an object or idea. knowledge can also be "built" by building on simpler operations and structures that have already been formed. can also be supported by instructors in an educational setting. Piaget defined knowledge as the ability to modify. leading to a more ‘childcentered’ approach. Education and development of morality During the 1970s and 1980s. education means making creators. In Conversations with Jean Piaget.. Nevertheless. then. innovators—not conformists" (Bringuier. transform. he says: "Education. including both theory and practice. knowledge must be assimilated in an active process by a learner with matured mental capacity. both physical and logical.wikipedia. then. Learning. the free encyclopedia Evolution Philosophy Primatology Artificial Intelligence (AI) Developmental psychology Piaget is without doubt one of the most influential developmental psychologists. then..10/5/12 Jean Piaget . influencing not only the work of Lev Vygotsky and of Lawrence Kohlberg but whole generations of eminent academics. You have to make inventors. and thereby development constrains learning. 1980. such that it is understood by the operator through the process of transformation. Piaget's works also inspired the transformation of European and American education. p. whereby the learner balances new knowledge with previous understanding.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 12/27 . Understanding is scaffolded by the learner through the process of equilibration. Photo of the Jean Piaget Foundation with Pierre Bovet (18781965) first row (with large beard) and Jean Piaget (18961980) first row (on the right. According to Piaget. Although subjecting his ideas to massive scrutiny led to innumerable improvements and qualifications of his original model and the emergence of a plethora of neoPiagetian and postPiagetian variants. means trying to lead the child to resemble the typical adult of his society .. for most people. Piaget specified that knowledge cannot truly be formed until the learner has matured the mental structures to which that learning is specific. Piaget's original model has proved to be remarkably robust (Lourenço and Machado 1996). 1925 His theory of cognitive development can be used as a tool in the early childhood classroom. with glasses) in front of the Rousseau Institute (Geneva). Basing operations of an advanced structure on those of simpler structures thus scaffolds learning to build on operational abilities as they develop. but for me and no one else. Evidence of the effectiveness of a contemporary curricular design building on Piaget's theories of en. 132). is built around the operational abilities of the students such that they can excel in their operational stage and build on preexisting structures and abilities and thereby "build" learning.. thereby compensating for "transformation" of knowledge.Wikipedia. so that knowledge can build in complexity by scaffolded understanding.
a conceptual structure is build and aligned to individual children as they develop. that are not the direct product of adult teaching and that are often maintained in the face of adult wishes to the contrary" (Gallagher. cooperative relations provide the arena for the emergence of operations. Bruner: Vygotsky learning process is adoptive en. Here the knowledge that emerges is open. generalizable. consider the positions of others. power is more evenly distributed between participants so that a more symmetrical relationship emerges. which for Piaget requires the absence of any constraining influence. analyze. authentic forms of intellectual exchange become possible; each partner has the freedom to project his or her own thoughts. and fair and unfair. understand. exists. Vygotsky. flexible and regulated by the logic of argument rather than being determined by an external authority. where adults exercise a dominating influence over the growing child. Piaget and the Cognitivists The Cognitivists include Piaget. p. "the child is someone who constructs his own moral world view. and Bruner. Where there is constraint because one participant holds more power than the other the relationship is asymmetrical. such the mental processes of recognize. The curriculum works toward building a "central conceptual structure" of number sense in young children by building on five instructional processes. Similarly. the free encyclopedia developmental progression and the support of maturing mental structures can be seen in Griffin and Case's "Number Worlds" curriculum. Under these conditions.Wikipedia. create. 26). Piaget's influence is strongest in early education and moral education. including aligning curriculum to the developmental sequencing of acquisition of specific skills. proposed that morality developed out of peer interaction and that it was autonomous from authority mandates. and. Piaget). 2007). By outlining the developmental sequence of number sense. and defend his or her own point of view. 2006. The Moral Judgment of the Child. not parents. The Cognitivists' (e. was published in 1932 for two reasons: his use of philosophical criteria to define morality (as universalizable. introducing a fundamental distinction between different types of said relationships. reflect. Piaget's theory of morality was radical when his book. Piaget believed that children made moral judgments based on their own observations of the world. 2008; Psaltis & Duveen. the knowledge that can be acquired by the dominated participant takes on a fixed and inflexible form. Cognitivist (learning theory) is the theory that humans generate knowledge and meaning through sequential development of an individual’s cognitive abilities. Piaget refers to this process as one of social transmission. were a key source of moral concepts such as equality. By contrast. illustrating it through reference to the way in which the elders of a tribe initiate younger members into the patterns of beliefs and practices of the group. In such circumstances. 1978. and justice. Peers.10/5/12 Jean Piaget . who forms ideas about right and wrong. Piaget.wikipedia. In short. drawing on Kantian theory. This distinction acquired central importance in Jürgen Habermas' writings on communicative action.g. Piaget attributed different types of psychosocial processes to different forms of social relationships. and evaluate. According to Piaget. and is most often illustrated by the relations that form between peers (for more on the importance of this distinction see Duveen & Psaltis. reciprocity. it is through social transmission that children can acquire knowledge. or favorable conditions for the emergence of constructive solutions to problems. recall. importantly. Piaget believed in two basic principles relating to moral education: that children develop moral ideas in stages and that children create their conceptions of the world.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 13/27 . Piaget believed "the reconstruction of knowledge". in cooperative relations. apply. where children’s thinking is not limited by a dominant influence. and obligatory) and his rejection of equating cultural norms with moral norms.
