Types of Governments

Governments can be classified into several types. Some of the more common types of governments are: 1. Democracy The word "democracy" literally means "rule by the people." In a democracy, the people govern. 2. Republic A literal democracy is impossible in a political system containing more than a few people. All "democracies" are really republics. In a republic, the people elect representatives to make and enforce laws. 3. Monarchy A monarchy consists of rule by a king or queen. Sometimes a king is called an "emperor," especially if there is a large empire, such as China before 1911. There are no large monarchies today. The United Kingdom, which has a queen, is really a republic because the queen has virtually no political power. 4. Aristocracy An aristocracy is rule by the aristocrats. Aristocrats are typically wealthy, educated people. Many monarchies have really been ruled by aristocrats. Today, typically, the term "aristocracy" is used negatively to accuse a republic of being dominated by rich people, such as saying, "The United States has become an aristocracy." 5. Dictatorship A dictatorship consists of rule by one person or a group of people. Very few dictators admit they are dictators; they almost always claim to be leaders of democracies. The dictator may be one person, such as Castro in Cuba or Hitler in Germany, or a group of people, such as the Communist Party in China. 6. Democratic Republic Usually, a "democratic republic" is not democratic and is not a republic. A government that officially calls itself a "democratic republic" is usually a dictatorship. Communist dictatorships have been especially prone to use this term. For example, the official name of North Vietnam was "The Democratic Republic of Vietnam." China uses a variant, "The People's Republic of China."

A federation (Latin: foedus, foederis, 'covenant'), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central (federal) government. In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, are typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of the latter[1]. The governmental or constitutional structure found in a federation is known as federalism. It can be considered the opposite of another system, theunitary state. Germany with sixteen Länder is an example of a federation, whereas neighboring Austria and its Bundesländer was a unitary state withadministrative divisions that became federated, and neighboring France by contrast has always been unitary. Federations may be multi-ethnic and cover a large area of territory (eg.India), although neither is necessarily the case. The initial agreements create a stability that encourages other common interests, brings the disparate territories closer, and gives them all even more common ground. At some time this is recognized and a movement is organized to merge more closely. Other times, especially when common cultural factors are at play such as ethnicity and language, some of these steps in this pattern are expedited and compressed. The international council for federal countries, the Forum of Federations,[2]is based in Ottawa, Ontario. It helps share best practices among countries with federal systems of government, and currently includes nine countries as partner governments.
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1 History 2 Federations and other forms of state 2.1 Federations 2.2 Unitary states 2.3 Other forms of governance

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2.3.1 Confederation 2.3.2 Empire 2.4 Comparison with other systems of autonomy 2.4.1 Federacy 2.4.2 Devolution 2.4.3 Associated States 2.4.4 Crown dependencies 2.4.5 Overseas territories 2.5 Alleged de facto federations 2.5.1 Spain

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2.5.2 People's Republic of China 2.5.3 European Union 2.5.4 Russian Federation 2.5.5 South Africa

3 Internal controversy and conflict 4 Federal governments 4.1 Contemporary 4.1.1 Long form titles 4.2 Defunct 5 See also 6 Footnotes and references

[edit]History Several ancient chiefdoms and kingdoms, such as The 4th century BC League of Corinth, Noricum in Central Europe, and the Iroquois in pre-Columbian North America, could be described as federations orconfederations. The Old Swiss Confederacy was an early example of formal non-unitary statehood. Several colonies and dominions in the New World consisted of autonomous provinces, transformed to federal states upon independence (see Spanish American wars of independence). The oldest continuous federation, and a role model for many subsequent federations, is the United States of America. Some of the New World federations failed; the Federal Republic of Central America broke up into independent states 20 years after its founding. Others, such as Argentina and Mexico, have shifted between federal, confederal and unitary systems, before settling as federations. Brazil became a federation only after fall of the monarchy (see States of Brazil), and Venezuela became a federation after the Federal War. Germany is another nation-state that has switched between confederal, federal and unitary rule, since the German Confederation was founded in 1815. The North German Confederation and the Weimar Republic were federations. Founded in 1922, the Soviet Union was formally a federation of Soviet Republics, Autonomous republics of the Soviet Union and other federal subjects, though in practice highly centralized under theGovernment of the Soviet Union. The Russian Federation has inherited a similar system. Several dominons of the British Empire, independent during the years past World War II, became federations: Nigeria, Pakistan, India and Malaysia. Australia and Canada are independent federations, yet Commonwealth realms. The Forum of Federations was established in 1999. In some recent cases, federations have been a measure to handle with ethnic conflict within a state, such as Bosnia and Hercegovina and Iraq since 2005.

previous to the very existence of Brazilian state). who voted "yes" in referendums to adopt the Australian Constitution. the latter with Germany. on the other hand.[3] which is beginning to be exercised on a European level. and so they enjoy no independent status under international law. The component states of a federation usually possess no powers in relation to foreign policy. was created by the 1988 Constitution for chiefly administrative reasons. The purpose can be the will to solve mutual problems and to provide for mutual defense. in which Sarawak andSabah entered the federation on different terms and conditions from the states of Peninsular Malaysia. However. or to create a nation state for an ethnicity spread over several states. .e.[clarification needed] However. has experienced both the federal and the unitary state through its history. Australia. the federalist system of a state can be quite different from these models. German Lander do have this power. as the histories of countries and nations vary. is unique in that it came into existence as a nation by the democratic vote of the citizens of each state. a federation is more than a mere loose alliance of independent states. Some present day states of the Brazilian federation retain borders set during the Portuguese colonization (i. Some federations are called asymmetric because some states have more autonomy than others. whereas the latest state. However. An example of such a federation is Malaysia. A federation often emerges from an initial agreement between a number of separate states. for instance.[edit]Federations and other forms of state A map of the United States of America showing its fifty constituent states and the Federal District A map of the United Mexican States (Mexico). showing its thirty-one constituent states and the Federal District [edit]Federations In a federation the component states are in some sense sovereign. Tocantins. The former was the case with the United States and Switzerland. insofar as certain powers are reserved to them that may not be exercised by the central government. Brazil.

