V o l : ( 2 ) , N o .

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Vol : (2 ) No . ( 24 )

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7, 10 , 2012, Sunday

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7, 10 , 2012, Sunday

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rsdK;qufausmif;om;acgif;aqmifurkd if;udEk ikd u
f ]]uRefawmf
rSwfrdowd&aewmav;wpfckajymjycsifygw,f/ uRefawmf
wdkYi,fi,fu]t}oHk;vHk;vIyf&Sm;rIawGudk owd&ygw,f/
tm;vHk;owdwJhtwdkif;]t}oHk;vHk;u t&rf;atmifjrifcJhyg
w,f/ atmifjrifcsif;[m bmeJYtajccHvJqdkwm pOf;pm;
rdwmyg/ jynfolawGyl;aygif;vIyf&Sm;vdkYyg/ vrf;pOfwpfck
udk BudKufw,fqdkwJhtcgrSm jynfolawG? ausmif;om;
vli,fawGyl;aygif;ygw,f/ wuúodkvfu ausmif;om;
awGu udk,fhpm;&dwfeJY ukd,faEG&moDausmif;ydwf&ufawG
rSm]t}oH;k vH;k oifwef;awGvu
kd Nf yD;oifay;ygw,f/ Campaign uBuD;vGef;tm;BuD;vdkY urÇmwkefoGm;w,f/ vrf;
pOfrSefwJhtcg tm;vHk;yl;aygif;Muygw,f/ vrf;pOfrrSefwJh
tcgb,folrS ryl;aygif;Muygbl;/ pDrHudef;awGtopfa&;
qGJvdkuf? aysmufvdkufjzpfaerSmyg/ tJh'Davmufatmifjrif
wJhtcgMuawmh EdkifiHjcm;upmapmifwpfckrSm uRefawmf
rSwfrdygw,f/ *syefEdkifiHu tJh'D0efBuD;udk wpf&dyf&dyfwuf
aewJh Mu,fwpfyGifhvdkcsD;usL;vdkufygw,f/ EdkifiHwumrSm
oGm;NyD;awmh ulvDxrf;tvkyfMurf;vkyfae&wJh wpfzuf
EdkifiHrSm oHql;BudK;cwfxm;wJhxJrSm w&m;r0ifusL;ausmf
0ifa&mufolawGtjzpf rsufESmi,f&wJh uRefawmfwdkY&JU
vlrsdK;a&;*kPf odu©mukd jyefvnfjr§ifhwifMuygpdkY}}[kqdkum
jrefrmjynf\vuf&ydS nma&;taMumif;udk EIid ;f ,SOcf sufrsm;
jzifh oHk;oyfajymMum;wdkufwGef; tm;ay;cJhonf/
zdk;pdkif;

6

aumvm[vyk*¾vdu bPfowif;rsm;ESifh
ywfowfí A[dkbPfu&Sif;vif;ajz&Sif;

&efukef? atmufwdkbm?(6)
]]A[dkbPfqdkwm yk*¾dvdubPftm;vHk;wifrubl;? aiGa&;?aMu;a&;qdkif&m
tzGJUtpnf;tm;vHk;yg pnf;urf;pepfeJYnDzdkY? pnf;rsOf;Oya'eJYnDzdkYtm;vHk;udk b@m
a&;eJY tcGef0efBuD;Xmetm;vHk;&JUuGyfuJrIatmufrSm pepfwus MuyfrwfuGyfuJaewJh
tzGUJ tpnf;wpfcjk pzfygw,f/ tckaumvm[vxGuaf ewJh bPfomrubJ uRefawmf
wdkYEdkifiHrSmzGifhxm;wJh yk*¾vdubPftm;vHk;eJYywfoufNyD;awmh uRefawmfwdkYA[dkbPf
taeeJYu b,fvdktaMumif;eJYrSpdk;&drfp&m
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í rD',
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EdkifiHbPfrsm;toif;½Hk;wGif usif;yjyKvkyfcJhNyD; jrefrmEdkifiHpufrIvufrIvkyfief;&Sifrsm;
toif;ESifh bPftoD;oD;rSwm0ef&Sdolrsm;wufa&mufcJhonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHA[dkbPf
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onfrsm;udk ajymjycJhMuonf/

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qD;cH&onf[kqdkum uarÇmZbPfwGif aiGpkxm;olrsm;aiGrsm;jyefvnfxkwf,l&m
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D mrsm;uar;jref;&m uarÇmZ
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aejynfawmfodkYa&muf&SdaeaMumif;? OD;atmifudk0if;onf aoqHk;jcif;? zrf;qD;cH&jcif;
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odvkdaMumif; ar;jref;&m Ouú|OD;atmifudk0if;onf qif;&JEGrf;yg;onfhb0rSwuf
vmoljzpfaMumif;? Ouú|OD;atmifudk0if;taeESifh½dk;om;oljzpfaMumif;? "mwfyHkt½dkuf
cH&rnfu&kd u
S w
f ufaMumif;? xdaYk Mumifv
h Ml um;xJaysmufaejcif;aMumifh aumvm[v
rsm;xGufay:&jcif;jzpfaMumif; OD;oef;vGifu &Sif;vif;ajymjycJhonf/
zdk;pdkif;

7, 10 , 2012, Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 24 )

pm;p&mr&Sd avsmfp&m&Sd
vl & ,f v k d Y j zpf v mNyD q d k u wnf ; u
b0wpf c k u d k yd k i f q d k i f & wwf w mygav/
'DvlawGMum;xJrSmyJ ykHoP²meftrsKd;tpm;
awGudkyJ xyfcGJjcrf;pdwfjzm Munfhrdawmh
vnf; csrf;om<u,f0wJhol &mxl;MoZm
tmPm&d S w J h o l qif ; &J c sKd U wJ h & S m wJ h o l
todynmuif;rJhol&,fvkdY trsKd;rsKd;aom
b0rsm;eJ Y ol w k d Y usif v nf & S i f o ef a e
MuwmyJav/ 'gayrJh udk,fhtaMumif;eJY
udk,f &SifoefMuwwfayrJhvnf; wpfcg
wpf&H tvTm wpfckeJYwpfck taMumif ;
rwdkufqdkifbJ xdyfwdkufawGUqkHrIawG[m
ra,mifrvnfeJY ygvm&ifawmh t½kyfqdk;
tusnf;wefp&mawG jzpfwwfMuwmyJ
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h vm;/
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pOf;pm;zdv
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jrifuGif;ay:rSm tjrifrawmfwmav;awG
awGUrdawmhvnf; olt
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yg/ jrifuiG ;f av;uawmh 'Dvykd g uRefawmfh
q&meJ Y t wl "mwf y k H t ,f ' D w mwk d Y (3)
a,muf tpnf ; ta0;wpf c k u tjyef
OD ; 0d p m&vrf ; ? wyf r awmf c ef ; rteD ; rS m
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uRef a wmf w k d Y um;ay:u twd k i f ; om;
jrifae&wmaygh/ pD;vmrdwJh uav;awGu
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,mOfxdef;&Jcrsmvnf; wm0eft& ta&;
,l&aMumif; &Sif;jyaeykHawGudk toHrMum;
&aomfvnf; trlt&mawGt& jrifawGUae
cJ&h wmaygh/ 'DvMkd unfah eMu&if; uRefawmf
wkdY "mwfykHq&mpNyD; ]]uRefawmfvnf;
tJ'Dvdkwpfcg tzrf;cH&zl;w,f}}vkdY ajym
vmygw,f/ uRefawmfwkdYuvnf; pdwf0if
pm;pGmjzifh ]]b,fwek ;f uvJ}}vkYd ar;vdu
k rf d
w,fq&kd ifyJ ol't
D vkyrf a&mufcifwek ;f u
todwpfa,muf pufbD;udkiSm;pD;rdwm
taMumif;udpöu ta&;BuD;ovdk&Sdaewm
aMumifh um;BudKum;Mum; a&Smifwdrf;pD;
&if; rsOf;tv,faMum a&mufoGm;NyD; a&SU
rSm toifhapmifhaewJh ,mOfxdef;&JeJY wef;
wdk;vkdY tzrf;cH&ykH tzrf;cH&NyD; ,mOfrI
ppfXmerSm 'PfaiG (11500) usyf aqmif
cJh&ykHwkdYudk pDumywfukH; ajymjyygawmh
w,f/ olYtaMumif;udk &,f&rvdk idk&rvdk
em;axmif & if ; uRef a wmf w k e f ; uvnf ;
'DvdkyJ tzrf;cH&zl;wJhtaMumif;qD a&muf
oGm;ygw,f/ uRefawmfwek ;f u bk&ifah emif
vrf ; rBuD ; ? Nrd K Uopf a ps;rS w f w d k i f e m;u
v0u½Hk;udk rSwfykHwifudpötwGuf toGm;
rSm uRefawmfu tif;pdefbuftwdkif;

