Mostefforts the fieldof journalism in education training in the and lie development skills newsgathering reporting, in otherasof in and or pectsof newspaper publishing production. and newsprogram They deal with the how-to of the craft or trade.Universities colleges and provide courses theseareas. in With rapidchanges technology in as wellaswith the growing complexity problems issues, of and manyareasof coverage require continuingreviewand adjustment. Whatis clearnow is that therearea greatmanyareas concern of or newssubjects canno longerbe reported that simplyin storyformor in the briefbreaking newsaccount. Whatis not soobvious the needfor is journalists keepup with the changing to context the news. of Journalistsneedto acquire necessary the knowledge aboutthe background of the events they cover, that they can understand so morefully why eventshavecome to passand the issues involvedin socio-political andeconomic developments. Thisneedis easily ignored the dailynewsgrind. in Journalists too are just tryingto get stories quickly, busy out hopefully, with accuracy.The paceof newsgatheringand deliverycan sidelinethe needfor context and interpretation. Everghingis reduced the elements the to of event-thefirstof the W'swith littleattentionto Whyand How. News is analysis left onlyto a selected Butit isour beliefthat every few. newsaccount shouldinvolve journalists thinkingout the story the in and its meaning. (CMFR) Whenthe Centerfor MediaFreedom and Responsibility was established 1989, carved in it out a special areaof journalism training that would focuson the newsmedia's needfor more analysis in the process theycanprovide kindof accounts commentary so the and that will introduce reader the issues helpthosewho wish the to and for it moreunderstanding theseissues. of
pEAcE JoURNALTsMTRAINING MoDute . 7
fermentin whichthe Theyears following1986-aperiodof political how was taking place-showed institutions recovery democratic of journalists quicklyin the to neededassistance groundthemselves in ofthe day. that background issues figured the events of background to allowed the Center organize Its fundingmandate the in for briefings journalists the followingareas: reportof the Dathe reportof the vide Commission the coup attempt of 1987, on negotiations the for of Council Conversion the MilitaryBases, RP-US reformand the first nationalelecand electoral on militarybases modules training Without calling these amongothers. tionsin 1992, was in fact addressing needfor mediato the in policynews, CMFR as report more closely policy-making a criticalaspectof good on governance. process Ralaunched the Fidel by the It alsobegan examine peace to Aquino's of followingon the initiatives Corazon mos administration of Peace tracking developments policyand action the Commission, policy with media and lt dialogue on the partof government. initiated process. involved the peace in the government agencies joinedthe efforts a groupwhichcalled itself Alliance of ln 1994, CMFR (APC), informal with collaboration mean for Peace Communicators including Radio Veritas, NGOs and newsorganizations, dia-oriented for Inc. Center Investigain Jesuits Communication, andthe Philippine tiveJournalism. that members the groupagreed of Asjournalists communicators, and At the mediahad a roleto playin the peaceprocess. the time,the program national government launched comprehensive for rechad a the that onciliation, development urgedthe groupto explore posa "peace conflict reporting" a wayof covering as sibilities developing of negotiations. andadversarial projected the the WhileAPC remained onlya name, workit started program peace wellasthe signififor as importance the national of fosterin an cance the mediacoverage promoting environment of peace. overa year, fundingfrom government In ing and favoring workshops to five agencies enabled APCto organize seminar the journalists the peaceprogramof the government, as on update peace peace in the well as NGO effortsand the difficulties covering process.
8 . pEAcEJoURNALTSMTRATNTNGMoDULE
journalists In thesesessions, found the voiceto express their own felt aspirations peace for and their willingness do their part to cover to thoseaspects the peaceprocess of that were beingignoredin mainstream media.These included workof civilian groups buildup the to "peace zones." "Peace-reporting" a strange groundfor mostof the working jourwas nalists. of all,therewasno suchbeatto cover; First and it wouldtake timeto search sources canprovide perspective the difout who the of ferentcommunities journalists searching peace. significantly, for But aspublishers, editors, reporters and wereready hearout the probto lem,to listen andto learn. Otherincidents events or forced CMFR alsoreview journalistic to the response otherareas conflict. reporting actsof terrorism, in of The of negotiations events the fieldof combathasalsoraised or in contentiousdebate withinthejournalistic community. Terrorist attacks were reported ordinary as events, coup attacks usually took on the color and hypegivento sports tournaments. It can be arguedthat the newsmediaindependence givesthem the freedom simplyseekout the facts. to And yet,journalists will be the firstto admitthat reporting can be colored political by biases grouphostilities will in turn fan the flames historic or that of feuds. Worse, mediacansubmitto contending sides that these so can conduct theirwar of words, forceof whichcan stillresult the in hardening the will against agreements lay the groundfor to peace. journalists limit newsspace The character newsalsodrives of to to stories that are not aboutconflictor calamities. proGivena peace cess effort,mediaattention or will perkup at the hint of adversarial confrontation, dwellon the collapse negotiations, reportthe of and breakdown talkswhileignoring breakthroughs on the madetoward agreement consensus. and Journalism training designed connect to reporting and commentary peace-building to larger efforts society in shouldbe seenasa significantstreamof effort in peaceadvocacy. programactson the CMFR's readiness the media improve of to theirown understanding the isof sues peace the complex questions of and raised the course negoin of tiations in inter-faith inter-cultural or or discourse.
pEAcEJouRNALrsMTRAININGMoDure . 9
journalism prescribes a dis-interested modelfor classical Thetraditional of and interpreter publicevents observer objective media, so-called a in lookat the newsmedia a more views Morecurrent issues. andpublic that newsand information pro-active role,a meansto communicate suchasenvironoutcomes, certain for formspublicopinion or against through of and volunteerism, the resolution conflict mentalprotection, profoundly to the recogconnected peaceful This means. lastthemeis in development modernsociety. as nitionof pluralism a positive mustremain on and Newspapers newsprograms radioandtelevision practice. program principles press This of and on anchored the values all that ideathat goodjournalism follows the is based the central on and serve toward can of rules and principles the practice be oriented provides First, of objectives peace-building. journalism the general peaceprograms. Secor of the safeguard good governance effective of to ond, newscan alertthe restof society the "potentialoutbreaks rights, the monitors stateof human the conflicti'Additionally, press and thosein powerof theirduty to protect wayof reminding another who arevulnerable of on promote especially behalf those rights, these to exploitation. provided conjournalism therefore peace trainingprogram CMFR's on as to tent information update wellasto groundreporting a shared not the of framework understanding issues, only in the governmentand peace process, alsoin the origins rootsof insurgency but initiated with inputsfrom resessions The and dissidence. agendaincluded as issues well as persons who haveworkedon the thematic source as negotiations, well as including efforts, the actualpeace-building of a who and academics advocates arekeeping record developments of The as of for purposes policyreference well as history. experience Asianregion partsof the Southand Southeast the mediain various will alsobe included. reto wasdesigned helpthe press the side, training On the practical guidelines, describing viewhow it hasbeendoingitswork,providing for to approaches newswritingas well as strategies newscoverage that have and issues the moreconstantly problems that will reflect history. throughthe country's conflict sparked protraining of sessions the CMFR the Thisvolumepresents different also lt gramin separate themes. includes the pointsmadedurcluster in The the that ing the discussions followed presentations. papers the
MoDULE TRAIN|NG 1 0 . pEAcE JoURNALTSM
partof the publication presented resource persons provide second by the necessary background contexton the issues insurgency and of peace process. third and the development the government's of The partcollects sharing fourjournalists the by around region(lndothe nesia, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand) their experiences, as and of and theydiscussed views their aboutthe problems reporting of bothconflict and peace thesecountries. in Altogether, threepartsform the CMFR the templatefor peacereporting.Thisisa workin progress we hopeto revisit issues the and the and training needs the press of community the Philippines. in The program, which was conductedon November to 26,2007at 22 Management Leadership in the Meralco and Development Center Antipolo City,was madepossible with a grantfrom the Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs the Government Norway. samesupported of of The thispublication.