in a unitary state self-governing regions are often created through a process of devolution. the treaty-making power of the Federating units without almost any possible veto of the Federal Government). A . the opposite movement is under way.[citation needed] [edit]Other forms of governance The Swiss Confederation and its 26 cantons [edit]Confederation A confederation. [edit]Unitary states A unitary state is sometimes one with only a single. Moreover. there is a growing movement to transform the existing federal state into a looser confederation with two or three constitutive states and/or two special regions.[6] By definition. sovereignty is often regarded as residing notionally in the component states. Thus federations are often established voluntarily from 'below' whereas devolution grants self-government from 'above'. the difference between a confederation and a federation is that the membership of themember states in a confederation is voluntary. after the French model. where a formerly centralised state agrees to grant autonomy to a region that was previously entirely subordinate. on the other hand. national tier of government.Seven of the top ten largest countries by area are governed as federations.[5] Belgium was founded as a centralised state. It is often part of the philosophy of a unitary state that. However. and that by virtue of this the central government exercises sovereignty over the whole territory as of right. While it is common for a federation to be brought into being by agreement between a number of formally independent states. or as being shared between these states and the central government. is usually limited to a permanent union of sovereign states for common action in relation to other states. unitary states often also include one or more self-governing regions. the country's structure already has a number of confederational traits (ex. competences are exclusive for either the federal or the state level. In a federation. although nominally called a federal state. in modern political terms. At present. however. its entire territory constitutes a single sovereign entity or nation-state[citation needed]. The difference between a federation and this kind of unitary state is that in a unitary state the autonomous status of self-governing regions exists by the sufferance of the central government. and may be unilaterally revoked. but has gradually been reformed into a federal state by consecutive constitutional reforms since the 1970s. regardless of the actual status of any of its parts.[4] In Belgium. centralised. while the membership in a federation is not.

Over time these terms acquired distinct connotations leading to the present difference in definition. (3) Changes of the constitution. of Canada. Legal reforms. There are two kinds of associated states: in case of Micronesia. not the structure. but these will possess autonomy only at the sufferance of the central government. either due to large differences in the level of autonomy. designed with a stronger central government than the U. Northern Ireland Assembly in the case of the UK) without changing the constitution. Welsh National Assembly. (2) Decisions on day-today-matters are not taken by simple majority but by special majorities or even by consensus or unanimity (veto for every member). usually a treaty. such as the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Spain. may in practice consist of multiple autonomous kingdoms organised together in a federation. [edit]Crown dependencies The relation between the Crown dependencies of the Isle of Man and the bailiwicks of Guernsey andJersey in the Channel Islands and the United Kingdom is very similar to a federate with other systems of autonomy . such as the Federated States of Micronesia (in free association with the United States) and Cook Islands and Niue (which form part of the Realm of New Zealand). [edit]Associated States A federation also differs from an associated state. [edit]Empire An empire is a multi-ethnic state or group of nations with a central government established usually through coercion (on the model of the Roman Empire). and political compromises have somewhat decentralised Canada in practice since its formation in 1867. An example of this is the United States under the Articles of Confederation.confederation is most likely to feature these differences over a federation: (1) No real direct powers: many confederal decisions are externalised by member-state legislation. Canadians. On the other hand. court rulings.S. An empire often includes self-governing regions. [edit]Comparison [edit]Federacy A federacy is essentially an extreme case of an asymmetric federation. in a devolved state. in case of Cook Islands and Niue. with a high king designated as an emperor. association is concluded by treaty between two sovereign states. the central government can revoke the independence of the subunits (Scottish Parliament. require unanimity. The Articles established a national government under what today would be defined as a federal system (albeit with a comparatively weaker federal government). because. However. a political entity that is an empire in name. The term federacy is more often used for the relation between the sovereign state and its autonomous areas. One example of this was Imperial Germany. in the wake of the Civil War of the latter. or the rigidity of the constitutional arrangements. association is concluded by domestic legal arrangements. [edit]Devolution A federation differs from a devolved state. use the term "Confederation" to refer to the formation or joining.

relation: the Islands enjoy independence from the United Kingdom."[9]Each autonomous community is governed by a Statute of Autonomy (Estatuto de Autonomía) under the Spanish Constitution of 1978. it may be politically difficult for it to do so in practice. are vested with varying degrees of power. For the Spanish parliament to revoke the autonomy of regions such asGalicia. Lord of Mann (irrespective of the incumbent's sex). For example. Catalonia or the Basque Country would be a political near-impossibility. the British Monarch is. transferring a small payment to the central government for the common services (army. one scholar discusses the "federal nature of Spain's government (a trend that almost no one denies). [edit]Overseas territories Overseas territories. via The Crown. though nothing bars it legally. For these reasons. nor recognised as sovereign or associated states. [edit]Spain Autonomous communities of Spain Spain is suggested as one possible de facto federation as it grants more self-government to its autonomous communities[7][8] than most federations allow their constituent parts[citation needed]. they are neither considered to be part of it. foreign relations. However. such as the British overseas territories. it is sometimes argued[by whom?] that some modern unitary states are de facto federations. However. which. The Isle of Man does not have a monarch. A unitary state may closely resemble a federation in structure and. takes care of their foreign relations and defence – although the UK Parliament does have overall power to legislate for the dependencies. The self-governing regions of some unitary states also often enjoy greater autonomy than those of some federations. [edit]People's Republic of China . ex officio. which only takes care of their foreign relations and defence.per se. while a central government may possess the theoretical right to revoke the autonomy of a self-governing region. Additionally. nor are they considered to be independent or associated states. rather. the islands are neither an incorporated part of the United Kingdom. some enjoy considerable independence from the sovereign state. [edit]Alleged de facto federations The distinction between a federation and a unitary state is often quite ambiguous. macroeconomic policy). some regions such as Navarre or the Basque Country have full control over taxation and spending.