7, 10 , 2012, Sunday

NyD;qk;H oGm;w,fq&kd ifyJ pufb;D udk um;ay:
wif xGufoGm;ygawmhw,f/
vrf;&Sif;oGm;NyDqkdawmh uRefawmfwkdY
um;vnf; olaY emufu xGuv
f mcJyh gw,f/
wjznf;jznf; olYvrf;oloGm;udk,fhvrf;
udk,foGm;&if; tJ'Dum;uav; vrf;cGJoGm;
ygawmhw,f/ 'gayrJhvnf; ½Hk;omjyef
a&mufvmw,f/ tJ'DtaMumif;t&mav;
u acgif;xJrSmygvmygwkef;yJ 'DaeYrSmawmh
olt
Y vkyv
f yk o
f v
l yk o
f mG ;MuwmyJ/ rSm;wJo
h l
cHayghvdkY awG;vdkufjyefawmh r[kwfao;
jyefb;l / trSm;qdw
k mudv
k nf; bmvkYd vG,f
vG,feJY usL;vGefaeMuwmyJ/ 'grSr[kwf
vrf;&JUt,ltqyJ rSm;,Gi;f aeovm;/ ykpH H

awmifudk&D;,m;EdkifiH trsKd;om;aehESifU wyfrawmfaeh
txdrf;trSwfnpmpm;yGJusif;y

&efukef? atmufwdkbm (6)
awmifu&dk ;D ,m;Ekid if H trsKd;om;aeYEiS hf wyfrawmfaeYtxdr;f trSwf npmpm;yGu
J kd
atmufwb
dk mv(5)&ufaeYnu &efuek Nf rdKU? qD';kd em;[dw
k ,fwiG u
f sif;ycJ&h m&ef ukeNf rdKU
&SEd idk if t
H oD;oD;\oH½;kH rsm;rSot
H rwfBuD;rsm;? ppforH LS ;rsm;ESio
hf r®w½H;k 0efBuD; OD;pd;k armif
tygt0if tpdk;&Xmeqdkif&mwm0ef&Sdolrsm;wufa&mufcJhMuaMumif;od&onf/ ,if;
npmpm;yGJudk awmifudk&D;,m;EkdifiH\ atmufwdkbm(1)&ufwGifusa&mufaom wyfr
awmfaeYEiS hf atmufwb
kd m(3)&ufwiG u
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H nfaxmifonfh trsKd;om;
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NN

jrefrmUrD;&xm;tdrf,mrsm;rS tcsdefjynfU
vQyfppfrD;ay;Ekdif&efarQmfvifU
pD;vmcJw
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aygh/ auGU&rSmu b,fbufudkqdkawmh
tv,faMumudk uyfvu
kd yf ga&m/ jzwfrsOf;
udka&mufawmh wpfzuf,mOfaMum &Sif;
atmif ajcaxmufav;axmuf&yfapmifh
&w,f r[k w f v m;/ 'D t csd e f r S m yJ
uRefawmfah &SUudk um;wpfp;D &yfNyD; um;ay:
u ,mOfxdef;&JESpfa,muf qif;vmum
uRefawmfhudk tv,f,mOfaMumay:u pD;
w,fqdkNyD; zrf;r,fvdkYajymygawmhw,f/
uRefawmfhrSmvnf; r[kwfwJhtaMumif;udk
trsKd ; rsKd ; &S i f ; jyaomf v nf ; uRef a wmf h
pufbD; &yfxm;ykHu jypfrIusL;vGefxm;
onf h y k H p H a yguf a eavawmh rwwf o m
awmhb;l aygh/ 'geJY ol&iS ;f ud,
k &f iS ;f eJyY J tcsdef
u Mumvmjyefygw,f/ ,mOfxdef;&Jum;
aemufrSmvnf; um;awG wef;pDaevdkuf
wm renf;ygbl;/ tJ'geJY uRefawmfvnf;
qufrjiif;awmhygbl;/ ESajrmayrJhvnf;
MunfMunfjzLjzL xnfhay;vdkufygawmh
w,f/ NyD;awmhrSm uRefawmfhxHvmNyD;
csvefwpf&Gufa&;ay;ygw,f/ (51) vrf;
rSm 'PfaMu;aqmifNyD; pufb;D udk jyefxw
k f
vk&Yd w,fvaYdk jymNyD; xGuo
f mG ;ygawmhw,f/
tJ'DaemufrS ydwfaeMuwJh um;rsm;vnf;
olwkdYoGm;rnfhvrf;aMumif;udk qufvuf
xGufcGmoGm;ygawmhw,f/
apmapmu uRefawmfwkdYa&SUwGif&Sd
aom ,mOfxed ;f &Jum;av;vnf; olw
Y m0ef

awG pepfawGyJ rrSefvkdYvm;qdkwJh ar;cGef;
aygif;rsm;pGm 0ifvmygw,f/ pufbD;eJY
ywfoufvYdk uefo
Y wf{&d,mawG&o
dS vm;/
tJ'DuefYowfcsufawGaum xkwfjyefxm;
ovm;/ jrifomatmifvnf; jzefYa0xm;
ovm;/ us,fus,f0ifh0ifh ynmay;jcif;
awGuyJ vlxktay: rxda&mufvkdYvm;/
wu,fqdk&if 'Djyóemu bmrSrjzpf
avmufayrJhvnf; ,mOfpnf;urf; vrf;
pnf;urf; azmufzsufraI Mumifh ,mOfaMum
awG ydwfqkdYMuefYMumrIawG? tjcm;tjcm;
aom ,mOfawG vrf;oGm;vrf;vmawG
taESmifht,Suf jzpf&ykHawG[m pdwf'ku©
udk wdk;apovdkyJ r[kwfvm;/
udk,fhrSm taMumif;aMumif;aMumifh
rwwfEdkifvkdY/ pufbD;uav;udk 0,fpD;
Edik af omfvnf; ,mOfpnf;urf; azmufzsuf
rd & &if a wmh ,mOf x d e f ; &J r sm;rS m vnf ;
tvkyf½Iyf&? ywf0ef;usifu tjcm;,mOf
rsm;vnf; 'kuy© &kd ? b,fvrkd S taumif;qdk
wm r&SdoavmufyJav/ udk,fhEdkifiHrSmu
olrsm;wdkif;jynfawGrSmvdk pufbD;oD;oefY
vrf;? 0SD;csJoD;oefYvrf;qdkNyD; r&Sdwm udk,fh
udk,fudk,f pnf;urf;udkvnf; vdkufemNyD;
tcefYroifh&if 'PfaiGaqmifzkdY (11500)
usyfudkvnf; wpfygwnf;aqmifNyD; pD;Mu
ygvkdY qE´jyKrdygawmhw,f/
ol&def

&efukefwdkif;a'oBuD;? tif;pdefNrdKUe,frsm;&Sd BudKUukef;NrdKUywfpuf½Hk0if;? aps;ukef;
ta&SU rD;&xm;0if;0efxrf;tdrf,mrsm;wGif vQyfppfrD;udk nae(4)em&DrS n(10)em&D
txd wpfBudrf? reuf(4)em&DrS reuf(7)em&D txdwpfBudrf pkpkaygif;ESpfBudrfcefYom
rD;ay;aMumif;od&onf/ tqdkyg&yfuGufwGif;&Sd 0efxrf;rdom;pkrsm;tm;awGUqHkar;
jref;Munfh&m ]][dkt&ifuawmh tNrJay;xm;ygw,f/ tvSnfhusrD;ay;csdefwkef;
urS 'DyHkpHtwdkif;ay;w,f? tckaemufydkif;&yfuGufawGrSm yHkrSefrD;vmayr,fh rD;
&xm;tdrf,mawGrS tcsdefydkif;eJYyJqufay;wkef;yJ}}}vdkYqdkygw,f/ ¤if;tdrf,mwGif
aexdkifaom ausmif;om;rdbrsm;uvnf; ]]pmusufcsdefwGifza,mif;wdkifrD;jzifh
pmusuf&aomaMumifh tqifrajyjzpf&jcif;? rD;ab;tEÅ&m,ftwGufpdk;&drf &jcif;
wdkYudkvnf;&Sif;jyay;ygonf}}}trsm; pk0efxrf;rsm;uvnf; neufcsderf S tvkyo
f rd ;f
&aomaMumifh tcuftcJrsm;jzpf& jcif;wdkYaMumifh tcuftcJrsm;jzpf&jcif;wdkYaMumifh
ol&def
vQyfppfr;D udk tcsdejf ynfah y;Ekid &f efarQmfvifv
h suf&adS Mumif;od&&dS onf/

7

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 24 )

b*Fvm;a'h&SfoH½Hk;a&SUwGif &efukefa&muf &cdkif&[ef;awmfrsm; oma&;ema&;toif;0if oHCmawmfrsm;rS qE´azmfxkwf

&efukef? atmufwdkbm? (5)
b*Fvm;a'h&SfEdkifiHtwGif; jzpfyGm;cJh
aom tpGe;f a&muf b*FgvDwpfp\
k vky&f yf
tay: ½Iwcf saMumif;ESihf taxGaxGawmif;
qdkjcif;udpöay;ydkYjcif;? qE´azmfxkwfjcif;udk
&efuek af &muf &cdik &f [ef;awmfrsm; oma&;
ema&;toif;rS oHCmawmfrsm;u (5?10?
2012)aeYvnf (1)em&DwiG f &efuek Nf rdKU "r®
apwDvrf;&Sd b*Fvm;a'h&SfEdkifiH oH½Hk;a&SU
wGif jyKvkyfcJhonf/
&efukefa&muf &cdkif&[ef;awmfrsm;
oma&;ema&;toif;rS oHCmtyg;(150)
cefYonf aeYvnf(1)em&DwGif tif;,m;
vrf;rSpwifí "r®apwDvrf;&Sd b*Fvm;a'h&fS
EdkifiH oH½Hk;a&SUtxd vrf;avQmufqE´azmf
xkwfcJhMuonf/ b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiHtwGif

ol udk&Jrif;OD;uvnf;]] uRefawmfwdkY aeY
vnf(1)em&Davmuf b*Fvm;a'h&o
fS ½H ;kH a&SU
rSm oHCmtyg;(150)eJY vly&dowf(200)
ausmfeD;yg;avmuf pk½Hk;NyD;awmh qE´azmf
xkwfcJhMuygw,f/ t"du tm;jzifhawmh
uRefawmfwdkYu b*Fvm;a'h&SfEdkifiHrSm&SdwJh
Ak'¨bmom0ifawGqdkwm vlenf;pkyg/ tJh'D
vlenf;pkawG&JUaetdrfawG Ak'¨bmom0if
wdkY&JU omoedutaqmufttHkawGudk rD;
½dIUzsufpD;w,fqdkwJhvkyf&yftay:rSm uRef

omoedutaqmuftOD;rsm;udk tpdk;&rS
jyefvnfwnfaqmufay;yg&ef? (c) t
Murf;zufjzpfpOfrsm;wGif yg0ifywfoufcJh
aom tpGef;a&mufb*FvDrsm;udk b*Fvm;
a'h&EfS ikd if t
H pd;k &rS w&m;Oya'eJt
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7, 10 , 2012, Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 24 )