The Cognitivists' (e. The learner requires scaffolding to develop schema and adopt knowledge from both people and the environment. Bruner: Vygotsky learning process is adoptive learning of techniques.. Origins en. coordinating actions and perceptions.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 14/27 . procedures. the free encyclopedia evaluate. This theory relates to early stages of learning where the learner solves well defined problems through a series of stages with assistance from an instructor. The learner requires assistance to develop prior knowledge and integrate new knowledge.g. Broadly speaking these models have mapped changes in morality. (Hallpike 1979. Non human development NeoPiagetian stages have been applied to the maximum stage attained by various animals. Fowler's stages of faith development Suzy Gablik's stages of art history Christopher Hallpike's studies of changes in cognition and moral judgment in prehistorical. Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory sequenced learning according to infancy [age 02: sensor motor]. The educators' role is pedagogical in that the instructor must develop conceptual knowledge by managing the content of learning activities. Piaget explains the ways in which characteristics are constructed that lead to specific types of thinking. For example spiders attain the circular sensory motor stage. 2004) Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development Don Lepan's theory of the origins of modern thought and drama Charles Radding's theory of the medieval intellectual development Jürgen Habermas's reworking of historical materialism. Piaget). intellectual life and cognitive levels against historical changes (typically in the complexity of social systems). Notable examples include: Michael Horace Barnes' study of the coevolution of religious and scientific thinking Peter Damerow's theory of prehistoric and archaic thought Kieran Egan's stages of understanding James W. Through a series of stages.wikipedia. archaic and classical periods .10/5/12 Jean Piaget . techniques. The purpose in education is to develop conceptual knowledge.Wikipedia. and structure to develop internal cognitive structure that strengthens synapses in the brain. Pigeons attain the sensory motor stage. This focus on scaffolded early learning and sequential development of mental processes defines the Cognitivists' learning theory. Historical studies of thought and cognition Historical changes of thought have been modeled in Piagetian terms.. organization. preschool [age 27: preoperational]. the ability to learn a concept is related to a child’s stage of intellectual development. According to Piaget. procedures. and algorithmic problem solving using Verbal/Linguistic and Logical/Mathematical intelligences. forming concepts. childhood [age 711: concrete operational] and adolescence [age 11+: formal operational].
Vygotsky introduced the term Zone of proximal development as an overall task a child would have to develop that would be too difficult to develop alone. Alan Kay used Piaget's theories as the basis for the Dynabook programming system concept. which explored for the first time all the elements of the graphical user interface (GUI). this challenged Piaget's theory that the hierarchy of learning development had to develop in succession. Primatology Piaget's models of cognition have also been applied outside the human sphere.wikipedia. Artificial intelligence Piaget also had a considerable effect in the field of computer science and artificial intelligence. 1981) analysed Acheulian and Oldowan tools in terms of the insight into spatial relationships required to create each kind. For example. the so called neoPiagetian theories of cognitive development maintained that Piaget's theory does not do justice either to the underlying mechanisms of information processing that explain transition from stage to stage or individual differences in cognitive development. Also.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 15/27 . at the Centre Royaumont pour une Science de l'Homme. it is also noted that the implications of his later work do indeed remain largely unexamined. On a more general level. are responsible for ascension from stage to stage.uk) (2005) suggests a large scale model for the emergence of a Piagetian intelligence. and some primatologists assess the development and abilities of primates in terms of Piaget's model. changes in information processing mechanisms. Wynn (1979. Philosophy Some have taken into account of Piaget's work.org. Robinson's Birth of Reason (http://www. These discussions led to the development of the Alto prototype. Vygotsky stressed the importance of a child's cultural background as an effect to the stages of development. Piaget was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language. Moreover. such as speed of processing and working memory.10/5/12 Jean Piaget . and influenced the creation of user interfaces in the 1980s and beyond. Because different cultures stress different social interactions. where he discussed his point of view with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin. Gary Drescher's MadeUp Minds: A Constructivist Approach to Artificial Intelligence Challenges Piaget's theory. the philosopher and social theorist Jürgen Habermas has incorporated Piaget into his work. however vital in understanding child psychology. did not go without scrutiny. A main figure whose ideas contradicted Piaget's ideas was the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. which was first discussed within the confines of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. 1980).prometheus. the free encyclopedia The origins of human intelligence have also been studied in Piagetian terms. or Xerox PARC. that said. Seymour Papert used Piaget's work while developing the Logo programming language. Yet. most notably in The Theory of Communicative Action.Wikipedia. According to these theories. The philosopher Thomas Kuhn credited Piaget's work with helping him to understand the transition between modes of thought which characterized his theory of paradigm shifts. differences between individuals in these processes explain why some individuals en. Shortly before his death (September.
