\

=
=
2
) (
2
n u
v u
n u m u
l w
C V
l w C M
w
u
= Total factored dead and live
load per unit length
C
m
= Moment coefficient
C
v
= Shear coefficient
l
n
= Clear span length for span in
question for M
u
at interior
face of exterior support, +M
u
and V
u
l
n
= Average of clear span length
for adjacent spans for M
u
at
interior supports
See Fig. 1011, text
F. Approximate
Analysis of
Continuous Beam
and OneWay
Slab Systems
ACI Moment and
Shear
Coefficients
See Section 8.3.3
of ACI Code
Fig. 1011, MacGregor (1997)
Flexural Design of Reinforced
Concrete Beams and Slab Sections
Analysis Versus Design:
Analysis: Given a crosssection,f
c
, reinforcement sizes,
location,f
y
compute resistance or
capacity
Design: Given factored load effect (such as M
u
) select
suitable section(dimensions, f
c
, f
y
,
reinforcement, etc.)
Flexural Design of Reinforced
Concrete Beams and Slab Sections
ACI Code Requirements for Strength Design
Basic Equation: factored resistance factored load
effect
>
Ex.
u n
M M > 
M
u
= Moment due to factored loads (required ultimate moment)
M
n
= Nominal moment capacity of the crosssection using nominal
dimensions and specified material strengths.

= Strength reduction factor (Accounts for variability in dimensions,
material strengths, approximations in strength equations.
Flexural Design of Reinforced
Concrete Beams and Slab Sections
Required Strength (ACI 318, sec 9.2)
U = Required Strength to resist factored loads
D = Dead Loads
L = Live loads
W = Wind Loads
E = Earthquake Loads
H = Pressure or Weight Loads due to soil,ground water,etc.
F = Pressure or weight Loads due to fluids with well defined
densities and controllable maximum heights.
T = Effect of temperature, creep, shrinkage, differential
settlement, shrinkage compensating.
Factored Load Combinations
U = 1.4 D +1.7 L Always check even if other load
types are present.
U = 0.75( 1.4 D + 1.7 L + 1.7 W)
U = 0.75( 1.4 D + 1.7 L)
U = 0.9 D + 1.3 W
Factored Load Combinations
Similar combination for earthquake, lateral pressure,
fluid pressure, settlement, etc.
U = 1.05 D + 1.28 L + 1.4 E
U = 0.9 D + 1.43 E
U = 1.4 D + 1.7 L + 1.7 H
U = 0.9 D + 1.7 H
U = 1.4 D + 1.7 L + 1.4 F
U = 0.9 D + 1.4 F
U = 0.75(1.4 D + 1.4 T +1.7 L)
U = 1.4 (D + L)
Resistance Factors,  ACI Sec 9.3.2
Strength Reduction Factors
[1] Flexure w/ or w/o axial tension  = 0.90
[2] Axial Tension  = 0.90
[3] Axial Compression w or w/o flexure
(a) Member w/ spiral reinforcement  = 0.75
(b) Other reinforcement members  = 0.70
*(may increase for very small axial loads)
[4] Shear and Torsion  = 0.85
[5] Bearing on Concrete  = 0.70
ACI Sec 9.3.4  factors for regions of high seismic risk
Background Information for Designing
Beam Sections
1.
2.
Location of Reinforcement
locate reinforcement where cracking occurs
(tension region) Tensile stresses may be due to :
a) Flexure
b) Axial Loads
c ) Shrinkage effects
Construction
formwork is expensive try to reuse at several
floors
Background Information for Designing
Beam Sections
3.
Beam Depths
ACI 318  Table 9.5(a) min. h based on l(span)
(slab & beams)
Rule of thumb: h
b
(in) l (ft)
Design for max. moment over a support to set
depth of a continuous beam.
~
Background Information for Designing
Beam Sections
4.
Concrete Cover
Cover = Dimension between the surface of the slab or
beam and the reinforcement
Why is cover needed?
[a] Bonds reinforcement to concrete
[b] Protect reinforcement against corrosion
[c] Protect reinforcement from fire (over heating
causes strength loss)
[d] Additional cover used in garages, factories,
etc. to account for abrasion and wear.
Background Information for Designing
Beam Sections
Minimum Cover Dimensions (ACI 318 Sec 7.7)
Sample values for cast inplace concrete
Concrete cast against & exposed to earth  3 in.
Concrete (formed) exposed to earth & weather
No. 6 to No. 18 bars  2 in.
No. 5 and smaller  1.5 in
Concrete not exposed to earth or weather
 Slab, walls, joists
No. 14 and No. 18 bars  1.5 in
No. 11 bar and smaller  0.75 in
 Beams, Columns  1.5 in
Background Information for Designing
Beam Sections
5.
Bar Spacing Limits (ACI 318 Sec. 7.6)
 Minimum spacing of bars
 Maximum spacing of flexural reinforcement in
walls & slabs
Max. space = smaller of
. in 18
t 3
Minimum Cover Dimension
Interior beam.
Minimum Cover Dimension
Reinforcement bar arrangement for two layers.
Minimum Cover Dimension
ACI 3.3.3
Nominal maximum
aggregate size.
3/4 clear space.,
1/3 slab depth,
1/5 narrowest
dim.
Design Procedure for section dimensions
are unknown (singly Reinforced Beams)
1) For design moment
Substitute:
( )
( )


.