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9

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 24 )

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vdyfjymrsm; ,ckukd,fwGif;&Sd raumif;qkd;0g;rsm;ukd ESifxkwf&Sif;vif;NyD;

10

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BudKwifp?k EGm;aemufuadk rG;ESihf tcsKdUwkid ;f &if;om;rsm;u acgif&nft;dk rsm;

7-10-2012,Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 24 )
BudKwifcsufvkyf pkaqmif;xm;&avh&Sdavonf/
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hJ / armfvNrdKifü pmayrdwaf qGrsm;ESihf

7-10-2012,Sunday

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Andrew Selth a&;í

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publication by
Strategic and Defence Studies
Centre
Research School of Pacific and
Asian Studies
The Australian National
University
Canberra
Year:2000
Andres Selth a&;í

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14

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7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

15

V o l : ( 2) , N o . ( 2 4 )

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7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

V o l : ( 2) , N o . ( 2 4 )
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7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

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a&SUwpfywfqufzwfyg&ef

17

V o l : ( 2) , N o . ( 2 4 )

owif;pmq&mBuD; q&mtaxmufawmfvSatmif uG,fvGefoGm;onfhaemuf
q&m\aeYpOfrSwfwrf;'dkif,m&Dpmtkyfrsm;pGmudk q&m\ZeD;jzpfol a':vSvS0if;rS
tarGtjzpfay;tyfcJhygonf/ q&monf 'dkif,m&Dudk aeYpOfa&;om;cJholjzpf&m
q&m\aeYpOfrSwfwrf;'dkif,m&Donf ,cktcg tzdk;wefaompmrsufESmrsm;jzpfaeay&m
yk*¾dKvfa&;udpörsm;udkcsefvSefí wifjytyfygonf/
t,f'Dwm
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1352 ck? waygif;vqef;(5)&uf? we*FaEG/
,aeYpmra&;jzpf/ naebuf udkuD;vmonf/ olum;0,fNyD;aMumif;ESifh Ak'¨[l;aeYuavmjyefr,f[k ajymonf/
apmapmuvd k u f & ef p D p Of x m;aomf v nf ;
vS v S a usmif ; rS
pmar;yG J r NyD ; ao;aomaMumif h
rvdkufEdkifawmhaMumif;ajymvdkufonf/
February 1991 17th

Sunday

February 1991 18th Monday
255-267(13) 174-182(9)

1352 ck?

waygif;vqef;(6)&uf? wevFm/

reufbufudk0if;atmifvmonf/ aeYcif;bufudkwifarmifjrifhpmtkyfrsm; vmydkYonf/ OD;tkef;az ,loGm;onfh
pmtkyf(3)tkyfteufrS(2)tkyfjzpfonf/ nbufOD;ausmfNidrf;ESifh a':NrdKifvmonf/
February 1991 19th Tuesday
268-286(19) 183-194(12)

1352 ck? waygif;vqef;(7)&uf? t*Fg/

reuf b uf [ef o pf r S cif a Zmf v monf / pmrl r sm;ay;vd k u f o nf / ud k 0 if ; atmif E S i f h OD ; apmvG i f qD r S
pmrlpkaqmif;ay;&ef(21)&ufaeY reufjyefcsdef;vdkufonf/
nbufudk0if;atmifvmonf/
February 1991 20th Wednesday 1352 ck ? waygif ; vqef ; (8)&uf ? Ak ' ¨ [ l ; /
287-310(24) 195-211(17)
reufbufudkwifarmifjrifhvmonf/ Light Box udpöESifharmifpdefjrifh TVudpövmajymjcif;jzpfonf/

wpfzufcef;u
atmifjrwfu rD;acsmif;udpö jyóemvmwufonf/ udkwifarmifjrifhudk xdef;xm; vdkufygonf/ rrvmonf/
,ck v uk e f w G i f 'd k u f u H o d k Y a jymif ; aeawmh r nf j zpf a Mumif ; ajymonf / bmrS p D p Of ray;Ed k i f ? '*k H N rd K Uopf u
td r f N yD ; vQif j yef a jymif ; vmaeyg[k o majymvd k u f y gonf / naebuf i½k w f q D r S atmif p d e f 0 if ; wd k Y v monf /
nbufudk0if;atmifvmonf/

February 1991 21st Thursday
311-331(21) 212-225(14)

1352 ck? waygif;vqef;(9)&uf? Mumoyaw;/

reuf b uf cif v d I i f ( opf a wm)ES i f h cif a Zmf [ ef o pf ay;onf / ud k 0 if ; atmif aqmif ; yg;ay;vd k u f onf /
nbufudk0if;atmifvmonf/ cifolZmwdkY vufESdyfpufvmay;onf/
February 1991 22nd Friday
332-351(20) 226-239(14)

18

'kwd,wGJ ,aeYNyD;onf/ 175 Typing Pages nbufOD;apmvGifvmonf/ olUaqmif;yg;rNyD;EdkifaMumif; ajymonf/
aemufvtrD a&;&efajymvdkufonf/

1352 ck? waygif;vqef;(10)&uf? aomMum/

1352 ck? waygif;vqef;(11)&uf? pae/

February 1991 23rd Saturday
352-357(6) 240-243(4)

reufbufu0kd if;atmifvufEydS pf ufvm,lomG ;onf/ rrwdo
Yk m;trdvmonf/ naebufuu
kd Bkd u;D a':eDew
D Ykd rdom;pk?
udk0if;atmif('ktBudrf)vmonf/ pmra&;jzpfawmh/
February 1991 24th Sunday
358-364(7) 244-248(5)

1352 ck? waygif;vqef;(12)&uf? we*FaEG/

cGef*smrdIif; pmtkyfrsm;vmay;onf/ aemufv(9)&ufaeY vmac:NyD; jyefydkYay;rnf/ vufESdyfpufyg jyifay;rnf[k
ajymoGm;onf/ naebuf i½kwfqDpufrS armifpdefjrifhvmonf/ TV r0,fjzpfawmh aMumif; ajymonf/
1352 ck? waygif;vqef;(13)&uf? wevFm/

February 1991 25th Monday
365-392(28) 249-269(21)

atmufxyfu OD;xGef;nGefYyifv,fclESifh rEÅav;&rfwpfvHk;vmay;onf/
February 1991 26th Tuesday
393-410(18) 270-285(16)

1352 ck? waygif;vqef;(14)&uf? t*Fg/

February 1991 27th Wednesday
411-416(6) 286-288(3))

1352 ck? waygif;vjynfh? Ak'¨[l;/

udkMunfxl;ESifh a':jzLaeYcif;bufvmonf/ naebuf armifoef;Edkifvmonf/ cs,f&DrSm tqifrajyaMumif;
OD;odef;vGifu wjcm;wpfa,mufa,mufudkxdk;tyf&ef tBuHtzefawG vkyfaeaMumif;ajymoGm;onf/
February 1991 28th Thursday
417-436(20) 289-304(16)

1352 ck? waygif;vqkwf(1)&uf? Mumoyaw;/

reufydkif;rrvmonf/ ,aeYvcxkwfNyD; 'dkufuef&GmodkYajymif;awmhrnfjzpfaMumif;ajymoGm; onf/ olUudkrulnDEdkif
'*kHNrdKUopfrS tdrfNyD;awmhrSyJ xdktdrfrSm oGm;aecdkif;&awmhrnf/ nbufOD;apmvGif vmonf/
March1991 1st Friday
437-456(20) 305-317(13)

1352 ck? waygif;vqkwf(2)&uf? aomMum/

reuftapmBuD; udk0if;atmifvmonf/ aemufudkaomfESifh armif&nfrGefvmonf/

7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

V o l : ( 2) , N o . ( 2 4 )
1352 ck? waygif;vqkwf(3)&uf? pae/

March1991 2nd Saturday
547-468(12) 318-326(9)

aiG(50)uefawmh/ nbufOD;apmvGifvmonf/ ola&;xm;onfh ta&SUtv,fydkif; aqmif;yg;vmay;onf/

aeY c if ; (2)em&D a vmuf w G i f td r f a emuf b uf ord k i f ; bl w m½H k v rf ; wG i f rD ; avmif o nf / rD ; t&rf ; eD ; onf
ypö n f ; rsm;xk y f y d k ; onf / aZmf r d k ; nd r f ; ? i½k y f q D p uf r S a rmif a tmif j rif h E S i f h OD ; wif t k e f ; wd k Y a &muf v monf /
rD;Nidrf;rSaZmfrdk;jyefoGm;onf/

pmzwf/
March 1991 19th

1352 ck? waygif;vqkwf(4)&uf? we*FaEG/
,aeY pmra&;jzpf/ reufapmapmOD;aomfrD;owif;vmar;onf/ olESifh twl udk0if;atmifwdkYtdrfoGm; onf/
ol w d k Y t d r f E S i f h rD ; u eD ; vG e f ; onf / aeY c if ; buf ud k a rmif a rmif E S i f h a':oef ; oef ; jrvmNyD ;
ypönf;enf;enf;vufaqmifay;onf/ udkatmifatmif(1)&ufaeYupifumylrS jyefa&mufonf/
March 1991 3rd

Sunday

March 1991 4th Monday
469-492(24) 327-344(18)

