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Michigan Department of Education Michigan Team Nutrition Grants Coordination and School Support E-mail: MDE-SchoolNutrition@michigan.gov
A. B. C. D. E. F.
Selection……………………………………………………………………………….….... Page 1 Important First Steps Page 2 USDA MEMO – School Garden Q&A’s Page 3 How to Start a School Garden Page 5 Produce Options for School Gardens Page 8 Annual Cooking Herbs Page 11 Perennial Cooking Herbs Page 13
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K.
Storage, Preparation, and Culinary Techniques……..………………………. Page 16 Tips for Storing Fruits and Vegetables Page 17 Fresh Produce Safety for Schools Page 18 Fruit and Vegetable Summary Page 20 Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques Page 21 Step-by-Step Preparation Tips for Each Vegetable Page 26 Ideas for Steaming Fruits and Vegetables Page 29 Tips for Enhancing Flavors Page 30 Flavor Enhancers Page 31 Seasoning Vegetables with Herbs and Spices Page 34 Freezing Vegetables Page 35 Using Dehydration to Preserve Fruits and Vegetables Page 39
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M.
Nutrition…………………………………………………..………………………………..Page MyPyramid USDA Food Intake Patterns Page Vitamin and Mineral Summary Page Functions of “Shortfall” Nutrients Page Summary of the Nutrient Contribution of Each Food Group Page Food Sources of Potassium Page Food Sources of Vitamin E Page Food Sources of Iron Page Non-Dairy Food Sources of Calcium Page Dairy Sources of Calcium Page Food Sources of Vitamin A Page Food Sources of Magnesium Page Food Sources of Dietary Fiber Page Food Sources of Vitamin C Page
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A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M.
Recipes..…………………………………………………..………………………………..Page Seasonal Fruits and Vegetables Page USDA Recipes for Schools Page Farm to School Cookbook Page Center for Disease Control Recipe Lookup Page Minnesota Farm to School Toolkit for Food Service Page VT FEED's Guide for Using Local Foods in Schools Page New Hampshire Fruit and Veggie Quantity Recipe Cookbook Page School Garden Salad with Chickpeas Page Garden Vegetable Rice Salad Page Garden Tomato Pasta Page Broccoli and Herb Frittata Page Oven Roasted Potato and Kale Gratin Page !NOT! Fried Rice Page
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS SINCERE APPRECIATION FOR CRITICAL FEEDBACK
Kathy Gutowski, Manistee Area Public Schools Katie McConkie, Lamphere Schools JoAnn Pagano, Taylor School District Deborah Grischke, United Dairy Industry of Michigan Norm Lownds, 4-H Children’s Garden, Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden Becky Henne, Michigan State University Extension Lisa Myers, Michigan State University Extension Colleen Matts, Michigan State University Adam Montri, Michigan State University Whitney Vance, Michigan Department of Education Stacy Sheldon, Michigan Department of Education This project has been funded at least in part with Federal funds from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the view or policies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. In accordance with Federal law and U.S. Department of Agriculture policy, this institution is prohibited from discriminating on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington DC 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. State Board of Education Kathleen N. Straus, President John C. Austin, Vice President Carolyn L. Curtin, Secretary Marianne Yared McGuire, Treasurer Nancy Danhof, NASBE Delegate Elizabeth W. Bauer Reginald M. Turner Casandra E. Ulbrich Ex-Officio Jennifer M. Granholm, Governor Michael P. Flanagan, Superintendent of Public Education
This MyGarden School Meals Resource was developed to be a supplement to the MyGarden Nutrition Education Toolkit. The MyGarden Toolkit contains K-12 lessons that are written with content expectations, nutrition education, Dietary Guidelines and USDA Core Messages integrated into math, science, social studies and English Language Arts. The MyGarden Toolkit has 60 lessons tied to school gardens. As food service professionals, it is important for you to be involved in the nutrition education program at your school. A school garden can be a link to nutrition education and produce grown in the garden can be utilized in recipes for nutrition education and teach students how consumption of produce from the school garden can lead to healthier students. The MyGarden School Meals Resource is designed to teach school nutrition professionals how to link their school meal program with the school garden. The Module was developed using existing resources. Each resource is cited to allow the reader to explore the subject matter further. It contains four sections. Section One: provides information on how to start a school garden. It also gives guidance as to where fruits, vegetables, and herbs can be grown. It also has an extensive listing of annual and perennial herbs, detailing what foods and recipes they complement. Section Two: provides resources on storage, preparation, and culinary techniques used to utilize produce grown in the school garden. It also provides information on how to freeze or dehydrate produce should a surplus occur. Section Three: provides information on how incorporation of fresh produce can provide important nutrients to students. Section Four: provides recipes utilizing produce that can be easily grown in the school garden. Recipes come from United States Department of Agriculture Recipes for Schools and the Massachusetts Farm to School Cookbook. Other recipes are also included.
Section 1: Selection Contents
A. Important First Steps B. USDA - Memo C. How to Start a School Garden D. Produce Options for School Gardens E. Annual Cooking Herbs F. Perennial Cooking Herbs
Section 1: Selection
A. Important First Steps
Important First Steps
Prior to linking the school garden with the school meals by using produce grown in the garden, it is important to check with your local health department to ensure it is allowable and/or appropriate food safety practices are followed in the school garden in school meals. Contact your local health department:
B. USDA MEMO – School Garden Q&A’s
C. How to Start a School Garden
How to Start a School Garden
School gardens are effective learning tools that create opportunities for our children to discover fresh food, make healthier food choices and become better nourished. Gardens also offer dynamic, beautiful settings in which to integrate every discipline, including science, math, reading, environmental studies, nutrition and health. There are many types of plants that can be grown in a garden including those that produce edible fruits and vegetables. The following tips will help you get started with your own project. ....................................................................................................................
Organize a Garden Committee and Support Base
Include administration, teachers, parents, grounds supervisor, and students in the planning process. Get permission before planning to plant a garden on school property. Define specific talents and expertise of each member of the committee and support group. List specific needs/wants and have individuals commit to those areas. Establish a projects list, realistic timeline for completion of tasks, and specific objectives for students in the garden. Visit successful school gardens to get ideas and ask questions. Enlist the expertise of your county’s Cooperative Extension Service or a Master Gardner Program. ....................................................................................................................
Select a Garden Site
A good site is easily accessible, receives direct sunlight for 6 to 7 hours daily, is clear of trees and roots, and has good water drainage. Check for proximity of water source. Call local utilities and underground utilities. school district for existence and location of
Design your Garden
Start small to develop a general feel for the garden. Things to consider include: individual class beds, theme gardens, a tool shed, a green house, and fencing. Sketch out a plan for the entire area including: beds for annual crops of vegetables and flowers; theme gardens for butterfly and larval plants; medicinal and culinary herbs; teas; edible flowers; an orchard area; permanent areas to include native plants and berry patches (habitats for birds, insects, snakes and frogs). Be sure to include composting and worm bins, a tool shed, benches and a shaded outdoor classroom. If necessary, divide the project into phases as funds and energy permit. Make sure paths are wheelchair accessible – 36” wide. ....................................................................................................................
Determine Cost of Labor and Materials
Organic planting mix for raised planters. Multiply bed length times width times depth in feet, and divide by 27 to get number of cubic yards of soil needed. Soil amendments for in-ground planting. Add 4 to 6 inches of compost to well-dug soil and mix with existing soil. Hardware cloth (1/4 inch wire mesh) to line raised beds where moles are a problem. Wood chips or other materials for garden paths. Most tree companies are glad to donate chips. Irrigation components and controllers. You can use simple, non-electrical timers, or battery operated controllers, costing $20-$30 and $40-$50 respectively. Seeds and plants. Suggested tool list (minimum): small trowels – 1 per student; several watering cans; 3–4 shovels; 3-4 turning forks; wheelbarrow; small buckets; 1-2 hoes; 1-2 rakes; plant labels are good art projects; hoses and gentle spray nozzles. ...................................................................................................................
Determine start-up and maintenance costs, and what funds are immediately available. Is there a system established with the school regarding accounting? Determine who will keep track of the budget.
Make a list of needed items and a list of possible local resources – PTA, parents, community businesses, and local vendors. Obtain a list of grant proposals; determine who will research, write and facilitate the grant. ....................................................................................................................
Schedule and publicize community work days, with rain dates if necessary; follow up with a phone tree. Have students make posters to put around school with work dates. For building projects, identify an experienced carpenter or builder in the group to organize workers. Identify those with plumbing, electrical and irrigation knowledge and skills. Ask volunteers to bring needed tools including saws, hammers, post hole diggers, wheelbarrows, shovels, spades, pickaxes, digging bars, and spading forks (depending on tasks being done). Remove any unwanted current vegetation from the garden site. Move native plants or current landscaping to another appropriate site on school grounds. DO NOT USE HERBICIDES of any kind to kill weeds. They are toxic not only to weeds, but also to our watersheds and our children! If mole/vole control is needed, install ¼” hardware cloth 12 inches deep for in-ground planting or use raised planters with ¼” hardware cloth on bottom. If planting directly in the ground, turn over soil to depth of 18”, adding 4” to 6” of soil amendments as needed (based on soil type). If constructing raised planters, fill with organic planting mix. Install drip irrigation system and controller. Spread wood chips or other material on garden paths. Build fence and gate; install sign. Contact your local Cooperative Extension agency for advice on appropriate plants, planting schedules, seeds and seedling sources. Have students start planting. Make sure that the students are involved in each step of the process whenever possible!
Adapted from: How to start a School Garden, Environmental Education Council of Marin, Marin Food Systems Project: Action Guide for Starting a Food Systems Project at Your School
MOST IMPORTANT – Have Fun!
D. Produce Options for School Gardens
Produce Options for School Gardens
Herbs and Spices Annual: Basil Chervil Cilantro Dill Marjoram Parsley Savory (Summer) Perennial: Bay Laurel Chives Fennel Lemongrass Lovage Mint Oregano Rosemary Sage Savory (Winter) Tarragon Thyme Vegetables Arugula Asian Greens Beans (green or wax) Beets Broccoli Cabbage Carrots Cauliflower Collard Greens Corn Cucumbers Edamame Eggplant X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Cold Cold Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Cold Warm Warm Warm Warm Containers (Indoor) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Green House X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Hoop House X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Raised Bed X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Garden Plot X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Warm or Cold Season* Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm Warm
Greens (beet, collard, mustard, turnip) Kale Lettuce, Iceburg Leeks Onions Parsnips Peas Peppers (sweet, varieties) Peppers (hot, varieties) Potatoes, white or sweet Pumpkins Radishes Rutabaga Salad Greens (mesclun, baby greens, etc.) Scallions (green onions) Spinach Squash, Summer Squash, Winter Tomatoes Fruit Apple Blueberries Cherries Grapes Melons, Variety Peaches Pear Plum Raspberries Rhubarb Strawberries
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1. Some varieties of vegetables such as summer squashes, tomatoes and even cabbage, come in varieties that are especially selected for container gardens (smaller and compact) and would be worth their selection for potted plants. 2. Some crops have shallow roots (especially perennials) and need to be watered frequently. Extra monitoring may be the best approach, such as blueberries, since they have shallow roots and are a perennial. 3. Pots that are outside (vs. hoop/greenhouse) should be either weighted down with rocks or nestled with each other to reduce the risk of blowing over and breaking in windy times. 4. Even in pots, trellises are a good way to expand growing space and keep fruit off the ground. This reduces disease, promotes even ripening, and reduces the disease known as stepinapon (being stepped on). 5. No matter what type of garden you have (from pots to greenhouse), it’s good to have good quality soil (one that includes compost or rotted leaves - aka organic matter) to help keep the moisture even. This is especially important in pots, as they have limited soil, and greenhouse plants, since it can warm up very quickly in a greenhouse and dry out the plants. 6. Note that lemongrass and basil are extra sensitive to cold temps. *Warm season items can only be grown indoors or during frost-free months. Cold season items can be grown in indoor containers, greenhouses or hoop houses most of the year.
E. Annual Cooking Herbs
Annual Cooking Herbs
Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Sweet basil is one of the most popular herbs used in cooking and grows easily from seed sown directly in the garden after all danger of frost has passed. Sweet basil reaches about 18 inches in height. However, there are many basil cultivars and some reach up to three feet tall! Typical spacing for basil plants is 12 inches between plants, and 2 to three feet between rows. Pinching basil stems promotes bushy, compact growth. Quick to harvest, leaves can be cut as early as 6 weeks following planting. Cut basil, leaving 4 to 6 leaves above ground. Remove flower spikes before bloom to ensure good leaf production and full flavor. Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) Except for its lighter green leaves, chervil closely resembles parsley and is used in much the same way. Like many other annual herbs, chervil seed can be sown directly into the garden when all danger of frost is past. Chervil grows up to 24 inches tall. Small seedlings should be thinned to three to 4 inches apart. Harvest chervil leaves just before flowers blossom. To keep foliage dense, remove flowers before they bloom. Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) Cilantro is widely used in both Latin and Southeast Asian dishes but is not to be confused with Vietnamese coriander (Polygonum odoratum) which is a perennial. Still as well as using the greens, cilantro seed can be ground and then is known as the spice, coriander. Cilantro goes to seed quickly when temperatures rise. Sow seeds directly into the garden at 2-week intervals to keep a fresh supply of cilantro. Plants grow to about 2-feet tall, but leaves can be harvested when the plant reaches about 6 inches in height. Thin seedlings to 7 to 10-inches apart.