MELINDA DE QUINTOS JESUS Executive Director Center MediaFreedom Responsibility for and
pEAcE JoURNALtsM TRAINING MoDule . 1 1
Framework Operational for Mediaand Peace-building
Melinda de Quintos Jesus
(This poperwaswrittenfor theNationolCentenniol pubCommission.hosbeen lt lished the bookMediaand Peace in Reportingwith minorrevisions.)
Likethe proverbial penny, subject the mediakeeps bad the of cropping up in discussions aboutotherconcerns. the summit-conferIn ences roundtable or meetings organized discuss to various national problems talk inevitably the touches the roleof the media. on Public perception media a major sees as factorin the course public of events, whether a helpor hindrance, allyor an enemy. as an of Unfortunately, is usually there scant understanding the character of There littleknowledge is the media, especially newsmedia. the about how the publicreacts news. to There alsolittleappreciation the is for sensitivity a freepress of abouthaving roleto play-unless is the a it service simply of delivering news. the Butwhether medialikeit or not,theirpresence a pervasive the is one, their reach if for extensive, not universal. Clearly, thereis a basis presuming theirinfluence impact. and In examining roleof the mediain the formation a cultureof the of peace, paperlimitsits scope the newsmedia, this to whichis my area of experience concern.The and discussion include will somebasic congovernment underceptsabouthow the mediawork;and,since has peace program, takena comprehensive how policyis made. news By media, refer newspapers magazines, radioandtelevision we to and to newsprograms.
pEAcEJoURNALtsMTRAINING 15 mooulr .
in Discussed for concepts news. provide with normative us Academics journalistic J. Policy, editedby Robert Spitzer, & book,Media Pubtic the journalists workmaynot at although practice thesemodels, validates are in of the norm.All references thissection citedfrom be conscious book. the same a merely is Themostaccepted the mirrormodelwhichregards"news"as it media simply"tell likeit isi'While out of the reality there.The reflection whatgetsintothe news, whichdetermine or therearestandards criteria journalists neutral disinterested observers. and as projects thisconcept of to Related this modelarethosewhichseethe mediaas'tonduits" (Graber, The 1989). media of channels newsmaterial as information, the simplyprovidethe meansof disseminating news.Otherterms the mediaconduct how merely indicate transmitter" suchas"neutral (Linsky, 1986)' generated others by programs, ideas and flowof events, the the Similarly, mediaact asa "funnelregulating flow of communi(Schattsystem" policymakers othersin political and cationbetween 1975). sneider, not factor, an mediamakeup a neutral Butthe ideais the same.The of events. in element the course activist Thesemodelsretaina truth about how the mediawork.Reporters provided Theyrelyon "leads" or dependon othersources the news. the in principle, mediado not inventthe and By by others. and large, withpromote makepeace, or cannot the In news. thiscontext, media towardthosegoals. them leading out otheractors
Mediaas policy actor
the theoryprojects mediaasan actorin the morerecent In contrast, & setting(lyengar process, playing rolein agenda a policymaking as 1984). 1987; Kingdom, Kinder, the Theyeducate pubkindsof effect. Themediamaywielddifferent in actors or out amongpolicy of the lic. Theyfacilitate exchange ideas scenarios and the government. media alsoorganize issues project The policyoptions of to primethe groundthe publicacceptance certain (Hawthorne, . 1994)
TRA|NING MoDULE JoURNAL|SM I 6 . pEAcE
Themedia not governed justoneframework. are by Whilereports and accounts maybe merely reactive what is happening there, to out the publicity resulting and resonance journalism of exertinfluence over the policy agenda.
The criteria for news
Whateverthe place.The model, news selection takes selection involves standards newsworthiness.These of determine whatisincluded the in mirrorreflection, thefunnel in transmission,the material media in that channels carry to the public. out (1980) SeanMacBride his MonyVoices, World in One citedthe criteria "timeliness;" for news most commonlymentioned: "wide interes!" 'but-of-the-ordinary" or'but-of-the-norm;" finallythe element and of "conflict." Newscoverage alsocued by eventsand tied to specific is andisolated processes. occurrences, rather thanlong-term journalism Driven events, by oftenmisses on the signs crisis the out of or context controversy.Thus,famine of getsreported, notthecauses, the but at least untilthe famine actually occurs. floodsarereported, not The but the deforestation erosion and whichcreate conditions flooding. the for The simmering fermentleading war may escape precluding to notice, the declaration war.Inevitably, possibilities peace out of the of the of fall news. Peacemaking process isdifficult trackasevents. isa that to It is in the character the newsthat the mediachoose of stories conof flict,of confrontation, collapse peace ks,of calamity.Assomeone of in tal put it,the bias for badnews. is Such orientation an doesnotfavorpeace. Thisisthe reality we have cometo termswith in asking media that to the to playa role. playa positive To rolein buildinga cultureof peace, the mediawould needto re-orient theirapproach news, journalists to and needto re-invent framework journalism that newsaboutcona for so sensus, aboutcompromise, aboutconflict avoidance alternatives and to warandviolence become newsworthy the eyes the press the as in of as newsfrom battlefield. mediasensitive the issues peace A provide to of a newpublic consciousness maymakepeople which morealertto the opportunities peaceful for settlement conflict. of Of course, mediamakeup only one aspect culture. of Otherinstitutionsshouldbe just asactivein promoting values the that upholda cultureof peace.
pEAcE JoURNALtsMTRATNTNG MoDutt . 17
about someof the concepts It mightalsohelpat thispointto review formation. media and policy between policymaking the relation and of We can learnabout policyby lookingfor textbookcases an orderly from sequence, to according chronological activitywhich proceeds imadopting policy, a a formulating solution, the identifying problem, 1993; Linsky, the plementing and then evaluating policy(Borquez, it, informaof on depend the availability necessary These activities 1986). actors. for references allpolicy of tionandtheestablishmentcommon policymaking often lessorderly. is systems, In open and democratic with the model"projects fluidityof the process, The'garbage-can in groupsexerting influence a and constituencies advocacy various (Borquez, 1993). and interests of struggle ideas
Relationship betweenthe press, politicalactors,and policymakers
in communities democratic view amongjournalistic The prevailing actors/ press, the one hand,and the political on seesthe systems otherthan the policymakers, the other, havingno relationship as on havebeen newsmediain the Philippines interaction.The adversarial as them in a partnership an quickto interpret to engage any effort In of and independence autonomy the press. on encroachment the as to aboutbeingasked serve the sensitive are these cases, media the to Thus, usualmediareaction the for messages. mouthpiece official "You yourthing,we do oursj' do isto say the callfor role-playing governing the relationship a theoryperceivessymbiotic A contrasting the political press And in reality, actors. and the interaction between as in a relationship reporter mediaenters mostindependent-minded journalists and of the withsource. Despite autonomy the media, dealing in the perforon publicofficials mutually dependent one another are so need media the public the officials Government mance theirtasks. of in government. are canknowaboutsources. Quiteoften,thesesources
projected ideas and Thenewsholds symbols stereotypes, andimages public the indicate climate mind. These forumandin the in the public
MoDULE TRA|N|NG 1 8 . pEAcE JoURNAL|SM
and viewsabout issues of opinionwhich sumsup widelyaccepted values withina socienduring shared events. newsalsopresents The perceptions aboutthe abouthow thingsare, ety.There prevailing are work in the currentsocio-political environworksand what doesn't ment. for of a Context analysis the newsreveals lodeof indicators policymakers. Theycan review the newsand find out how little peopleknow initiative governof Reform Agenda, majorpeace a aboutthe Social of an tool ment. Thereview the mediacanbecome effective for polias with whichto shape cymaking, usinginformation an instrument programs. policy implement or portionof the newsemanates In from government. a A significant plays dominant in setting agengovernment role the way, a therefore, da throughthe news.