M. agriculture. has been proposed as a future replacement for the PRC. through decision by the National People's Congress. although some academic observers conclude that after 50 years of institutional evolution since the Treaties of Rome it is becoming one. (June 2011) The European Union (EU) is a type of political union or quasi Federation. Joseph Meurice (Belgium) Robert Schuman (France) Count Sforza (Italy) Joseph Bech (Luxembourg) and Dirk Stikker. J. They envisaged a structure quite different from a federation called the European Political Community. the initiator of the European Community system. R. EU member states retain the right to act independently in matters of foreign policy and defense.In the People's Republic of China. [edit]European Union Parts of this article (those related to the three pillars) areoutdated.[13] . This Europe remains open to all nations. Member States' right to leave the Union is codified. However.[10] Constitutionally. its central government is far weaker than that of most federations and the individual members aresovereign states under international law. van den Brink (The Netherlands). Paul van Zeeland. The EU has responsibility for important areas such as trade. This has resulted in a system some have termed "de facto federalism with Chinese characteristics" (in reference to Deng Xiaoping's policy of socialism with Chinese characteristics). Please update this section to reflect recent events or newly available information. the power vested in the special administrative regions of the People's Republic is granted from the Central People's Government. A Federal Republic of China. to handle economic affairs and implement national policies. This has occurred as largely informal grants of power to the provinces. Robert Schuman. The EU is therefore not a de jure federation. — Europe Declaration signed by Konrad Adenauer (West Germany). monetary union. and also enjoy a near monopoly over other major policy areas such as criminal justice and taxation.[12] The European Union possesses attributes of a federal state.[citation needed] The EU is a three pillar structure of the original supranational European Economic Community and the nuclear non-proliferation treaty. a form of de facto federation has evolved without formal legislation. fisheries. the participating Parties give proof of their determination to create the first supranational institution and that thus they are laying the true foundation of an organized Europe. Nonetheless. We profoundly hope that other nations will join us in our common endeavour.[citation needed] By the signature of this Treaty. wrote that a supranational Community like the Europe's foundingEuropean Coal and Steel Community lay midway between an association of States where they retained complete independence and a federation leading to a fusion of States in a super-state. so it is usually characterized as an unprecedented form of supra-national union. in effect the third Chinese Republic. Since the Treaty of Lisbon. Euratom. plus two largely intergovernmental pillars dealing with External Affairs and Justice and Home Affairs. and the Union operates with more qualified majority voting (rather than unanimity) in many areas.[11] TheEuropean Founding Fathers made a Europe Declaration at the time of the signing of the Treaty of Paris on 18 April 1951 saying that Europe should be organized on a supranational foundation.

This system is known as "cooperative government". H. [edit]South Africa At the end of apartheid. It is striking that while many scholars of the EU continue to resist analyzing it as a federation. oblasts.e. the federal-level cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg. krais. save for some symbolic features allowed to republics (constitution.[15] and Russia's federal subjects. the parliament may be dissolved by the President and new parliamentary elections held. whose status was the same as that of oblasts in other – mostly unitary – Soviet Socialist Republics. Natal.. [edit]Russian Federation The Russian Federation has inherited its structure from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) that was one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union and itself was considered a federation of national territories. In certain cases there is a concurrence between national and provincial levels. Defigueido and Weingast) — R.[14] With this view. governors and presidents of Russia's constituent regions. the constituent republics. Kelemen. as well as one autonomous oblast and four autonomous (national) okrugs. president.[19] The powers of provinces are circumscribed by the national constitution which limits them to certain listed "functional areas". but if this occurs three times.Europe has charted its own brand of constitutional federalism. the former four provinces (Cape.. Filippov et al. Bednar. and of other types of administrative units (oblasts and krais). the European Union resembles more of a confederation. are now proposed by the President of Russia for the approval of the local parliament[18] Local parliaments theoretically have the authority to reject the candidate. Weiler Those uncomfortable using the "F" word in the EU context should feel free to refer to it as a quasi-federal or federal-like system. Nevertheless. national language). for the purposes of the analysis here. Orange Free State and Transvaal) and the Bantustans were converted into nine provinces. Today's Russia is defined as a federation in its Constitution (Article 5). at least de jure. Here the EU is defined as 'an association of sovereign national states (Staatenverbund)'.[citation needed] — Joseph H. Daniel Kelemen A more nuanced view has been given by the German Constitutional Court. who were previously elected by popular vote. Some regions (Yakutia[16][17]) have concluded agreements with the Federation so as to modify the degree of their autonomy. while in others there are exclusive competences for each one. Each province has a government constituted by aunicameral assembly and an executive branch with a premier and executive council. the EU has the necessary attributes of a federal system. are equal in legal terms.[citation needed] According to an amendment passed in December 2004. which had a certain degree of autonomy. . most contemporary students of federalism view the EU as a federal system.[citation needed] (See for instance. McKay. i. The RSFSR consisted of autonomous republics.

religious. such conflicts are resolved through the judicial system. the United Provinces of Central America and the West Indies Federation. unlike the majority of federal systems. as occurred in Nigeria. In some cases internal conflict may lead a federation to collapse entirely. The inability to meet this challenge may lead to the secession of parts of a federation or to civil war. the creation of a "provincial constitution" is optional.This system would be considered as a "de facto" federation. On the other hand. as occurred in United States and Switzerland.incongruent federalism exists where different states or regions possess distinct ethnic groups. [edit]Internal controversy and conflict The United Provinces of Central America was short-lived Certain forms of political and constitutional dispute are common to federations. South Africa has a single national court system. Often. this is known as 'congruent federalism'. The relationship between federal and local courts varies from nation to nation and can be a controversial and complex issue in itself. because actually the power of provinces was given by the national government to the provincial level. or between the interests and aspirations of different ethnic groups. or other regional differences is an important challenge. as is the case with the United States. the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. In some federations the entire jurisdiction is relatively homogeneous and each constituent state resembles a miniature version of the whole. Singapore was expelled from the federation because of rising racial tension. which delimits the powers of federal and local governments. Moreover. . Ultimately. One issue is that the exact division of power and responsibility between federal and regional governments is often a source of controversy. and the administration of justice is the responsibility of the national government. The ability of a federal government to create national institutions that can mediate differences that arise because of linguistic. In the case of Malaysia. ethnic. if the province government does not want do it rules additionally the national constitution. Another common issue in federal systems is the conflict between regional and national interests.

