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Spur Gear

ENTC 463 Mechanical Design Applications II

ENTC463
HW#4 Chapter 8 4, 22, 35, 39 Chapter 9 2, 38, 44

Spur Gear Drive

Figure 14.1 Spur gear drive.


Text Reference: Figure 14.1, page 616

Gear Geometry

Spur Gear in Meshing

Force Acting on Gear Tooth


Tangential force, Wt
Can be obtained from power transfer equations

Normal force, Wn Radial force, Wr

Force on Spur Gear Tooth

Wt =

T D2
Wt = 63000hp n 126000hp = (lb) D2 nD

T n Power transmitted : hp = 63000 T : lb in n : rpm

Wr = Wt tan Wn = Wt cos

Stress in Gear Tooth


Bending Stress
Gear tooth geometry

Contact Stress
Surface contact

Gear material selection based on stress calculation

Bending Stress
Wt

Cantilevered Beam Loading

Bending Stress
Lewis Equation:
L t F

M = f (Wt , L) c = f (t ) I = f (t , F ) 6Wt L Wt pd t = = 2 Ft FY
Y: Lewis form factor

Critical Location?

MC = I

N Y

10

15

20

0.176 0.245 0.283

for = 20o

Bending Stress
Lewis equation only consider static loading and does not consider stress concentration Modified Lewis Equation
Wt pd Wt pd Kt = t = FY FJ Y where J = Kt

Geometry Factor, J
4. Read J value

3. # of teeth of mating gear/pinion

1. pressure angle, 2. # of teeth (gear/pinion of interest)

Geometry Factor, J
NP=20, NG = 50 Larger J, lower stress (t)

Wt pd t = FJ
JG JP

J p < J G tP > tG

Other Modification Factors


Bending stress number
Overload factor Size factor Load distribution factor Rim thickness factor Dynamic factor

Wt pd t = FJ Wt pd st = Ko K s Km K B Kv FJ

Overload Factor, Ko
Input output

st =

Wt pd Ko K s Km K B Kv FJ

Larger Ko, higher stress number

Size Factor, Ks
Related to pd

Wt pd Ko K s Km K B Kv st = FJ

Larger pd (finer teeth), lower stress number

Load-Distribution Factor, Km
K m = 1.0 + C pf + Cma
Cpf: pinion propotion factor Cma: mesh alignment factor Due to
Inaccurate gear teeth Misalignment of the axes of shafts Elastic deformation of the gears, shafts, bearings, housing, and structures Clearances between machine elements Thermal distoration during operation Crowning or end relief of gear teeth

Load-Distribution Factor, Km
K m = 1.0 + C pf + Cma
Larger face width F, larger Km BUT

st =

Wt pd Ko K s Km K B Kv FJ
Reduce stress

Rim Thickness Factor, KB

Wt pd st = Ko K s Km K B Kv FJ

Thicker rim or solid gear, lower KB Lower stress number

Dynamic Factor, Kv
Larger Qv, better gear quality

Larger Qv and lower speed, lower Kv , lower stress number

Related to
gear quality pitch line velocity

Modification Factors
Concept: stress number will build up due to the contribution of these factors Example: compute the bending stress number
Input : electric motor, output : industrial saw, power = 25 hp nP = 1750 rpm N P = 20, N G = 70, pd = 8, F = 1.50" , Qv = 6

Stress in Gear Tooth


Bending Stress
Gear tooth geometry

Contact Stress
Surface contact

Gear material selection based on stress calculation

Contact Stress
Hertz contact stress

Rolling, high stress on contact surface, repeated contact, Fatigue, Pitting

Contact Stress
Buckingham Equation
c = Cp
Wt FD p I

C p : elastic coefficient D p : pinion diameter I : geometric factor for pitting

Elastic Coefficient, Cp
c = Cp
Wt FD p I
Cp = 1 1P2 1G2 E + E G P

Contact Geometry Factor, I

Other Modification Factors


Contact stress number
Overload factor Size factor Load distribution factor Dynamic factor No rim thickness factor
c = Cp
sc = C p Wt FDP I Wt K o K s K m K v FDP I