The coverageof the peaceprocess
process presents aspect the goveran of Thecoverage the peace of As reality apartfrom the visible events. nance that hasa continuing of is framedby government, promotion peace a comprehensive, the process. the media But trackthe process complex, multi-faceted and The on explains predomithe only throughevents. emphasis events news, bombings of and ambushattacks, nanceof "war"and"battle" lies bias of failednegotiations. reason in the journalistic for bad One War, experience newsand the 'but-of-norm." despiteits increasing a that is considered abnormal. all overthe world,remains condition condition. Thereare alsofew peace Peace, however, a presumed is accords canbe captured that events, apartfrom the signing peace of in easily the news. in of Canthe mediaexertits influence the creation an environment we its moreconducive peacemaking? to Because presume influence mustbeyes. it canonlydo somuch. But on public opinion, answer the In a sense, and of both government theircounterparts the otherside the medianeedto workwith of the conflict become majoractors.The "sources"in groups pushpeace-oriented their news. given But these to own roles the conflict, in muchof the newsflowingfromthe governpeaceprocess, not necessarily mentevenasit relates the peace to are of whenthe military become primary the source oriented, especially in the newsor intelligence aboutpeace-and-order countryside.
p E A C E J o U R N A L T s M T R A T N T N G.M 1 9 u U oD
process Thecontent ofthe peace doneby the analysis ofthe coverage for Center MediaFreedom Responsibility sixmonthsin 1994 for and in lt examined reporting and commentary 11 newspapers. focused peace administration's on threethemes identified the FidelRamos in program: Reforms.The Peace Order; and PeaceTalks; Government and press filesdemonstrate on all the threethemes, that and thiswould process, mediaturn probably holdfor everyaspect the peace of the In to to government their majorsource news. mostthe "paths of as government the peace" identified the Ramos by administration, is needs to majorinitiator activities. suggests government of This that inrefine theirorientation towardthe newssothat theycanestablish programs make significant formation to moreinteresting the media to breakthroughs peacemaking. in Context analysis thatthe military briefings the region Maon in shows nila remaina significant of attacks or source newsaboutthe terrorist pera bombings Mindanao. these in But briefings notinclude civilian do or spective, carrying littlenewsaboutthe restof the area, aboutschools business, littlementionof effortto bringreliefto victimsof attack with These briefings military focus are in anddo or thosedisplaced war. by siege. not mirror moregeneral the condition lifein places of under program involves in Because peace the several agencies itsimplementation, theseagencies mustcoordinate information the components aspartof implementation.This is necessary coherence action for in as wellasin publicstatements. At the same time,coverage ongoingmilitant of insurgency work also with othernewssources paritywith government initiators news. at as of government, NewPeople's Asantagonists however, the Army-National Front-Communist of thePhilippines, MoroNationParty the Democratic Front,the Abu Sayyaf al Liberation Front, Moro lslamic the Liberation Group,and the Rebolusyonoryong Alyansang Makobonsa-Young Offifor news, eicers'Union not likely provide are to stimulus peace unless While negotiations thersideisready signa peace to agreement. the are goingon,these alsousethe media win public to opinion theirside. to Suchnewssources tendto playto the media's nosefor conflict.
But, course, of thereareotheractors the scene. the Philippines, on In non(NGO) peaceadvocates other service governmental organization and
20 . pEAcEJoURNAL|SMTRATNTNGMoDULE
provide different perspective ongoingconflict. deliverers a to Theirstoriesinclude creation "peace groups the of zones;'the formation peace of quest understanding engaged the active in for amongthe communities. "Silsilah"takes pathof inter-religious TheZamboanga-based the dialogue in a movement that brings togetherMuslims Christians mutual and for exchange abouttheirfaiths and beliefs. Peace Advocates Zamboanga of (PAZ) a Catholic is program organization whichisdeveloping peace a by consolidating strong Muslim-Christian relations. In the creation a "peace of culture," suchgroupsneedto be ableto access theirnewsto the media. Thisisan easy task. Their activities are process-oriented mediahavedifficulty and framingsuchlong-term programs news. thereareways doingthis.And it mustbeinto But of gin with peace advocates building alliance-networks media. with "blindspot"that citizen It is typicalof media's and NGOpeace efforts receive littleattention news. so as Such activities news, are especially in the context the strife of that hasafflicted communities Zamthe of boangafor so long. Peace effortsin theseplaces exudethe "out-ofnorm"condition, and as suchdeserve be reported. to Indeed, the failure the media publicize of to these activities indicates deeply how imbedded newsculture in the culture conflict. the is of
TheAlliancefor Peace Communicators: A mediaexperimentfor peace
(APC) The Alliance Peace for Communicators has remained only a journalists exname. it stands an efforton the partof some But for to plorethe possibilities for"peace newsi' In overa year, since late1994, APC, groupof journalists govthe a and ernment information officers, organized, support had with fromsome government agencies involved the peaceprogram, in five seminar journalists the peaceprogramof governworkshops update to on ment,on NGOpeace efforts, well asto discuss as theirdifficulties in process. covering peace the A concern echoing throughthe workshops touches the lackofcaon pableand credible process" spokespersons the "peace on especially when it involves militaryand other peace-and-order the situations. Journalists notedthe dilemma mixingadvocacy peace also of for and the business news. of
p E A c E J o U R N A L T S M T R A T N T Ne . 2 1 MoDul G
journalists for acknowledged own aspirations their In thesesessions, process. peace But help in the peacemaking to and theirwillingness "peace groundfor mostof them.However, reporting" a strange was problem, listen, to learn. These to and theywereready hearout the to pregainready peace generally from attendance journalists, seminars peace-and-order issues sumably because the high newsvalueof of negotiations. and peace theirown It is clear, however, the mediacando a lot to improve that questions of and of the complex understanding the issues peace of for raised negotiations. background the Tripoliagreement, in The of who is of example, lostto a generation journalists weretoo youngto There The of are remember whenit wasforged. issues peace complex. Negotiations conducted are behindclose is no "peace" beat,assuch. it to doors. Working against deadline, is easier countthe casualties a andthe deadbodies.
Peace training for the media
whichcaninshorttraining courses Thereis a needthen to develop and armed structthe mediaon the issues arethe heartof social that In abouttheseissues, comein they conflicts the country. learning in apartfrom who maygivethema perspective touchwith newsources or aboutwhat needs be to the military and the insurgents terrorists journalmaterial will familiarize that done.There a needfor reading is of and ists aboutthe different communities Mindanao the Cordilleras. journalists other thatwill helplead to There a needfor source is books government in and visible sources the academe, the NGOs, in less in the agencies, whoseexperience helpthem understand "process" can termsthat makeconflict that liesbehindthe event, the underlying which moreunderstandable.the veryleast, levelof competence At a reporting helpreduce warcan the willensure intelligent accurate and in mongering whichcolors reports conflict the the of sensationalism field. Perhaps,greater will a among a exposure alsodevelop newsensitivity journalists,greater interest the"news"about in communities healing a who riseabove hostilities the themselves the wounds pastwars, of of kindof journalism; but whichhave themapart. will be a different lt set the kind,perhaps, isfor peace. that
22 . pEAcE TRA|N|NG MoDULE JoURNAL|SM
lf the newsmedia to playa role, thenefforts mustbe madeto help are process. Press politics interact their them througha learning and and policies programs peace. for interaction shapes both and who mustbe Thatprocess mustengage resources government the of ready share for must to information whose and own orientation peace communicated programs its through information an component.That process mustinclude NGOadvocates the who mustfind the time to share their experience to demonstrate and their beliefthat thereis much"peace news"that remains untold.