1352 ck? waygif;vqkwf(5)&uf? wevFm/

March 1991 5th Tuesday 1352 ck ? waygif ; vqk w f ( 6)&uf ? t*F g /
493-510(18) 345-356(12)
txdef;awmf (Stillwatch, by Mary Higgins Clark) wwd,aemufqHk;wJG NyD;NyD/
Part I
168 pages
II
175
III
167
RIT tdrfvSvSoGm;NyD; oef;oef;jrxH zkef;qufonf/ aiG(20000)cPvSnfhzkYdajymonf/

1352 ck? wefcl;vqef;(5)&uf? t*Fg/

Tuesday

reufydkif; udk0if;atmifvmonf/
March 1991 20th

Wednesday

1352 ck? wefcl;vqef;(6)&uf? Ak'¨[l;/

pmzwf/
March 1991 21th

tif*sifeD,mjraomif;vmonf/ tdrfudk ,ckv(15)&uftwGif; tNyD;aqmuf&efESifh (31)&ufaeY vlajymif;aexdkifNyD;
jzpf&rnf[k trdefYxkwfxm;aMumif;ajymonf/

1352 ck? wefcl;vqef;(4)&uf? wevFm/

March 1991 18th Monday

Thursday

1352 ck? wefcl;vqef;(7)&uf? Mumoyaw;/

pmzwf/ vSvSausmif;rS Duty
March 1991 22th

Friday

1352 ck? wefcl;vqef;(8)&uf? aomMum/

pmzwf/
Saturday 1352 ck ? wef c l ; vqef ; (9)&uf ? pae/
pmzwf/ reufyikd ;f ud0k if;atmifvmonf/ vGecf o
hJ nfh &uftenf;i,ftwGi;f u ud,
k jk yefvw
G v
f m aMumif;ajymonf/
NLDtzGJU0iftjzpfrS tNyD;xGufay;&onf[kqdkonf/
naebuf tif*sifeD,mjraomif;vmonf/ wHcg;&Gufrsm;wyf&ef aiG(5000)ay;vdkufonf/
March 1991 23rd

reuf jzefausmif;odkY

,lvmcJhrnf[kajymonf/ bmomjyefNyD;onfh pmrlpwifwnf;jzwfonf/
March 1991 6th Wednesday 1352 ck ? waygif ; vqk w f ( 7)&uf ? Ak ' ¨ [ l ; /
pmrl q uf w nf ; jzwf o nf / reuf b uf ud k 0 if ; atmif v monf / oef ; oef ; jrwd k Y x H r S aiG ( 20000)cP,l & m
aeYcif;vmay;onf/ naebufukdjraomif;vmojzifh '*HkNrdKUopftdrftwGuf aiG(15000)ay;vdkuf onf/

1352 ck? waygif;vqkwf(8)&uf? Mumoyaw;/
pmrlrsm; qufwnf;jzwfonf/ udkbdk;[efom; zdk;csKd(c) Arif;opfudk &efukefppfcHk½Hk;uao'Pfay; aMumif; nbuf
TV rSm aMunmoGm;onf/ a&ul;toHvTifh wm0gwdkifudkavmifcsmESifh ypfol[kqdk onf/
March 1991 7th Thursday

March 1991 8th Friday 1352 ck ? waygif ; vqk w f ( 9)&uf ? aomMum/
]txd e f ; awmf } pmrl (3)wG J pvH k ; ,aeY wnf ; jzwf jyif q if N yD ; onf / reuf a pmapmvS v S E S i f h twl w marG & S d
udkbdk;[eftdrfoGm;onf/ olUom;zdk;csKdao'PfpD&ifcH &onfh owif;ar;onf/ nbufOD;apmvGif vmonf/
March 1991 9th Saturday 1352 ck ? waygif ; vqk w f ( 10)&uf ? pae/
reufbufudk0if;atmifvmonf/ aeYcif;cGef*smrdIif;um;ESifh vmac:onf/ NrdKUxJvdkufoGm; uefawmf av;
rl q vif q d k i f w G i f xrif ; pm;? cs,f & D w k d u f o G m ;? ud k o ef ; armif ? ud k o d e f ; vG i f a wG U tm;rmef o pf w G i f pH w d k ; ?
ukdat;ausmf(pmaypdppfa&;)awGU/ (39)vrf;wGif vufESdyfpufjyifzdkYtyf/ naeusawmh cGef*smrdIif; ESifh armifarmifpdk;
jyefvdkufyg/ txdef;awmf pmrl(3)wGJay;vdkuf? tdrfodkYeDxufwdkYvlpHka&mufvmonf[k od&/

1352 ck? wefcl;vqef;(10)&uf? we*FaEG/
pmzwf / ysuf a eonf h rD ; cvk w f r sm;atmuf x yf u 0if ; 0if ; oef ; vmjyif a y;onf / rat;oef ; arG ; aeY
yef;ao;acgufqGJvmay;oGm;onf/
March 1991 24th

Sunday

1352 ck? wefcl;vqef;(11)&uf? wevFm/
pmzwf/ reDrvm/ prf;prf;EGUJ (om,m0wD)u olUa,mufsm;xGe;f nGeOYf ;D \ reufjzef&ufvnfqrG ;f auR; zdwcf ikd ;f aMumif;
vmzdwfonf[kajym/ nbufOD;apmvGifvmonf/
March 1991 25th

Monday

March 1991 26th
Tuesday 1352 ck ? wef c l ; vqef ; (12)&uf ? t*F g /
pmzwf / reuf y d k i f ; ud k 0 if ; atmif v m/ naebuf r ra&muf v monf / raeY u a&muf N yD ; tif ; pd e f r S m
tdyfonf[kajymonf/
Wednesday 1352 ck ? wef c l ; vqef ; (13)&uf ? Ak ' ¨ [ l ; /
reuftapmBuD; udk0if;atmifvmonf/ aeYcif;bufarmifoef;Edkifvmonf/ cs,f&DrxGufEdkif ao;aMumif;ESifh
udkodef;vGiftBuHtzefawGrsm;aMumif; ajymjyoGm;onf/
wnfqJOya'rsm;udk rvdkufemvQif jyif;jyif;xefxefta&;,lrnfjzpfaMumif; AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; apmarmifu
awmfvSefa&;aeY rdefYcGef;ajym&mwGif EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;udk Budrf;armif;oGm;onf/

March 1991 27th

March 1991 28th

Thursday

1352 ck? wefcl;vqef;(14)&uf? Mumoyaw;/

pmzwf/
1352 ck? waygif;vqkwf (11)&uf? we*FaEG/
rwl ; u ol U arG ; aeY t wG u f 'H a yguf E S p f x k y f v may;oG m ;onf / tNid r f ; pm;axmif y d k i f OD ; ausmf r if ; vmonf /
aeYv,fpmauR;vdkufonf/

March 1991 10th Sunday

1352 ck? waygif;vqkwf(12)&uf? wevFm/
'*H k N rd K Uopf t d r f t wG u f aemuf q H k ; yOö r t&pf a iG a cs&ef vS v S b Pf o d k Y o G m ;onf / reuf j zef j yef csd e f ; onf /
rD;tmrcHxm;cJhonf/ 625 usyf oGif;&onf/ nbufudk0if;atmifvmonf/
March 1991 11th

Monday

March 1991 29th Friday 1352 ck ? wef c l ; vjynf h ? aomMum/
pmzwf/ rr ,aeYwdkufBuD; jyefrnfajymNyD;jyefoGm;onf/

1352 ck? wefcl;vqkwf(1)&uf? pae/
pmzwf/ naebuf OD;udkudkBuD;([efab&D)vm/ rdk;*sme,fay;/
March 1991 30th

1352 ck? wefcl;vqkwf(2)&uf? we*FaEG/
pmzwf/ reufapmapmudk0if;atmifvm/ Time ESihf N/Wzdk;oGif;&efaiG(520)ay;vdkufonf/
March 1991 31st

March 1991 12th Tuesday 1352 ck ? waygif ; vqk w f ( 13)&uf ? t*F g /
bPfodkY vSvS ,aeYoGm;onf/ '*HkNrdKUopftdrftwGuf aemufqHk;t&pfacs;aiG (20000) ,aeY xkwf,l &&Sdonf/

March 1991 14th

Thursday

1352 ck? waygif;vuG,f? Mumoyaw;/

pmzwfaeonf/
1352 ck? wefcl;vqef;(1)&uf? aomMum/
reuf t apmBuD ; ud k 0 if ; atmif v monf / aemuf u d k a rmif a rmif E S i f h oef ; oef ; jrvmonf / ol w d k Y u d k aiG
(20000)jyefay;vdkufonf/ naebufOD;apmvGifvmonf/ olUaqmif;yg;rNyD;ao;aMumif;ajymonf/ reufjzef
tNyD;a&; NyD;vmay;rnf[kajymonf/ naebuf MOC rS udkudkBuD;? udkcifa&TESifh udkpdk;jrifhwdkYvmonf/
udkudkBuD;(9)&ufaeYu jyefa&mufaMumif;ajymonf/
March 1991 15th

Sunday

1352 ck? wefcl;vqkwf(3)&uf? wevFm/
pmzwf/ naebufarmifoef;Edkifvm/ nbufudkbjrifhwdkY rdom;pkvmonf/
April 1991 1st

March 1991 13th Wednesday 1352 ck ? waygif ; vqk w f ( 14)&uf ? Ak ' ¨ [ l ; /
reufapmapmvSvSESifhtwl '*HkNrdKUopfu tdrfoGm;Munfhonf/ rcifMuLwdkYtdrf0ifonf/ udkudkatmif NrdKUxJoGm;aeí
rawGU/ ,ckpae? we*FaEG oabFmwufawmhrnf[kajymonf/ rSwfwdkifwGif um;apmifh aecdkuf jrifhodef;(wifhaZmf)
um;&yfNyD;vrf;BuHKvQifvdkufydkYrnf ajymonf/ rBuHKaMumifhajymvdkufonf/