Dill (Anethum graveolens) Probably the most popular use of this fragrant herb is in dill pickles. However, the slender shoots also make a tasty addition to salads, vegetables, and main dishes like fish. Sow seed into the garden when all danger of frost has passed in spring. Dill grows about 2 to 3 feet high and quickly goes to seed in the summer heat. Pick stems just as flowers bloom. Dill is a prolific reseeder. Seeds can be used either dried or fresh. Swallowtail butterfly larva (large green caterpillars) feed on dill, so it’s best to plant more than you believe you’ll use! Marjoram (Origanum majorana) When looking for sweet marjoram, you may find it classed as Majorana hortensis and Majorana majorana as well as Origanum majorana. This petite annual reaches only 12-inches in height. Although often substituted for oregano, a pleasing fragrance and velvety gray foliage make sweet marjoram a popular favorite as an ornamental herb as well as a culinary herb. Sow seeds outdoors in early spring when soil temperatures reach about 60°F. Sweet marjoram is also a naturally sweet addition to and indoor herb garden. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) Parsley is actually a biennial, but you’ll have the best luck growing it if you treat it as an annual and plant it every spring. Although it is aggravatingly slow at germinating, the best way to propagate parsley is through seed. For best results start seeds indoors 6 to 8 weeks before you expect the last frost. Since it reaches only a foot tall, parsley is also and excellent plant for your indoor herb garden. (Summer) Savory (Satureja hortensis) Savory comes in both perennial and the annual summer savory. Summer savory grows up to 18 inches tall. Foliage is green with a bronze tone and a peppery flavor that makes a “spicy” herbal addition to cooking. Sow summer savory seed into your spring herb garden. Because of its petite size, summer savory is also a candidate for indoor culinary herb gardens.
Adapted from: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/18995660/How-to-grow-cooking-herbs
F. Perennial Cooking Herbs
Perennial Cooking Herbs
Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis) Bay laurel is a small evergreen tree and the source of the bay leaf. Frequently not hardy as a young plant, bay laurel is an excellent choice for container growing. They require an annual pruning to keep them from reaching their standard 40-foot height. However, generally the size of the pot controls the size of the tree. When planted in a 1-foot diameter pot, the bay laurels generally reach only about five feet in height. With only regular watering, bi-monthly fertilization, and annual top dressing of compost or nutrient rich soil, the bay laurel will thrive in the same container for up to 6 years. Move pots indoors in winter in a cool area where they receive indirect light. Bay laurels are normally available in autumn or mid-spring from nurseries and garden centers. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) Native to the Orient, chives betray their flavor with a distinctive yet subtle onion-like fragrance. Propagated easily by seed or division, chives grow in grassy clumps from 10 to 18 inches tall and are prolific at self-seeding when allowed to go to seed. Harvest chive leaves at about 2 inches from the ground. As with many other herbs, its best to harvest chives before they go to bloom. Garlic chives (Allium tuberosum) have a garlic scent and flavor. Their leaves are flatter and longer than those of Allium schoenoprasum. After harvest, preserve either type of chives by either drying or freezing. Fennel (Foeniculum officinalis) Fennel is a perennial herb that looks like dill, but has a very distinctive licorice scent and flavor. Fennel is best grown in a patio pot place in full sun. The herb grows up to 4 feet tall and self-seeds to the point of being quite invasive. Use young fennel leaves with fish, Italian dishes. Seeds are used in many sauces and also to flavor sausage. Like, dill, fennel also attracts swallowtail butterflies.
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Lemon grass is an aromatic tropical grass that provides the subtle taste and smell of lemon with a bright edge of ginger. Lemon grass grows in cascading clumps that can reach up to 6-feet high and 3-feet in diameter. It’s usually propagated by bulb planting or division of a mature clump. The sharp blades are ready for harvest when they are about ¼ to ½ inch in diameter. Mint (Mentha) Many a gardener has fallen in love with the fragrances of fresh mint cultivars, only to find that in a season or two, their garden is overrun with the stuff! Spearmint (Mentha spicata) and peppermint (Mentha x piperita) are the two most popular mints to grow. Almost all mints are hardy perennials, vigorous growers, and diligent reseeders. Although their fragrance is absolutely wonderful, mint really does need its own little corner of the world. One way to keep mint in check is to regularly harvest leaves before it has a chance to blossom. Propagate mint by division and plant transplants in sunken clay pots to keep them from spreading out of bounds! Oregano (Origanum vulgare)
Oregano, although known as wild marjoram, has coarser leaves and a fragrance more similar to thyme than sweet marjoram. Plants grow to 2 feet in height and adapt well to containers. Although oregano is a perennial, beds need to be replanted every 3 to 4 years when stems become woody. Propagate oregano either by seed or by division. Unlike most cooking herbs, oregano leaves are their most flavorful after they have been dried. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) The quickest way to grow rosemary is from small plants purchased at your favorite nursery. Although rosemary seed can be sown directly into the garden, seed is slow to germinate and beginning growth is slow as well. Because rosemary is hardy in only warmer climates (zones 8-10), most gardeners prefer to grow it in outdoor pots and bring it indoors during the cold season. However, before bringing rosemary indoors, do remember to acclimate it in a “reverse” hardening off. Bring it in for short times and set it back out again, increasing the indoor length of time slowly for a couple of weeks. Overwinter put your rosemary in a cool area of your home. A mature rosemary plant can reach from 4 to 6-feet tall and be nearly as wide.
Sage (Salvia officinalis) The distinctive scent and flavor of sage almost spells stuffing to your senses! Sage is a popular cooking herb widely used in poultry stuffing and as a flavor for soups and stews. Depending on cultivar, mature sage reaches from 2 to 4 feet in height. Colorful foliage that ranges from gray green to deep purple, makes sage an attractive addition to an herb garden as well as a flavorful one to your recipes. (Winter) Savory (Satureja montana) Although winter savory isn’t as “sweet” as summer savory, it is still a favorite herb for seasoning meat dishes. Also different from its annual relative, winter savory is a woody perennial that reaches from 1 to 2 feet-tall. Winter savory is most often propagated from cutting, although it also grows from seed. Nearly an evergreen, winter savory leaves can be harvested at almost any time, but best retain their pungent flavor when dried and stored for winter use. Tarragon Tarragon is an International favorite. French tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculoides), and Mexican tarragon (Tagetes lucida) are used for seasoning vinegars, butters, rice, vegetables, and nearly all types of meat. French tarragon is a woody perennial that reaches 2 feet high and is propagated from stem cuttings or division. Of the three varieties of tarragon, French tarragon is the most popular. Russian tarragon is also a perennial but is distinguished by coarser growth and a more bitter taste than French Tarragon. Mexican tarragon is actually the mint marigold. Because it is heat and drought resistant, it is often grown in warm climates as a substitute for French or Russian cultivars. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) The woody growth of this low growing perennial adds to it charm. Thyme’s wiry stems generally reach no more than 10 inches high. Both the gray-green leaves and lilac tinted flowers are very aromatic, but for cooking, it’s best to cut stems when the first flowers begin to bloom. Thyme is propagated by cuttings, division, and direct seeding. Thyme is at home as a bed edging or an addition to a rock garden and is comfortable in an indoor garden as well.
Adapted from: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/18995660/How-to-grow-cooking-herbs
Section 2: Storage, Preparation, and Culinary Techniques Contents
A. Tips for Storing Fruits and Vegetables B. Fresh Produce Safety for Schools C. Fruit and Vegetable Summary D. Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques for Fruits, Vegetables, and Salads E. Step-by-Step Preparation Tips for Each Vegetable F. Steaming Fruits and Vegetables G. Tips for Enhancing Flavors H. Flavor Enhancers I. J. Seasoning Vegetables with Herbs and Spices Freezing Vegetables
K. Using Dehydration to Preserve Fruits and Vegetables
Section 2: Storage, Preparation, and Culinary Techniques
A. Tips for Storing Fruits and Vegetables
Tips for Storing Fruits and Vegetables
1. Refrigerate ripe fruits and vegetables with exceptions of potatoes, bananas, and dry onions. 2. Store produce at a temperature of 40°F to 45°F. 3. Store produce that tends to lose moisture rapidly, such as lettuces and greens in containers to help minimize moisture loss. 4. Wrap fresh herbs in damp paper or plastic bags to help reduce wilting and store at 36°F to 45°F. 5. Cover leafy herbs, such as basil, watercress, and parsley with plastic wrap; place in a jar of water; and store in the cooler. 6. Most produce should not be peeled, washed, or trimmed until just before it is used. Leafy tops of vegetables such as carrots or beets are exceptions and should be removed and discarded. You need to leave 1 inch of the leafy top on the produce. 7. Some fruits such as bananas, avocados, apples, and melons absorb odors and should be stored separately from other fruits and vegetables to prevent odors from permeating other foods. Containers should be aired regularly. 8. Some fruits and vegetables, such as onions, garlic, lemons, and melons give off odors that permeate other foods. 9. Refrigerate melons immediately after they have been cut. 10.Store dried fruits in air-tight containers to maintain their flavor. Even though they may seem completely dry, they still have about 30% moisture.
Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual http://www.nfsmi.org/documentlibraryfiles/PDF/20080213030405.pdf Source: Adapted Culinary Institute of America. (2000). Fruits and Vegetables, Grains and Legumes. Techniques of Healthy Cooking. New York. John Wiley & Sons.
B. Fresh Produce Safety for Schools
Fresh Produce Safety for Schools
Fruits and vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet, and introducing children to them in schools may help to improve their present and future health. It’s important to handle fresh produce safely to reduce the risks of foodborne illness. The following tips will help minimize the chance of cross-contamination of produce in your programs. These tips are part of the farm to fork continuum. ........................................................................................................................... Receiving Check produce for freshness by randomly examining the entire contents of a box rather than just the items on the top. If a product does not meet your standards of freshness, refuse to accept it. Accept only produce that is not bruised or damaged. When selecting fresh-cut produce—such as apple slices or bagged mixed salad greens—choose or accept only those items that have been kept cool. Use a food thermometer to ensure the temperature is 41ºF or lower upon delivery. Clean Produce Wash all fresh fruits and vegetables thoroughly with cold running water—never in standing water—before serving. Scrub firm produce, such as melons and cucumbers, with a clean produce brush. Produce labeled as pre-washed can be used without further washing. Clean Equipment and Hands Wash, rinse, sanitize, and air dry all food-contact surfaces, equipment, and utensils including cutting boards, knives, countertops, and sinks before and after use. Wash hands thoroughly for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm running water before and after handling fresh produce. Storage Separate fresh produce from other refrigerated foods in refrigeration units. Cover and store washed cut produce above unwashed, uncut fresh produce. Store all produce off the floor. Mark each item with the date it was received and practice First-In, First-Out inventory management methods. Discard wilted or discolored product immediately. Always store cut fruits and vegetables in the refrigerator. Refrigerate cut melons immediately.
........................................................................................................................... OTHER RESOURCES Fruits & Vegetables Galore is a tool for school foodservice professionals packed with tips on planning, purchasing, protecting, preparing, presenting, and promoting fruits and vegetables: http://www.fns.usda.gov/TN/Resources/fv_galore.html Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program Handbook: http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/FFVP/Resources/FFVPhandbookFINAL.pdf FDA’s Safe Handling of Raw Produce and Fresh-Squeezed Fruit and Vegetable Juices: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodsafe.html For more information: http://www.commodityfood.usda.gov ...........................................................................................................................
__________________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Food Distribution Division and the Food Safety Unit http://opi.mt.gov/pdf/schoolfood/FDCP/09OctSchoolNewsVol14.pdf (page 5)
C. Fruit and Vegetable Summary
Fruit and Vegetable Summary
Proper selection, purchasing, handling, and preparation of vegetables will enhance the taste, presentation, and nutritional value of vegetables. Nutrition Vegetable Potatoes Fruits Fruits and vegetables offer a wide variety of nutrients and are generally high in carbohydrates and fiber, low in protein, good source of vitamins and minerals, especially vitamins A and C. Fresh Frozen Dried Freeze-dried Purchase freshest and finest quality raw product Cut only when ready to use Cook as quickly as possible Cook as close to service as possible Cook small batches at a time Cook until tender Herbs Spices Prepare in small batches. They cannot be held long. Onions Garlic Serve whole, diced or mashed. Fruit juices Fruit purees If cut too far in advance, fruits may turn dark. Preserve color with citrus juices.
Flavor Enhancement Presentation
Changes that occur during cooking: Flavor changes Effects of overcooking Texture Color loss Water Content Texture-mushy Color Intensifies Vitamin loss
Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual http://www.nfsmi.org/documentlibraryfiles/PDF/20080213030405.pdf
D. Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques for Fruits, Vegetables, and Salads
Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques for Fruits
1. Use fresh fruits at their peak of ripeness. Most fruits have the highest vitamin content when they are at their peak of ripeness. They taste the best when they are ripe. Heat and light can destroy nutrient content. Fruits that are not ripe enough are generally tart when they should be sweet, and crunchy when they should be soft. 2. Wash fresh fruits in cool water before they are peeled or stemmed. Fruits can lose nutrients if they are bruised or cut and then put in water. Berries are a good example. Wash strawberries before they are hulled. The skin may not be clean so washing before processing removes the dirt and pesticides. Wash apples in cold water. Apples are covered with an edible wax that is not removed during washing. Fruits served with the skin left on should be washed carefully. This includes oranges and melons. 3. Cut fresh fruit in the largest pieces that are acceptable for serving, considering the age of student. When fruit is cut in many smaller pieces more total surface area of the fruit is exposed and more vitamin C is lost. Avoid crushing fruits since this injures the fruit cells and causes more vitamin C loss. 4. Prepare fruit dishes so that they have an appealing appearance. Follow the recipe or directions for preparing fruit to maintain the correct color and shape of fruit pieces.