so the difference that this makes to babies' performance on the AnotB task cannot be explained by Piagetian theory.wikipedia. salience of targets. 1954) [La construction du réel chez l'enfant (1950).000 citations in Google Scholar SuperClassics: More than 2. Trench. Trubner and Co. Moreover. waiting time and stance). For example Esther Thelen and colleagues found that babies would not make the AnotB error if they had small weights added to their arms during the first phase of the experiment that were then removed before the second phase of the experiment. 1932) [Le jugement moral chez l'enfant (1932)].10/5/12 Jean Piaget . 1953)]. Curiously. the following definitions have been used: Exemplars: More than 5. also translated as The Child's Construction of Reality (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1998). before he'd begun any research in psychology.Wikipedia.500 citations in Google Scholar Classics: More than 1. List of major works In the list below. differences between individuals in these processes explain why some individuals develop faster than other individuals (Demetriou. Piaget had published a novel at the age of 20. alternative theories of Child Development have been put forward.org/details/moraljudgmentoft005613mbp) (London: Kegan Paul. in which he stated what would later be the "conclusions" from decades of studying the development of intelligence in children. also translated as The Origin of Intelligence in the Child (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. and empirical findings have done a lot to undermine Piaget's theories. This strongly contradicts Piaget's view that children are very egocentric at this age. 1952) [La naissance de l'intelligence chez l'enfant (1936). The Moral Judgment of the Child (http://archive. en. and proposed that this could be better explained using a dynamic systems theory approach than using Piagetian theory.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 16/27 . Over time. Exemplars The Origins of Intelligence in Children (New York: International University Press. This minor change should not impact babies' understanding of object permanence. Superclassics The construction of reality in the child (New York: Basic Books. the free encyclopedia stage to stage. 1955)].000 citations in Google Scholar Major Works: More than 500 citations in Google Scholar Works of Significance: More than 250 citations in Google Scholar The references have been presented in order of their impact according to Google Scholar. Alison Gopnik and Betty Repacholi found that babies as young as 18 months old can understand that other people have desires. Thelen and colleagues also found that various other factors also influenced performance on the AnotB task (including strength of memory trace.. and that these desires could be very different to their own desires.
1950)]. The Psychology of Intelligence (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1925)]. 1928) [La Représentation du monde chez l'enfant (1926.W. B. "Piaget's theory" in P. 1958) [De la logique de l'enfant à la logique de l'adolescent (1955)]. 1962) [La formation du symbole chez l'enfant; imitation. The early growth of logic in the child (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Basic Books. Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. With Inhelder. 1970) [Psychologie et pédagogie (1969)]. Press. 1977) [L'evolution intellectuelle entre l'adolescence et l'age adulte (1970)]. 1973) [tr. 1962) [Le Langage et la pensée chez l'enfant (1923)] .). The Language and Thought of the Child (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. orig. Child's Conception of Geometry (New York.Wikipedia. pub. The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence (New York: Basic Books. 1964) [La genese des structures logiques elementaires (1959)].. Structuralism (New York: Harper & Row. image et représentation (1945)]. Six psychological studies (New York: Random House. The Child's Conception of Number (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1930) [La causalite physique chez l'enfant (1927)]. Mussen (ed. 1967) [Six études de psychologie (1964)]. B. Development and learning.W. The Psychology of the Child (New York: Basic Books. Major works Biology and Knowledge (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. the free encyclopedia Play.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 17/27 .10/5/12 Jean Piaget . of Ou va l'education (1971) and Le droit a l'education dans le monde actuel (1948)]. To understand is to invent: The future of education (New York: Grossman Publishers. pub.wikipedia. Dreams and Imitation in Childhood (New York: Norton. Norton. With Inhelder.. Vol.. orig. 1962) [La psychologie de l'enfant (1966. 1971) [Biologie et connaissance; essai sur les relations entre les régulations organiques et les processus cognitifs (1967)]. 1967). jeu et reve. 1983). 1960) [La Géométrie spontanée de l'enfant (1948)]. previously translated as The development of thought: Equilibration of cognitive structures (1977)]. The Equilibration of Cognitive Structures: The Central Problem of Intellectual Development (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. as an article. B. The Child's Conception of the World (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Handbook of Child Psychology. The child's conception of physical causality (London: Kegan Paul. Genetic epistemology (New York: W. Classics With Inhelder. 1985) [L'equilibration des structures cognitives (1975).. as an article. 1952) [La genese du nombre chez l'enfant (1941)]. 1. The Child's Conception of Space (New York: W. 1951) [La psychologie de l'intelligence (1947)]. (4th ed. en. Science of education and the psychology of the child (New York: Orion Press. 1970) [Le Structuralisme (1968)]. 1971). Norton. New York: Wiley.
1953). London: Routledge. (1995). relations avec l'intelligence (1961)]. "Commentary on Vygotsky". Hove. The following is a list of the major critiques and commentaries. Sociological Studies. J. Works of significance The Grasp of Consciousness: Action and concept in the young child (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Reidel. Studies in Reflecting Abstraction. The Mechanisms of Perception (New York: Basic Books. 1971) [L'image mentale chez l'enfant : études sur le développement des représentations imaginées (1966)].. New translations Piaget. 1981) [Les relations entre l'intelligence et l'affectivité dans le développement de l'enfant (1954)]. The Principles of Genetic Epistemology (New York: Basic Books. (2001).: Harvard University Press. 1972) [L'épistémologie génétique (1950)]. 1973) [Memoire et intelligence (1968)] The Origin of the Idea of Chance in Children (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. analyse génétique. theories de l'apprentissage (1979)]. Mental imagery in the child: a study of the development of imaginal representation (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. W. Piaget. 1972) [Psychologie et epistémologie (1970). (2000). With Garcia. Major commentaries and critiques Piaget inspired innumerable studies and even new areas of inquiry. 1966) [Épistémologie mathématique et psychologie: Essai sur les relations entre la logique formelle et la pensée réelle] (1961). 1977) [La prise de conscience (1974)].org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 18/27 . en. J. Intelligence and Affectivity. With Beth. Piaget. The Child's Conception of Time (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. New Ideas in Psychology 18: 241–59. E. 1969) [Le développement de la notion de temps chez l'enfant (1946)] Logic and Psychology (Manchester: Manchester University Press.10/5/12 Jean Piaget . organized using the same citationbased method as the list of his own major works (above). Memory and intelligence (New York: Basic Books. R. Language and learning: the debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky (Cambridge. Mass. J.Mathematical Epistemology and Psychology (Dordrecht: D.Wikipedia.). Psychology and Epistemology: Towards a Theory of Knowledge (Harmondsworth: Penguin.wikipedia. 1975) [La genèse de l'idée de hasard chez l'enfant (1951)]. the free encyclopedia Massimo PiattelliPalmarini (ed. Psychogenesis and the History of Science (New York: Columbia University Press. 1969) [Les mécanismes perceptifs: modèles probabilistes. UK: Psychology Press. These represent the most important and influential postPiagetian writings in their respective subdisciplines. 1980) [Theories du language. Their Relationship during Child Development (Palo Alto: Annual Reviews. 1989) [Psychogenèse et histoire des sciences (1983).