Saturday

Monday

1352 ck? wefcl;vqkwf(4)&uf? t*Fg/
April 1991 2nd Tuesday
pmzwf/ rGef;vGJydkif; rdk;cyfonf;onf;&Gm/ a':oef;oef;jrESifh ausmfausmfvm/
1352 ck? wefcl;vqkwf(5)&uf? Ak'¨[l;/
pmzwf/ reufydkif; udk0if;atmifvm/ naebuf eDxufatmifarmifndK? vSjrifhat;? xGef;vGif ESifh jroef;wifhwdkY
t&ufykvif;jrnf;p&mrsm;ESifh a&mufvm/

April 1991 3rd Wednesday

Friday

March 1991 16th Saturday 1352 ck ? wef c l ; vqef ; (2)&uf ? pae/
reufbufcGef*smrdIif;ESifh rEÅav;rS udkarmifarmifvmonf/ vufESdyfpufjyifNyD;ojzifh (250)ESifh a&G;vmay;onf/
jyifc cGef*smrdIif;ay;vdkufonf/ pmrlcBudKwifaiG (10000) ay;oGm;onf/
aeYcif;buf wifudkatmifvmonf/ a&cJpdrfbD,m(3)bl;0,fvmonf/ pmtkyfrsm;,lvmonf/ [efopfudk
{NyDvrxkwfbJ arusrS qufxkwfrnf[kajymoGm;onf/
March 1991 17th Sunday 1352 ck ? wef c l ; vqef ; (3)&uf ? we*F a EG /
OD;ausmfNidrf;tdrf? q&mBuD; OD;odef;ZHtdrf? a':eDeDwdkYtdrf reufydkif;vSvSESifhoGm; aeraumif; onfh OD;odef;ZHtm;

7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

1352 ck? wefcl;vqkwf(6)&uf? Mumoyaw;/
pmzwf/ aeYcif;buf wifudkatmif pmtkyfrsm;vmay;oGm;onf/
April 1991 4th

Thursday

April 1991 5th Friday 1352 ck ? wef c l ; vqk w f ( 7)&uf ? aomMum/
pmzwf/ nbuf udw
k ifarmifjrifv
h mac:/ ordik ;f MOGE Camp odo
Yk mG ;? OD;0if;? udu
k Bkd u;D ? udak X;atmif? udjk r0if;wdEYk iS hf
npmtwl p m;/ ,ck v (12)&uf a eY OD ; 0if ; wd k Y om;tzawG yOÆ i f ; cH r nf / ,ck v (1)&uf u pNyD ;
udkwifarmifjrifholUXmejyef/ yifpifvnf;wifhxm;NyD;ajym/ oloGm;vkyfonf/ Kirkland a&eHukrÜPD a&eH&SmazGa&;udk
(u&ifjynfe,f) tpdk;&u vHkNcHKa&;wm0efr,laomaMumifh pmcsKyfzsufoGm;onf[k ajym/
April 1991 6th Saturday 1352 ck ? wef c l ; vqk w f ( 8)&uf ? pae/
pmzwf / jrwf c d k i f w d k Y v m/ ol w d k Y x k w f r nf h BuD ; yG m ;a&;vrf ; nT e f * sme,f t wG u f tul t nD a wmif ; ?
e,fowif;axmuftcsKdUxH rdwfqufpma&;ay;/

19

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w&m;0ifvkyfukdifcGifh&aomv,fajrrsm;

20

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r&S d j cif ; ? tvk y f v uf r J h j zpf j cif ; wk d Y E S i f h
BuHKawGUMu&onf/ ukrÜPDrsm;onf v,f
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ukd rdrdwkYdukrÜPDrsm;rSvkyfukdifaqmif&Guf
jcif ; rsd K ;r[k w f b J v,f o rm;rsm;tm;
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ap&ef ouf q k d i f & mXmeqk d i f & mrsm;ES i f h
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ukd vkyfudkifcGifh&&Sdap&efjzpfonf/
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KZY

7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

V o l : ( 2) , N o . ( 2 4 )
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7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

21

V o l : ( 2) , N o . ( 2 4 )

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22

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b*Fvm;a'h&SfrSm tpövmrfbmom0ifrsm;
tjzpf qufvufwnf&SdcJhygonf/ &cdkif
jynfe,f\ ajrmufydkif;a'oESifh xkdpOfu
b*Fvm;jynfe,fBuD;wdkYrSm e,fedrdwfcsif;
quf p yf w nf & S d a eojzif h e,f p yf w pf
avQmufwGif jrefrmbk&if\ tkyfcsKyfa&;
udk qefYusifcJhonfh csif;jyefESifh aemuf
vdkufrsm;udk b*Fvm;e,fajrxJwGif t*F
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t*Fvdyf-jrefrm yxrppfyGJwGif t*Fvdyf
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a'otm; t*Fvdyftpdk;&rStkyfcsKyfcJhonf/
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wGuf &cdik af 'otm; t*Fvyd t
f pd;k &rS tkyf
csKyfcJhonf/ &cdkifjynfe,ftwGif; Nidrf0yf
ydjym;a&;twGuf b*Fvm;ykvyd Xf mersm;udk
zGJUpnf;cJhygonf/ ppfNyD;qHk;onfESifhtwl
csif;jyefqyl rl w
I iG f yg0iforl sm;rSmvnf; b*F
vm;wGif tajcpdkufaexdkifjcif;r&SdbJ tm;
vHk;eD;yg;yif &cdkifjynfe,ftwGif;odkY jyef
vnf 0 if a &muf v monf [ k Gazetteer
rSwfwrf;wGifawGU&ygonf/ rsm;rMumrD
yif NAdwdoQtpdk;&onf &cdkiftrsKd;om;rsm;

ESifhzGJUpnf;xm;aom Paramilitary ac: ppf
wpfydkif;? ykvdyfwpfydkif;toGifaqmifonfh
Arakan Police Battalion udkzGJUpnf;um
b*Fvm;ykvdyftzGJU\ae&mwGif tpm;xkd;
wm0ef,lapcJhygonf/ xkd 19 &mpktp
ydkif;uyifvQif NAdwdoQtpdk;&onf vlrsKd;
(2)rsKd;\ rwlnDuGJjym;jcm;em;rIudk tod
trSwfjyKcJhygonf/ &cdkifvlrsKd;rsm;aexdkif
&m &cdkifa'owGif &cdkifykvdyftzGJUudkom
wm0efay;cJhygonf/ xkdtcsdeftxd &cdkif
jynfe,fajrmufydkif;wGif b*FgvDvlrsKd;rsm;
0if a &muf a exk d i f r I r awG U &S d & ao;yg/
(1879)ckESpfaemufydkif;wGif ppfwaumif;
om;rsm; &cdik af jrmufyikd ;f odYk tvH;k t&if;ESihf
0if a &muf v monf [ k azmf j yygonf /
(1942)ck E S p f w G i f jref r mEk d i f i H t aejzif h
'kwd,urÇmppfrD;tm; &ifqdkif&csdefwGif
&cdkifjynfe,fajrmufydkif; ppfawG? bl;oD;
awmif? armif;awma'oü bl;oD;awmif?
armif;awmNrdKUrsm;udk 0dkif;0ef;ydwfqdkYwdkuf
cdu
k o
f nftxd usL;ausmfvmcJyh gonf/ xkd
uJhodkY BIA ac: ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyf
rawmft0if NAdwdoQwdkY qkwfcGmaom xkd
umvtwG i f ; jzpf a y:cJ h a om xk d t "d
u½kPf;wGif ppfawGta&;ydkif ICS OD;OD;
ausmfcdkif(&efukefwuúodkvfwGif cHkzdeyf
ausmfcdkiftjzpf xif&Sm;cJhol)tygt0if 0ef
xrf;rsm;ESifh jynfoltrsm;aoqHk;cJh&yg
onf/ ¤if;umvwpf0dkufwGif tdE´d,jynf
\ b*Fvm;jynfe,f? bD[mjynfe,fuJh
odkYaom &cdkifa'oESifh tvSrf;ra0;vS
onfh vlOd;a&xlxyfonfh jynfe,fBuD;
rsm;wGif tiwfay;jyóemrsm;rSm uyf
ab;wpf c k o zG , f j zpf a y:aeojzif h xd k
tcsdefumvwpf0dkuf tkyfcsKyfa&;rwnf
NidrfrIudk tcGifhaumif;,lum jrefrmEdkifiH
twGif;odkY usL;ausmfaecJhNyD[k ,lq&yg
onf / vG w f v yf a &;&NyD ; acwf w pf
avQmufvHk;wGifvnf; usL;ausmfaecJhNyD[k
,lq&ygonf/ vGwv
f yfa&;&NyD;acwfwpf
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vsuf&Sdonf[k ,lq&ygonf/ tb,fh
aMumifhqdkaomf b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiH\ vlOD;
a&rSm(160)oef;jzpfNyD; tus,ft0ef;rSm
(56977 pwk&ef;rkdif)om&Sdjcif;? tus,f
t0ef;rSm(jrefrmEkdifiH\ 5 yHk 1 yHkcefY)&Sdí
vlOD;a&odyfonf;qrS jrefrmEkdifiHxuf
(12)qrsm;aeíjzpfygonf/ b*Fvm;a'h&Sf
\ taemuf b uf u yf v suf w G i f & S d a om