including the right to sign binding treaties.[edit]Federal governments The federal government is the common or national government of a federation. 3 Regions 2 entities (out of which one is Divisions of Bosnia itself a federation. The structure of federal governments vary. a modern federal government.[20][21] [edit]Contemporary Year est. TheUnited States Constitution was created to limit the federal government from exerting power over the states. Federal government is the government at the level of the sovereign state. there are two or more levels of government that exist within an established territory and govern through commoninstitutions with overlapping or shared powers as prescribed by a constitution. has the power to make laws for the whole country.561 municipalities 3 territories 1867 Canada Provinces and . consisting of and Herzegovina 10 cantons) 26 states (Previously provinces during the monarchical period between 1822 and 1889) 10 provinces 1 district 1825 Brazil States of Brazil 1 federal district and 5. Based on a broad definition of a basic federalism. Federal government within this structure are the government ministries and departments and agencies to which the ministers of government are assigned. 1853 Federation Federating units Provinces of Argentina States and territories of Australia States of Austria Divisions of Belgium Major federating units Minor federating units 1 autonomous city Argentina 23 provinces 1901 Australia 6 states 2 territories Austria Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina 9 Länder or Bundesländer 3 Communities. unlike local governments. within the limits defined by its constitution. There are 28 federations as of August 2012. For a detailed list of federated units. Usual responsibilities of this level of government are maintaining national security and exercising international diplomacy. Basically. but certain amendments gave the federal government considerable authority over states. A federal governmentmay have distinct powers at various levels authorized or delegated to it by its member states. see Federated state#List of constituents by federation.

territories of Canada Comoros Ethiopia 1949 Regions of Ethiopia 3 islands 9 regions 2 chartered cities Germany States of Germany 16 Länder or Bundesländer States and territories of India Governorates of Iraq States of Malaysia States of Mexico Administrative divisions of the Federated States of Micronesia Zones of Nepal States of Nigeria Provinces and territories of Pakistan 7 Union Territories. including the subregion of Iraqi Kurdistan. 9krais. Federal subjects of 1 autonomous oblast. 13 states 31 states 3 federal territories 1 federal district 4 states 14 zones 36 states 75 districts 1 territory 4 federal territories including a federal capital territory Pakistan 4 provinces 1992 Russian Federation 21 republics. 46 oblasts. 4 Russia autonomous okrugs. 2 federallevel cities[22] Islands/parishes of Saint Kitts and 2 islands/14 parishes Nevis Provinces of South 9 provinces Africa States of South Sudan 10 states Saint Kitts and Nevis 1910 South Africa South Sudan 2011 . including a National Capital Territory 1950 India 28 States Iraq Malaysia 1821 Mexico Federate d States of Micronesia Nepal Nigeria 18 provinces.

11 unincorporated territories 1 federal district. . more or less. there is a limited sovereignty granted to the subdivisions. and the government of the individual subdivisions. 6 sous-cantons 7 emirates United 1787 States of America States of the United States 50 states 1 federal district. while the federal government has ultimate sovereignty. dependent upon the confidence of parliaments at both the national and subnational levels. A federal parliamentary republic refers to a federation of states with arepublican form of government that is.2012 Somalia Federal Member States of Somalia Autonomous communities of Spain States of Sudan Cantons of Switzerland Emirates of the UAE 3 states[21][23] Spain 17 autonomous communities 2 autonomous cities Sudan Switzerla nd United 1971 Arab Emirates 17 states 20 cantons. It is a combination of the federal republic and the parliamentary republic. 1 incorporated territory. national security and defense. it means a state or federation of states that does not have a monarch. and other issues of a "national" scope are handled at the "federal" level while more local issues such as road and infrastructure maintenance and education policy are handled at the local level. monetary policy. and a confederation whereby the constituent states retain ultimate sovereignty. as a minimum. 2 Commonwealths. there is a division of powers between the national ("federal") government. In a federal republic. This is in contrast to a unitary republic whereby the national government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life. In other words. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently. The federal republic is a form of government used by many countries around the world. where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. 1 federal dependency a Venezuel States of Venezuela 23 states A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. with purely administrative subdivisions. Usage of the term republic is inconsistent but.

2 Speculative attributes 1. and the system by which they are organized. or form of state governance. Public disapproval of a particular government (expressed.[3]Each successive government is composed of a body of individuals who control and exercise control over political decision-making. Government consists of the legislators. In parliamentary systems. and arbitrators in the administrative bureaucracy who control a state at a given time. In other societies. of the particular framework of government). often equal number of representatives of the subnational entities to sit in the upper house. for example. the government.2 By significant attributes .1 By elements of where power is held        o 1. by not re-electing an incumbent) does not necessarily represent disapproval of the state itself (i. and possibly also devolved powers. bureaucratic.[5] Contents [hide] • o 1 Forms of government 1.1. leaders often attempt to deliberately blur the lines between the two.[4] In parliamentary systems. A form of government.1.1 Pejorative attributes 1.1. so as to allow for a set. such as democracies. Their function is to make and enforce laws and arbitrate conflicts.5. but there is frequent turnover of the people actually filling the positions.1.Such republics usually possess a bicameral legislature at the federal level out of necessity. administrators.5 Other characteristic attributes 1. Synonyms include "regime type" and "system of government".1. as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state.[1][2] Government is the means by which state policy is enforced. in order to conflate their interests with those of the polity. will be dependent upon the lower house of parliament for its stability or legitimacy. however. the political roles remain.2 Democratic attributes 1. States are served by a continuous succession of different governments.1 Autocratic attributes 1.3 Monarchic attributes 1. the word "government" is used to refer to what in presidential systems would be the executive branch and to thegoverning party. In some societies. In fact. the government is composed of the prime minister and the cabinet.e. judicial.1.4 Oligarchic attributes 1. "government" refers to executive. legislative. this group is often a self-perpetuating or hereditary class.5. In other cases. headed by a head of government.1. refers to the set of political institutions by which a government of a state is organized.