Thepeopleand the media
mustinclude publicwho mustprove In conclusion, process that the that peace newsand peace stories sellnewspapers wellasthe can as newsof disaster of war. and
Center MELINDA DE executive director the Manila-based of QUINTOS JESU5, (CMFR), workedas a journalist has in for MediaFreedom Responsibility and In as bothprintandbroadcast media the Philippines. the 80s, worked a in she for critically the Marcos of regime.Later, she columnist BulletinTodoy,writing in editedVeritas NewsWeekly, of the publications the'hlternativepress" one in that played rolein topplingthe dictatorship. organized She CMFR 1989 a practice. acto protectpress freedomand to promoteethicsin press CMFR's Now the tivities include mediamonitoring, awards, trainingprograms. and (PJR) publisher CMFR's publications, Philippine Review and the Journalism of programs media PJR Reports, hasalsodeveloped training on andthejusshe peace reporting, other reporting, mediaand gender-based and tice system, issues the news in emerging agenda.
pEAcEJoURNALTsMTRATNTNG . 23 MoDur-e
Melinda de Quintos Jesus
(This paperwaspresented theJournolism Forum2005, at Asia "MedioEthics ond Pluralism Asiai'heldon Jonuory in 27-30,2005 Bangkok,Thoiland.) in
Pluralism an old aspect the humancommunity.Diversity is of has always beenpartof humanexperience. Fromthe beginning time, of differences evident a matter color, were as of race, laterlanguage, ethnicity, and religion. Pluralism madethe world more interesting. has lmagine we wereallthe same. if Ingrained humanexperience, pluralism alsobeenobserved in has in the heartof manypainful conflicts. Diversity sharpens sense personal group identification the of and "us" the"l"and"youi'the and"them." gives to complexity Diversity rise of human exchange interaction. travel and As andmigration increases, as globalization marks tradeand laboractivities, havecultural so diversity pluralism or become moreand morepartof how humancommunities live.And yet,thereremain hugegapsin our knowledge of one another and in the acceptance our differences. lines of The that separate can at timesleadto alienation, not outrighthostility. us if There manyreasons this. Butthisdiscussion are for takes the role up of the press media the practice journalism media thisdevelor of in in opment. Journalism orthepress originated simplertimes. canons conin lts and ventions have heldthroughradical massive and changes communiin cationtechnology alongwith paradigm shiftsin customs mores, and in attitudes in thought. ascommunication expanded, and But has the established criteria newshold newsaccounts limitedscopes. of to
pEAcEJoURNALISMTRAINING MoDuu . 25
of and includes onlythosestories images thosewho arepromiNews and of nent,events that standout as out-of-norm, significance relecommunity significance are vance. These choices madeby a select in decidedby thosewho are engaged the gathering and relevance moreoftenthan not, is Thiscommunity, of and dissemination news. partof the establishment. prevented the has glitchin the growthof newsrooms somehow Some to reflect diversity, mirrorthe to of capacity journalism adequately As to communities ourselves. inof vastdifferences ourjoinedhuman physical making the has stantcommunication caused worldto shrink, have telephony, Internet and travel, irrelevant, highspeed as distance people around world-govall the and broken down barriers borders, and and associations corporations, individuals and states, ernments -engageone anotherin an unprecedented manner, a levelthat at of the including gathering different in couldnot be imagined the past, state, country. or peoples one place, onesociety, in in of and in lagged behind theprojection reflection media have Yet news the view the media carry establishment that still Mostnational thisdiversity. of to or a dominates society country the exclusion or the marginalization this thatfundamentally hasto do withthe useof I of others.wouldargue of ownerof mediaand newsasinstruments powerandaspects power; power the political class. of and shipof resources the decision-making moreinteresting makesocieties It is our position that thesedifferences The societies. as of andtheacceptance differences a markofprogressive differas to failure the press tell asmanystories canbe told to reflect of to anddemocracy, restrain of is ences to holdbackthe spread freedom the of among peoples theworld' of sharing power theappropriate is or to Thefailure the media mirrorthisdiversity pluralism to conof also of discontent thosewho are left out. Thisfailure tributeto the is falsethe claimthat "news" a windowto the worlc or belies makes of of outside, openingup new landscapes the mind,new pictures life parts the worldwe cannot directly experience. in of of pluralism become touchstone thetruthof journalism a has In a way, yet of presenting anothermeasure how well the news in our times, find whichreaders themselves. in reflect reality situation and the There otherimplications. are
MoDULE TRA|N|NG 26 . pEAcE JoURNALTSM
the Reading in yourself a youngMuslim studying Manila. as Picture in the morningpapers watching newson television the evenings, or or you will not find muchthat will tell you aboutyourcommunity in Thisinvisibility the publicsphere yourself a MuslimFilipino. as And the exclusion as weighson your senseof yourself a Filipino. questions aboutyour placein raises dialogue from the mainstream thissociety. and The Theimplications significant. studyof discontent isolation are In of of communities minoritygroupsshowsup everywhere. 1981, CenTrade against World the longbefore GulfWarandthe attack the of hadquestioned ethnocentrism the the Edward Said ter in NewYork, the how the worldsees mediawhichdetermined Western dominant "worldof lslam, its of with its morethan800,000,000, millions square principally Africa its of in andAsia, dozens societies, milesof territory geographies, cultures." histories, states, as to Thatquestion can be re-phrased applyto othercommunities portrayed the channels comof in not seethemselves well whichdo our of consolidate sense solidarity munication that wouldotherwise participant herecando theirown quickaudit Each in the 21'tcentury. in are or of whatcommunities groups invisible the press. has information issue power, is and because Because underlying the power whichall musthave we access, to of beentoutedto be a source press journalism or aroundthe world dishow the needto examine of society. and empowers segments groups the same the ls pluralism the media answer? in the aboutwhatiswrongwith the world, Aswith manyof ourconcerns But or is response required not just one answer one solution. more factor, as looks the press the media a critical at and society and more, the roleof whichbegsto be understood. the in and this means focuses pluralism the media, on Thissection discussion. up newsmedia, a wayof starting a continuing as
Frameworks Pluralism of Universal
comof and The universal declarations conventions the international principles. Universal on The Declaration fundamental munityrepresent
pEAcE MoDutt . 27 JoURNALTsMTRATNTNG
Conference the UnitedNaof Cultural Diversity adoptedby the General (UNESCO)its Organization at tionsEducational, Scientific Cultural and assigned 2,2001 recalled of the purposes one 31'tsession November on - to"recommend international agreements maybe as such to UNESCO necessary promote freeflow of ideas wordand imagel' the by to proclaimed "cultural as Thusthe Declaration diversity the common recognized a policyimperaThe as heritage humanity." document of and of as tivethe needfor the inclusion participation allcitizens guarAs the and of peace. anteeing social cohesion, vitalityof civilsociety framework. it froma democratic such, cannotbe separated It makes protection cultural of diversity necessary the human as to the its is realm, and makes protection raceas biodiversity in the natural in call urgency it is embedded the universal for as a matterof critical respect andpreservation humandignity. for of whichstudied roleof the press the Inthe US, Hutchins the Commission diversity a valueto whichthe as in American society upheldcultural press it is"(t)o Amongthe fivetasks assigns the press to mustcommit. groupsof societyl' pictureof the constituent offera representative dailyevidence the press that Andyet,the coverage newsprovides of groups various who do not belong out continues leave of coverage to population. of Howmanyareleftinvisible because the to the majority in blinders applied the newsagenda?