tdE´d,\ b*Fvm;jynfe,f? a&S;tac:
taemufb*Fvm;e,frSm rlvuyif vlOD;
a&xlxyfrsm;jym;ojzifh taemufbufodkY
b*FgvDvlrsKd;rsm; e,fajrcsJUxGifEkdifjcif;r&Sd
bJ ajrmufbuf tdE´d,jynfta&SUajrmuf
a'o awmawmifxlxyfNyD; vlOD;a&usJ
yg;um wkdif;&if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;&Sdonfh
a'orsm;odkY csJUxGifvsuf&Sdonf/ a'ocH
wdkif;&if;om;rsm;ESifh usL;ausmfolrsm;t
Mum; ½kef;&if;qefcwfrIrsm;jzpfyGm;vsuf&Sd
onf/ jrefrmjynf &cdkifa'owGifvnf;
xdkenf;twlyif jzpfygonf/ odkYjzpfí uRef
awmfwdkY jrefrmjynfolwpf&yfvHk;taejzifh
a&&Snfudk awG;arQmfMunfhygvQif b*Fvm;
a'h&SfEdkifiH <u,f0csrf;omap&ef BuD;yGm;
wdk;wufap&ef EkdifiHom;rsm;udk 0vifpGm
auR;arG ; Ek d i f a p&ef qk a wmif ; &ygawmh
rnf/ odkYaomf b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiH BuD;yGm;
ap&eftwGuf qkawmif;ae½Hjk zifh rNyD;ao;
yg/ uRefawmfwdkY jrefrmEkdifiHtaejzifh vkyf
oifhvkyfxkdufonfh vHkNcHKa&;ESifh tum
tuG,ftpDtrHrsm;udk csrSwf&rnfjzpfyg
onf/ vuf&Sd &cdkifjynfe,f\ vlrI^pD;yGm;
tajctaersm;t& atmufygtcsuft
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1/ &cdkifjynfe,f\ajrmufydkif;onf
vlOD;a&xlxyfvGef;onfh b*Fvm;a'h&SfESifh
qufpyfwnf&Sdonf/
2/ w&m;r0ifaexkdifonfh b*FgvD
rsm;onf EkdifiHawmf\aus;Zl;awmfudk r
axmufxm;bJ? orkdif;aemufcHtaMumif;
w&m;r&SdbJvsuf EkdifiH&if;om;&cdkifvlrsKd;
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tvG e f j rif h r m;jcif ; / vl O D ; a&wd k ; yG m ;rI
aMumifh tem*wfwGif rvTJra&Smifom
jyóemjzpfyGm;Ekdifjcif;/
4/ b*FgvDEG,fzGm;rsm;tygt0if xkd
a'otwGif; vlrIpD;yGm;a&;tajctae
edrfhusjcif;? odkYygí &cdkifwdkif;&if;om;rsm;
taejzifh pD;yGm;jzpfxGef;Ekdifonfh EkdifiHwGif;
vSnfhvnftajccsjcif;? jynfe,ftwGif;
rS xGufcGmjcif; b*FgvDrsm;taejzifhvnf;
'kuo
© nfrsm;toGi,
f u
l m tjynfjynfqikd f
&m vlrIjyóemwpf&yfjzpfapjcif;/ EkdifiH
wGif;&Sd rlv&SdNyD;om; EkdifiHom;tdE´d,EG,f
zGm;? b*FgvDEG,fzGm; tpövmrfbmom0if
rsm;\ umuG,fapmifha&SmufrIjzifh EkdifiH
wGif;cdk;0ifjzefYusufvmEkdifjcif;/
odjYk zpfygí ¤if;jyóemudk bufaygif;
pHk ½Iaxmifhaygif;pHkrS oHk;oyfNyD;rS tajz
&SmEkdifrnfjzpfygonf/ jyif;xefaom rsKd;
cspfpdwfoufoufwpfckwnf;jzifh aqmif
&Gufygu rdwfaqGtpövmrfEkdifiHrsm;ESifh
rsufESmysufEkdifonfhtjyif? urÇm\vlom;
csif;pmemrIqdkif&m pHEIef;rsm;ESifhvnf; Nid
pGef;oGm;Ekdifygonf/ Nidrf;csrf;pGmajz&Sif;a&;

twGuf atmufygenf;vrf;rsm;udk usifo
h ;kH
oifhaMumif; tBuHjyKygonf/
(u) Containment Policy usifo
h ;kH
&ef?
(c) usL;ausmfol b*FgvDrsm;tyg
t0if &cdkifvlxkwpf&yfvHk;\ vlrIpD;yGm;
a&;b0ESifh ynma&;udkjr§ifhwifay;&ef? vl
om;csif;pmemrItjrifEiS ahf qmif&u
G af y;&ef?
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axmufcH&ef? yHhydk;ay;&ef?
(C) jzpfay:vmaom jyóemtm;
vHk;udk Oya'abmiftwGif;rSom ajz&Sif;
&efudk b*FgvDEG,fzGm;tm;vHk; od&Sdap&ef
twGuf trdefYaMumfjimpmrsm;jzefYa0&ef?
Conatinment Policy udk usifhoHk;&
onfhtaMumif;t&if;
- Assimilation Policy (odkYr[kwf)
aygif;pnf;a&maESma&;ay:vpDudk usifhoHk;
ír&jcif;/ Oyrmtm;jzifh jrefrmEkid if t
H wGi;f
odYk 0ifa&mufvmNyD;aom w½kwt
f rsKd;om;
rsm;rSm tcsdefMumvmonfESifhtrQ jrefrm
emrnfcH,ljcif;? ax&0g' Ak'¨bmomppf
ppfjzpfvmjcif;? jrpf0uRef;ay:a'owGif
jrefrmig;ydpm;í 0g;carmufaqmif;jcif;jzifh
wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;twGi;f pD;0ify;l aygif;vsuf
&Sdygonf/ tdE´d,EG,fzGm;? [dE´Lbmom0if
rsm;taejzifhvnf; Ak'¨onf AdóEdk;ewf
rif;\ vlUb0odYk jyefvnf0ifpm;aom ud;k
uG , f & mt&S i f [ k owf r S w f j cif ; aMumif h
vnf;aumif;? Ak'¨tm; tdE´d,\ &wem
wpf y g;tjzpf owf r S w f c suf t &vnf ;
aumif;? vuf&SdwGif bmom(2)cktMum;
&efvrkd rI &Sjd cif;wdaYk Mumifv
h nf;aumif;? Nidr;f
csrf;pGm,SOfwGJaexdkif&if; wajz;ajz;wa&GU
a&GUjzifh tem*wfwGif aygif;pnf;oGm;Ekdif
ygonf/ bl;oD;awmif? armifawma'o
&Sd b*FgvDrsm;rSm jynfwGif;&Sd tpövmrf
bmom0if tdE´d,EG,fzGm;rsm;uJhodkY jrefrmh
orkdif;wGif EkdifiHawmftm; opöm&SdpGm trI
xrf;aqmifolrsm;? tusKd;jyKolrsm;r[kwf
cJhjcif;? ,ckvnf; EkdifiHawmf\ opömawmf
udk apmifo
h ½d akd orIr&Scd jhJ cif;wdaYk Mumifh Ekid if H
om;tjzpfowfrSwf&ef xkdufwefolrsm;
r[kwfMuyg/ ,ckuJhodkY &cdkifwdkif;&if;om;
rsm;tay: &efvdkonfh tjyKtrlrsm;tm;
orkid ;f wpfavQmuf jyKrlco
hJ nft
h jyif aemif
vnf; usL;vGefygu rnfonfhvGwfvyf
aom jrefrmEkdifiHtpdk;&urQ tcGifhta&;
ay;rnfr[kwfyg/ odkYygí vlom;csif;pm
emaxmufxm;rIqdkif&m urÇmhpHEIef;rsm;ESifh
tnD Containment Policy udkom usifh
oHk;&ygrnf/
usifhoHk;&rnfh enf;vrf;rsm;
(1) jrefrm-b*Fvm;a'h&Sf e,fpyf
wpfavQmuf vHkNcHKa&;tapmifhcsxm;jcif;
ESifh tcdkiftrm NcHpnf;½dk;um&Hjcif;/ rjzpf

7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

V o l : ( 2) , N o . ( 2 4 )

Ekdifaom udpör[kwfyg/ e,fpyfrsOf;rSm rkdif
(100)ausmf (200)cefo
Y m&So
d nf[k cefrY eS ;f
ygonf/ oGm;vm&cufcJaomtydkif;wGif
NcHpnf;½dk;rumEkdifao;vQifaomfrS vG,ful
pGm0ifa&mufEdkifonfhae&mrsm;wGif txl;
ojzifh ewfjrpfwpfavQmuf tvG,fwul
jzwfoef;Ekdifonfhae&mrsm;wGif NcHpnf;½dk;
rsm;? twGif;vHkNcHKa&;vrf;aMumif;ESifh e,f
pyftapmifhrsm;csxm;&efvdkygonf/ orkdif;
wGif or®usrf;pmü wrefawmfrdk;ZufESifh
uú'oa&vvlrsKd;rsm;onf tD*spfrS um
eefjynfodkY vltkyftvHk;t&if;tvdkuf a&TU
ajymif;cJhonfhom"uwpfck&SdcJhygonf/
(2) bl;oD;awmifESifh armifawmNrdKU
e,frsm;wGif b*FgvDrsm;\ usL;ausmf0if
a&mufonfh ajrjyefYa'o\tqHk; uGif;
pyfawmifapmif;a'owpfavQmufvHk;wGif
e,fpyfrsOf;NcHpnf;½dk;txd e,fajrtwGif;
avSum;xpfawmifapmif;v,frsm; azmf
xkwfí &cdkifwdkif;&if;om; v,frJh? ,mrJh
rsm;tm; pHjyaus;&Gmrsm;xlaxmifí ae&m
csxm;ay;jcif;? xkd&Gmtm;vHk;tm; cg;ywf
xm;onfh twGif;qufoG,fa&;cg;ywf
vrf;aMumif;(Inner Belt Highways)rsm;
xlaxmifjcif;? &cdkifwdkif;&if;om; ajrrJh?
,mrJhrsm;tm; ae&mcsxm;ay;NyD;ygu &ef
ukef? rEÅav;ESifh jynfwGif;NrdKUBuD;rsm;rS
ajrrJ?h ,mrJrh sm;tm; avSum;xpfv,f,m
rsm;wGif qufvufcsxm;ay;&ef(avSum;
xpf v,f,m azmfxw
k jf cif;jzifh a&TUajymif;
awmif,muJhodkY obm00ef;usifysufpD;
rIudk umuG,fEkdifygrnf/)vdkygonf/ odkYrS
om wd;k yGm;vmaom b*FgvDO;D a&udk quf
vufcsJUxGifrIr&Sdap&eftwGuf vl ]]'kjzifh
cH p pf q if & ef } }jzpf y gonf / ck c H u muG , f
aomvkyf&yf(Defensive Action)omjzpfyg
onf/ Aggressive Action ac: &efvdkrI
r[kwfyg/
(3) ¤if;&Gmrsm;wGif ckcHumuG,fa&;
(Self Defence Units)jynfolppfwyfzGJUrsm;
(odrYk [kw)f a'ocHrsm;jzifh yg0ifzUJG pnf;aom
Border Patrol Police rsm;udk Eki
d if aH wmftpd;k
&rS wpfpdwfwpfydkif;axmufyHhrIjzifh zGJUpnf;
&ef? (rSwfcsuf/ vpmaxmufyHhrIrjyKygu
b*FgvD&Gmrsm;wGifvnf;aumif;? a'o
wGif;wGifvnf;aumif; &yfwnfrItwGuf
qufaMu;awmif;cH&rIjzpfvmEkdifí xkdodkY