Despot needs slaves while Autocrat needs servants.o • • • • • • • 1. whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat). or it may be a group. (August 2012) [edit]By elements of where power is held [edit]Autocratic attributes This list is incomplete.[1] as in an oligarchy. That entity may be an individual. Autocrat needs servants while despot needs slaves. Autocracy Rule by one person. Despotism Rule by a single entity with absolute power. The word despotism means to "rule in the fashion of a despot" and does not necessarily require a singular "despot". Term Definition Rule by an authoritarian governments are characterized by an emphasis on the Authoritarian authority of the state in a republic or union. and holds it. Dictatorship Rule by an individual who has full power over the country.3 By approach to regional autonomy 2 Classifying governments 3 Etymology 4 Maps 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links [edit]Forms of government This section requires expansion. you can help by expanding it. purely by force. as in an autocracy. It is a political system controlled by unelected rulers who usually permit some degree of individual freedom. The term may refer to a system where the dictator came to power. but it also . an individual.

includes systems where the dictator first came to power legitimately but then was able to amend the constitution so as to. There are many "power-sharing" (usually in countries where people mainly identify themselves by race or religion) or "electoral-college" or "constituency" systems where the government is not chosen by a simple one-vote-perperson headcount. Term Definition Democracy Rule by a government chosen by election where most of the populace are enfranchised. in effect. [edit]Democratic attributes This list is incomplete. A Democratic government is. [6] See also Autocracy and Stratocracy. gather all power for themselves. therefore. Totalitarian Rule by a totalitarian government that regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life. The key distinction between a democracy and other forms of constitutional government is usually taken to be that the right to vote is not limited by a person's wealth or race (the main qualification for enfranchisement is usually having reached a certain age). A "majority" may be defined in different ways. you can help by expanding it. one supported (at least at the time of the election) by a majority of the populace (provided the election was held fairly). Direct democracy Representative democracy [edit]Monarchic attributes T Term Definition Absolute Rule by a government in which a monarch exercises ultimate .

in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.[9] Oligarchic attributes . Constitutional monarchy Rule by a government that has a monarch. Monarchy Rule by an individual who has inherited the role and expects to bequeath it to their heir. but one whose powers are limited by law or by a formal constitution. such as the United Kingdom[7][8] Elective monarchy Rule by a government that has an elected monarch. The manner of election. and the electors vary from case to case. the nature of candidate qualifications.monarchy governing authority ashead of state and head of government.

(Not to be confused with "military junta" or "military dictatorship". Theocracy Rule by a religious elite.Term Definition Aristocracy Communism Rule by workers.[11] . Timocracy Rule by a system of governance ruled by honorable citizens and property owners.) Rule by a system of governance where people who are skilled or proficient govern in Technocracy their respective areas of expertise (i. a system of governance composed of religious institutions in which the state and the church are traditionally the same thing. then it is a republic and a plutocracy. engineers. Meritocracy Rule by a system of governance where groups are selected on the basis of people's ability.e. doctors. scientists. professionals and other technical experts). Oligarchy Rule by a small group of people who share similar interests or family relations. knowledge in a given area. Any of the forms of government listed here can be plutocracy. For instance. Kritarchy Rule by a government ruled by judges. Stratocracy Rule by a system of governance composed of military government in which the state and the military are traditionally the same thing.[10] Plutocracy Rule by a system of governance composed of the wealthy class. and contributions to society. if all of the voted representatives in a republic are wealthy.

Other characteristic attributes .

but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of an emir (the ruler of a Muslim state). have supreme control over the government and where offices of state are elected or chosen by elected people.Term Definition Adhocracy Rule by a government based on type of organization that operates in opposite fashion to a bureaucracy. Rule by a form of government in which the people. social manuvering or political cunning. it is a structure which strives for nonhierarchical voluntary associations among agents. ultimate and final authority (sovereignty) exists in the law. Band Society Rule by a government based on small (usually family) unit with a semi-informal hierarchy. Constitutional republic Rule by a government whose powers are limited by law or a formal constitution. innovation. such as wolves. Nomocracy Rule by a government under the sovereignty of rational laws and civic right as opposed to one under theocratic systems of government. intelligence and wisdom. Cybersynacy Ruled by a data fed group of secluded individuals that regulates aspects of public and private life using data feeds and technology having no interactivity with the citizens but using "facts only" to decide direction. with strongest (either physical strength or strength of character) as leader. Republics which exclude sections of the populace from participation will typically claim to represent all citizens (by defining people without the vote as "non-citizens"). The United States is a federal republic). a common simplified . Chiefdom(Tribal) Rule by a government based on small complex society of varying degrees of centralization that is led by an individual known as a chief.[13][14] In modern times. Very much like a pack seen in other animals. or some significant portion of them. and chosen by a vote amongst at least some sections of the populace (Ancient Sparta was in its own terms a republic. the emir may be an absolute overlord or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority. In a nomocracy. though most inhabitants were disenfranchised. Anarchism Sometimes said to be non-governance. Kratocracy Rule by a government ruled by those strong enough to seize power through physical force. Emirate Similar to a monarchy or sultanate.[12] Geniocracy Rule by a government ruled by creativity.

differs from voting in that each person would make a decision while in the "hive" the synapses of all minds work together following a longer path of memories to make "one" decision. By significant attributes . Magocracy sage. sorcerer. In strict terms kleptocracy is not a form of government but a characteristic of a government engaged in such behavior.Pejorative attributes Term Definition Corporatocracy Rule by a government where an economic and political system is controlled by corporations or corporate interests. Nepotism Rule by a system of governance in which importance is given to the relatives of those already in power. In such governments even if the relatives aren't qualified they are given positions of authority just because they know someone who already has authority. wizard or witch. Ruled by a singularity of all human minds connected via some form of technical or non technical telepathy acting as a form of super computer to make decisions based on shared patterned experiences to deliver fair and accurate decisions to problems as they Uniocracy arrive. ]Speculative attributes Term Definition Rule by a government ruled by the highest and main authority being either a magician. This is often similar to a theocratic structured regime and is largely portrayed in fiction and fantasy genre categories. Kakistocracy Rule by a government ruled by the worst or least-qualified citizens. like a nephew (where the word comes from). Also known as the hive mind principle. Kleptocracy Rule by a government where its officials and the ruling class in general pursue personal wealth and political power at the expense of the wider population.[18] Its use is generally pejorative.