The Structureof Powerin Societyas in the Newsroom
or Theapplication thisframework requires process examining a of of for and of auditing the newsroom its personnel the expansion news groups, reflecting minority theirneeds selection include stories to the andconcerns. journalists in Washington in pursuit met DC of ln 20O4,7,000 minority newsthe of a long advocacy makemorediverse staffs the nation's to gathering Their thatonlyonein 10jourorganizations. countshowed politics a minorityperson. nalists is covering capital American the of in corps With the growthof minoritypopulations the US,the press palein color. With the press workingin the countryhasremained peopledmostlyby members one dominantcolorgroup (white), of presented the newswill mostlikely the perspective in showup asthat
MoDULE 28 . penctrouRNALrsM TRATN|NG
of the white population. issue no longerlimited the separaThe is to tion of black andwhite. Themovement cultural for diversity the US in newsrooms rootedin the under-representation was of African-Americans blacks, now pushes the inclusion all peoples or but for of coming from differentpartsof the world.
The mostfundamental framework to do of course has with a not so subtlemodification the newscriteria of which reflect the long-held conventions journalism. in Prominenceoneof thevalues weigh is that heavily the selection. the person important on lf is enough, or she he will get intothe news, whatever race religion the subject. the or of But asminorities mostly the fringes poweror prominence, are on of these newssubjects be few and will at somepoint end up as a token will rather thana totemof diversity. groupconsidered be"newsworProminence results a rather in limited to thy"perse. There onlya few who areknownand recognizable the are to many. Individuals do significant who things, starting important up movements around world, find it difficult not impossible get news the will if to attention, until or unless they are involved events developments in or whichhave values, othernews suchastheout-of-norm relevance. or To leave cultural diversity whereit is,un-noted and un-observed, will castto invisibility manymembers a society the tribe of the exof to people cluded, who do not seethemselves, experiences contheir or cerns represented the news. in Suchgapshavea political effect.The issues pluralism a matof are ter of policyconcern. needs the poor and powerless well The of can remain the backburners policymaking in the inactive of on of or files the bureaucracy. The mediapolicylink may not be a clearone,but most studies do pointto cases showhow media that and newsattention havecaused policymakers attendto a problem needafterthe press pubto or has licized issue, the eitherin reporting in commentary. or On anotherlevel, community the that doesnot seeits newsin the mediagets cut off from the dialogue glue. that serves society's as groups not be partof the commonreference joinsthe These will that
pEAcE JoURNALTsM TRAINtNG rvrooulr . 29
can fromthe mainstream leadto deep manyintoone.Such de-linking groups.The of or misunderstanding the mutualalienation different stereotyping. publicoutlookwill be formedaccording uninformed to minoripicture, press that doesnot include the Evaluating larger the or for mandate truth-telling, failsthe ethical tiesin the newsagenda story. telling complete the or oftentakes diversity pluralism and cultural Theliterature media on quantifying and space of content analysis stories, up datathat shows groups wellasexamining themes disthe of as time givento minority course. without Let me note at this point that we cannottakeup pluralism whichin the of aboutthe coverage women, somekindof observation priority Howwerewomen issue advocacy. for earlynineties, became covered the media?Whatkindof genderbiasdrovethe selection in voicewomenasa groupremain where Indeed, countries in of stories? its will needto examine performance lessand powerless, press the have the andstudywaysby whichothernewsorganization improved reporting.
The EthicalMandatefor Pluralism
that the news for requirements truth require Theethical andeditorial lf and account shouldbe accurate the storycomplete. the newsmeprovide a to thenthe newsthat excludes dia hold up mirrors society, people prejudicially that decides some false image who arethereor of do not matter. of as insists pluralism a quality on responsibility A framework social of journalism that includes calls Social responsibility for newsselection. including thosewho aremimembers a society, of allthe constituent rendering of events a false is of norities. the Otherwise, record current the reality that isthere. of as is by In thisway,pluralism required ethics the profession well as members society. of the the needto treatasequals different
a to in Pluralism the mediapresents challenge all newsorganizations runshighin this of population in as based anywhere Asia the diversity
30 . pEAcEJoURNALTSMTRA|N|NGM0DULE
of Dart theworld.lt hasalsobecome clear that internal wellascross as border conflicts fueledby ethnicandracial are discontents. greater pluralism Canjournalism mediaplaya rolein promoting in Asian lf societies? so,whatisthe bestwayof doingthis? Trueto the character mostjournalism, program of this doesnot set out to comeup with answers solutions. and Rather, hopes raise it to questions encourages echoing these questions otherfoand the of in rumsincluding newsrooms organizations the of represented here. populaJournalists shouldseethe greater diversity the Philippine of tion aspartof its strength. it canremain strength But a onlyif the nationalcomunity ableto accept embrace through custom is and this the of the country the application law. isour belief and of lt thatjournalists playa critical in promoting role sucha development.
pEAcEJoURNALtsMTRAINING 31 MoDuu .
(1) in The discussion focused concerns two areas: how the on viewsand (2)how the or mediareflect diverse evenconflicting pointsraised were: mediareporton Mindanao.The o of Blogs and onlinenewsdo not promotethe sense conit nectionamongdifferentgroups.However, was noted by peopleworkingfor the onlinenewsorganizations rethat this in couldaddress issue. centinnovations the Internet has in of lmprovement the coverage Mindanao showna diand and time givento versification sources morespace of by affected conflictratherthan just the the communities combatants the military. and sources seems to on Howevetthe reliance purelymilitary Party wherethe Communist in be continuing thoseareas People's Army-National Democratic of the Philippines-New ArmedForces. the Front engaging Philippine is to them to diversify A retooling journalists'skills enable of acand to shift their focusfrom battlefield their sources and war on the communicounts the impactof conflict to tieswassuggested.
TRATNTNG MoDULE 32 . pEAcE JoURNALTSM
journalistic challenge reporting become major has a Warand conflict The Kolko). century war"(Gabriel of in a century thatcouldbe"another (e.9., governments fromvarious media a wholeareunderpressure as of to with a stake the outcome warsand conflicts reportin in the US) theirfavor, against and theirrivals. has Underlining powerof the mediais the factthat reporting in the (e.9., taxpayer approval the US of somecases alsoinfluenced events is appropriThe attack lraq). term"warjournalism" thus especially on has war in atein such cases, thatthiskindof journalism promoted over peace.