Computers. Comparison of human infants and rhesus monkeys on Piaget's AB task: evidence for dependence on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.  PascualLeone. W. (1964). 1–37.  Kohlberg. B. M. H. (1980). K. pp. (1973). Language and context: The acquisition of pragmatics. Beyond Modularity. (1989).org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 19/27 . L. M.  Works of significance Shatz.  Flavell. S. J. H. (1961). N. P. pp. S. 263–269. 5(2). (1970). J. The Development of Social Cognition. P. Thought and language. Wadsworth. (1973). C.  Shantz. 24–40. [617+395+384+111+167+32=1706] Meltzoff. R. Experimental Brain Research. E.  Duckworth. and Powerful Ideas. & Anderson. (1963). (1977). McV. The having of wonderful ideas.Wikipedia. Broke. H. [12630 citations] Classics Papert. & Gelman.  Minsky. (1971). (1973).10/5/12 Jean Piaget . & GoldmanRakic. Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. S. Piaget's theory of cognitive and affective development  KarmiloffSmith. J. The society of mind. A mathematical model for the transition rule in Piaget's developmental stages. (1989). (1963).  Schaffer. E. The Development of Communication Skills: Modifications in the Speech of Young Children as a Function of Listener. 74(1).  Diamond. Intelligence and Experience. U.  Singley. M. E.  Youniss. (1988). Piaget's theory of intellectual development.  en. The transfer of cognitive skill.wikipedia.  Hunt. A. J. E.  Bodner. P. J. Stage And Sequence: The CognitiveDevelopmental Approach To Socialization.  Case. J. (1985). (1989). R. (1969). the free encyclopedia Exemplars Vygotsky. G. A. L. M. The development of social attachments in infancy. pp. K. Interpersonal perception of young children: Egocentrism or Empathy? Developmental Psychology. The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. (1982). 38(5). Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Principles of perceptual learning and development. (1976). (1980). & Moore. & Opper. K. (1969). (1992). A.  Major works Bates. (1986). Parents and peers in social development: A SullivanPiaget perspective. J. (1975). Intellectual development: Birth to adulthood.  Fischer. & Emerson.  Gibson. R. M. Constructivism: A theory of knowledge.  Ginsberg. Mindstorms: Children. R. A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills.
(1973). & McDonald. R. 274–281. Creative collaboration. Geneva 192529 Professor of Psychology. R.  JohnSteiner. F. Sorbonne. V. Paris 195457 President. D. Sociology and the Philosophy of Science. A.  O'Loughlin. (1983). (1979).  List of Major Achievements Appointments 192125 Research Director (Chef des travaux). Developmental psychology and the childcentred pedagogy: The insertion of Piaget into early education.  Brainerd. C. (1984). Neuropsychological insights into the meaning of object concept development  Braine. A review of some Piagetian concepts. (1982). University of Geneva 192967 Director. (2000). Institute of Educational Sciences.wikipedia. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Moral orientation and moral development  Diamond. G. & Voneche. M. Geneva 193271 Director.  Gruber. & Rumain. Dialectic operations: The final period of cognitive development  Bandura. Geneva 197180 Emeritus Professor. the free encyclopedia Research.  Walkerdine. (1983). K. University of Lausanne 193951 Professor of Sociology. & DeClark. Logical reasoning.  PascualLeone.10/5/12 Jean Piaget . C. The Essential Piaget. B. (1980). Institut JeanJacques Rousseau.Wikipedia.  Hallpike. pp.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 20/27 . F. (1969). (1978). (1985).  Gilligan. University of Geneva 193851 Professor of Experimental Psychology and Sociology. Toward a sociocultural model of teaching and learning. Influence of social reinforcement and the behavior of models in shaping children's moral judgment. 74(1).  Kamii. International Centre for Genetic Epistemology. (1978). A. & Baillargeon. J. H. S. University of Geneva en. International Union of Scientific Psychology 195580 Director. (1987). C. 67(3). pp. International Bureau of Education. H. R.. R. University of Neuchatel 192939 Professeur extraordinaire of the History of Scientific Thought. Organismic processes for neoPiagetian theories: A dialectical causal account of cognitive development.  Karplus. J. The stage question in cognitivedevelopmental theory. University of Geneva 194071 Professeur ordinaire of Experimental Psychology. V. (1992). Rethinking science education: Beyond piagetian constructivism. University of Geneva 195264 Professor of Genetic Psychology. The foundations of primitive thought  Furth. Piaget and Knowledge  Gelman. H. (1997). Piaget's theory of intelligence. 24–40. Young children reinvent arithmetic: Implications of Piaget's theory  Riegel. Teaching for the development of reasoning. (1991). M. C. C.  Brainerd. (1963).
Wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 21/27 .wikipedia.10/5/12 Jean Piaget ." "The principal goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things. the free encyclopedia Honorary doctorates 1936 Harvard 1946 Sorbonne 1949 University of Brazil 1949 Bruxelles 1953 Chicago 1954 McGill 1958 Warsaw 1959 Manchester 1960 Oslo 1960 Cambridge 1962 Brandeis 1964 Montreal 1964 AixMarseille 1966 Pennsylvania 1966? Barcelona 1970 Yale Quotations "Intelligence is what you use when you don't know what to do. not simply repeating what other generations have done." "Intelligence organizes the world by organizing itself." See also Active learning Cognitive acceleration Cognitivism (learning theory) Constructivist epistemology Developmental psychology Fluid and crystallized intelligence Inquirybased learning Kohlberg's stages of moral development Psychosocial development Waterlevel task Collaborators Leo Apostel en.
(p. (1990). His sense of humor throughout the conference was a sort of international glue that flavored his lectures and punctuated his informal conversation. 1895. p. Baldwin.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 22/27 . Prospects: the quarterly review of comparative education XXIV (1/2): 311–327.piaget. 4.unesco. JSTOR 749910 (http://www. xi).jstor.pdf. ^ J.ibe. 2. ^ A Brief Biography of Jean Piaget (http://www.org/aboutPiaget. citing Freddie Mercury as a key influence upon his early work.biography. ^ von Glasersfeld.org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/publications/ThinkersPdf/piagetf.pdf) . Alberto (1994). 22) He is also an avid Queen fan. "An exposition of constructivism: Why some like it radical". ISSN 08839530 (//www.eb.com/eb/article9059885) Munari. ^ Verne N. wrote in the conference report of the Jean Piaget conferences about Piaget: "Although few of us had any personal contact with Piaget prior to the conference.eb. those who attended came to have the deepest and warmest regard for him both as a scientist and as a person. Biography. Journal for Research In Mathematics Education – Monograph 4: 19–29 & 195–210. Jean Piaget Society (Society for the study of knowledge and development) 6. http://www.org/stable/749910) .worldcat. We could hardly believe it when he came prepared for two weeks' stay with only his 'serviette' and a small Swissair bag.html) . Accessed 28 February 2012 5.org/issn/0883 9530) . "JEAN PIAGET (1896–1980)" (http://www. To sit at the table with him during a meal was not only an intellectual pleasure but a pure social delight.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Edgar Ascher Evert Beth Magali Bovet Guy Cellérier Paul Fraisse Rolando García Pierre Gréco JeanBlaise Grize Gil Henriques Bärbel Inhelder Benoit Mandelbrot Albert Morf Pierre Oléron Seymour Papert Maurice Reuchlin Hermina Sinclair deZwart Alina Szeminska Huê VinhBang Translators Eleanor R.com/people/jeanpiaget9439915) .10/5/12 Jean Piaget . An American en. Piaget was completely unsophisticated in spite of his international stature.ibe.com (http://search.wikipedia. 3. Duckworth Wolfe Mays Notes 1.M. Mental Development in the Child and the Race Macmillan.unesco. the conference director. E. Rockcastle (1964. ^ "Jean Piaget" (http://www. ^ "International Bureau of Education Directors" search.org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/publications/ThinkersPdf/piagetf.
^ Barnes. W. 7(1). D.163) ^ Hsueh. Vol. B. 30.1037/1093 4510. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. (6th.2. New Brunswick. 28. ^ Piaget.org/10. 15. (2010).org/10. 5.1037/00121649. Toronto. Jean.7. 11. Kaye. 29. Worth Publishers 2009 ^ Michael W. 'Where did you get that bag?' we asked. (2005). he had his serviette. E.).1037%2F10934510.html) ^ Guthrie. Ontario: John Wiley & Sons Canada. Thought and language. (2004). (2004). 21(1). A study of thinking. 10. 2nd ed. 1982. [Emergence of intelligence in the child.. Michael Horace (2000).1007%2FBF02687400) . The zeroeth Piaget. J. Ontario: Nelson Education Canada.org/10. 12. ^ Piaget. S. John W. (1992). Building number sense with Number Worlds: a mathematics program for young children. 9. ^ Vygotsky. 69(268269). (1960). J. J.1007/BF02687400 (http://dx.doi. J (1926). 19.doi.1177%2F0959354310361407) ^ Hsueh.org/10.org/10.S.7. 130135. Archives de Psychologie.1177/0959354310361407 (http://dx.10/5/12 Jean Piaget . Miller Theories of Developmental Psychology 5th Edition. In R.). Early Childhood Research Quarterly. ^ "Piaget. (2004). J. Understanding the landscape of teaching. & Willoughby. Developmental Psychology 28 (2): 191–204. ^ K. it when he came prepared for two weeks' stay with only his 'serviette' and a small Swissair bag. pp. Rockcastle (Eds. 32. 2003. 3 November 2008 search.1037%2F00121649.. 22. 173180. "He sees the development of children's concepts upon a background of sociology": Jean Piaget's honorary degree at Harvard University in 1936. 23. Chicago Press. U. Developmental psychology: Childhood and adolescence. (2011). ^ a b c Auger.. 