Some fruits, like peaches, bananas, apples, and avocados, turn brown when they are exposed to air. This is called surface oxidation. An acid like lemon juice, lime juice, pineapple juice, or orange juice retards oxidizing because these juices are good sources of the antioxidant vitamin C. A commercial product that contains vitamin C can also be used to prevent browning. Look for the chemical name of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on the product label. Other acids in fruit juices may also be used. 5. Prepare fruit dishes so that they have appropriate texture. Most fruits have a texture that is unique for that fruit. When fruit doesn’t have that texture, it is unacceptable for use. Mushy apples or green bananas are not appealing and should not be served. Kiwi fruit should be soft while a fresh apple should be crisp. Cooked apples used for fruit cobbler should be soft but not mushy. Raisins should be chewy. Follow the recipe or directions for exact cooking times to get the right texture. As a general rule, fruits should be cooked for a short time only. 6. Store bananas and avocados at room temperature. Bananas and avocados should not be refrigerated since it stops their ripening. Once they are ripe, they can be refrigerated for a short time if they are not to be served immediately. After bananas have been refrigerated, the skin darkens and they are unacceptable for use as a whole fruit. The bananas may be peeled and used in fruit salad or in a baked product. 7. Use frozen fruits at the peak of freshness. Thaw frozen fruits in the refrigerator. Some frozen fruits can be served even though they contain ice crystals. It is desirable to add frozen peaches, strawberries and other berries to a fruit mixture before they are completely thawed. They can be placed as a choice on a salad or fruit bar. As they thaw, they become mushy. ................................................................................................................
Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques for Vegetables
1. Schedule cooking of fresh and frozen vegetables for “just-in-time” service. Cook vegetables in small batches to prevent them from being broken or overcooked. 2. Loosely packed frozen vegetables, such as whole kernel corn can be cooked without thawing. Solid-pack frozen vegetables such as spinach should be thawed long enough to break apart easily and then cooked. Broccoli spars will cook more uniformly if they are partially thawed. 3. Wash fresh vegetables before cooking. Trim, pare, or cut as desired. Discard discolored parts, or tough ends of stems, as needed. 4. Cook vegetables only until crisp-tender. Vegetables continue to cook when held on a hot steam table or in a holding cabinet. Vegetables will be overcooked if held too long. 5. Heat canned vegetables only to serving temperature. Serve soon after heating. Canned vegetables will be overcooked when held too long. ....................................................................................................................
Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques for Salads
Prepare salads using good quality vegetables and fruits that contrast in color, flavor, texture, and shape. Color o Use contrasting colors of food items when making salads. For example, rather than filling a pear half with cottage cheese, fill the pear half with carrot raisin salad or cheddar cheeses. o Use colorful foods in combination with those of little or no color or use garnishes to brighten food. For example, add a slice of cucumber, a tomato wedge, or a piece of brightly colored fruit, a sprig of parsley, or a dash of paprika.
Flavor o Balance flavors in salad combinations. o Combine mild with strong flavors, salty with bland, or tart with sweet: for example, tomatoes and lettuce.
Texture o Includes soft with crisp foods, fibrous with smooth foods, tender with chewy foods, and juicy with crunchy foods. For example, celery sticks stuffed with peanut butter.
Shape o Use a pleasing combination of different sizes and shapes of foods within a salad combination, such as cubes, julienne strips, slices, shredded bits, and wedges. Select vegetable combinations that combine texture, flavor, shape, and color and also add nutritive value. Combine lettuce and spinach. Serve celery, carrots, and zucchini sticks with vegetable dip. Toss cut-up celery, tomatoes, green peppers, and cauliflower with vinaigrette dressing. Dress up cole slaw and enhance nutritive value by adding shredded red cabbage, carrots, or green peppers. Arrange tomato, cucumber, and onion slices on salad greens. Pour tart dressing over vegetables. Quarter tomatoes leaving bottom intact fill middle of quartered tomatoes with cole slaw, meat, or cheese filling. Note: Rinse salad greens gently in cold water. Separate leaves in order to rinse them thoroughly. Drain well. Place salad greens in a clean covered container and chill in the refrigerator. Consider color, texture, flavor, and shape when preparing fruit salad combinations. Use fresh fruits, unsweetened frozen fruits, or fruits canned in juice or light syrup for fruit cups. Drain and mix fruit for salads. Garnish fruits with low-fat yogurt. Serve chilled mixed fruit, orange sections, and sliced bananas sprinkled with lemon juice and flaked coconut. Add peach slices to Waldorf salad. Combine orange sections, pineapple chunks, sliced bananas, and diced apples. Garnish with slivered almonds, peanuts, walnuts, or pecans. Note: To keep apples, peaches, or bananas from darkening, dip them in citrus or pineapple juice, or in a solution of citrus juice and water. ....................................................................................................................
Basic Preparation and Cooking Techniques for Desserts
Offer an interesting variety of nutritious fruit desserts. Sugary sweet cakes, cream pies, cookies and candy contain lots of sugar and not much else. Consider serving: Fruit in season and the best quality available. Fruit, whether fresh, poached, marinated, or stewed with an appropriate sauce. Fresh fruit tarts. o o Vary the fruit and type of dough for greater interest. Fruit such tarts such tarts served warm are commonly made with firmer textured fruits as apples, pears, plums, apricots, and peaches, whereas, fruit served cold are frequently made with the softer textured fruits as bananas, kiwis, strawberries, grapes, and raspberries.
Use whole grain flour for dough to provide greater nutrition, also. Canned and frozen fruits are used to produce fruit pies. Remember to rely on the natural flavor and sweetness of the fruit rather than the addition of lots of extra sugar. Canned and frozen fruits packed in heavy syrup will not need extra sugar.
Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual http://www.nfsmi.org/documentlibraryfiles/PDF/20080213030405.pdf
___________________________________________ E. Step-by-Step Preparation Tips for Each Vegetable
Step-by-Step Preparation Tips for Each Vegetable
Tips for vegetable preparation are also at the bottom of each recipe. Basil: Wash and dry leaves. To prevent browning, chop right before adding to dish. Broccoli: For ﬂorets, remove crowns from stems and cut into ﬂorets. (OR, use this quick technique from Donna Miner, Chicopee High School Kitchen Manager: Hold broccoli bunch securely by stems, off the cutting board. Cutting away from you, holding the knife diagonally, use a chopping motion to remove the ﬂorets.) To use stems, remove bottom 1-2 inches and discard. Peel with a sharp knife or vegetable peeler. Slice thinly. Cooking time: Cook broccoli until it turns bright green and is tender but ﬁrm, as it will continue to cook and become darker, mushy and unappetizing if not removed promptly. Butternut Squash: Serve peeled butternut squash, halved or cubed. Cabbage: To prepare cabbage for cooking, ﬁrst remove the outer layer with your hands. Cut in half lengthwise through the root. Remove the core by slicing in on either side and pulling it out. To shred, lay ﬂat end down, and slice thinly OR use food processor OR coarse end of cheese grater. Carrots: To purchase, sliced carrots and carrot sticks are sometimes avail-able from farm vendors (could grow your own). To dice, slice across sticks. To dice whole carrot, peel and cut in half lengthwise. Lay ﬂat end down, cut into 2-4 long strips (the number of strips depends on carrot size or dice size required), then slice across strips. Sliced carrots also look attractive sliced across on the diagonal. Cauliﬂower: For ﬂorets, with the base down, cut in half through the core. Hold one half up, bend the core towards you to remove (or remove with knife). Repeat with second half. Break ﬂorets off by hand. (They can be cut with a knife, but this result in some cauliﬂower crumbles.) Cilantro: For chopped cilantro, wash and dry before chopping. Using a large knife, hold the bunch as closely together as possible, then slice across from leaves to stem, using both. To chop ﬁnely, keep the point end down and rotate the knife as you chop. OR chop by quickly raising and lowering the knife onto the cilantro. If using a food processor, DO NOT over chop. Wrap in towel to keep dry. Celery: To dice, if using whole bunch, leave bunch intact. Slice each rib twice lengthwise. (Slice from 1-2 inches above root end to end of bunch. This will hold the bunch together.) Cut crosswise. To dice individual ribs, tear needed ribs off from root end. Slice each rib 2-3 times lengthwise, then across into a dice. Corn: Can sometimes be purchased already shucked. After it is shucked, if needed, run your hand down each ear to remove extra silk. To remove kernels, point the end of the
ear away from you. With a sharp knife, shave off the kernels, away from you—right into a bowl or soup pot. Cucumber: To slice, peeling is optional. Cut across cucumber. To dice, peel and slice in half lengthwise. Then, with ﬂat side down, cut each half into 2-4 strips, depending on size needed and size of cucumber. Cut across. Dill: For chopped dill, wash and dry before chopping. Using a large knife and holding the bunch as closely together as possible, slice across from leaves to stem, using both. To chop ﬁnely, keep the point end down and rotate the knife as you chop. OR chop by quickly raising and lowering the knife onto the dill. If using a food processor, DO NOT over chop. Wrap in towel to keep dry. Garlic: For an alternative to fresh garlic, use whole peeled cloves or minced garlic in oil. To use fresh garlic, pull cloves from garlic bulb. (If the bulb is too tight, wrap in towel and whack on counter to loosen.) To remove skins, crush cloves with the ﬂat part of a large knife, then peel. To mince, use a food processor or mince by hand. By hand, crush cloves with the ﬂat part of knife. Mince, keeping the point of the knife on the counter and rotating as you chop. Green Beans: Are sometimes available with ends snapped off. If you snap the ends yourself, you only need to snap one end. Lemon: To zest, use a zester or grate the whole lemon against the ﬁne side of a grater, removing only the yellow outer skin. (Technique to remove zest from grater: Fit plastic wrap against the small holes of a grater. Grate yellow skin onto the plastic. Remove plastic and then use the dull end of the knife blade to scrape off the zest from the plastic.) An alternative technique is to peel with a sharp vegetable peeler, leaving as much of the pith (white) behind as possible. Chop in food processor with sharp blade. Onions: To slice, remove both ends. Make a small slit, top to bottom; remove skin with hands. Cut in half. With the ﬂat end down, slice in one direction. To dice, proceed as above, then cut slices in the opposite direction. Alternatively, use a traditional technique: To slice, cut whole onion in half, point to point—through root end to top of the onion. Peel and lay ﬂat side down. Slice. To dice, cut whole onion in half, point to point—through root end to top of the onion. Peel and lay ﬂat side down. Then, with your knife parallel to the board, slice 2-5 times, towards BUT NOT THROUGH the root end (number will depend on size of onion). Then cut across the onion 2-5 times. Once again, avoid cutting through the root end. Finally, cut across onion. Parsley: For chopped parsley, wash and dry before chopping. Using a large knife and holding the bunch as closely together as possible, slice across from leaves to stem, using both. To chop ﬁnely (mince), follow directions above, then continue to either chop keeping the point end down and rotating the knife, or chop by quickly raising and lowering the knife onto the parsley. If using a food processor, DO NOT over chop. Wrap in towel to keep dry.
Peppers: To slice and dice, cut in half, lengthwise. Remove top and seeds with hands. Cut half lengthwise. Then cut into strips lengthwise. Turn strips and cut across to dice. Potatoes: To wash, scrub with vegetable brush. Peel if needed. Cut potatoes should be held in cold water unless using immediately or they will brown. Drain. If potatoes will be cooked in the oven, dry ﬁrst. To dice, cut in half lengthwise, or simply cut red potato in half. Lay ﬂat end down. Cut in one direction, then in the other direction. Salad: To wash and store greens, ideally salad greens should be cut ﬁrst, then washed in cold water and spun very dry in a salad spinner. (Fresh washed and dried lettuce will last up to three days in a sealed container.) If no spinner is available, Chicopee used this technique with success: Wash whole salad leaves by soaking in ice water. Shake the leaves dry and let them drain thoroughly in a colander. To cut or rip iceberg: Iceberg is best cut with a plastic knife or ripped by hand to prevent browning. Scallion: To slice, remove root ends. Keeping rubber band on to hold scallions together, slice from green to white end, removing rubber band as necessary. Use white and green parts. Scallions look pretty sliced on the diagonal. Thyme: Remove leaves and discard stems. Tomatoes: To core, slice and dice tomatoes, use a tomato corer or knife to remove top core. Slice. To dice, lay slices on top of each other, cut in one direction, and then in the opposite direction.
_____________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: http://www.mass.gov/agr/markets/Farm_to_school_cookbook.pdf
________________________________________ F. Ideas for Steaming Fruits and Vegetables
Ideas for Steaming Fruits and Vegetables*
Consider Main Ingredients Vegetables and Fruits Broccoli Cauliflower Snow peas Peas Green Beans Carrots Apples Cooking Liquid Water Stock Court bouillon Fruit or vegetable juices Flavor Enhancer Herbs Spices Citrus Zest Additional vegetables that are added to the steaming liquid Equipment Convection steamer Conventional steamer Steam-jacketed kettle with rack and lid
*Pick a main ingredient, cooking liquid, flavor enhancer, and piece of equipment.
Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual http://www.nfsmi.org/documentlibraryfiles/PDF/20080213030405.pdf
_________________________ G. Tips for Enhancing Flavors
Tips for Enhancing Flavors
Your role as school nutrition professional is to prepare and serve school food in order to make food healthy, taste good, and look good. As you season food and enhance flavors, your efforts are helping to season your customer’s health for a lifetime. Learning to use a wide variety of flavor enhancers requires experience. Flavors are enhanced in four ways: Seasonings, such as stocks, fruits and vegetables Spices Herbs Cooking methods These tips can guide you in expanding your use of seasonings. General Rules for Enhancing Flavor During Food Preparation 1. For cold foods such as salad dressing and cold salads, add the seasoning several hours in advance to allow the flavors to develop. When adding additional seasonings to salad dressing, make the additions the day before and allow the flavor to develop overnight. 2. In quick-cooking foods as vegetables, add the herbs at the start of cooking. Adequate time should be allowed for the dried herbs to absorb enough moisture to release the flavor. 3. In slow-cooking foods such as soups or stews, add herbs in the final 45 minutes to 60 minutes of cooking. Whole spices or herbs (bouquet garni) are best suited to long cooking recipes and should be removed before the food is served. 4. The development of flavor through the use of seasonings is a creative process. Always start with a small amount and increase until the product has an acceptable taste and aroma. In general start with ¼ tsp per pint or pound of a food product. When using garlic or pepper, start with only 1/8 tsp. 5. Use two times as much of a fresh herb or spice as of the dried form. For example 2 tsp of fresh basil = 1 tsp dried whole leaf basil. 6. Use twice as much of a dried leaf herb as of the ground form. For example use ½ tsp dried thyme leaves = ¼ tsp ground thyme. 7. A total of 1 to 3 Tbsp herbs and spices per 50 portions of a recipe is generally adequate. 8. In general, double the spices and herbs in a recipe when increasing from 50 to 100 servings. Increase the spice or herb by 25 percent for each additional 100 servings. Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual http://www.nfsmi.org/documentlibraryfiles/PDF/20080213030405.pdf
_________________ H. Flavor Enhancers
Remember the Dietary Guidelines for Americans messages “Prepare foods with little salt” and “Choose fats wisely for good health.” For many people, seasoning vegetables with salt and fat has been a common practice. Our customers are accustomed to vegetables seasoned that way. As Child Nutrition Program professionals, we must accept the challenge to prepare vegetables with different seasonings that appeal to our customers. Serving children in school and in child care programs gives us many opportunities to help them learn to enjoy fruits and vegetables. We can bring out the best flavors in vegetables by: Adding seasonings such as herbs and spices. Adding other flavorful ingredients including other vegetables, such as onion or green pepper. Choosing a healthy cooking technique, such as browning or roasting. Cooking “just in time” for service. Enlist the interest and support of teachers to have their students grow herbs in the classroom, or even sponsor an herb garden on the school campus. Keep pots of herbs growing in the windows in the dining area or kitchen (when the facility makes it possible). Growing herbs is intended as an educational experience for students and not for growing all you need in the CNP. Although you may use some of their herbs in the CNP, you will need to purchase herbs. Display an herb pot on the serving line when the herb is used to season a food. Begin your journey to reducing fat and salt as flavoring in vegetables by using smaller amounts of salt, and if you do add some fat, use less and choose a less saturated fat. Also consider varying the cooking method used for vegetables. .................................................................................................................... Spices As you recall, we talked earlier about seasoning with herbs and spices to enhance flavors. In this lesson we want to be more specific about how these products are used to make fruits and vegetables more appealing to our students. What are the spices most often used in your school or child care program? The flavor of most spices is intense and powerful. Use a smaller amount of spice when you are presenting a vegetable seasoned with spice for the first time. Give students time to become familiar with the flavor.
Spices are nearly always sold in the dried form and are generally available whole or ground. You may purchase a spice blend, such as curry powder, chili powder, and Italian seasoning. You can make your own blends and customize the blend to meet the tastes of different age groups. Whole spices keep longer than ground spices. Spices should be stored in sealed containers in a cool, dry place, away from extreme heat and direct light. Recipes for spice blends are included in Seasonings for Healthy School Meals, Culinary Techniques for Healthy School Meals available from NFSMI. .................................................................................................................... Herbs Keep these points in mind when buying or using herbs. Most herbs are available both fresh and dried. Aroma is a good indicator of quality in both fresh and dried herbs. The scent of an herb can be tested by crumbling a few leaves between the fingers and smelling the leaves. Herbs can be used to flavor many foods. They should be used to enhance and balance, not to overpower, the flavors in the dish. Purchase only the amount of dried herbs that can be used within 6 months and store away from heat. Discard herbs that have a musty or flat aroma. .................................................................................................................... Presentation and Garnishing The first glimpse of the serving line forms the customer’s perception of the meal. Fruits and vegetables on the menu add color, texture, flavor, and shape to the meal. If the food is attractively arranged on the line, looks good, and has a pleasing aroma, the customer’s expectations may be met. The way food is presented is a key to the foods customers select and enjoy eating. The presentation of food begins with the menu, the way food is cooked, the temperature of the food when it is served, and finally how it looks on the customer’s tray. Think of how a serving line looks and smells when it contains steamed carrots seasoned with a bit of ginger or green beans seasoned with rosemary or onion. These vegetables provide color, flavor, and aroma. Serving appealing foods gives the food service staff a feeling of satisfaction.
When properly cooked, displayed, and served, fruits and vegetables require very little garnishing. They are often used to garnish other menu items. You have seen a tomato wedge or pepper ring on a tray of sliced meat or an orange wedge on a pan of pudding. Breads, meat, and grain dishes lack the wonderful colors of fruits and vegetables. We think of orange, yellow, red, and green when we think of vegetables and fruit. .................................................................................................................... Garnishes Keep these points in mind about garnishes. Garnishing in the CNP takes time; keep garnishes simple and appropriate for the age group served. The flavor of the garnish should accent or be the flavor of the menu item. The size of the garnish should be appropriate for the food. An orange wedge or a few grapes make a sandwich place look good. Use vegetable combinations, cuts, and shapes in the menu to serve as garnishes. o Combine contrasting colors Yellow carrots and green peas or snow peas Broccoli and cauliflower Combine contrasting shapes Carrot strips and round peas Chopped tomato with cut green peas Chives on baked or mashed potatoes Onion rings on green beans Cucumber rounds in leafy salads Beets diced and onion rings for salads Potatoes with diced green peppers
Include fruit to garnish other menu items or as part of the menu for color, texture, and shape. Some examples are: Lemons (slices, sections, plain or with paprika, parsley, or cloves) Pineapple (slices, shredded, sticks, sauce) Apples (sauce, rings, spiced, jelly, butter) Canned fruits spiced or stuffed with cranberry sauce ....................................................................................................................
________________________________________ I. Seasoning Vegetables with Herbs and Spices
Seasoning Vegetables with Herbs and Spices
Vegetables can be made more appealing with herbs, spices, and other seasonings. Seasoning vegetables with herbs and spices reduces the need for added salt. Try the suggestions below to enhance the natural flavor of vegetables.
Allspice Basil Caraway Cardamom Celery Seed Chili Powder Cinnamon Curry Dill Seed Garlic Powder Lemon Juice Mace Marjoram Mint Mustard Seed Nutmeg Onion Powder Oregano Parsley Rosemary Red Pepper Sage Tarragon Thyme Vinegar
Winter squash, sweet potatoes Cabbage, carrots, green peas, spinach, tomatoes Beets, cabbage, cauliflower, green beans, wax beans, zucchini Winter squash, sweet potatoes Cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, sauerkraut, tomatoes Corn, tomatoes Beets, carrots, sweet potatoes, onions, tomatoes Cabbage, celery, lima beans Beets, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, green beans, green peas, wax beans Green leafy vegetables, tomatoes Green leafy vegetables, broccoli, cauliflower Cauliflower Broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, green peas, spinach, zucchini Carrots, green peas, spinach Cabbage Celery, spinach, winter squash Cabbage, green beans Green peas, tomatoes, zucchini Tomatoes, corn Cauliflower, spinach turnips Celery Green beans, onions, tomatoes, wax beans Cauliflower Carrots, celery Green leafy vegetables
___________________ J. Freezing Vegetables
Freezing Vegetables Words to know
To be able to freeze vegetables, you need to understand the words that are used in freezing instructions. Blanch (scald). Blanching is the process of placing vegetables in boiling water or steam for a certain period of time. Blanching is a very important step and needs to be done right. It stops the action of enzymes in vegetables. If you do not blanch vegetables, they will lose some of their color, flavor, and texture after they have been stored in the freezer. Freezer burn. This is the drying out or dehydration of food. It happens when the food is not packaged correctly and results in a loss of flavor, color, and texture. The food, however, is safe to eat. Headspace. This is the amount of space left between the top of the food and the top of the container. Food expands when it freezes, so it is important to leave enough room. Overblanching. This occurs when vegetables are blanched too long. It destroys enzymes but causes a loss of vitamins, minerals, flavor, and color. Quick-freeze. This is the process used when freezing raw foods. Turn the freezer down to -10°F, and place the packaged foods in single layers on the freezer shelves. As soon as the foods are frozen hard, stack the packages. Slow freezing causes large ice crystals to form. These ice crystals puncture the cells of the food, and the food will be mushy when thawed. The texture of food that is quick-frozen will be better than the texture of foods frozen slowly. Underblanching. This is blanching that did not last long enough to slow down the enzymes. If vegetables are underblanched, they are just warmed. The heat actually speeds up the enzymes. It is worse than not blanching. ....................................................................................................................
How much to freeze?
Frozen vegetables are best if used within a year. They will keep longer, but quality and nutritive value decline gradually.
Selecting the vegetables
What kinds of vegetables do you like? You should select vegetables your family likes. Where will you get the vegetables to freeze? You can grow them in your garden, or you can buy fresh vegetables to freeze. No matter what kind of vegetables you choose, they should be young and tender. Do not use vegetables if they are bruised, too ripe, or immature. The frozen vegetables will not be better than the fresh ones. Freezing cannot improve a poor product. ....................................................................................................................
1. Wash the vegetables.
It is a good idea to wash the vegetables in several changes of cold water. Lift the vegetables out of the water as you wash them. If you let the water drain off, dirt may be left on the vegetables. It will save you time if you gather all of the equipment you need for freezing vegetables. You will need a blancher with a basket and cover (or large saucepan and cover and a basket for the vegetables), a sharp paring knife, a cutting board, kitchen scales (optional), a colander, cooking spoons, clean dish towels, pot holders, and a wide-mouth funnel. Containers for frozen foods should be moisture-vapor resistant. (Moisture resistant means liquid cannot get out of the container or get into it. Vapor resistant means odor or vapors from other foods cannot get into the container.) The container or packaging material should be odorless, tasteless, greaseproof, and easy to close tightly. The most common types of containers are freezer weight polyethylene (plastic) bags and rigid polyethylene containers or cartons. Freezer bags are easy to use and work well for food frozen without liquid. Be sure the bags you use are made for freezing. A rubber band or a twist-tie is used to seal the bag. Plastic cartons are also good for freezing vegetables. When you choose containers, be sure they are the right size for your family. You may need half pints, pints, or quarts. You also want them to be airtight. (If the lid does not fit well, or if the bag has a hole in it, the vegetables will freezer burn.) Blanching is very important in freezing vegetables. Do not let anyone talk you into skipping the blanching of your vegetables. Blanching inactivates enzymes that can cause undesirable quality changes during storage even at 0 ºF. When you are ready to blanch vegetables, place 1 gallon of water in the blancher and bring it to a boil. When the water is boiling rapidly, place 1 pound of vegetables in the basket and lower into the water. Put the lid on the saucepan and begin counting the blanching time. When the time is up, remove the basket immediately from the boiling water. If too many vegetables are blanched at once, the water does not return to a boil quickly, and the vegetables will be under blanched. Plunge the hot, blanched vegetables into cold or ice water. The quicker the vegetables are cooled, the better the frozen product. Keep changing the water so it will always be cold. It should take about as long to cool the vegetables as it did to blanch them. As soon as the vegetables are cool, drain them thoroughly.
2. Assemble equipment.
3. Assemble packaging containers.
4. Blanch the vegetables.
5. Cool the vegetables.
6. Package and label the product.
Place the vegetables in the appropriate kind of container. If you are using plastic bags, be sure to press all of the air out of the bags before you seal the bags. If you are using a plastic carton, leave 1/2 inch headspace so there will be room for the food to expand. Be sure to label each package before it is frozen with the name of the vegetables, the amount, and the date frozen. You may want to use freezer tape and a wax pencil.
Place a single layer of packages directly on the freezer shelf. After 24 hours, you can stack the packages. Quick freezing should be done at -10 ºF. Be sure the freezer stays at -10 ºF or lower at all times. Vegetables can be held in the freezer up to 12 months. ....................................................................................................................
7. Quick-freeze the packages.
Directions for freezing
Below are directions for freezing several vegetables. If you would like information on freezing other vegetables, contact your county Extension office. Broccoli Select firm, young, tender stalks with compact heads. It takes about 1 pound of fresh broccoli to make 1 pint. 1 crate (25 pounds) yields about 24 pints. Remove leaves and woody sections. Separate heads into convenient size sections and immerse in brine (4 teaspoons salt to 1 gallon of water) for 30 minutes to remove insects. Split lengthwise so florets are no more than 1 ½ inches across. Blanch 3 minutes or steam 5 minutes. Cool promptly, drain, and package, leaving no headspace. Seal, label, and quick-freeze. Corn Use only tender, fresh gathered corn that is in the milk stage. Two to 2 ½ pounds yield 1 pint. A bushel yields about 16 pints. Work with small quantities. Shuck, silk, and wash the corn in cold water and sort according to size. Corn can be frozen by different methods: Whole-kernel corn - Blanch 4 minutes.Cool promptly, drain, and cut from cob. Cut kernels from cob at about 2/3 the depth of the kernels. Package, leaving 1/2 inch headspace. Seal, label, and quick-freeze. Corn-on-the-cob – Blanch small ears (1 ¼ inches or less in diameter) 7 minutes; medium ears (1 ¼ to 1 ½ inches in diameter) 9 minutes; and large ears (more that 1 ½ inches in diameter) 11 minutes. Cool promptly and drain. Pack ears into containers or wrap. Seal and quick freeze.