Peace Journalism Values
journalism proposed the Norwegian and by academic acPeace was to Galtung the 1970s an alternative warjournalism. in as tivistJohan and Annabel Theconcept beenfurtherdeveloped JakeLynch has by (Peace 2005). McGoldrick Journalism, a that had Galtung believed journalism developed biasfor war - i.e., journalism." by"war the media hadbeenoverwhelmed journalism peaceful prefers rather Peace reporting that encourages in affairs. isa form lt of conflicts human thanviolentmeans resolving journalism huas and of advocacy based peace a desired desirable on manvalue. journalism proceeds from the assumption Criticism peace of usually This forgets that that advocacy violates media'bbjectivity." criticism
PEACEJOURNALISMTRAINING . 33 MODUU
winners, losers, and on newsmediaemphasis bodycounts, the usual lt and ignores others. aspects conflict of etc., focuses only on certain and government sources often are the alsoignores fact that official whencovering conflict. exclusively by the newsmedia used journalism. as of Lack 'bbjectivity" beenraised a criticism peace of has newsroom standard, notionof 'bbjectivthe Although conventional a but Newsis not a mirrorof reality a representation ity" is misleading. process in involved all denythe selective of it. Notions 'bbjectivity" of in one involved emphasizing setof facts writing, andthe subjectivity overothers. as'bbjectivei in most but fancy themselves Manymediapractitioners and from the national cases present do one set of factsoverothers, policy perspectives shape valeditorial andpractitioner andclass that governmediaemphasize official, argued that Western ues.Galtung is declaring that "(t)here hardlyany discrepancy ment perspectives, produced (Westpolicylineandthe discourse by between official the ern)mediai' is by to WhatGaltung referred as"warjournalism" distinguished cerit: Amongothers, taincharacteristics. o o o o o o o o "those us"asthe good sideand"those us" against as ldentifies for evil; against us"; lmplies moralneed choose a to between"us"and"those of lgnores complexity context conflicts; the and is disguised under misthe lsitself formof advocacy-but usually a 'bbjectivity"; leading claimof good Paints and and conflicts dualistic in black whiteterms-the as (us) the bad(them); vs. and that to Emphasizes eventoverthe process leads conflicts the wars; reDecontextualizes conflictin violationof a majorjournalistic sponsibility; and Despite claims Prioritizes statements, actions and policies. official governments, journalism practiwar is from of mediaautonomy callyofficialjournalism.
pretends be objective, but war to As a form of advocacy, journalism reality(e.9., coverage the Vietthe of often distortsand misrepresents journalism. namWar) the very"sins"attributedadvocacy to
34 . pEAcE JoURNALTSM TRAIN|NG MoDULE
journalism distortand misrepresent Advocacy can reality througha variety means. cannot of lt completely represent reality; craftor art no can. it canrepresent But reality moremeaningfullycommitted the if to journalistic basic responsibility respect the factsandto looking of for into publicissues honestly, systematically, extensively. and journalism advocacy Peace does more than relaynews of peace as agreements the cessation wars. presents and of lt in conflicts all their picture theworld. emphasizcomplexity, thuspaints complex a and of lt escontext the keyto understanding as conflicts.reports lt ongoing conflictsas rootedin history, and reports simmering conflicts beforethey become wars. examining conflicting By the claims protagonists of and journalism peace thoseaffected before duringwars, and subjects these (such patriotism). to analysis withoutideological otherbiases and as journalism notendwiththeendof war. continues report Peace does lt to on reconciliation reconstruction and efforts, attempts find out if and to persist couldleadto futureconflicts. the rootcauses conflict of and
Beyond"good" and "evil"
o o o journalism Peace looksat the parties conflict in beyond convengoodandevilformulations tional journalism "is Peace assumes violence the ultimate that ill" social positions, peace Byencouraging mutual appreciation each of other's journalism helpthe parties conflictto prefer peace in can overwar
o o o journalism non-partisan that it encourages Peace is in looking ("untruths": intoalIparties'claims Galtung) journalism Peace to factors unstrives identify that mayconvince parties seek reasonable to otheravenues journalism Peace devotes muchattention the other party as to andto peace makers muchasto governments as
Theemphasis contextconforms on with the International Principles of Professional Ethics Journalism in adoptedin a 1983meetingof
p E A c E J o U R N A L T s M T R A To D u uG . 3 5 M NTN
Organization and Scientific, Cultural Educational, the UnitedNations propercontext"so as to provide"a (Facts must be "reportedin their pictureof the world in whichthe origin,natureand comprehensive processes states ofaffairs understood"). are and ofevents, essence prescribed all journalism for skills the sameas thoseusually are Peace pitfalls journalists. theseinclude and emphasizing certain avoiding But knowlResearch extensive and of that areoftenignored. aspects conflict skills. are conflicts alsonecessary of edgeof the nature contemporary
journalism of the explores multipleaspects conflictand proPeace (truth-tell accuracy). ing: vides context o o . . of sources information lt consults multiple fairness in involved conflict(justice: lt presents both or all sides andbalance) rather thanascaricainvolved humanbeings as lt sees parties the compassion) tures(humaneness: journalistic from political economic and autonomy lt encourages (freedom) interests
journalism. values journalism thus ethical, The competent is Peace journalism consistent with the ethicaland are skillsof peace and journalism be more can Peace professional of standards journalism. whichhasbeen thanwarjournalism, and moreinformative complete war "the encourage misrepresent otheri'and knownto distortreality, andviolence.
and for of is LUlS TEODOROthe deputydirector the Center MediaFreedom V. publi(CMFR) the editorof its monthly media-monitoring and Responsibility Review ilippine )ournalism He Reports. isalsothe editorof the Ph cation, PJR the journalism journal the CMFR. at (PJR), annual Teodoro teaches of refereed the in Communication Diliman College Mass of the University the Philippines of Education on the He wherehe hasserved dean. chairs Commission Higher as of (CHED) Education is alsomember and on Technical Committee Journalism Sciences.Teodoro and Panel theCHEDTechnical on Communication the Social currently writesa columnfor BusinessWorld.
TRAINING MODULE 36 . PEACE JoURNALISM
journalism posThediscussion peace focused whether on was siblegiventhe pressure from various sources journalists on to produce stories that will eitherboostratings circulation. or There wasconsensus that: publishers, editors Media owners, and shouldbe moreinjournalism.But some volvedin the promotion peace of participants expressed doubtsthat owners wouldcommit to makingpeace reportinga matterof policy. Professional standards demandthat an eventshouldbe professionally, according the ethical covered and to standardsof journalism, providing which means contextand lookinginto the situation the communities of affected by conflict. Correspondents-who usuallyon the frontlines-lack are supportfrom their mediaorganizations termsof adein quatepay,or evenhazard pay,and mustoften spendtheir own moneyto get to and stayin an areaof conflict. Diversification sources now possible of is through the useof new communication technologies-such mobile as phones andthe Internet-to contact parties all involved in a conflict, rather thanjournalists'being limited citingthe to military because they areusually onesavailable. the Even rebels now havemobilephones and Internet-capable laptops. journalism Peace actually demands more than what no journalism used be - that is,complete, to accurate, relfair, evantand contextualized reporting, which amongother requirements present demands that reporters both sides involved an issue, asin thisinstance, in or, conflict.