liberty Police state Economic system (e. Rule according to higher law Separation of church and state Civilian control of the military Totalitarianism/Authoritarianism vs. Asymmetrical federalism Federacy Associated state . ♦ Sovereignty located exclusively at the center of political jurisdiction. Empire Unitary state ♦ Sovereignty located at the centre and in peripheral areas. others are historically associated with certain types of government. Hegemony Federation and Federal republic Confederation ♦ Diverging degrees of sovereignty.Certain major characteristics are defining of certain types.g. feudalism) Patriarchy or matriarchy . capitalism. welfare state.dominance of a particular gender By approach to regional autonomy This list focuses on differing approaches that political systems take to the distribution of sovereignty. and the autonomy of regions within the state. socialism.

[1] Contents [hide] • o • • • • o 1 Joint Resolution No. pilot") + -ment. can cause them to be considered as forms of government in themselves. Classifying governments In political science. "steering.Devolved state . "I steer. from Latin gubernatio ("management. and as Kopstein and Lichbach argue. as all governments have an official form. drive. Jr. Under Joint Resolution No. it has long been a goal to create a typology or taxonomy of polities. 15 5. guiding").[20] For example.[citation needed] from Old French government[citation needed] (French gouvernement).[19] It is especially important in the political science fields ofcomparative politics and international relations. defining regimes can be tricky.1 Presidential Visit of Couchepin and Arroyo's backing . government"). Another complication is that a large number of political systems originate as socio-economic movements and are then carried into governments by specific parties naming themselves after those movements. On the surface. 10.. identifying a form of government appears to be easy. the creation of eleven autonomous regions out of the Philippine Republic which would establish centers of finance and development in the archipelago. from κυβερνάω (kubernaō. while the former Soviet Union was a socialist republic. guide. 10 1. Federalism is a proposed system of administration for the Philippines and a revision of the current1987 constitution. However self-identification is not objective. pilotage. κυβέρνησις (kubernēsis.sovereignty can be abolished without changing the constitution. as typologies of political systems are not obvious. and the strong ties they may have to particular forms of government. from Ancient Greek κυβερνισμός (kubernismos). Thus in many practical classifications it would not be considered democratic. but in practice elections in the former Soviet Union were not "free and fair" and took place in a single party state. elections are a defining characteristic of a democracy. The United States is a federal republic. Etymology From Middle English government. Experience with those movements in power.1 Senate Majority 2 Eleven States 3 Federal Administrative Region 4 Senators Based on states 5 House Concurrent Resolution No. proposed by senator Aquilino Pimentel.

[4] [edit]House Concurrent Resolution No. Southern Mindanao and Bangsamoro. Sen. It sought to adopt a federal presidential bicameralform of government. [edit]Senate Majority This proposed bill was backed by the 13 senators of the Philippines:              Senate Minority Floor Leader Aquilino Pimentel. 15 . Ramon Revilla.• • 6 References 7 External links [edit]Joint Resolution No. and Romblon). 10 The resolution would have required the revision of 14 of the 18 Articles of the 1987 Philippine Constitution and the addition of two new articles. Juan Ponce Enrile Sen. the election of senators representing overseas voters.C. and will be the seat of the Federal government. Palawan. Eastern Visayas.Northern Mindanao. Central Visayas. Francis Escudero Sen.[3] These would be similar to the US 50 states or German 16 States. Central Luzon. D. filed Senate Resolution No. Jr. Panfilo Lacson Sen. Juan Miguel Zubiri[2] [edit]Eleven States The proposed states would have been Northern Luzon. the abolition of the Judicial and Bar Council which screens nominees to the judiciary etc. Francis Pangilinan Sen. [edit]Federal Administrative Region Metro Manila would have been patterned to the US Washington.. 10 Senate President Manuel Villar. Edgardo Angara Sen. Jr. Bicol. Jr. Sen.[3] [edit]Senators Based on states Other major proposals: the election of senators based on states. Southern Tagalog. Pia Cayetano Sen. the election of the state governor and the vice-governor as a team. Jinggoy Estrada Sen. Western Visayas. Gregorio Honansan II Sen. Minparom (Mindoro. Rodolfo Biazon Sen.

26%) of the 123 solons were in favor of amending the Constitution. . 10. opposition and leftist lawmakers questioned the results and intent of Ortega’s survey. Senate Resolution 10 is a pleasant surprise because the Senate has a long history of opposing any move to amend the Constitution. the action of parler(to speak): a parlement is a discussion. Unlike the Nene Pimentel Senate Resolution. The term came to mean a meeting at which such a discussion took place. while 70 respondents preferred to amend the Constitution after the 2010 presidential elections. Puentevella included the option of holding a constitutional convention. a parliament has three functions: representation. Members of the committee on constitutional amendments would vote by the end August on whether to amend the Constitution or not. Monico O. The term is derived from the French parlement. inquiries). in order to bring about the Bangsamoro Juridical Entity. 10 backed by 16 senators. Ortega’s survey showed 62 respondents favor Charter change through a constitutional assembly. the results of his survey showed that 115 (94.."[6] The joint Senate resolution called for the creation of 11 federal states in the country.Rep. An opportunity should be given to the whole country to avail of the reform effects of federalism. legislation and parliamentary control (i. If she has the political will to do it she has to muster political will in spite of all these noises. a self-proclaimed advocate of federalism.”[8] Meanwhile. 2008. "parliament" may simply refer to ademocratic government's legislature.”[7] Press Secretary Jesus Dureza.[5] Prospero Nograles. The sentiment of many people there is to give local officials more authority in order to perform better. on May 1. and called Arroyo’s proposal a ploy for her “perpetuation in power” and the removal of protectionist provisions in the Charter. Puentevella on May 7. La Union Representative Victor Ortega of La Union. filed House Concurrent Resolution No.[9] A parliament is a legislature whose power and function are similar to those dictated by theWestminster system of the United Kingdom. 2008. announced: "This federal system of government is close to my heart as a Mindanaoan leader and I'm sure most of the leaders in Mindanao will agree that we have long clamored for it. and 89 respondents were in favor of shifting to a parliamentary form of government compared to 56 who voted for federalism. More generally.. stated: “It’s all systems go for Charter change. We are supporting Senate Joint Resolution No. The President has approved the way forward and there’s no question about it. Naughty insinuations that she [Arroyo] was going for Cha-cha [Charter change] because she wants to extend her term in office prompted the President to make her position clear. by convening of Congress “into a constituent assembly for the purpose of revising the Constitution to establish a federal system of government. hearings. on August 12. 2008.[when?] It acquired its modern meaning as it came to be used for the body of people (in an institutional sense) who would meet to discuss matters of state. chairman of the House committee on constitutional amendments said. 15 which supported Senate Resolution No. However.” [edit]Presidential Visit of Couchepin and Arroyo's backing Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo stated to visiting Swiss President Pascal Couchepin: “We advocate federalism as a way to ensure long-lasting peace in Mindanao. She is calling for a constitutional amendment..[1] Generally.e. And the federal set-up is the way forward to this. but excluded thePeople's Initiative mode.