Green Beans Pick young, tender pods when the seed is first formed. Two-thirds to 1 pound yield 1 pint. A bushel yields about 40 pints. Freeze beans as soon as possible after picking. Wash in cold water, trim ends, and break into 2- to 4-inch lengths. Blanch beans 3 minutes. Cool quickly. Drain thoroughly. Package in moisturevapor resistant bags or cartons, leaving ½ inch headspace. Seal, label, and quick freeze. Carrots Freeze mild-flavored, tender carrots. Remove tops, wash, and peel. Leave small carrots whole. Cut others into ½ inch cubes thin slices, or lengthwise strips. Heat in boiling water, depending on size: small, whole - 5 minutes; diced or sliced or lengthwise strips - 2 minutes. Cool quickly in cold water and drain. Pack into containers, leaving ½ inch headspace. Seal and freeze. Peas Select well-filled, flexible pods with tender seeds. Shell; discard hard peas. Heat in boiling water 2 minutes. Cool quickly in cold water; drain. Pack into containers, leaving ½ inch headspace. Seal and freeze. Squash Summer: Select young, small-seeded and tender-rind squash. Wash and cut in ½ inch slices. Heat in boiling water 3 minutes. Cool quickly in cold water and drain. Pack into containers, leaving ½ inch headspace. Seal and freeze. Winter: Select firm, mature squash. Wash, cut into pieces, and remove seeds. Cook pieces until soft in boiling water, in steam, in a pressure cooker, or in the oven. Remove pulp for rind and mash or press though a sieve. To cool, place pan containing squash in cold water and stir squash occasionally. Pack into containers, leaving 1 inch headspace. Seal and freeze. ....................................................................................................................
Using frozen vegetables
One of the best things about the food preservation project is eating the foods you preserve. Follow the instructions below for thawing and cooking vegetables.
Thawing and Cooking
Most vegetables should not be thawed before they are cooked. You can take them from the freezer to the range and cook them. Greens and corn-on-the-cob should be partially thawed before cooking. __________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p1431.pdf Mississippi State Extension Service
_____________________________________________ K. Using Dehydration to Preserve Fruits and Vegetables
Using Dehydration to Preserve Fruits, and Vegetables
Renee Boyer, Extension specialist and assistant professor, Virginia Tech; Karleigh Huff, graduate student, Virginia Tech
Why dry? Drying (dehydrating) food is one of the oldest and easiest methods of food preservation. Dehydration is the process of removing water or moisture from a food product. Removing moisture from foods makes them smaller and lighter. Dehydrated foods are ideal for backpacking hiking and camping because they weigh much less than their non-dried counterparts and do not require refrigeration. Drying food is also a way of preserving seasonal foods for later use. How dehydration preserves foods Foods can be spoiled by food microorganisms or through enzymatic reactions within the food. Bacteria, yeast, and molds must have a sufficient amount of moisture around them to grow and cause spoilage. Reducing the moisture content of food prevents the growth of these spoilage-causing microorganisms and slows down enzymatic reactions that take place within food. The combination of these events helps to prevent spoilage in dried food. The basics of food dehydration Three things are needed to successfully dry food at home: Heat – hot enough to force out moisture (140°F), but not hot enough to cook the food; Dry air – to absorb the released moisture; Air movement – to carry the moisture away. Foods can be dried using three methods: In the sun – requires warm days of 85°F or higher, low humidity, and insect control; recommended for dehydrating fruits only; In the oven; Using a food dehydrator – electric dehydrators take less time to dry foods and are more cost efficient than an oven.
Preparing Fruits and Vegetables for Drying
Many fruits and vegetables can be dried (Table 1). Use ripe foods only. Rinse fruits and vegetables under cold running water and cut away bruised and fibrous portions. Remove seeds, stems, and/or pits. Most vegetables and some fruits (Tables 2 and 3) should undergo a pretreatment, such as blanching or dipping. Blanching is briefly precooking food in boiling water or steam, and it is used to sop enzymatic reactions within the foods. Blanching also shortens drying time and kills many spoilage organisms. Table 1. Fruits and Vegetables Suitable for Drying Fruits Apples Apricots Bananas Cherries Coconuts Dates Figs Grapes Nectarines Peaches Pears Pineapples Plums Vegetables Beets Carrots Sweet corn Garlic Horseradish Mushrooms Okra Onions Parsnips Parsley Peas Peppers (red, green, and, chili) Potatoes Pumpkin (fruit and vegetables):
Steps for steam blanching
Use a steamer or a deep pot with a tight-fitting lid that contains a wire basket or could fit a colander or sieve so steam can circulate around the vegetables. Add several inches of water to the steamer or pot and bring to a rolling boil. Loosely place fruits/vegetables into the basket, no more than 2 inches deep. Place basket into pot (fruits/vegetables should not make contact with water). Cover and steam until fruits/vegetables are heated for the recommended time (Table 2 and 3). Remove basket or colander and place in cold water to stop cooking. Drain and place fruits/vegetables on drying tray.
Steps for water blanching (vegetables only):
Use a blancher or a deep pot with a tight-fitting lid. Fill the pot two-thirds full with water, cover, and bring to a rolling boil. Place vegetables into a wire basket and submerge them into the boiling water for the recommended time (Table 2). Remove vegetables and place in cold water to stop cooking. Drain and place vegetables on drying tray.
Steps for syrup blanching (fruits only):
Combine 1 cup sugar, 1 cup light corn syrup, and 2 cups water in a pot. Add 1 pound of fruit. Simmer 10 minutes (Table 3). Remove from heat and keep fruit in syrup for 30 minutes. Remove fruit from syrup, rinse, drain, and continue with dehydration step. Dipping is a pretreatment used to prevent fruits such as apples, bananas, peaches, and pears from turning brown. Ascorbic acid, fruit juices high in vitamin C (lemon, orange, pineapple, grape, etc.), or commercial products containing ascorbic or citric acid may be used for dipping. For example, dipping sliced fruit pieces in a mixture of ascorbic acid crystals and water (1 teaspoon ascorbic acid crystals per 1 cup of water), or dipping directly in fruit juiced for 3 to 5 minutes will prevent browning. Fruits may also be blanched as a means of treatment.
Table 2. Blanching and Drying Times for Selected Vegetables Blanching Vegetable Drying time (hrs)* Method Time (mins) Beets cook before drying 3½-5 steam 3–3½ Carrots 3½-5 water 3½ Corn Garlic Horseradish Mushrooms Okra Onions Parsley Peas Peppers Potatoes Pumpkin steam water not necessary steam water steam water 6–8 5-6 2½ -3 1 not not not not not not not necessary necessary necessary necessary necessary necessary necessary 3 2 6–8 6–8 4 - 10 8 – 10 8 – 10 3–6 1–2 8 -10 2½ -5 8 -12 10 - 16
*Dried vegetables should be brittle or crisp.
Table 3. Blanching and Drying Times for Selected Fruits Blanching * Fruit Method Time (mins) Apple Apricots Bananas Cherries Figs Grapes: seedless Nectarines Peaches Pears Pineapples Plums steam syrup steam syrup steam syrup syrup not necessary not necessary steam syrup steam syrup steam syrup not necessary not necessary 8 10 8 10 6 10 3–5 10 3–4 10 3–4 10 10
Drying Time (hrs) ** 6 – 12 24 – 36+ 8 – 10 24 – 36 6 – 12 12 – 20 36 – 48 36 – 48 24 – 36+ 24 – 36 24 - 36
* Fruits may be dipped in ascorbic acid or citric acid in place of blanching. ** Test for dryness by cutting the fruit. There should be no moist areas in the center. Times are estimated for use of the dehydrator or oven methods. + Drying times for whole fruits. Cutting fruit into slices may shorten drying time.
Drying Fruits and Vegetables
Natural sun drying
Sun drying is recommended for drying fruit only. Sun drying is not recommended in cloudy or humid weather. The temperature should reach 85°F by noon, and the humidity should be less than 60 percent. All food that is dried outdoors must be pasteurized. Dry in the sun by placing slices of food on clean racks or screens and covering with cheesecloth, fine netting, or another screen. Food will dry faster if racks are placed on blocks and the rack is not sitting on the ground. If possible, place a small fan near the drying tray to promote air circulation. Drying times will vary (Tables 2 and 3). Turn food once a day. Dry until food has lost most of its moisture (fruits will be chewy). Fruits should be covered or brought in at night to prevent moisture being added back into the food.
Drying with a food dehydrator
Place food dehydrator in a dry, well-ventilated indoor room. Arrange fruits or vegetables in a single layer on each tray so that no pieces are touching or overlapping. Dehydrate at 140°F. Check food often and turn pieces every few hours to dry more evenly. See Tables 2 and 3 for drying times.
Dry food in an oven that can be maintained at 140°F. Leave door 2 inches to 3 inches ajar. Place a fan in front of the oven to blow air across the open door. Spread the food in a single layer on racks or cookie sheets. Check food often and turn pieces every few hours to dry more evenly. Drying time will vary (Tables 2 and 3). Do not leave oven on when no one is in the house. When food is dehydrated, 80 percent of the moisture is removed from fruits and up to 90 percent of the moisture is removed from vegetables, making the dried weight of foods much less than the fresh weight (Table 4).
Table 4. Pounds of Dehydrated Food from Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Fresh fruits (20 lbs) Apples Peaches Pears Prunes/Plums Fresh vegetables (20 lbs) Snap beans Beets Carrots Onions Squash (summer) Tomatoes Dehydrated weight (lbs) 2 1½ - 2½ 2¼ 2¼ Dehydrated weight (lbs) 1¾ 2 1¾ 2½ 1½ - 2 ¾
Pasteurizing Sun-Dried Fruits
All sun-dried fruits must be pasteurized to destroy any insects and their eggs. This can be done with heat or cold. To pasteurize with heat, place dried food evenly in shallow trays no more than 1 inch in depth. Fruits should be heated at 160°F for 30 minutes. To pasteurize with cold, fruits can be placed in the freezer at 0°F for 48 hours.
Conditioning Dried Fruits
Dried fruits must be conditioned prior to storage. Conditioning is the process of evenly distributing moisture present in the dried fruit to prevent mold growth. Condition dried fruit by placing it in a plastic or glass container, sealing, and storing for 7 days to 10 days. Shake containers daily to distribute moisture. If condensation occurs, place fruit in the oven or dehydrator for more drying and repeat the conditioning process.
Storing Dried Fruits and Vegetables
Cool-dried food should be placed in a closed container that has been washed and dried before storing. Store in a cool, dry, and dark place. Dried foods can maintain quality for up to a year depending on the storage temperature. The cooler the storage temperature, the longer dehydrated foods will last.
Reconstituting Dried Fruits and Vegetables
Dried fruits and vegetables may be reconstituted (restoring moisture) by soaking the food in water. Time for reconstituting will depend on the size and shape of the food and the food itself. Most dried fruits can be reconstituted within 8 hours, whereas most dried vegetables take only 2 hours. To prevent growth of microorganisms, dried fruits and vegetables should be reconstituted in the refrigerator. 1 cup of dried fruit will yield approximately 1½ cups of reconstituted fruit. 1 cup of dried vegetable will yield approximately 2 cups of reconstituted vegetable. Reconstituted fruits and vegetables should be cooked in the water in which they were soaking.
_____________________________________________________________ Adapted from: Virginia Cooperative Extension, Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/348/348-597/348-597.pdf
Section 3: Nutrition Contents
A. MyPyramid USDA Food Intake Patterns B. Vitamin and Mineral Summary C. Functions of “Shortfall” Nutrients D. Summary of the Nutrient Contribution of Each Food Group E. Food Sources of Potassium F. Food Sources of Vitamin E G. Food Sources of Iron H. Non-Dairy Food Sources of Calcium I. J. Dairy Sources of Calcium Food Sources of Vitamin A
K. Food Sources of Magnesium L. Food Sources of Dietary Fiber M. Food Sources of Vitamin C
Section 3: Nutrition
A. MyPyramid USDA Food Intake Patterns
MyPyramid USDA Food Intake Patterns
Food Intake Patterns
The suggested amounts of food to consume from the basic food groups, subgroups, and oils to meet recommended nutrient intakes at 12 different calorie levels. Nutrient and energy contributions from each group are calculated according to the nutrient-dense forms of foods in each group (e.g., lean meats and fat-free milk). The table also shows the discretionary calorie allowance that can be accommodated within each calorie level, in addition to the suggested amounts of nutrient-dense forms of foods in each group.
Daily Amount of Food from Each Group
Calorie Level (1) Fruits (2) Vegetables (3) Grains (4)
1 cup 1 cup 3 oz-eq
1 cup 1.5 cups 4o z-eq
1.5 cups 1.5 cups 5 oz-eq
1.5 cups 2 cups 5 oz-eq
1.5 cups 2.5 cups 6 oz-eq
2 cups 2.5 cups 6 oz-eq
2 cups 3 cups 7 oz-eq
2 cups 3 cups 8 oz-eq
2 cups 3.5 cups 9 oz-eq
2.5 cups 3.5 cups 10 oz-eq
2.5 cups 4 cups 10 oz-eq
2.5 cups 4 cups 10 oz-eq
Meat and Beans (5) Milk (6) Oils (7) Discretionary calorie allowance (8)
2 cups 3 tsp
2 cups 4 tsp
2 cups 4 tsp
3 cups 5 tsp
3 cups 5 tsp
3 cups 6 tsp
3 cups 6 tsp
3 cups 7 tsp
3 cups 8 tsp
3 cups 8 tsp
3 cups 10 tsp
3 cups 11 tsp
1. Calorie Levels are set across a wide range to accommodate the needs of different individuals. The attached table “Estimated Daily Calorie Needs” can be used to help assign individuals to the food intake pattern at a particular calorie level.