pEAcEJoURNALTSMTRATNING . 37 MoDuu
4 Section a
Some Do's and Don'ts
Melinda de Quintos Jesus
A good press helpspeopleto think and engages them in dialogue. Good, well-researched stories helppeople thinkand promote mutual groups. understanding amongvarious o o o o o o ldentify/Understand peaceprocess the initiated the governby ment Knowwho the participants are Understand,any, terms/framework negotiations if the of Establish landscape, terrain conflict the the of Search otheractors the field, in out innocent victims
Contextualize conflictin realityof the place, effecton dailylife 'dailiness" life,what staysthe same, o Writeabout the of coping perspective mechanisms duringcrisis. Military shouldnot be the onlyperspective the press in o o o o o Story should based facts be on that youyourself validated Provide background context anyoutbreak hostility and to in Avoidsensationalizing violence Storyshouldprovide a context,not be presented isolated as random incident Clean text of stereotypes out
o Writeabout peace efforts o Writeaboutdifferences a fact of national as social reality o Provide options peace, for conflict management, resolution and
p E A c E J o U R N A L T s M T R A I N I N G M.o D 9 U 3U
. o o
out stories in the press Getthe children's Get the viewsof all thoseinvolvedand affectedby violenceand war to conflict Reports empowerthe public in the endeavor resolve levels of to and bringantagonists trucethat opensup meaningful peace-building
40 . PEACEJoURNALISMTRAININGMODULE
Section b 4
Some Do's and Don'ts
Theviolence that attends conflicts the modernworld is only the in tip of the iceberg. the mediaoftenemphasize But violence the exto clusion the history, wellasrootsof,conflict. of as Journalists help can readers/viewers/listeners understand better conflict by keepingthe following mind. in o o o o o Trace conflict's the origins the past; did not happen to it onlyyesterday Findout whoseinterests involved conflict are in andwhatconsequences theremaybe for affected populations Whatlessons doesthe conflict potentially provide? theselesCan sonshelpprevent futureconflict? Do not portray conflict consisting a as solely two parties of Examine othergroups theirgoals. these and Do addup to an outcomemorecomplex (e.g. thanwhat is conventionally assumed? the Mindanao conflict: thereonlytwo parties theirgoals are and involved?) Do not categorize partiesinto "us"and "them"- or into "self" the and"the other'iwhichdivides contenders good (us) the into and evil(them) Findout how different how muchthe same the"good" or are and the"evil" Do not makeopinionsoundlikean established fact Reporton remaining issues, any,evenaftera peace if agreement hasbeenconcluded
pEAcEJouRNALrsMTRAININGMoDule . 41
o o o
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o
proposals initiatives wherpeace and Explore takeseriously and evertheycomefrom,notjustthosefrom'burside" to Do contextualize. not reportan act of violence Contextualize, further and was that suggest the cause pastviolence, the remedy violence people triedotheravHave of Whatarethe causes the violence? or andbeenfrustrated blocked? enues for blame violence assign Do not arbitrarily fears, grievances and suffering, Do not focuson only one party's what and intothe parties'goals grievances: do theywant Inquire andwhy? goals? by be Howwill the population affected these and values may divisions.There be shared Do not overemphasize the goals or between among protagonists do evidence, not focusexcluyou haveunimpeachable Unless of abuses onlyoneside sively the humanrights on and seriously nameall of all Treat claims humanrightsviolations exists if wrongdoers evidence groupsthroughthe useof termssuchas"viDo not demonize and ciousi"'brutali' "barbaric" Whenquoting,proas as wrongdoing completely possible. Report reliability of a sense the source's videreaders/listeners/viewers "fundamental"extremist,""fanatici'and by Do nottakesides using ist"recklessly the havedoneandcanstilldo to address Report what people on in issues a conflict terms(e.g.,"pathetici' peoplein disempowering Do not describe "devastatedi"'defenseIess") words(genocide, use Avoidthe imprecise of emotionally-laden to you theyapply the event unless arecertain terrorism) massacre, youarereporting
MoDULE JoURNALTSMTRA|N|NG 42 . pEAcE
DtscusstouNores: Thecoverage conflict tendedto worsen of has divisions soin cietyrather than healthem,amongotherreasons because the traditional concept newsemphasizes of casualties, damage to property, and reports which sideis winningor losing. on The participants agreed that: . Body counts desensitize public the and reduce conflict a to gamein whichreaders/viewers/listeners to numbers tend think that conflictis only all aboutwho is winning.Body counts alsounreliable, are since eachprotagonist tendsto exaggerate otherside's the casualties minimize and theirs. Covering conflictshouldconsist more than reporting of the casualties bothsides, it is necessary attribute on and to properly. waspointedout that whileeditors lt usually ask for body counts, reporting the shouldalsoincludepeace efforts. The commitment deepencoverage amongothers, to by, peace including efforts, conflict mediation, resolution, and aswellasthe impact conflict the communities of on should be madeat all levels, from the reporters the groundto on the editors the desk. at Conflict analysis-what causes the conflict the of are,what eachsidewants, etc.-is necessity providing public a in the the reports that will enable to understand it conflict. Reporters should allowtheirbiases intrude not to intotheir reporting reporting by opinionasfact,or by commenting on whatheor sheisreporting principles basic the practo ticeof professionaljournalism. in the op-edpages Only is the latterpermitted, whileadherence the factsis at the to verybottomlineof journalistic responsibility. reporting, In it is necessary present reader factswithoutbias to the the andadornment asto allowhim or herto drawhisor her so own conclusions.
pEAcEJoURNALISMTRAININGM. DUU o 43
Reporting Mindanao: lssues Problems and
(CMFR) TheCenter MediaFreedom Responsibility for and conducted studiesof selected Philippine media's coverage the "Mindanao of problem" 2000and 2003, in and of Mindanao 2006.lmprovement in wasevidentin 2003and 2006, certain problems persisted the but in coverage.
Following government a military offensive Mindanao March in in 2000 against the Moro lslamic Liberation Front(MILF) and the hostagetakingby the Abu Sayyaf Group(ASG), CMFR lookedinto the March (BusinessWorld, to June coverage five Manila-based by broadsheets the ManilaBulletin,the Philippine Dailylnquirer,The Philippine Star,and Today).The studycovered boththe newsand opinionpages these of newspapers.
Extentof coverage o o 1,633 articles appeared the fivebroadsheets in duringthe March to Juneperiod studied Therewas a steadygrowth in the number of articles the as fightingintensified: in March;220 April;543 in May;and 179 in 691in June Moreandmorearticles foundtheirwayintothefrontpages from 67 in March 370in June to Columns the crisis on numbered12; 1 editorials 102
pEAcE JoURNALTSM TRATNTNG MoDule . 45
Subjectmatter o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 317 Jolohostagesreports-279 Battlefield hostages-180 Basilan and Bombings otherkidnappings-136 policies-108 Government 97 negotiationsPeace 80 economyNational and Peace unity-66 9 Soldiers48 situationMindanao 46 TheMILF37 TheAbu Sayyaf23 Local business24 Evacuations8 andchildrenWomen 23 Federalism-
cited Sources o o o o o o 1,055 and Government militarYThe AbuSayyaf-72 67 TheMILF18 communitYThebusiness 37 Civilsociety38 sectorThereligious
Treatment o o o o (news)government the military and Positive in (news)- ASG, MILF, Muslims general and the the Negative personalities and Muslims Muslim Mixed(editorials)Negative(editorials)-government
Contextualization o o o material werebackground/historical articles 22 out of the 1,633 andeditorials columns weremostly These grievances and tried to get the MILF's Only one broadsheet Salamat Chair MILF itself: interviewed it fromthe MILF intentions Hashim
MoDULE 46 . pEAcEJoURNALISMTRAINING
Coverage issues o o o o o o o Virtuallyone-sided sourcingresultingin lack of fairness and balance Lack backgrounding of /contextualization also was evident There wassomeevidence bias/prejudice of Paucity articles policyissues a majorweakness of on was Emphasis battles on and otherviolence obscured causes the of the conflict appealed commonprejudices bloodlust and to and Exposure ASGon the samelevelas the MILF of tendedto make these organizations co-equal Calls extermination somearticles for in wereespecially disturbing
Consequences \o o o lncreased prejudice anti-Muslim Narrow appreciation Mindanao of reality Possibility continuingmisunderstanding conflictrather of and thanpeace
CMFR looked (Februaryto May5) of intothe three-month coverage 3 just the samebroadsheets beforethe militaryoffensive against the MILF andafterthe bombings Davao. in Therewere 2,894articleson the "Mindanao problem," indicating increased coverage.