7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

rjzpfap&efEiS hf vufeufwyfqifrw
I iG f xk;d
ppf v uf e uf B uD ; rsm;rwyf q if & ef j zpf y g
onf/ uGyfuJrItm; NrdKUjytmPmydkifrsm;rS
uGyfuJ&efjzpfygonf/
(4) jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;&Sd jypf'Pfus
tusOf;om;rsm;teuf tvkyfMurf;'Pf
yg0ifolrsm;tm;pkpnf;í &cdkifa'owGif
&Jbufpcef;rsm;zGifhay;&ef/ jypf'Pfukef
qHk;awmhrnfh tusOf;om;rsm;tm; qE´&Sd
vQif rdom;pkrsm;ygac:,lNyD; aemifwiG f jyef
vnfxal xmifa&;aus;&Gmrsm;tm; jynfxJ
a&;0efBuD;XmetpDtpOfjzifh aus;&Gmrsm;
tm; jynfxJa&;0efBuD;XmetpDtpOfjzifh
wnfaxmifae&mcsxm;ay;&ef/ (rdwfaqG
wpfOD;jzpfol &cdkiftrsKd;om;t&m&SdBuD;wpf
OD;\ tBuHjyKcsufjzpfygonf/)
(5) tpd;k &\ NrdKUjytkycf sKyfa&;,EÅ&m;
(Civil Administration)onf ta&;ygo
jzifh tkyfcsKyfa&;tmPmxlaxmif&eft
wGuf a'owpfckvHk;\ a'owGif; vrf;
yef;qufoG,fa&;udk OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Guf
&ef/
usL;ausmf o l b *F g vD r sm;tygt0if
&cdkifjynfe,f\ vlrIb0zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufap
a&;
(1) tod y nmwd k ; yG m ;NyD ; ? arm[
trdkufarSmif rzHk;vTm;ap&eftwGuf b*Fg
vD r sm;tm; ynmoif M um;ay;&ef /
tvG e f t a&;ygaomud p ö j zpf y gonf /
tao;pdwftm; &Sif;jyvdkjcif;r&Sdyg/ ynm
rwwfonfh rdom;pkvlUtzGJUtpnf;EkdifiH
wdkYwGif arG;zGm;EIef;ESifh aoEIef;jrifhrm;yg
onf/ ynm&nfzGHUNzdK;onfESifhtrQ arG;zGm;
EIef;ESifh aoEIef;usqif;NyD; vlOD;a&wdk;
wufrIrSm aES;auG;oGm;Ekdifygonf/ vlOD;
a&wdk;wufrIr&SdygvQif vuf&Sdvkyfudkifpm;
aomuf&m v,fajrESifhvHkavmufNyD; ywf
0ef;usif&Sd &cdkifaus;&Gmrsm;odkY wdk;0ife,f
csJUvm&eftaMumif;r&Sdyg/ w½kwfjynfolU
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b*FgvDtkyfpkrsm;odkY rsKd;qufyGm;usef;rm
a&;ynmay;rIrsm; vkyf&efvdkygonf/ ¤if;
wdYk tusKd;twGujf zpfygonf/ vlOD;a&wdk;
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&yf r sm;rS m aumif ; rG e f v d r f h r nf r [k w f
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rnfolu ynmay;rnfqdkonfudk tao
tcsmowfrSwf&efvdktyfvmygonf/ &cdkif
wdkif;&if;om;rsm;taeESifh usef;rma&;ESifh
ynma&;0efxrf;rs;tjzpf vky&f rJ nfr[kwf
ouJhodkY vkyfvkdpdwfvnf;&Sdrnfr[kwfyg/
xkdwm0efudk wm0efodEkdifiHom; tpövmrf
bmom0ifrsm;u ,l&rnfjzpfygonf/
(2) tvkyftudkifrsm;&&SdapNyD; vl
aerItqifhtwef;jr§ifhwifay;a&;/ vlrsK;d
wpfrsKd;taeESifh vlaerItqifhtwef;jrifh
rm;NyD; tvkyftudkifrsm;&&SdvmvQif &efvdk
aomtjyKtrlrsm; avsmhenf;oGm;ayrnf/
b*FgvDvlrsKd;rsm;rSm usL;ausmfolrsm;jzpf
aomfvnf; ¤if;wdkYrSm vlom;rsm;omjzpf
ojzifh vlom;csif;pmemaxmufxm;rI?
av;pm;rIudkawmh jyo&rnfomjzpfonf/
Oya'ESifhtnD aqmif&GufudkifwG,f&yg
rnf/ odkYrSom EkdifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif;rS
vnf; em;vnfvufccH srf;om<u,f0aom
tpövmrftm&yfEdkifiHrsm;rS tultnDrsm;
ajrmufjrm;pGmay;Ekdifygvdrfhrnf/ b*FgvD
rsm;udkom tultnDrsm;ay;jcif;? pD;yGm;
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udk(rEÅav;wuúodkvf)

23

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 24 )

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rif;w&m;BuD;b0aygh/
tcsdeftcg a&mufayNyD/

24

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7, 10 , 2012, Sunday

V o l : ( 2) , N o . ( 2 4 )

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7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

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7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

V o l : ( 2) , N o . ( 2 4 )

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7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

rsm;&Sdaeonfudk awGU&aomaMumifh uRef
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vl x k a cgif ; aqmif t jzpf tm;vH k ; u
oabmwlNyD;vufcHcJhMuonf/

27

V o l : ( 2) , N o . ( 2 4 )
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28

7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

V o l : ( 2) , N o . ( 2 4 )

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f &H mS azGpak qmif;aepOf uRefr
zcif\ taMumif;t&mrsm;udkzwfvdkuf&
aomtcg uRefr&ifxJrScHpm;csufrsm;onf
wkefcgí pmvHk;av;rs;tjzpf ckefíxGuf
vmygonf/ aqmif;yg;&Sif zdk;eDa&;xm;
aom aqmif;yg;\ed*;kH yd'k w
f iG (f wu,fawmh
&cdkif½dk;rwGif ol\ ½kyfyHkvTm(odkYr[kwf)
aMu;rHkjyif tydkif;tpuav;rsm; jyefYusJ
aernfrSm taotcsmjzpfonf/ olESifh
wdkuf½dkufawGUxdcJhaomolrsm;u rSwfwrf;
wifMuvQif ol\ yHkvTmyef;csDum;onf
ydkrdkyDjyiftouf0ifvmEkdifonf/ rnfodkYqdk
ap ...olonf ½dk;rESpfck\ &ifckefoHudk
n§d,loG,fqufcJhaom orkdif;0ifaygif;ul;
wHwm;wpfck(odkYr[kwf)rdIif;ysys &cdkif½dk;r
wGif omcJhzl;aom vwpfpif;yifjzpfonf/
ol\ El;nHhaomvufjzifh &cdkif½dk;r\ ydwf
aeaom wHcg;rsm;udk odrfarGUnifompGm
wGef;zGifhay;vdkufNyD; t½kPfOD;\tvSudk

tm;tiftjynfheSifhqef;opfapcJhygonf/)
[k a&;om;xm;onf/ uRefrzcif\ vrf;
pOfonf rSefonfrSm;onf uRefr ra0zef
vdkawmhyg/ aqmif;yg;yg ed*Hk;pmydk'fav;udk
zwfNyD; uRefrzciftay: em;vnfEkdifcJhyg
onf/ uRefr em;vnfoavmuf odo
avmuf ajym&rnfqdkvQif uRefr\zcif
onf ola&G;cs,fxm;aom vrf;pOfjzifh
yef;wdkifa&mufatmifoGm;aeaom umv
wGif olUrSm ZeD;r&Sd? orD;vnf;r&SdcJhyg/
uRef r \zcif o nf o l \ yef ; wd k i f u d k t
a&muf r oG m ;Ek d i f c J h a omf v nf ; yef ; wd k i f
a&muf a tmif Bud K ;pm;csD w uf a eonf h
umvwGif ol\,HkMunfcsufudk qHjcnf
wpfrQifpmrQ a&TUa&TUav;rS wdrf;apmif;í
roGm;cJhyg/ ,HkMunfcsufudk rpGefYvTwfEdkif
aom uRefr\zcifonf ol\ZeD;? cspf
orD;rsm;ESifh ol\jynfom;rsm;udk EIwf
rqufbJ vlUavmuBuD;xJrSxGufcGmoGm;
cJhygonf/ uRefrzcifonf ol\ aemuf
qHk;xGufouftcsdefwGif ol\ZeD;ESifhorD;
rsm;udk owd&wrf;woGm;vdrfhrnfr[kwf
yg/ ola&G;cs,fcJhaomvrf;pOf? olU,HkMunf
csufrsm;twGuf aemifw&vdrfhrnfr[kwf
[k uRefrawG;aerdygonf/ ,HkMunfcsuf
udk &ifrSmwif;wif;ydkufxm;aom uRefr
zcif\ taoG;? tom;? t½d;k wdo
Yk nf yJc;l
½dk;rawmifwef;wpfae&mwGif ,ckwdkif
opöm&Sd&Sdjzifh &SdaeayvdrfhOD;rnfom/
uRefr\(59)ESpfjynfharG;aeYwGif xl;xl;uJuJ
owd&rdaom azazodkY tvGrf;ajy . /
½dk;½dk; (5?10?2012)