'I had it in one of the others.S. J. doi:10. 17. doi:10. 2044. & Rich. "Piaget's enduring contribution to developmental psychology".28. The Mental and Social Life of Babies. 163189.163 (http://dx. 24..5. S. 9. The Hawthorne Experiments and the introduction of Jean Piaget in American Industrial Psychology. New Fetter Lane. NY: McGrawHill.doi. Y. ISBN 0195133897. Basing much of the reasoning upon the work of Jean Piaget.doi." Encyclopedia of Education. 31. J.. 19271936. larger bag crammed with botanical specimens. (1962). 5(2). 16. The process of education. I. Eysenck. ^ Santrock.com/view/8110860302020740be1e9b30. R. NJ: Transaction Press. Austin. Ripple a& V. Toronto.Wikipedia.28.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget . (2005). 20. ^ Patrica H. 25. History of Psychology. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.wikipedia. 18. L. The lost and found experience: Piaget rediscovered.2. La naissance de l’intelligence chez l’enfant.1037%2F10934510.baidu. ^ Bruner. and a third. 2008. The Constructivist.  (http://wenku.' he replied. ^ Siegel.com (http://search. 34(3): 234249.1. T.com (http://www. Ontario: Pearson Education Canada. Neuchatel: Delachaux et Nieslé. 33. (2002).1037/10934510. East Sussex: Psychology Press. D.. Y. S. ^ Bruner. Amazing new discovery: Piaget was wrong! Canadian Psychology.psypress. London: Routledge & Kegan. (2001). New York. 23/27 en. J. ^ Burman. M. ^ Gallagher. Y.2. 21." Encyclopædia Britannica. Potvin. (1993). "Participating in Piaget". MA: Harvard University Press.com/ek6/) . 1894898. (1971). 1998.1. (1953). P.E. 3962; Hsueh. 8. ^ Griffin.eb. An American would have hat at least two large suitcases.2. 14. D (1986). T. New York. NY: Cornell University. doi:10. Y. The learning theory of Piaget and Inhelder. (2007). & Reid. J. NY: Macmillan Reference USA. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. New York.N. Stages of thought: the coevolution of religious thought and science. Society 42 (2): 57–61. History of Psychology. Development and learning. F.A. ^ a b c Piaget.doi. J (1936). 19291932.20) ^ Hsueh. James W. Mississauga. (1964). Piaget Rediscovered: A Report on the Conference of Cognitive Studies and Curriculum Development (pp. Jean (18961980).com/eb/article9059885) ^ Valsiner. 720). the small Swissair bag.191) . & Mark. 26. (2005). 19. Cambridge. 16(1). ^ Shaffer. The language and thought of the child.191 (http://dx. ^ Naested. ^ Piaget. Theory & Psychology. "Piaget." ^ Beilin. (1981). Texas: ProEd. Ithaca. NY: Norton. Children. ^ Wood. doi:10. When Piaget left Berkeley. T Keane. 13. Curriculum theory and methods: Perspectives on learning and teaching. the free encyclopedia 7. Wood.20 (http://dx. The origin of intelligence in the child. doi:10.5. & Waldron. K. Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook. 27. Retrieved from psypress. H.eb. L. The relevance of education.
191 (http://dx. P.nlm. http://psycnet. ^ Spencer. (1992). (1996).1037/0012 1649.1037%2F00121649. The cognitive revolution in Western culture.wikipedia. Paris: Dunod. American Psychology just before Piaget.; Clearfield. apes. Suzi (1977). A world made by men: cognition and society. doi:10.33. the free encyclopedia 34. The educated mind: How Cognitive Tools Shape Our Understanding.191) .J. M. doi:10. 39.doi.16. doi:10. D. ^ Gablik. Origins of intelligence: the evolution of cognitive development in monkeys.1177%2F0959354307079306) . (1998).12 (http://dx. ISBN 8877961481.; Corbetta.org/journals/dev/33/1/12/) .apa.14678624.2.ncbi. "Piaget No 'Remedy' for Kuhn. (2008). 49. MadeUp Minds: A Constructivist Approach to Artificial Intelligence. Information Psychiatrique 68: 598–606.10/5/12 Jean Piaget .Wikipedia.org/10.16. disciple of Pierre Janet: Influence of behavior psychology and relations with psychoanalysis".) ^ Reported in 1971. 236. 50. New York: Rizzoli. ^ Kieran Egan (1997). ^ Repacholi. ^ McKinney.1111%2Fj.00955. "Piaget's enduring contribution to developmental psychology". G. jstor. Don (1989).1111/j.org (http://www. ISBN 0807816647. ^ Burman. 48. in Anuario de psicología. (2007). Gary (1991). discorso in Piaget.1177/0959354307079306 (http://dx.doi.com/? id=haCAIME9vnEC&pg=PA247&dq=Prehistory+and+cognitive+development) . 36.2.apa. ^ Damerow. and Development (Routledge).doi.2008. Evolution.14678624. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. (Note: This list provides "Varsovie" instead of Warsaw.2. Psychologie et épistémologie génétique: thèmes Piagétiens (Hommage à Jean Piaget avec une bibliographie complète de ses oeuvres).google. But the Two Should be Read Together: Comment on Tsou's 'Piaget vs. raco.org/10. M.33. doi:10. (2006). 1966. "Jean Piaget.cat/index. J.1162/posc. Piaget. 45.php/AnuarioPsicologia/issue/view/4930/showToc) ^ Noted on p. 196199. pp.; Schöner. 196 of Kessen. 38. en.org/10. AcirealeRoma: Bonanno.raco. ISBN 0847800822. 102.x) . Kaye. Psychological Science. 