The value for the factors can be taken to be the same as the values for bending stress analysis

Gear Material Selection


Bending stress number vs. allowable bending stress (strength)
st < sat sat : allowable bending stress (indication of strength)

Contact stress number vs. allowable contact stress (strength) Where can we find the allowable stress

Allowable Bending Stress Number


Fig 9-10

Allowable Bending Stress Number

Gear Material Selection


Adjusted allowable bending stress number

sat

YN = sat SF K R

st < sat

YN st < sat SF K R

SF: safety factor

Bending Stress Cycle Factor, YN


YN > 1.0 when number of cycles < 107 Larger YN, higher allowable stress (strength)

Reliability Factor, KR

Higher reliability (>99%), KR > 1.0, lower adjusted allowable bending stress number
sat YN = sat SF K R

Gear Material Selection


Bending consideration
Wt pd YN st = K o K s K m K B K v < sat FJ SF K R

Calculate Sat, select material Again, where can we find materials sat?
Gear materials (Textbook 9-6, 9-7) From Charts (Figures 9-10, 11, 14, 15) From Tables (Table 9-3, 4)

Gear Material Selection


Bending stress number vs. allowable bending stress (strength) Contact stress number vs. allowable contact stress (strength)
sc < sac sac : allowable contact stress (indication of strength/hardness)

Gear Material Selection


Adjusted allowable contact stress number

sac

Z N CH = sac SF K R

sc < sac

Z N CH sc < sac SF K R

SF: safety factor

Contact Stress Cycle Factor, ZN

Hardness Ratio Factor, CH

For gear calculation only

Gear Material Selection


Contact stress consideration
sc = C p Cp Wt K o K s K m K v < sac FDP I

Wt K o K s K m K v Z C < sac N H FDP I SF K R

Where can we find Sac??

Allowable Contact Stress Number

Allowable Contact Stress Number

Bending Stress Consideration


Stress:

Wt pd t = FJ

Bending stress number:

Wt pd st = FJ

Modified bending stress number:

Wt pd st = Ko K s Km K B Kv FJ

Compare Allowable bending stress (strength):

sat
sat YN = sat SF K R

Adjusted allowable bending stress (strength):

Contact Stress Consideration


Contact stress number:

c = Cp

Wt FDP I Wt K o K s K m K v FDP I
Compare

Modified contact stress number:

sc = C p

Allowable contact stress (strength):

sac
sac Z N CH = sac SF K R

Adjusted allowable contact stress (strength):

Power Transmitting Capacity


Modified bending stress number < Adjusted allowable bending stress number

Wt pd YN st = K o K s K m K B K v < sat FJ SF K R
Modified contact stress number < Adjusted allowable contact stress number

Cp

Wt K o K s K m K v Z N CH < sac FDP I SF K R

Power Transmitting Capacity


Due to Bending:
Wt < sat YN SF K R FJ p K K K K K d o s m B v
hp = Wt Dn T n = 63000 2 63000

YN Dn hp < sat SF K R 126000

FJ p K K K K K d o s m B v

Due to Contact:
sac Z N C H FD p I Wt < C SF K K K K K R o s m v p
2 2

hp =

Wt Dn T n = 63000 2 63000

FD p I Dn sac Z N C H hp < C SF K K K K K 126000 p R o s m v

Design Example
Design spur gear and pinion to be used as a part of the drive for a chipper to prepare pulp wood for use in a paper mill. Intermittent use is expected. An electric motor transmits 3.0 horsepower to the pinion at 1750 rpm and the gear must rotate between 460 and 465 rpm. A compact design is desired.

Important Information
Spur gear Drive: Uniform (3hp), Driven: heavy shock
Overload factor, Ko=1.75 Design power, p = Kox3=5.25

Gear ratio 1750/460 = 3.8 Compact design


Determine pd and Np

Selecting pd