2. Fruit Group includes all fresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruits and fruit juices. In general, 1 cup of fruit or 100% fruit juice, or ½ cup of dried fruit can be considered as 1 cup from the fruit group. 3. Vegetable Group includes all fresh, frozen, canned, and dried vegetables and vegetable juices. In general 1 cup of raw or cooked vegetable or vegetable juice, or 2 cups of raw leafy greens can be considered as 1 cup from the vegetable group.
Vegetable Subgroup Amounts are per Week
Calorie Level Dark green veg. Orange veg. Legumes Starchy veg. Other veg. 1,000 1 c/wk .5 c/wk .5 c/wk 1.5 c/wk 3.5 c/wk 1,200 1.5 c/wk 1 c/wk 1 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 4.5 c/wk 1,400 1.5 c/wk 1 c/wk 1 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 4.5 c/wk 1,600 2 c/wk 1.5 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 5.5 c/wk 1,800 3 c/wk 2 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 6.5 c/wk 2,000 3 c/wk 2 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 6.5 c/wk 2,200 3 c/wk 2 c/wk 3 c/wk 6 c/wk 7 c/wk 2,400 3 c/wk 2 c/wk 3 c/wk 6 c/wk 7 c/wk 2,600 3 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 3 c/wk 7 c/wk 8.5 c/wk 2,800 3 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 3.5 c/wk 7 c/wk 8.5 c/wk 3,000 3 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 3.5 c/wk 9 c/wk 10 c/wk 3,200 3 c/wk 2.5 c/wk 3.5 c/wk 9 c/wk 10 c/wk
4. Grains Group includes all foods made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, such as bread, pasta, oatmeal, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits. In general, 1 slice of bread, 1 cup of ready-to-eat cereal, or ½ cup of cooked rice, past, or cooked cereal can be considered as 1 ounce equivalent from the grains group. At least half of all grains consumed should be whole grains. 5. Meat & Beans Group in general, 1 ounce of lean meat, poultry, or fish, 1 egg, 1 Tbsp. peanut butter, ¼ cup of cooked dry beans, or ½ ounce of nuts or seeds can be considered as 1 ounce equivalent from the meat and beans group. 6. Milk Group includes all fluid milk products and foods made from milk that retain their calcium content, such as yogurt and cheese. Foods made from milk that have little to no calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and butter, are not part of the group. Most milk group choices should be fat-free or low-fat. In general, 1 cup of milk or yogurt, 1½ ounces of natural cheese, or 2 ounces of processed cheese can be considered as 1 cup from the milk group. 7. Oils include fats from many different plants and from fish that are liquid at room temperature, such as canola, corn, olive, soybean, and sunflower oil. Some foods are naturally high in oils, like nuts, olives, some fish, and avocados. Foods that are mainly oil include mayonnaise, certain salad dressings, and soft margarine. 8. Discretionary Calorie Allowance is the remaining amount of calories in a food intake pattern after accounting for the calories needed for all food groups – using forms of foods that are fat-free or low-fat and with no added sugars.
Estimated Daily Calorie Needs
To determine which food intake pattern to use for an individual, the following chart gives an estimate of individual calorie needs. The calorie range for each age/sex group is based on physical activity level, from sedentary to active. Calorie Range Children 2 - 3 years Females 4 – 8 years 9 - 13 14 – 16 19 – 30 31 – 50 51 + Males 4 – 8 years 9 – 13 14 – 18 19 – 30 31 – 50 51 + 1,400 1,800 2,200 2,400 2,200 2,000 -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 2,000 2,600 3,200 3,000 3,000 2,800 1,200 1,600 1,800 2,000 1,800 1,600 -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 1,800 2,200 2,400 2,400 2,200 2,200 Sedentary -------- Active 1,000 --------- 1,400
Sedentary means a lifestyle that includes only the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life. Active means a lifestyle that includes physical activity equivalent to walking more than 3 miles per day at 3 to 4 miles per hour, in addition to the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life.
___________________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual http://www.nfsmi.org/documentlibraryfiles/PDF/20080213030405.pdf
____________________________ B. Vitamin and Mineral Summary
Vitamin and Mineral Summary
Nutrient Fat Soluble Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Best Sources Green and yellow vegetables, milk, margarine, egg yolk Fortified milk, sun Vegetable oil, green leaves, seeds Turnip greens, soybean, vegetable oil Functions Anti-infection vitamin, healthy eyes, skin and mucous membranes, night vision Calcium absorption Protects cells against damage and cancer Blood clotting Stability Safe with usual cooking Stable Safe with usual cooking Destroyed by alkali
Water soluble Citrus fruits, Vitamin tomatoes, potatoes, C broccoli, cabbage Bread and cereal, pork, potatoes, legumes Milk, bread, cereal, green leaves Fish, meat, poultry, bread, cereal, legumes, peanuts Pork, grains, bran, legumes, seeds Green leafy vegetables Meat, legumes, green leaves Milk, dairy products, green leaves
Healthy gums, bones and teeth, cells and blood vessels; wound healing; boosts iron absorption Vital for normal growth and energy, healthy nerves, appetite, and digestion Growth, healthy eyes, prevents sores around mouth and nose Prevents pellagra, nervous depression Helps use protein and amino acids Vital for normal red blood cells, helps make DNA As part of red blood gets oxygen to all cells Normal bones and teeth, blood clotting, regulates heart beat
Unstable in light, heat, air and alkali Destroyed by heat, air, and alkali Destroyed by light Safe with usual cooking Safe with usual cooking Destroyed by heat and air Safe with usual cooking Safe with usual cooking
Niacin Vitamin B6 Folacin Minerals Iron Calcium
_____________________________ C. Function of “Shortfall” Nutrients
Function of “Shortfall” Nutrients
Nutrient Vitamin A Function Vitamin A plays a significant role in vision, growth and development, immune function, and maintenance of healthy bones, teeth, and hair. As a dietary antioxidant, vitamin C protects all living cells. Vitamin C helps strengthen blood vessels, maintain healthy gums, and aids in the absorption of iron. Helps promote the absorption of calcium and enhances bone mineralization. As a dietary antioxidant, vitamin E protects living cells. Vitamin E helps in the formation of red blood cells and muscles. Calcium is the key nutrient in the development and maintenance of bones. Calcium aids in blood clotting and muscle and nerve functioning. Magnesium plays a key role in the development and maintenance of bones, and is involved in energy metabolism. Potassium assists in muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in cells, transmitting nerve impulses, and releasing energy during metabolism. Diets rich in potassium lower blood pressure, blunt the adverse effects of salt on blood pressure, may reduce the risk of developing kidney stones, and may decrease bone loss. Fiber helps maintain the health of the digestive tract and promotes proper bowel functioning.
__________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: Nutrition and Your Health. Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 2005 Advisory Committee Report National Food Service Management Institute Healthy Cuisine for Kids Participant’s Manual http://www.nfsmi.org/documentlibraryfiles/PDF/20080213030405.pdf
__________________________________________________ D. Summary of the Nutrient Contribution of Each Food Group
Summary of the Nutrient Contribution of Each Food Group
Food Group Fruit Group Major Contribution(s) 1 Vitamin C Substantial Contribution(s) (>10% of total)2 Thiamin Vitamin B6 Folate Magnesium Copper Potassium Carbohydrate Fiber Vitamin E Vitamin C Thiamin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Carbohydrate Fiber Alpha-linolenic Acid Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin A Folate Copper Fiber Vitamin B6 Copper Vitamin C
Vitamin A Potassium
Vegetable Subgroups: Dark Green Vegetables Orange Vegetables Legumes
Starchy Vegetables Other Vegetables
Thiamin Folate Magnesium Iron Copper Carbohydrate Vitamin A Fiber
Vitamin A Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Calcium Phosphorus Zinc Potassium Protein Linoleic Acid Alpha-linolenic Acid Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Phosphorus Zinc Protein Riboflavin Niacin Iron Copper Vitamin E Thiamin Riboflavin Vitamin B12 Phosphorus Magnesium Iron Copper Potassium Linoleic Acid Vitamin A Thiamin Vitamin B6 Magnesium Zinc Potassium Carbohydrate Protein Niacin
Grain Subgroups: Folate (tie) Magnesium Iron Copper Carbohydrate (tie) Fiber
Folate (tie) Thiamin Carbohydrate (tie) Niacin Vitamin B6 Protein
Meat, Poultry, Fish, Eggs, and Nuts Group
Riboflavin Vitamin B 12 Calcium Phosphorus Vitamin D
Oils and Soft Margarines
Vitamin E Linoleic Acid Alpha-linolenic Acid
1. Major contribution means that the food group or subgroup provides more of the nutrient than any other single food group, averaged over all calorie levels. When two groups or subgroups provide equal amounts, it is noted as a tie. 2. A substantial contribution means that the food group or subgroup provides 10% or more of the total amount of the nutrient in the food patterns, averaged over all calories.
_________________________ E. Food Sources of Potassium
Food Sources of Potassium
Food Sources of Potassium showing calories in the standard amount. Food, Standard Amount Sweet potato, baked, 1 potato (146 g) Tomato past, ¼ cup Beet greens, cooked, ½ cup Potato, baked, flesh, 1 potato (156 g) White beans, canned, ½ cup Yogurt, plain, low-fat, 8-oz container Tomato puree, ½ cup Clams, canned 3 oz Yogurt, plain, low-fat 8-oz container Prune juice, ¾ cup Carrot juice, ¾ cup Blackstrap molasses, 1 Tbsp Halibut, cooked 3 oz Soybeans, green, cooked, ½ cup Tuna, yellowfin, cooked, 3 oz Lima beans, cooked, ½ cup Winter squash, cooked, ½ cup Soybeans, mature, cooked ½ cup Rockfish, Pacific, cooked, 3 oz Cod, Pacific, cooked, 3 oz Bananas, 1 medium Spinach, cooked ½ cup Tomato juice, ¾ cup Tomato sauce, ½ cup Peaches dried, uncooked, ¼ cup Prunes, stewed, ½ cup Milk, non-fat, 1 cup Pork chop, center loin, cooked, 3 oz Apricots, dried, uncooked, ¼ cup Rainbow trout, farmed, cooked, 3 oz Pork loin, center rib (roasts), lean, roasted, 3 oz Potassium (mg) 694 664 655 610 595 579 549 534 531 530 517 498 490 485 484 484 448 443 442 439 422 419 417 405 398 398 382 382 378 375 371 Calories 131 54 19 145 153 127 48 126 143 136 71 47 119 127 118 104 40 149 103 89 105 21 31 39 96 133 83 197 78 144 190
Buttermilk, cultured, low-fat, 1 cup Cantaloupe, ¼ medium 1%-2% milk, 1 cup Honeydew melon, 1/8 medium Lentils, cooked, ½ cup Plantains, cooked, ½ cup slices Kidney beans, cooked, ½ cup Orange juice, ¾ cup Split peas, cooked, ½ cup Yogurt, plain, whole milk, 8 oz container