\

'
=


.

\

'
=

.

\

= s
b 0.85 2
bd
d bd
b 0.85 2
A
d A
2
a
d T M M
c
y
y
c
y s
y s n u
f
f
f
f
f
f

  
bd
A
and
s
c
y
=
'
=
e
f
f
Design Procedure for section dimensions
are unknown (singly Reinforced Beams)
Let
( )
( )
( ) ( ) 59 . 0 1 bd
d 59 . 0 d bd
M
d 59 . 0 d bd M M
2
c
c
u
y n u
e e
e e

e  
'
=
'
=
= =
f
f
f
Design Procedure for section dimensions
are unknown (singly Reinforced Beams)
Let
( )
( )
R
M
bd
R
59 . 0 1
bd
M
u
2
c
2
u


.

\

=
'
=


.

\


e e

f
Design Procedure for section dimensions
are unknown (singly Reinforced Beams)
Assume that the material properties, loads, and span length are all known.
Estimate the dimensions of selfweight using the following rules of
thumb:
a. The depth, h, may be taken as approximate 8 to 10 % of the
span (1in deep per foot of span) and estimate the width, b,
as about onehalf of h.
b. The weight of a rectangular beam will be about 15 % of the
superimposed loads (dead, live, etc.). Assume b is about
onehalf of h.
Immediate values of h and b from these two procedures should be selected.
Calculate selfweight and M
u
.
Design Procedure for section dimensions are
unknown (singly Reinforced Beams)
1 Select a reasonable value for based on
experience or start with a value of about 45% to
55 % of
bal
.
2 Calculate the reinforcement index,
3 Calculate the coefficient
c
y
f
f
'
= e
( ) 59 . 0 1 R
c
e e
'
= f
Design Procedure for section dimensions are
unknown (singly Reinforced Beams)
4 Calculate the required value of
5 Select b as a function of d. b ~ (0.45d to 0.65d)
6 Solve for d. Typically round d to nearest 0.5 inch
value to get a whole inch value for h, which is
approximately d = 2.5 in.
R
M
bd
u
2


.

\

=

Design Procedure for section dimensions are
unknown (singly Reinforced Beams)
7 Solve for the width, b, using selected d value.
Round b to nearest whole inch value.
8 Recalculate the beam selfweight and M
u
based
on the selected b and h dimensions. Go back to
step 1 only if the new self weight results in
significant change in M
u
.
9 Calculate required A
s
= bd. Use the selected
value of d from Step 6. And the calculated (not
rounded) value of b from step 7 to avoid errors
from rounding.
Design Procedure for section dimensions are
unknown (singly Reinforced Beams)
Select steel reinforcing bars to provide
A
s
(A
s
required from step 9). Confirm that
the bars will fit within the crosssection. It may be
necessary to change bar sizes to fit the steel in one
layer. If you need to use two layers of steel, the
value of h should be adjusted accordingly.
Calculate the actual M
n
for the section dimensions
and reinforcement selected. Check strength,
(keep overdesign within 10%)
>
u n
M M > 
10
11
Design Procedure for section dimensions
are known (singly Reinforced Beams)
Design Procedure for section dimensions are
known (singly Reinforced Beams)
1 Calculate controlling value for the design moment,
M
u
.
2 Calculate d, since h is known.
d h  2.5in. for one layer of reinforcement.
d h  3.5in. for two layers of reinforcement.
~
~
Design Procedure for section dimensions are
known (singly Reinforced Beams)
3 Solve for required area of tension reinforcement,
A
s
, based on the following equation.

.

\

= s
2
a
d A M M
y s n u
f  
Design Procedure for section dimensions are
known (singly Reinforced Beams)
Rewrite the equation:
( )

.

\



.

\

=
2
a
d
M
d req' A
y
u
s
f

Assume (da/2) 0.9d to 0.95d and solve for A
s
(reqd)
Note  = 0.9 for flexure without axial load
(ACI 31895, Sec. 9.3)
~
Design Procedure for section dimensions are
known (singly Reinforced Beams)
4 Select reinforcing bars so A
s
(provided) A
s
(reqd)
Confirm bars will fit within the crosssection. It
may be necessary to change bar sizes to fit the steel
in one layer or even to go to two layers of steel.
5 Calculate the actual M
n
for the section dimensions
and reinforcement selected. Verify .
Check strength (keep overdesign
with 10%)
>
u n
M M > 
y s
c c >
Design Procedure for section dimensions are
known (singly Reinforced Beams)
6 Check whether A
s
(provided) is within the allowable
limits.
A
s
(provided) A
s
(max)= 0.75 A
s
(bal)
A
s
(provided) A
s
(min)
>
s