Two distinct groups emerged among the commoners: the landed gentry. King John had to increase the size of this group of advisors and include more commoners. This can be particularly dangerous to a government when the distribution of seats among different parties is relatively even. Although the British model of parliament. but to facilitate decision-making. No legislature. After agreeing to the principle of “common consent” in the Magna Carta.Origins The Spanish Parliament of the Kingdom of León (1188) was the first example in the history of Europe. He then had to submit his requests for increased taxation to this newly expanded group. as opposed to being democratically enacted by way of a constitution. Legislatures called parliaments operate under a parliamentary system of government in which theexecutive is constitutionally answerable to the parliament.M") is almost always the leader of the majority party in the lower house of parliament. in which case a new election is often called shortly thereafter. this group of the king’s closest advisors had been called the “council”. Nations with unicameral legislatures. such as Jefferson’s Manual of Parliamentary Procedure. which means “to talk” or “to discuss”. Parliaments usually consist ofchambers or houses. known as the Westminster Model. If members of the lower house lose faith in the leader for whatever reason. is held up as the “Mother of all Parliaments”. but only holds his or her office as long as the "confidence of the house" is maintained. The word “parliament” comes from the French “parler”. However.[6] [edit]Parliament government Nations with bicameral legislatures. and are usually either bicameral orunicameral although more complex models exist. developed not to facilitate talk. English parliamentary procedure. in . and the rich merchants and lawyers. A nation's prime minister ("P. they can call a vote of no confidence and force the PM to resign.[2][3][4][5] The use of the term 'parliament' first occurred in 1236 in England. it is unique in that it developed over time from tradition. or have existed (seeTricameralism). Previously.

as I pointed out in my article. similar to the maneuver of Vladimir Putin in Russia. I too have read the article by Mr. I share this for us to discuss. d) archipelagic countries—Japan. Thailand—all achieved economic success as unitary states. a federal union with wrong economic strategies and policies would stagnate. It also aims to distribute power from the capital to the prospective states. only one— Malaysia—as a federal union. b) the economic growth objective of the resolution is not the ‘end-all-and-be-all’ of the resolution. not to its being a unitary state. offer the following response. 2008 at 2:01 am federalpinoy Thanks for the inputs. the replies to the following items are related. “to spur economic growth. so there is nothing wrong with being a unitary state as long as the correct economic strategies and policies are pursued. May 7. Some states have a semipresidential system which falls between parliamentary and congressional systems. Antonio C. even stupid. Myanmar. nor is appointed by. although I deem not myself as an esteemed writer as he is. and combines a powerful president with an executive responsible to parliament. as prime minister. economic policies and strategies. In such a system. . on the other hand. South Korea. Abaya and. the Philippines—are unitary states also for pragmatic reasons: being made up of islands. The Parliamentary system can be contrasted with a presidential system. which operate under a stricter separation of powers whereby the executive does not form part of. e. the parliamentary or legislative body. e) Senator Pimentel is challenged to name even only one example of a country that shifted from unitary to federal—or from federal to unitary—and thus achieved prosperity as a result of that shift. Taiwan. Indonesia. to enable President Arroyo to remain in power beyond 2010. as such. on the model of the United States' congressional system. China. c) most of the successful countries in our part of the world—Japan. his replacement can be made very smoothly without all the complications that it represents in the case of a presidential system. fueling greater participation from the populace to govern themselves. and governments cannot request an early dissolution as may be the case for parliaments.case of general discontent with the head of government.” is a no-brainer since. they are vulnerable to centrifugal forces that would encourage secession and disunity.g. the argument does not legitimately address the concern on whether a shift to federalism is a viable option. He has not obliged. on a per-item basis: a) while it is true that the previous attempts have been dubious and a majority of Filipinos have viewed this as an attempt to remain in power by the present administration. Vietnam. Abaya wrote in Manila Standard his critique Pimentel’s resolution: a) it is a Trojan horse to re-introduce a twice-defeated (in 2006-07) maneuver to shift to a parliamentary system. the Philippines’ failure to develop as fast as its neighbors in the past 50 years can be traced to poor. b) the resolution’s stated objective. congresses do not select or dismiss heads of governments. Indonesia.