370 368 366 365 365 358 358 355 355 352
98 47 102-122 58 115 90 112 85 116 138
___________________________ F. Food Sources of Vitamin E
Food Sources of Vitamin E
Food Sources of Vitamin E ranked by milligrams of vitamin E per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. Food, Standard Amount Fortified ready-to-eat cereals, ~1 oz Sunflower seeds, dry roasted, 1 oz Almonds, 1 oz Sunflower oil, high linoleic, 1 Tbsp Cottonseed oil, 1 Tbsp Safflower oil, high oleic, 1 Tbsp Hazelnuts (filberts), 1 oz Mixed nuts, dry roasted, 1 oz Turnip greens, frozen, cooked, ½ cup Tomato paste, ¼ cup Pine nuts, 1 oz Peanut butter, 2 Tbsp Tomato puree, ½ cup Tomato sauce, ½ cup Canola oil, 1 Tbsp Wheat germ, toasted, plain, 2 Tbsp Peanuts, 1 oz Avocado, raw, ½ avocado Carrot juice, canned, ¾ cup Peanut oil, 1 Tbsp Corn oil, 1 Tbsp Olive oil, 1 Tbsp Spinach, cooked, ½ cup Dandelion greens, cooked, ½ cup Sardine, Atlantic, in oil, drained, 3 oz Blue crab, cooked/canned, 3 oz Brazin nuts, 1 oz Herring, Atlantic, pickled, 3 oz AT (mg) Calories 1.6-12.8 90-107 7.4 165 7.3 164 5.6 120 4.8 120 4.6 120 4.3 178 3.1 168 2.9 24 2.8 54 2.6 191 2.5 192 2.5 48 2.5 39 2.4 124 2.3 54 2.2 166 2.1 161 2.1 71 2.1 119 1.9 120 1.9 119 1.9 21 1.8 18 1.7 177 1.6 84 1.6 186 1.5 222
G. Food Sources of Iron
Food Sources of Iron
Food Sources of Iron ranked by milligrams of iron per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. Food, Standard Amount Clams, canned, drained, 3 oz Fortified ready-to eat cereals (various), ~1 oz Oysters, eastern, wild, cooked, moist heat, 3 oz Organ meats (liver, giblets), various, cooked, 3 oz (Organ meats are high in cholesterol.) Fortified instant cooked cereals (various), 1 packet Soybeans, mature, cooked, ½ cup Pumpkin and squash seed kernels, roasted, 1 oz White beans, canned, ½ cup Blackstrap molasses, 1 Tbsp Lentils, cooked, ½ cup Spinach, cooked from fresh, ½ cup Beef, chuck, blade roast, lean, cooked, 3 oz Beef, bottom round, lean, 0” fat, all grades, cooked, 3 oz Kidney beans, cooked, ½ cup Sardines, canned in oil, drained, 3 oz Beef, rib, lean, ¼” fat, all grades, 3 oz Chickpeas, cooked, ½ cup Duck, meat only, roasted, 3 oz Lamb, shoulder, arm, lean, ¼” fat, choice, cooked, 3 oz Prune juice, ¾ cup Shrimp, canned, 3 oz Cowpeas, cooked, ½ cup Ground beef, 15% fat, cooked, 3 oz Tomato puree, ½ cup Lima beans, cooked, ½ cup Soybeans, green, cooked, ½ cup Navy beans, cooked, ½ cup Refried beans, ½ cup Beef, top sirloin, lean, 0” fat, all grades, cooked, 3 oz Tomato paste, ¼ cup Iron (mg) 23.8 1.8-21.1 10.2 5.2-9.9 4.9-8.1 4.4 4.2 3.9 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 2 2 Calories 126 54-127 116 134-235 Varies 149 148 153 47 115 21 215 182 112 177 195 134 171 237 136 102 100 212 48 108 127 127 118 156 54
________________________________ H. Non-Dairy Food Sources of Calcium
Non-Dairy Food Sources of Calcium
Non-Dairy Food Sources of Calcium ranked by milligrams of calcium per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. Both calcium content and bioavailability should be considered when selecting dietary sources of calcium. Some plant foods have calcium that is well absorbed, but the large quantity of plant foods that would be needed to provide as much calcium as in a glass of milk may be unachievable for many. Many other calcium-fortified foods are available, but the percentage of calcium that can be absorbed is unavailable for many of them. Food, Standard Amount Fortified ready-to-eat cereals (various), 1 oz Soy beverage, calcium fortified, 1 cup Sardines, Atlantic, in oil, drained, 3 oz Tofu, firm, prepared with nigari, ½ cup (Nigari is calcium sulfate and magnesium chloride.) Pink salmon, canned, with bone, 3 oz Collards, cooked from frozen, ½ cup Molasses, blackstrap, 1 Tbsp Spinach, cooked from frozen, ½ cup Soybeans, green, cooked, ½ cup Turnip greens, cooked from frozen, ½ cup Ocean perch, Atlantic, cooked, 3 oz Oatmeal, plain and flavored, instant, fortified, 1 packet prepared Cowpeas, cooked, ½ cup White beans, canned, ½ cup Kale, cooked from frozen, ½ cup Okra, cooked from frozen, ½ cup Soybeans, mature, cooked, ½ cup Blue crab, canned, 3 oz Beet greens, cooked from fresh, ½ cup Pak-choi, Chinese cabbage, cooked from fresh, ½ cup Clams, canned, 3 oz Dandelion greens, cooked from fresh, ½ cup Rainbow trout, farmed, cooked, 3 oz Calcium (mg) 236-1043 368 325 253 181 178 172 146 130 124 116 99-110 106 96 90 88 88 86 82 79 78 74 73 Calories 88-106 98 177 88 118 31 47 30 127 24 103 97-157 80 153 20 26 149 84 19 10 126 17 144
I. Dairy Sources of Calcium
Dairy Sources of Calcium
Food Sources of Calcium ranked by milligrams of calcium per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. Food, Standard Amount Plain yogurt, non-fat (13 g protein/8 oz), 8-oz container Romano cheese, 1.5 oz Pasteurized process Swiss cheese, 2 oz Plain yogurt, low-fat (12 g protein/8 oz), 8-oz container Fruit yogurt, low-fat (10 g proteins/8 oz), 8-oz container Swiss cheese, 1.5 oz Ricotta cheese, part skim, ½ cup Pasteurized process American cheese food, 2 oz Provolone cheese, 1.5 oz Mozzarella cheese, part-skim, 1.5 oz Cheddar cheese, 1.5 oz Fat-free (skim) milk, 1 cup Muenster cheese, 1.5 oz 1% low-fat milk, 1 cup Low-fat chocolate milk (1%), 1 cup 2% reduced fat milk, 1 cup Reduced fat chocolate milk (2%), 1 cup Buttermilk, low-fat, 1 cup Chocolate milk, 1 cup Whole milk, 1 cup Yogurt, plain, whole milk, (8 g protein/8 oz), 8-oz container Ricotta cheese, whole milk, ½ cup Blue cheese, 1.5 oz Mozzarella cheese, whole milk, 1.5 oz Feta cheese, 1.5 oz Calcium (mg) 452 452 438 415 345 336 335 323 321 311 307 306 305 290 288 285 285 284 280 276 275 255 225 215 210 Calories 127 165 190 143 232 162 170 188 150 129 171 83 156 102 158 122 180 98 208 146 138 214 150 128 113
J. Food Sources of Vitamin A Food Sources of Vitamin A
Food Sources of Vitamin A ranked by micrograms (µg) Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE) of vitamin A per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount.
Food, Standard Amount Organ meats (live, giblets), various, cooked, 3 oz (high in cholesterol) Carrot juice, ¾ cup Sweet potato with peel, baked, 1 medium Pumpkin, canned, ½ cup Carrots, cooked from fresh, ½ cup Spinach, cooked from frozen, ½ cup Collards, cooked from frozen, ½ cup Kale, cooked from frozen, ½ cup Mixed vegetables, canned, ½ cup Turnip greens, cooked from frozen, ½ cup Instant cooked cereals, fortified, prepared, 1 packet Various ready-to-eat cereals, with added vitamin A, ~1oz Carrot, raw, 1 small Beet greens, cooked, ½ cup Winter squash, cooked, ½ cup Dandelion greens, cooked, ½ cup Cantaloupe, raw, ¼ medium melon Mustard greens, cooked, ½ cup Pickled herring, 3 oz Red sweet pepper, cooked, ½ cup Chinese cabbage, cooked, ½ cup
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 1490-9126 1692 1096 953 671 573 489 478 474 441 285-376 180-376 301 276 268 260 233 221 219 186 180
Calories 134-235 71 103 42 27 30 31 20 40 24 75-97 100-117 20 19 38 18 46 11 222 19 10
__________________________ K. Food Sources of Magnesium
Food Sources of Magnesium
Food Sources of Magnesium ranked by milligrams of magnesium per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount.
Food, Standard Amount Pumpkin and squash seed kernels, roasted, 1 oz Brazil nuts, 1 oz Bran ready-to-eat cereal (100%), ~1oz Halibut, cooked, 3 oz Quinoa, dry, ¼ cup Spinach, cooked from fresh, ½ cup Almonds, 1 oz Spinach, cooked from fresh, ½ cup Buckwheat flour, ¼ cup Cashews, dry roasted, 1 oz Soybeans, mature, cooked, ½ cup Pine nuts, dried, 1 oz Mixed nuts, oil roasted, with peanuts, 1 oz White beans, canned, ½ cup Pollock, walleye, cooked, 3 oz Black beans, cooked, ½ cup Bulgar, dry, ¼ cup Oat bran, raw, ¼ cup Soybeans, green, cooked, ½ cup Tuna, yellowfin, cooked, 3 oz Artichokes (hearts), cooked, ½ cup Peanuts, dry roasted, 1 oz Lima beans, baby, cooked from frozen, ½ cup Beet greens, cooked, ½ cup Navy beans, cooked, ½ cup Tofu, firm, prepared with nigari, ½ cup (Nigari is calcium sulfate and magnesium chloride.) Okra, cooked from frozen, ½ cup Soy beverage, 1 cup Cowpeas, cooked, ½ cup Hazelnuts, 1 oz
Magnesium (mg) 151 107 103 91 89 81 78 78 75 74 74 71 67 67 62 60 57 55 54 54 50 50 50 49 48 47
Calories 148 186 74 119 159 25 164 20 101 163 149 191 175 154 96 114 120 58 127 118 42 166 95 19 127 88
47 47 46 46
26 127 100 178
Oat bran muffin, 1 oz Great northern beans, cooked, ½ cup Oat bran, cooked, ½ cup Buckwheat groats, roasted, cooked, ½ cup Brown rice, cooked, ½ cup Haddock, cooked, 3 oz
45 44 44 43 42 42
77 104 44 78 108 95
L. Food Sources of Dietary Fiber
Food Sources of Dietary Fiber
Food Sources of Dietary Fiber ranked by grams of dietary fiber per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. Food, Standard Amount Navy beans, cooked, ½ cup Bran ready-to-eat cereal (100%), ½ cup Kidney beans, canned, ½ cup Split peas, cooked, ½ cup Lentil, cooked, ½ cup Black beans, cooked, ½ cup Pinto beans, cooked, ½ cup Lima beans, cooked, ½ cup Artichoke, globe, cooked, 1 each White beans, canned, ½ cup Chickpeas, cooked, ½ cup Great northern beans, cooked, ½ cup Cowpeas, cooked, ½ cup Soybeans, mature, cooked, ½ cup Bran ready-to-eat cereals, various, ~1 oz Crackers, rye wafers, plain, 2 wafers Sweet potato, baked, with peel, 1 medium (146 g) Asian pear, raw, 1 small Green peas, cooked, ½ cup Whole-wheat English muffin, 1 each Pear, raw. 1 small Bulgur, cooked, ½ cup Mixed vegetables, cooked, ½ cup Raspberries, raw, ½ cup Sweet potato, boiled, no peel, 1 medium (156 g) Blackberries, raw, ½ cup Potato, baked, with skin, 1 medium Soybeans, green, cooked, ½ cup Stewed prunes, ½ cup Figs, dried, ¼ cup Dates, ¼ cup Oat bran, raw, ¼ cup Dietary Fiber (g) 9.5 8.8 8.2 8.1 7.8 7.5 7.7 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.2 5.6 5.2 2.6-5.0 5.0 4.8 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.6 Calories 128 78 109 116 115 114 122 108 60 154 135 105 100 149 90-108 74 131 51 67 134 81 76 59 32 119 31 161 127 133 93 126 58
Pumpkin, canned, ½ cup Spinach, frozen, cooked, ½ cup Shredded wheat ready-to-eat cereals, various, ~1 oz Almonds, 1 oz Apple with skin, raw, 1 medium Brussels sprouts, frozen, cooked, ½ cup Whole-wheat spaghetti, cooked, ½ cup Banana, 1 medium Orange, raw, 1 medium Oat bran muffin, 1 small Guava, 1 medium Pearled barley, cooked, ½ cup Sauerkraut, canned, solids, and liquids, ½ cup Tomato paste, ¼ cup Winter squash, cooked, ½ cup Broccoli, cooked, ½ cup Parsnips, cooked, chopped, ½ cup Turnip greens, cooked, ½ cup Collards, cooked, ½ cup Okra, frozen, cooked, ½ cup Peas, edible-podded, cooked, ½ cup
3.6 3.5 2.8-3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.6 2.5
42 30 96 164 72 33 187 105 62 178 37 97 23 54 38 26 55 15 25 26 42
M. Food Sources of Vitamin C
Food Sources of Vitamin C
Food Sources of Vitamin C ranked by milligrams of vitamin C per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount.