35. ^ LePan.google.. J. Michael L.gov/pubmed/17107442) . 47.1162%2Fposc. Psychology Today. AmannGainotti. Boston: MIT Press.12) . doi:10. F. H.org/pss/40062944) ^ La Construction du Réel Chez l'Enfant by Jean Piaget (1937) ^ Piaget. New York: Macmillan.1037/00121649. ISBN 033345796X. 160195.org/10. 7(4). Sue Taylor (1999). T.; Parker. 41.28.nih. ISBN 9780805822106. Developmental Psychology 3: 12–21.2006. J. J. W. Betty; Alison Gopnik (1997). Child Development 77 (6): 1521–1538.1037%2F00121649.org/10.28. November 1980. The source is p.2006. 40.1. ^ K. ISBN 0801860121.160 (http://dx.jstor. Experimenting in relation to Piaget: Education is a chaperoned process of adaptation. J.1. as this is the French name for the capital of Poland.org/journals/dev/33/1/12/. 42. P. 46.x (http://dx.; Ducret. 43. (1953) The Origins of Intelligence in Children. Beilin. ISBN 0226190366. Ordine e trasformazione: morale. mente.2008. Retrieved 24 March 2008. Charles (1985). Retrieved 29 October 2011.cat (http://www. ^ Burman. Progress in art. P.160) ^ Drescher. Developmental Psychology 28 (2): 191–204. References Aqueci. 16(2). 44. "Moving Toward a Grand Theory of Development: In Memory of Esther Thelen".com/? id=haCAIME9vnEC&pg=PA247&dq=Prehistory+and+cognitive+development.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 24/27 . Perspectives on Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. ISBN 0195133897. 4001200.; Ulrich. xviii of F. PMID 17107442 (//www. "Prehistory And Cognitive Development" (http://books. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ^ The list is certain only to 1966. and humans. [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. http://books.doi. T.2.00955. Bresson & M. de Montmollin. ^ Radding.doi. (1992).; Buchanan. (2003). Kuhn on Scientific Progress'". 37. as part of the proceedings of a celebration of Piaget's 70th birthday. "Early reasoning about desires: Evidence from 14 and 18montholds" (http://psycnet. B. Theory & Psychology 17 (5): 721–732. ISBN 9780262041201.
ISBN 0521367123.1037/h0091442 (http://dx.; Draney.G. T. Commons. (1981). M. "The early evolution of Jean Piaget's clinical method".) (1964). "Using Rasch Scaled Stage Scores To Validate Orders of Hierarchical Complexity of Balance Beam Task Sequences". Freeman.doi. Biology. Sokol (Eds. doi:10. H.ncbi. W. The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. Psaltis.doi. Carpendale.org/10. 257–290). Constructive evolution: Origins and development of Piaget's thought. F.362) .1002%2Fejsp. Hallpike.C. New Haven: Yale University Press. J. Lanham. ISBN 0060628669. R. C.; Pekker. Mahwah. E.103. (1980).10/5/12 Jean Piaget . Milano: Bruno Mondadori. Chapman. DC US: American Psychological Association.org/10. Social life and social knowledge: Toward a process account of development.1037%2Fh0091442) .; Duveen. ISBN 0847682439.362 (http://dx. M.org/10. ISBN 884249741X. K.1002/ejsp. S. Bringuier.143) . (2010).1037/0033295X. G. The development of mental processing. 179–269). Ripple. ISBN 1555420222. L.143 (http://dx. Van Nostrand Company. A. Cognitive development. ISBN 3406445128. R. (1986). New York: D.E. European Journal of Social Psychology 36 (3): 407–430. V. (1999). G. Kesselring. Trans. PMID 18480514 (//www. (2008).8. Psychological Review 103 (1): 143–164. (1986). J. Flavell. W.org/10.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. San Francisco: W. Lerner. "Social relations and cognitive development: The influence of conversation type and representations of gender". (1979). & Flouris.1. cognition and methods across the lifespan.1037%2F10934510. Gulati. Piaget's theory of knowledge: Genetic epistemology & scientific reason. A report of the conference on cognitive studies and curriculum development. (1996). doi:10. "Conversation types and conservation: Forms of recognition and cognitive development". (1994). Gattico. & Spanoudis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. "A philosopher's conception of Piaget: Piagetian theory reconsidered". (1985). I. M. The foundations of primitive thought.8. E. (2001). Mouyi. Demetriou. (1992).. Kamii. Messerly. A. Washington. Overton (Ed. (1969). H. Jean Piaget's enduring contribution to developmental psychology. Demetriou. In U. New York: Teachers College Press. San Francisco: JosseyBass. M. (2006). Hoboken. (2007). Kassotakis. Αthens. J. doi:10. J. Ivey. Piaget's conception of evolution: Beyond Darwin and Lamarck.doi. van Lieshout (Eds. G.gov/pubmed/17152748) . T. the free encyclopedia Beilin.1348/026151005X91415 (http://dx. C. R.4. A. Phillips.). O. (2010).1037%2F0033 295X..L. PMID 17152748 (//www. A. Mueller.N. London: Wiley. A.. (1967). C. (1987). ISBN 07167 05796. (1988).; Adams. The constructive role of asymmetries in social interaction.org/10. A century of developmental psychology (pp.doi. A. NJ: Wiley. Kitchener.; Dawson. (1998).Wikipedia. Jean Piaget. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Cornell University: School of Education.