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Engineering Production 1

(EngM 324)

Machining Operations
Amr Shehata Fayed, Ph.D.
Associate Professor

An Introduction to Machining

What is Machining?
Machining is the removal of the unwanted metal from a workpiece in the form of chips so as to obtain a finished product of desired size, shape, and finish.

Machine tools are kind of machines on which metal cutting or metal forming processes are carried out.

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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An Introduction to Machining

Material removal is essentially done on machine tools, which may be Lathe, Milling, Drilling, Shaping, Planing, Broaching and Grinding machines.

Mechanism: Metal ahead of the cutting tool is compressed. This results in the deformation or elongation of the crystal structure resulting in a shearing of the metal.
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Machining Operations Page 3

An Introduction to Machining

Why Machining ?
Benefits Excellent dimensional tolerances External and internal geometrical features Surface finish Removal of heat treat distortion Economical for small quantities.
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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An Introduction to Machining

However, there are some


Limitations Material waste Time consuming Energy, capital and labor intensive

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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An Introduction to Machining
Diagrammatic Representation of Material Removal Operations

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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An Introduction to Machining
Diagrammatic Representation of Material Removal Operations

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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An Introduction to Machining

Material Removal Processes


Excess material removed from the starting workpiece so what remains is the desired geometry. Examples: machining such as turning, drilling, and milling; also grinding and nontraditional processes

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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An Introduction to Machining
Purpose of Machining Most of the engineering components such as gears, bearings, clutches, tools, screws and nuts etc. need: dimensional and form accuracy good surface finish for serving their purposes

Machining to high accuracy and finish essentially enables a product to fulfill its functional requirements improve its performance prolong its service
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Machining Operations Page 9

An Introduction to Machining
Principle of Machining The basic principle of machining is typically illustrated in Fig.1
Blank vc t Tool Feed, vo Product

Fig. 1 Principle of machining (turning)

A metal rod of irregular shape, size and surface is converted into a finished rod of desired dimension and surface by machining by proper relative motions of the tool-work pair.
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Machining Operations Page 10

An Introduction to Machining
Definition of Machining Machining refers to cutting operations that are based on the removal of material from an originally rough-shaped workpiece, for example via casting, forging, extrusion, etc..

In the literature such operations are called: metal cutting, material removal and chip removal techniques.

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Machining Operations Page 11

An Introduction to Machining
Machining Requirements The essential basic requirements for machining work are schematically illustrated in Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Requirements for machining


Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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An Introduction to Machining
Machining Requirements The blank and the cutting tool are properly mounted (in fixtures) and moved in a powerful device called machine tool enabling gradual removal of layer of material from the work surface resulting in its desired dimensions and surface finish. Additionally some environment called cutting fluid is generally used to ease machining by cooling and lubrication.
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Machining Operations Page 13

An Introduction to Machining
Definition of Machine Tools A machine tool is a non-portable power operated and reasonably valued device or system of devices in which energy is expended to produce jobs of desired size, shape and surface finish by removing excess material from the preformed blanks in the form of chips with the help of cutting tools moved past the work surface(s).

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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An Introduction to Machining
Machine Tools basically produce geometrical surfaces like flat, cylindrical or any contour on the preformed blanks by machining work with the help of cutting tools. Basic Functions of Machine Tools firmly holding the blank and the tool transmit motions to the tool and the blank provide power to the tool-work pair for the machining action. control of the machining parameters, i.e., speed, feed and depth of cut.
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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An Introduction to Machining
Classification of Machine Tools according to the Surface Generated Machine tools for cylindrical work: Lathe and turret lathe, Boring machines, Cylindrical grinder and Surface grinder. Machine tools for flat surface work: Planning, Shaping, Slotting and Broaching.
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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An Introduction to Machining
Elements of Machine Tools Structure which is formed by bed, column and frame. Slides and tool structure Spindles and spindles bearing Kinematics of machine tool drives. Two motions are required to perform the machining operation, See next figures. Cutting motion (its accuracy depends on the design of main spindle) Feed motion (its accuracy depends on the design of the bed)

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Relative Motion between Tool and Workpiece

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Machining Parameters

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Cutting Parameter Relationships

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Cutting Parameters Definitions


Cutting Speed: It is the distance traveled by the work surface in unit time with reference to the cutting edge of the tool. The cutting speed, v, is simply referred to as speed and usually expressed in m/min.