But this does not deny the ‘regionality’ permeating in our culture. e) Even if there are no other state or nation has done it before. d) This is true if we refer to East Timor and Aceh of Indonesia. what prevented this from happening? In the case of the Philippines. and I would prefer to argue that economics can be supported by the political system.org 2. the free encyclopedia en. This is where I concur with other opinion that there can be no clause in the constitution providing for secession of a member state. 11:40 AM .I have seen a lot of posts from different discussion boards that most of those from the Visayas think of Manila as ‘imperial manila’.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=federal%20republic%20of%20the %20philippines&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&ved=0CDcQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F %2Ffederalpinoy.ph 3. precisely because we have a unique opportunity to claim that we came from a unitary state. willing. I do however have concerns on where we will get the budget to implement this shift. where everyone is a citizen of the Federation first. As I indicated in d). People Power.wordpress. 1. the free encyclopedia www. partly because 300 years of colonization have largely homogenized us as a people. 11:48 AM Spotlight: A Federal Republic of the Philippines « Republikang Federal ng Filipinas federalpinoy.ph 5.wordpress. I agree that correct economic planning and policies are the main factors that will drive economic growth and prosperity. we are capable of devolving from a unitary state to a federal state since there is no extreme sense of independence from its would-be member states. and able to be pioneers in the political arena.google.wikipedia. But one can also argue that this will eventually erupt into ‘nationalism’. meaning that they feel stifled by a government that seems too far away. As pointed out. Americans.com. 11:48 AM http://www. They are first. c) This is related to the item above. That may be for another discussion point.Wikipedia. The Philippines have a lot of firsts – first republic in Asia. take for example the USA. this does not mean it can not be a success.com 4. 11:49 AM Parliament . have to change venues) May 7.google.google. then a citizen of their State second.com. This is in exception to the Bangsamoro people who have felt left out of the government’s care in the past. 2008 at 4:54 am federalpinoy … to continue. which needs a decent and valid form of expression in – FEDERALISM. But Indonesia is a unitary state.com%2F2008%2F04%2F29%2Fspotlight-a-federal-republic-of-the-philippines %2F&ei=fptWUJCOLs7RmAXg3oGYCA&usg=AFQjCNG8YJTB1zXqBgBxvzeVMXmqaNbunQ www. but the political system itself will not be the determinant of whether economic success can be gained. All these point to a vibrant populace ready.com. where secessionists have either gained or are in the process of gaining independence. 11:49 AM Parliament . but who’s to say that it can’t be done? (to be continued. It hasn’t been done yet.Wikipedia. and then from the State of… there are little centrifugal forces that would tear our country apart.

google.edu 17.org %2Fwiki%2FGovernment&ei=1pZWUN_dIKLNmAXSzYCgAQ&usg=AFQjCNF5sRBdo9gB_YsM82hw1XecVed0vw www. 11:34 AM http://ph.google.google. www.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=federal%20republic%20of%20the %20philippines&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CCQQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.com.alverno.net%2FSS-units%2Fpresentations%2Fgovtypes.alverno.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=types%20of %20government&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&ved=0CCgQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdepts.com.ph 7.ph 13. the free encyclopedia en.jcschools.Yahoo! Mail us. 11:20 AM http://www.com 19. 11:40 AM http://www.com/?p=us&r0=1347852868 ph.com 10. 11:32 AM Yahoo! Mail: The best web-based email! login. 11:34 AM http://www. 11:21 AM Government .yahoo.html&ei=1pZWUN_dIKLNmAXSzYCgAQ&usg=AFQjCNF1QP6hrYilhtgu1d6pCtCBu3kIbg www.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=types%20of %20government&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&ved=0CEAQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fclassroom.google.geocities. 11:34 AM Yahoo! Philippines ph.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=types%20of %20government&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.google.yahoo.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=types%20of %20government&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CCEQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fstutzfamily.com 11. 11:34 AM Sign in to Yahoo! login.com.google.yahoo.com 20.yahoo.mg5.com.com. 11:19 AM http://www.ph 8.com .ph 18.wikipedia.wikipedia.Wikipedia.yahoo. 11:20 AM Types of Government depts.mail.google.wikipedia.yahoo.org 6.org 15.com.ppt&ei=1pZWUN_dIKLNmAXSzYCgAQ&usg=AFQjCNGIMqPlA78azOMbiPPM-cYzwf9f4g www.com 14.Federalism in the Philippines . 11:20 AM Yahoo! GeoCities: Get a web site with easy-to-use site building tools.com 9.google. 11:36 AM tonyumlas . 11:39 AM federal republic of the philippines .edu %2Fdgp%2FGEC%2FTypes%2520of %2520Government.com.wikipedia.com 12.ph 16.com.com.Hanapin sa Google www. 11:21 AM http://www. 11:19 AM Types of Government stutzfamily.com.org %2Fwiki %2FFederalism_in_the_Philippines&ei=fptWUJCOLs7RmAXg3oGYCA&usg=AFQjCNGCPIUCG1zw6KPtqcy8ie98X Mx9ug www.google. the free encyclopedia en.Wikipedia.google.

org 23.org %2Fwiki %2FFederal_republic&ei=MpZWUIX0Ns2gmQX8z4GQBQ&usg=AFQjCNFwCIfR6iWVnJMv7K9ehJlMfY_RwA www.org %2Fwiki%2FFederation&ei=9ZVWUKSTHersmAX-ooDQBQ&usg=AFQjCNHoFvoxDoS2ggMNWdK-HnftqkQ5Uw www. 11:17 AM federal republic . 11:17 AM Federal republic .com.google.google.ph 22. the free encyclopedia en.com.ph 25.com. 11:19 AM federal parliamentary republic .wikipedia.wikipedia.com.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=federal %20republic&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CB4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.google.com.Hanapin sa Google www.Hanapin sa Google www.google.%2Fmrstutz%2FWorldAffairs %2Ftypesofgovt.ph 27.google.wikipedia.wikipedia.ph 28.google. 11:19 AM types of government .org 29.com.google. 11:16 AM http://www.Wikipedia.com.wikipedia.ph 30. 11:17 AM http://www.org %2Fwiki%2FFederal_parliamentary_republic&ei=pZZWUJ35LsImQWQoYCAAg&usg=AFQjCNGXiJUBl0LSz5Rz7HCcq64HnFCfww www.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=federal%20parliamentary %20republic&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CB4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia en.Hanapin sa Google www.google.Wikipedia. 11:19 AM http://www.ph 21. the free encyclopedia en.ph 24.com. .com. 11:16 AM Federation .google. 11:19 AM Federal parliamentary republic .ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=federal %20government&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&ved=0CC4QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.Wikipedia.google.org 26.html&ei=1pZWUN_dIKLNmAXSzYCgAQ&usg=AFQjCNExE076q0HIA6RRun0sig0715UFXA www.

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