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 25/27 . Developmental therapy.; Goodheart. Mayer.1037/10934510. Fowler. Budwig & B.1348%2F026151005X91415) .M. K. 36– 55). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. Demetriou. In A. (2005). (Original work published 1977) ISBN 0226075036.wikipedia. Doise. N. Editorinchief: R. ISBN 0300035799.4. ISBN 0 442024134.308) . Methods in the study of lifespan human development: Issues and answers. The Origin of Intellect: Piaget's Theory. Piaget rediscovered. John L.).gov/pubmed/18480514) . doi:10.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. A.R. München: Beck.nih. C.; Duveen.1. G. doi:10. Young children reinvent arithmetic: Implications of Piaget's theory. Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology 7 (1): 52–57. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.doi. Jean Piaget.nih. Kose. ISBN 019 8231962.ncbi. History of Psychology 8 (4): 362–382. K. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 25 (1): 79–102. M. M. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. G. Conversations with Jean Piaget (B. Volume 1 of the Handbook of lifespan development (pp. Duveen.308 (http://dx. & Rockcastle. Journal of Applied Measurement 9 (2): 182–99. & Psaltis. Lourenço. F.; Machado. J. (2006) Μάθηση & Διδασκαλία . en. Nesselroade. Life span developmental psychology (pp. In W. (2008).103.nlm. (Eds. J. C. G. M. Psaltis.nlm. "In defense of Piaget's theory: A reply to ten common criticisms".
inchief). Smith. Melbourne: Ondwelle. Melbourne: Ondwelle. Critical readings on Piaget. L..DevPsy.com/piaget languageandthoughtofthechild) a brief introduction The Moral Judgment of the Child (http://www. Jean Piaget.1016/S00472484(81)800462 (http://dx.) (1996).. External links Jean Piaget Society (http://www. Cambridge.htm) and the International Conference on Education (http://www.edu/~campber/piaget. (1979). Journal of Human Evolution 10 (7): 529–541.unesco. Husén & T. Genetic epistemology: Piaget's theory. ISBN 0674667166.unesco.prometheus.org/topics/piaget.htm) by Jean Piaget (1955) Piaget's role in the International Bureau of Education (http://www. ISBN 0415044081. ondwelle. R.com (http://www.com/OSM02. to the Selecting/Editing of ncRNA. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415133173.pdf) [Also in French: ondwelle.info/learning/piaget. Jean Piaget @ Teaching & Learning Developmental Psychology (http://www. (1994). (Ed.marxists.com (http://www. Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique (http://hubcap.J. ISBN 0957773714 Traill.com/FrSM02. (Ed. R. (2005b / 2008) Thinking by Molecule. Cornell University: School of Education. Vonèche. Wynn.htm) by Jean Piaget (1962) Piaget's Development Theory (http://www.butlerbowdon..htm) Genetic Epistemology (http://www. a 4minute clip from a documentary film used primarily in higher en. R. the free encyclopedia studies and curriculum development. ondwelle. (1993).ondwelle.pdf) Traill.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/piaget2.com/videoplay? docid=9014865592046332725) . ISBN 0863772706. Piaget's The Language and Thought of the Child (1926) (http://www. doi:10.J.doi.ch/piaget/Presentations/presentg. (2001).uk) ) Smith.archive. (2005).N. Piaget before Piaget.org/organization/director/Piaget/Dir_Piaget.org/) .ibe.). Melbourne: Ondwelle.clemson.htm) by Jean Piaget (1968) Comments on Vygotsky (http://www.com (http://www. Hove.. Palmer (Ed..10/5/12 Jean Piaget . (Available online at prometheus.).Wikipedia. MA: Harvard University Press.org/archive/vygotsky/works/comment/piaget.pdf) Vidal. Piaget as a scientist with resources for classes. Robinson. Necessary knowledge: Piagetian perspectives on constructivism. T. In J.unige.ondwelle.org. "The intelligence of Oldowan hominids". (1981). UK: Lawrence Erlbaum.learningandteaching. Postlethwaite (Eds. Wynn.org/10. (2005a) .. In T.1016%2FS00472484%2881%29800462) . R.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/piaget. Traill.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 26/27 . (1985).ibe. 50 modern thinkers on education: From Piaget to the present.html) . .piaget.R. L.) (1992). extensive summary of work and biography.org. Prometheus Research Group.R. 4). "The intelligence of later Acheulean hominids".org/policy/ice.html) by Robert Campbell (2002). L. society for the study of knowledge and development. Synapse.ondwelle. International encyclopedia of education (Vol. J. L.. Smith.com/OSM01.wikipedia. F. Smith. A. or both? — From Piaget's Schema.uk (http://www.marxists. Jean Piaget: Critical assessments (4 Vols.html) .org/details/moraljudgmentoft005613mbp) by Jean Piaget (1932) The Construction of Reality in the Child (http://www. London: Routledge. The birth of reason. London: Routledge.R.google. The Jean Piaget Archives (http://www. Oxford: Pergamon. T. Man (ns) 14: 371–391. with full bibliography. (2000) Physics and Philosophy of the Mind.htm) Piaget's Developmental Theory: An Overview (http://video.marxists.