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Cutting Parameters Definitions


Feed: It is the distance advanced by the tool into or along the workpiece each time the tool point passes a certain position in its travel over the surface. In case of turning, feed is the distance that the tool advances in one revolution of the workpiece. Feed, f, is usually expressed in mm/rev. Sometimes it is also expressed in mm/min and is called feed rate.
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Cutting Parameters Definitions


Depth of cut: It is the distance through which the cutting tool is plunged into the workpiece surface. Thus it is the distance measured perpendicularly between the machined surface and the unmachined (uncut) surface or the previously machined surface of the workpiece. The depth of cut, d, is expressed in mm.
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Machining Operations Page 23

Selection of Cutting Speed and Feed


It is based on the following parameters: Workpiece material Tool Material Tool geometry and dimensions Size of chip cross-section Types of finish desired Rigidity of the machine Types of coolant used
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Selection of Cutting Speed and Feed

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Lathe Machine (1/4)

a) Schematic view

b) Cutting and feed motions

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Lathe Machine (2/4)


spindle chuck tool-post tail-stock tail-stock wheel

depth of cut, d

feed, f

lead-screw carriage wheel carriage cross-slide wheel

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Lathe Machine (3/4)

1
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Lathe Machine (3/4)

External turnning

How It Works

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Some common machining operations done in center lathes

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Now, Turning Operations


Applications: usually to form round or taper cylindrical profiles. Work-pieces: rotating, usually cylindrical shape Cutters: single-point cutter, move in linear direction. Machines: Turning machine, or lathe.
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Milling Machines

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Milling Cutting and Feed Motions


In order to perform a flat surface by milling operation, a relative motion has to be between the milling tool and part. In this respect the milling tool will have a rotation motion, that is the main cutting motion, and either the tool or part has to perform a translation motion, that is the feeding motion.
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Milling tool

Machined surface

Feed Motion Part

Swarfs

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Milling Machine

b) Cutting and feed motions

a) Schematic view of horizontal milling machine


Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Milling Operations on a Horizontal Milling Machine

Slab Milling: Cutter width extends beyond the work piece on both sides
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Gazan University

Slotting (Slot milling): Cutter width is less than the work piece width, creating a slot. If the cutter is very thin, it can be used to cut a work part into two, called saw milling.
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Milling Operations on a Horizontal Milling Machine

Side milling: Cutter, machines the side of the work piece.

Straddle milling: Similar to side milling, but cutting takes on both sides of the work part simultaneously.

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Gazan University

Machining Operations Page 37

Milling Operations on a Horizontal Milling Machine Form Milling The cutter has the desired form of the part

Milling of a concave half circle


Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Gazan University

Milling of a gear
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Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Machining Operations Page 39

Milling Operations on a Vertical Milling Machine Face Milling The cutter with a relatively large diameter removes a layer from the upper side of the part

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Gazan University

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Milling Operations on a Vertical Milling Machine CM

Feed End milling: Cutters diameter is less than the work parts width
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Gazan University

Profile milling (also contouring or shaping): Outside periphery of flat part is cut
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Milling Operations on a Vertical Milling Machine Pocket Milling: The cutter removes material creating a cavity (rectangular, circular etc.)

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Gazan University

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Milling Operations on a Vertical Milling Machine

Slot Milling
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Gazan University

T-Slot Milling
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Milling Operations on a Vertical Milling Machine

Horizontal flat surface

Vertical flat surface Profile surface

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Gazan University

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Then, Milling Operations


Applications: for Flat or formed profiles. Work-pieces: Move linearly Cutters: Multiple cutting edges, Rotating about its own axis. Machines: Milling machines (Horizontal, Vertical and universal Milling Machines).
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Grinding Machine (Surface Grinding)

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Grinding Machine

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Then, Grinding Operations


Applications: For better surface finishing better accuracy or close tolerances For hardened materials Very little metal removal Cutters: Grinding wheels Machines: Surface grinding machines ( for flat or formed profiles) Cylindrical Grinding machines Universal grinding machines
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Drilling Machine

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Drilling Machine

b) Cutting and feed motions a) Schematic view


Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Drilling

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Shaping Machine

b) Cutting and feed motions

a) Schematic view
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Shaping Machine

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Schematic View of a Planning Machine

What are the cutting and feed motions of it? Cutting motion is the table (workpiece) Feed motions is the tool
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Comparisons of various Metal Machining Processes


Work-pieces Cutters
Move linearly Single point Rotating Multi-point Rotating Grinding wheel Rotating Grinding wheel Rotating & move linearly along the axis Rotating & move linearly Single point Rotating or linear

Applications
Round or Cylindrical shapes

Remarks
Turning Lathe

Turning Milling Surface Grinding Cylindrical Grinding Drilling Reaming Boring

Rotating Linear Linear

Flat of formed profiles Milling Better finishing Better accuracy For hardened surface Better finishing Better accuracy For hardened surface Cylindrical holes Better finishing Better straightness Jig borer Milling or Lathe Along the axis Small metal removal

Rotating

Station station Station or rotating

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Comparison of Machining Processes

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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Comparison of Machining Processes

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed


Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

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