\, Subjectmatter o o o o o o o Policeinvestigations, body countsand ongoing violence-33 reports Business economyand 546 policiesGovernment 590 Military assault the MILF on stronghold Pikit-167 in Evacuations123 Davao bombings310 Balikatan-related stories265
PEACE JOURNALISM TRAINING tr,tOOUU. 47
Contextualization o o of 135 material- (5percent totalcompared Background/historical in to 1 percent 2000) and (1 well news 12 or 83percent)as ascolumns editorials Included (13)
cited Sources o o o o o mentioned sources out and Government military-2,087 of 3,550 (there in wasmoremulti-sourcing 2003) 477 Civifsocietyoften) was TheMILF-324(Spokesperson interviewed 252 sectorThereligious Foreign-127
Treatment 73 Negative: Abu Sayyaf- percent personalities- percent 80 and MILF MILF 68 Government- Percent in lssues the 2003coverage o o o sources use Overwhelming of government presence stories withoutsources of Pronounced the waningof violent despite continued on Emphasis violence incidents
Improvements o o o o was Multi-sourcing evident increased articles of Thenumber background moreoften wereconsulted sources Civilsociety was of Three fourths the material neutral
government was still the overBut despitethese improvements, was Backgrounding/contextualizationstill inadsource. whelming also on Emphasis violence continued. equate.
The 2006 Study
duringthe periodMarch1 to April30 of the of Thecoverage Mindanao studied.The plus five originaf broadsheets ManiloStandardTodoywas to and to but studyincluded wasnot limited conflict, wasmeant find out
MODULE JOURNALISMTRAINING 48 . PEACE
There were996articles how Mindanao a wholewasbeingreported. as during period the studied. aboutMindanao the sixbroadsheets in
Subjectmotter o o o o o o o 157 Business theeconomyand affairs121 Government 86 Military conflictsPolice83 79 CrimesHostaging3 (tourism, 143 festivals, humaninterest)Others
Sources cited o o o r o o 421 Government145 MilitaryPolice- 19 1 Civilsociety-89 "Manon the street"48 of and Family members victims violence crime-12 of
Consequences o o o issue of Possible improvement reader of appreciation Mindanao possibleunderstanding that not all of The coveragemade Mindanao engulfed violence is in Muslims negative against bias Continued
problems Coverage o o o and availability government of Limited access "the otherside" to sources needto produce stories sellhasledto emphasis that Commercial sells and on firefights bodycounts violence reports/ Majority biasesare reflectedin some journalists' comments
Proposed solutionsto the limitations of mediacoverage
it Given findings thesethreestudies, wouldseemthat despite the of remains problem, a togetherwith improvements, contextualization
. 49 pEAcEJouRNALrsMTRAININGMoDule
the focus on violenceand minimalattentionto peaceinitiatives. mayadoptarethe following: that Amongthe solutions the press o o o o rootsorganizations and experts grass Consulting backgrounding and morein-depth more Assigning readers educate to on focus violence gradually less Encouraging problem" journalist in rootsof the "Mindanao the Emphasizing briefings
groups, with the supportof mediaadvocacy institutions, Academic canhelpby: o o o college journalism an elective journalism in as Offeringpeace programs programs for journalism continuing education peace in Including journalists programs demand to literacy throughmedia the Educating public coverage bettermedia
50 . pEAcEJoURNAL|SMTRA|N|NGMoDULE
DtscusstonNores: Thediscussion focused issues on suchaswhetherthe Center (CMFR) monitors Minof for Media Freedom Responsibility and madea distinction betweenwire and local danaocoverage journalists'reports, needto include community press the the whethertherehasindeedbeenimprovein futuremonitors, that and of ment in the coverage, the non-publication stories papers werekilledby the to but weresubmitted the national wasa consensus that: desk.There correTherewereeffortson the part of someMindanao stories the Mindanon spondents previde to background to for in so a ao conflict 2000 asto provide context readeis understand events. However, the centraldesksof the Manilanewspapers or them to emwouldoften kill suchstories, elserewrite phasize Therewas general encounters and casualties. in with the rethat this happens manycases, agreement portersnot havingany controloverthe finalversions of theirbylines. the stories carried that is in Whatreally matters what finallyappeared print,and it is impossible anymonitorto tracethe development for untilit is proof a storyfrom the time it isfirstsubmitted, and cessed printed. needto include coverage elections the of CMFR monitors press 2010.Thecoverage conflict in of by the community comto selected couldalsobe so monitored i.e., include publications news programs addition the in to munity and press. national
pEAcEJoURNALIsMTRAINtNG 51 laoourr .
TheRoad Ahead: in Areas Journalists Conflict
journalists conflictareas questions Thefundamental in needto ask themselves are: (1) Should journalists bringpeace society? help to (2) Canthey? (3) lf the answer both questions yes, is how canthey help bring to peace society? to journalism Peace o o of Usesconflictanalysis meet the journalistic to imperatives accuracy, balance, fairness and practical guideforthe Providesa responsibleexerciseofjournalistic intervention power and
What is needed \-. o the Coverage that helps readers/viewers/listeners understand causes conflictby tracingtheir rootsto the way the social, of political, havedeveloped over economic, and culturalsystems time (history context) and Coverage includes the parties that all that have stake conflict, a in as well as their goals,ratherthan a focuson the most visible (e.9., protagonists government rebels) and Coverage that givespeaceinitiatives and suggested solutions prominence regardless theirorigins of with the means distinguish Coverage helps that equippeople to goalsof the protagonists that between stated the and actual so (empowerment) theycanact in theirown behalf
pEAcE JoURNALTsM TRATNTNG MoDule . 53
Are the;ccpossiblein the context of o Themediaenvironment -Theownership system -Thelegalsystem - Journalists' stateof preparednes Thepoliticalenvironment
54 . pEAcEJoURNAL|SMTRA|N|NGMoDULE
on elicited several suggestions how The concluding session journalism as couldfocuson peace the mediaorganizations be wellason whatshould covered. was One suggestion to train deskpeopleand editorsin journalism, peace into finalform. sincethey edit reports look It wasalsosuggested journalists intoalternative that for that outlets stories don'tget published. it wasconcerned, As far as what elseshouldbe covered in waspointed that therewasa lot of restlveness the out between the military and that,in addition the conflict to government the MoroNational Liberation Front, the and Army, Liberation Front, the NewPeople's and Morolslamic and in should alsobe explored the divisions the military reported. This is importantbecause the militarycould landscape adversely positively and or change political the democracy. impactPhilippine policies conflict, wellasthe rootsof reon as Government and as bellion, needto be examined reported, wellas also and as whichaffectthe environment suchissues mining, Another which couldtriggerunrestin the communities. is necessary subjectof coverage the armedstrugglein and Luzon and in Visayas, its rootsin povertyand in the and There alsoissues tribalconflicts are of landproblem. issues Regional international and localpolitical alliances. -for example "waron terror"-should be reported the also in such because affect they events the Philippines, asgovdecision inviteU5troopsintothe country. to ernment journalists should visitconflict areas. Todeepen coverage, journalism werealsosuggested, Echo seminars peace on papers of on briefing aswellasa directory experts conflict, group for journalists, a journalists'online for sharing and information.
PEACE TRAINING tttOOUlr . 55 JOURNALISM