Food, Standard Amount Guava, raw, ½ cup Red sweet pepper, raw, ½ cup Red sweet pepper, cooked, ½ cup Kiwi fruit, 1 medium Orange, raw, 1 medium Orange juice, ¾ cup Green Pepper, sweet, raw, ½ cup Green Pepper, sweet, cooked, ½ cup Grapefruit juice, ¾ cup Vegetable juice cocktail, ¾ cup Strawberries, raw, ½ cup Brussels sprouts, cooked, ½ cup Cantaloupe, ¼ medium Papaya, raw, ¼ medium Kohlrabi, cooked, ½ cup Broccoli, raw, ½ cup Edible pod peas, cooked, ½ cup Broccoli, cooked, ½ cup Sweet potato, canned, ½ cup Tomato juice, ¾ cup Cauliflower, cooked, ½ cup Pineapple, raw, ½ cup Kale, cooked, ½ cup Mango, ½ cup
Vitamin C (mg) 188 142 116 70 70 61-93 60 51 50-70 50 49 48 47 47 45 39 38 37 34 33 28 28 27 23
Calories 56 20 19 46 62 79-84 15 19 71-86 34 27 28 51 30 24 15 34 26 116 31 17 37 18 54
Section 4: Recipes Contents
A. Seasonal Fruits and Vegetables B. USDA Recipes for Schools C. Farm to School Cookbook D. Center for Disease Control Recipe Lookup Site E. Minnesota Farm to School Toolkit for Food Service F. VT FEED's Guide for Using Local Foods in Schools G. New Hampshire Fruit and Veggie Quantity Recipe Cookbook H. School Garden Salad with Chickpeas I. Garden Vegetable Rice Salad J. Garden Tomato Pasta K. Broccoli and Herb Frittata L. Oven Roasted Potato and Kale Gratin M. !NOT! Fried Rice
Section 4: Recipes
A. Seasonal Fruits and Vegetables
Seasonal Fruits and Vegetables
FALL September October November Apples Broccoli Brussels Sprouts Cabbage Chinese Cabbage Cauliflower Celery Root Chicory Cranberries Cucumbers Eggplant Fennel Grapes Greens Lettuce: Head of Iceberg Leaf Lettuce Mushrooms Pears Chili Peppers Sweet Peppers Pumpkin Shallots Spinach Winter Squash Star Fruit Sweet Potatoes WINTER December January February Avocados Broccoli Brussels Sprout Cabbage Chinese Cabbage Cauliflower Fennel Grapefruit Greens Lemons Sweet Oranges Pears Spinach Sweet Potatoes Tangerines SPRING March April May Asparagus Avocados Basil Beans Berries Broccoli Cabbage Chinese Cabbage Cucumbers Lettuce: Head of Iceberg Mangoes Sweet Oranges Papayas Peas Chili Peppers Sweet Peppers Radishes Rhubarb Shallots Spinach Summer Squash SUMMER June July August Apricots Basil Beans Blueberries Carrots Cherries Collards Corn Cucumbers Grapes Green Beans Limes Mangoes Melons Nectarines Peaches Pears Chili Peppers Sweet Peppers Plums Raspberries Summer Squash Tomatoes Watermelon
_____________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/tn/resources/meal_appeal.pdf (page 50)
B. USDA Recipes for Schools
USDA Recipes for Schools
The following recipes are available from the USDA FNS website: http://teamnutrition.usda.gov/Resources/usda_recipes.html Broccoli Salad Chicken Fajitas Chicken Stir-Fry Chinese Style Vegetables Herbed Broccoli and Cauliflower Polonaise Marinated Black Bean Salad Tabouleh Vegetable Chili Vegetable Pizza Vegetable Quesadilla Vegetable Wraps
________________________ C. Farm to School Cookbook
Broccoli and Cauliflower
Lemon Zest Broccoli Roasted Broccoli and Cauliflower Cheddar Quesadilla with Broccoli Pesto and Tomato Crustless Broccoli Quiche
Page 22 26 28 30 34 38 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60
Green Beans (continued)
Green Beans and Carrots with Dill Dip Three Bean Salad Marinated Green Bean and Tomato Salad
Page 62 64 66
Potatoes and Sweet Potatoes
Garlic Mashed Potatoes Pureed Sweet Potatoes and Pineapple Roasted Potato Wedges Baked Potato Bar Winter Vegetable Roast Potato Salad with Lemon and Garlic Marinated Potato Salad Rosemary Roasted Vegetables 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 86 94 96 104 106 108 110
Butternut Mashed “Potatoes Butternut Squash and Sweet Potato Bake Harvest Home Fries Butternut Cranberry Bread
Honey Carrot Coins Roasted Carrot Sticks with Oregano Brown Rice Pilaf w/ Carrots & Dill Tomato-Vegetable Soup Vegetable-Tortellini Soup Vegetable Bulgur
Tomatoes and Corn
Fresh Tomato Salsa Black Eyed Pea Stew with Fresh Corn and Tomatoes
Cucumber-Apple Salad Tropical Slaw Rainbow Pasta Salad Italian Pasta Salad
Tasty Green Bean Toss Roasted Green Beans and Carrot Sticks
____________________________________________ D. Center for Disease Control Recipe Lookup Site
Please visit for more recipes:
___________________________________________ E. Minnesota Farm to School Toolkit for Food Service
This online toolkit offers recipes with nutritional analysis, menu examples, nutrition facts, buying tips, promotional materials, and tasting event ideas to help incorporate local foods into school food service. Some agricultural products local to both Minnesota and Michigan are featured, such as apples, dry beans, cabbage, carrots, cucumbers, garlic, green beans, herbs, honey, lettuce, potatoes, rhubarb, squash, and sweet corn.
___________________________________________ F. VT FEED's Guide for Using Local Foods in Schools
Local Recipes for School Lunch Programs
Vermont FEED (Food Education Every Day) Tools and Resources. Download VT FEED's Guide for Using Local Foods in Schools Download Entire Guide Recipes have been tested by school food service and students, and are available in Appendix 2, p. 92
____________________________________________________ G. New Hampshire Fruit and Veggie Quantity Recipe Cookbook
Fruit and Veggie Quantity Recipe Cookbook
New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Public Health Services Fruit and Vegetables Program
H. School Garden Salad with Chickpeas
School Garden Salad with Chickpeas
Ingredients Dressing Unfiltered Apple Juice Extra Virgin Olive Oil Soy Sauce Fresh Lemon Juice Rice Vinegar Minced Garlic Salad Mixed Lettuces and Baby Greens Carrot, shredded Radishes, thinly sliced Canned Chickpeas (Garbanzos) Sunflower Seeds, toasted 50 Servings Weight Measure 2 cups ¾ cup ½ cup ½ cup ¼ cup 2 Tbsp 4 gallons 4 lbs 3 lbs 1 No. 10 can 2 cups 100 Servings Weight Measure 1. Make dressing: In a container with a lid, shake all dressing ingredients until blended. Directions
2. Make Salad: Put lettuces, carrot, and radishes in a large bowl. Put remaining ingredients in small bowls. Combine lettuce mixture with ½ of the dressing. 3. Spoon greens onto plates and let each person add toppings and remaining dressing to taste.
Note: Nutritional analysis is per serving. Yield: Serves 50 Calories 141 (45% from fat); Fat 7g (sat 1.7g); Cholesterol 0.0mg; Carbohydrate 16g; Sodium 249mg; Protein 5.4g; Fiber 3.9g
Adapted from: http://find.myrecipes.com/recipes/recipefinder.dyn?action=displayRecipe&recipe_id=1835318
I. Garden Vegetable Rice Salad
Garden Vegetable Rice Salad
Ingredients Long Grain Rice Water Bay Leaf Lemons Margarine Olive Oil Fresh Basil, shredded 50 Servings Weight Measure 2 quarts 1 gallon 4 leaves 8 8 tsp ½ cup 2 cup 100 Servings Weight Measure 1. Bring the water to a boil in a saucepan. Add the bay leaf, 1 lemon cut in half, rice and margarine. Turn down heat to low and cover. Cook for approximately 20 minutes until the rice is tender. Place cooked rice in refrigerator to cool. Discard bay leaf and lemon halves. Directions
2. Heat a large skillet over medium heat. Place 2 Tbsp olive oil in the skillet. Add the zucchini and yellow squash. Stir-fry for 8 minutes over medium heat stirring occasionally. Add half of the basil and remove to serving bowl. 3. Return to skillet and add the red pepper, eggplant, tomato, and garlic along with the remaining olive oil.
Yellow Squash, diced Red Pepper, diced Eggplant, diced Tomato, diced Olive Oil Garlic, minced Fresh Basil Lemon Juice
2 cup 1 cup 2 cup 2 cup ½ cup 2 tbsp 1 cup ½ cup
Cook for 5-10 minutes over medium heat until the eggplant is tender, but not mushy. 4. Toss all vegetables together with remaining basil and juice of one lemon. Add rice to vegetables and toss together for a great summer salad.
Note: Nutritional analysis is per serving. Yield: Serves 50 Calories 176; Saturated Fat .8g; Iron 1.5mg; Protein 3g; Cholesterol 0mg; Calcium 37mg; Carbohydrate 30g; Vitamin A 41RE; Sodium 12mg; Total Fat 5.6g; Vitamin C 23mg; Dietary Fiber 2g
_____________________________________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: http://www.foodreference.com/html/garden-veg-rices.html
_____________________ J. Garden Tomato Pasta
Garden Tomato Pasta
Ingredients Olive Oil Whole Tomatoes, Canned Cubed Zucchini Corn Kernels Garlic Salt Red Pepper Flakes Sugar Chopped, Fresh Basil Rotelli Pasta Chopped Onions 50 Servings Weight Measure ½ cup 7 lbs 1 gallon 2 quarts 2 Tbsp 1 Tbsp 2 Tbsp ¼ cup 2 cups 7 lbs 10 cups 100 Servings Weight Measure 1. Sauté onions in olive oil in a large skillet over medium heat until soft. 2. Stir in canned tomatoes with their liquid and remaining ingredients, except basil and pasta. 3. Cook 20-25 minutes, stirring occasionally, until thickened. 4. Stir in basil. 5. Cook pasta according to package directions in unsalted water. 6. Drain and toss with sauce. Directions
Note: Nutritional analysis is per serving. Yield: Serves 50 Calories 163; Fat Calories 27; TOTAL FAT 3g; Saturated Fat 0g; Cholesterol 0mg; Sodium 604mg; Total Carbohydrate 31g; Dietary Fiber 3g; Sugars 7g; Protein 5g
Adapted from: http://www.foodreference.com/html/garden-veg-rices.html
____________________________ K. Broccoli and Herb Frittata
Broccoli and Herb Fritatta
50 Servings Ingredients Onion Garlic cloves Broccoli, fresh Salt Parsley Silver beet leaves Eggs Olive Oil Rosemary, sprigs Weight Measure 1 cup (3 lbs) 2 Tbsp 2 lbs 1 Tbsp 1 bunch 20 leaves 48 1 cup 8 sprigs 100 Servings Weight Measure Directions 1. Peel and slice the garlic. Peel onion, cut in half and slice thinly. 2. Cut the broccoli into florets, then peel the stem and cut into 5mm thick slices. 3. Fill a saucepan with water, and salt. Bring to a boil. Carefully put the florets in and cook for 5 minutes. 4. Once the broccoli is cooked, strain and put broccoli into a large bowl. 5. Rinse parsley and silver beet, then chop roughly. Add to the bowl of broccoli. Break the eggs into a bowl. 6. Add the cream, salt and pepper and whisk. Pour half the oil into the frying pan and place on to a medium heat. 7. Add the garlic and onions, sauté for 5 minutes. Move the garlic and onions to the bowl with the broccoli. 8. Add the whisked egg mixture and stir. Use the rest of the oil to oil the baking tray, then lay grease proof paper onto the tray. 9. Carefully pour the vegetable/egg mixture into the baking tray. Put the baking tray into a preheated oven for 10-15 minutes. Once cooked, allow to cool. Then cut into equal portions.
No nutritional information available. Yield: Serves 48
____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: http://www.wgps.vic.edu.au/resources/recipes/broccoli_frittata.html
_________________________________ L. Oven Roasted Potato and Kale Gratin
Oven Roasted Potato and Kale Gratin
50 Servings Ingredients Butter, room temperature Potatoes, peeled, pre-boiled Kale leaves Onion, peeled/sliced Salt and Pepper Parmesan Cheese Parsley Weight Measure 8 Tbsp 7 ½ lbs 4 lbs 3 whole 1 Tbsp- salt 2 Tbsp- pepper 1 cup 1 bunch 100 Servings Weight Measure Directions 1. Preheat oven to 190 degrees. Slice the pre-boiled potatoes and season with salt and pepper. 2. Pan fry onion until golden brown. Roughly chop parsley and kale. Set aside. 3. Line all the baking dishes with butter; place a thin layer of sliced potatoes, then onion, kale and parsley. Next add the grated parmesan cheese along with dollops of butter on top. 4. Bake for about 20 minutes or until the gratin is golden brown. Remove from the oven and allow to cool.
No nutritional information available. Yield: Serves 50
___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: http://www.wgps.vic.edu.au/resources/recipes/potato_gratin.html
________________ M. !NOT! Fried Rice
!NOT! Fried Rice
50 Servings Weight Measure 3 lbs 1 quart 2½ cups 3 quarts 2 cups 3 lbs 2 oz 12 oz 4 oz 1 lb 10 oz 10 oz 3 quarts 2 cups 1 cup 3½ cups 2 cups 2 cups 1 Tbsp; 1 tsp 6 lbs 4 oz 1 lb 8 oz 8 oz 2 lbs. 1 lb 4 oz 1 lb 4 oz 100 Servings Weight Measure 6 lbs 3 quarts 1 cup 1 gallon 3 quarts 1 gallon 2 quarts 1 quart 2 cups 1 quart 3 cups 1 quart 1 quart 2 Tbsp; 2 tsp Directions 1. Cook rice in the chicken stock in a covered stock pot or steam kettle until tender-firm, about 10 minutes. 2. Heat ham, onions, celery, carrots, red and green peppers, rice, garlic powder, ginger, soy sauce, and red pepper flakes for 20 minutes in a large saucepan or steam kettle on low heat. Add peas and mix. Portion 1 gallon; 1 cup (7lb 8oz) per 12” x 20” x 2 ½” steam table pan. 3. Melt margarine in a sauce pan or tilting skillet. Add whipped eggs and scramble until firm. Set aside. 4. Toast sesame seeds in a pan over medium heat until lightly browned. 5. Chop scramble eggs and sprinkle 1¼ cups (8 oz) over each pan of rice mixture. Sprinkle 2 Tbsp of sesame seeds and ¼ cup of chopped green onions on each pan of rice to garnish.
Ingredients White Rice Chicken Stock Lean Ham, diced Onions, diced Fresh Celery, bias cut Fresh Carrots, diced Fresh Red Pepper, diced Fresh Green Pepper, diced Garlic Powder
Ground Ginger Low Sodium Soy Sauce Red Pepper Flakes Frozen Peas, thawed Margarine Butter Whole Large Eggs, whipped Sesame Seeds Green Onions, chopped 8 oz 1 lb 3 oz
½ tsp ½ cup 2 tsp 1 quart 1 Tbsp 4 each ¼ cup ½ cup 1 lb 2 lbs 6 oz
1 tsp 1 cup 1 Tbsp; 1 tsp 2 quarts 2 Tbsp 8 each 1/2 cup 1 cup
Note: Nutritional analysis is per serving. Yield: Serves 50 Calories 188; Total Fat 4g; Saturated Fat 1.2g; Cholesterol 31mg; Sodium 1287mg; Total Carbohydrate 27g; Dietary Fiber 1g; Protein 10g
_____________________________________________________________________________________________ Adapted from: USDA. “!NOT! Fried Rice.” USDA Team Nutrition Calendar Companion October 1997: Page 7
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