29

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 24 )

Happy Birthday Happy Birthday
Thurein

Nadi Htike

armfew
D mowif;*sme,f&yD w
kd m ol&ed \
f (2012) atmufwb
kd m(1)&ufaeYwiG f usa&mufcahJ omarG;aeYro
S nf
&ufaygif;vaygif;rsm;pGm xl;jcm;owif;orm;tjzpf jzwfoef;aysmf&TifEdkifygapownf;/
vQyfwpfjyufESifharmfeDwmowif;*sme,f0dkif;awmfom;rsm;

armfew
D mowif;*sme,f owif;t,f'w
D me'Dxu
kd \
f (2012)atmufwb
kd m(5)&ufaeYwiG f usa&mufaom
(29)ESpjf ynfah rG;aeYro
S nf toufwpf&mwdik f owif;orm;aumif;tjzpf 'Dru
dk a&pDvrf;aMumif;udak vQmufvrS ;f
Ekdifygapownf;/
vQyfwpfjyufESifharmfeDwmowif;*sme,fvkyfazmfudkifzuf0dkif;awmfom;rsm;

tdE´d,EkdifiHa&mufrEÅav;om;pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&SifrS
a':jzLjzLoif;xH

aAm"dxl;ukr®PDrS udkoD[ NLD ½kH;csKyfokdY
Red Link tifwmeufvkdif;vSL'gef;

Samsung Tablet wpfckESifh tvSLaiGay;tyfvSL'gef;

tdE,
d´ Edik if w
H iG f uk,
d yf idk u
f rk P
® v
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f ikd af eNyD;&efuek Nf rdKUwGif aAm"dx;l
tjynfjynfqdkif&m c&D;oGm;vkyfief;vkyfukdifaeol udkoD[rS jrefrmjynfodkY acwÅ
jyef a&mufaepOfwGif &efukefNrdKU? a&T*Hkwdkif&Sd NLD ½kH;csKyfokdY wpfESpfpm tifwm
eufvkdif;aMu;tygt0if Red Link tifwmeufvkdif;wpfvdkif;vSL'gef;cJhaMumif;
od&Sd&onf/ ukdoD[onf OD;apmvdIifESifh OD;odef;oef;OD;tygt0if tdE´d,EkdifiHokdY
aq;uko&efvma&mufolrsm;tm; tultnD;rsm;ay;avh&SdaMumif;vnf; od&Sd&
onf/
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tdE´d,EdkifiHa&muf rEÅav;om;pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&SifwpfOD;jzpfol udkoD[rS
r*FvmawmifnGefYNrdKUe,frS jynfolUvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f a':jzLjzLoif;xHokdY
Samsung Tablet wpfckESifhaiGusyf(200000)vSL'gef;cJhaMumif;od&Sd&onf/ udkoD[
onf tdE´,EkdifiHwGifukd,fykdifukr®PDvkyfief;vkyfukdifaeoljzpfNyD; jrefrmEkdifiHwGif
aAm"dx;l trnfjzift
h jynfjynfqikd &f mc&D;oGm;vkyif ef;vkyu
f ikd af eoljzpfaMumif;od&&dS onf/

30

7, 10 , 2012, Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 24 )
armif a A'gwpf a ,muf vrf ; xd y f
vufzuf&nfqkdifwpfudk,fawmfavvGifh
&if ; a,mif ; wD ; a,mif w jzpf a ecd k u f ?
vufzuf&nfqkdifrS zGifhaom (yef;vdkvQif
tyifudkysKd;yg) oDcsif;av;udke0ifyD,Hjzpf
&mrS jzwfueJarmifaA'gudkyef;csDoifay;
aom q&mBuD;rsm;udk owdw& jzpfrdyg
oAs/ armifaA'gwdkYi,fi,f (1960)ckESpf
avmufu rk&H mG NrKd U t.x.u(2)rSmausmif;
rSmpmoif;&if;ausmif;rSm yef;csDyq
kH b
JG mom
&yf e J Y u m,Avoif w ef ; q&mawG x H r S m
ykHqGJynmeJYum,ynmoifcef;pmrsm;udk
oif,lMu&ygw,f/ ausmif;ppfpmar;yGJ
awGrSmvJ tJ'Dbmom&yfawGudk ajzqkd&yg
w,f / onf w k H ; uyk H q G J q &muq&m
OD;baxG;yg/ ausmif;om;rsm;udk tajccH
yef;csDcJaumufaMumif;enf;udk oifay;
wmyg/ aq;a&mifpkHawmh roifcJh&yg/
yef;csDynmoifvdkwJh armifaA'gtEkynm
(yd;k )udpk wifarT;ay;wJq
h &mbOD;jzpfygw,f/
onftcsdefwke;fu tpdk;&txufwef;
ausmif;awGrSm ykHqGJq&mawGceYf? NrdKUBuD;
awGrSm yef;csDynmtkyfrsm;? q&mtwwf
oifodyÜHausmif;awGrSm yef;csD(uxdu)eJY
yef;csDtEkynm0efaxmufwpfOD;ceYfxm;wJh
tcsdefjzpfygw,f/ armifaA'gwpfa,muf
(1961-64)ckEpS ?f rEÅav;tEkynmyefwsm
ESifh q&mtwwfoifodyÜHrEÅav;? yef;csD
q&mBuD;OD;bMunfu? q&mtwwfoif
wuúov
kd (f &efuek )f uxdu(yef;csD)eJY q&m
BuD;OD;pH0if;uyef;csDtEkynm0efaxmufwkdY
ESifh qkHqnf;&NyD; &wwforQtcsdefav;
rSm q&mBuD;awGxHrS wefzdk;rjzwfEdkifwJh
yef;csDynmeJY tEkynmtawG;tac:rsm;udk
qnf;yl;cGihf BuHK&ygw,f/ ,if;q&morm;
BuD ; rsm;aus;Zl ; aMumif h armif a A'gwpf
a,muf yef;csDausmif;qif;NyD; rMumcif
rSm 0efxrf;yef;csDq&mjzpf? &efukefrEÅav;
yef ; csD y k e f ; yk a usmif ; wuf p Of u enf ; jy
q&m? q&mOD;at;ausmf&JUqkH;rpum;av;
udkvJjyefvnfMum;a,mifrdao;/ rSwfxm;
uG (tEkynmqdkwm puf0dkif;av;vkdyJpuf0dkif;BuD;vm&if ta&;cufovdk? tEk
ynm[modvmav? cufavyJ tptqkH;
r&Sdbl;) wJhq&mpum;/
a[monfwpfcgawGUygNyD puf0dkif;
av;(2)ck (1948)ckESpf 'DZifbmvxkwf
ynma&;avmupmapmif? ab;wpfzuf
wpfcsufrSm puf0dkif;(2)ck/ b,fzufpuf
0dkif;rSm puf0dkif;vkdufa&;xm;wmu (Arm
Ekid if v
H ;Hk qkid &f mynmtkyrf sm;or*¾) tv,f
rSm jrefrmjynfykHcyfao;ao;eJY puf0dkif;
wpfck? nmzufpuf0kdif;xJupmwef;u
(jrefrmEkdifiHvkH;qdkif&m ausmif;q&mrsm;
toif;csKyfBuD; A.B.T.U ) tv,fpuf0ikd ;f
xJ r S m jref r mjynf y k H a o;ao;pmtk y f E S i f h
Mu,fyGifh'DZkdif;ykHwdkYjzpfygw,f/ (1950)ckESpf
w0dkufavmufu tzGJUtpnf;rsm;wGif?
pma&;q&mor*¾ ? tvk y f o rm;or*¾ ?
yef;csDor*¾pma&;rsm;or*¾ A.B.M.S ?
ArmEdkifiHvkH;qdkif&m ynmtkyfrsm;or*¾?
ponfwdkYtNydKiftqkdifzGJUpnf;MuwmawGU&Sd
&ygw,f/
ynmay;pmapmifrsm;jzpfwJh ynm
ya'ompmapmif(1947)t,f'DwmOD;b?
ynmr*¾Zif;(1948) t,f'w
D mq&mausmf?
vlxkynmpmapmif (1950)? t,f'Dwm
OD;tke;f jrifh ('d&Yk rS ;f jynf)ESihf ynmwefaqmif
pmapmif ( 1958)wd k Y u d k a vh v mzwf ½ I & yg
w,f/ wpfbufu pmayynmjyefYyGm;
atmifr*¾Zif;*sme,fpmapmifrsm; xkwfa0
ovdk? ausmif;oifyef;csDq&mrsm;uvJ?
yef;csDjyyGJrsm;cif;usif;jyocJhwmawGU&yg
w,f/ yxrjyyGJu ynma&;Xme yef;csD
tEkynmtkyfrsm;ESifh yef;csDtEkynmq&m

26

rsm;&JUaEG&moD yef;csDjyyGJ Summer Art
(1967)ckESpf &efukefNrdKUpHjy
a,musf m ;uav;txuf w ef ; ausmif ;
cef;rBuD;rSmusif;y&m ynma&;0efBuD;u
tcrf ; tem;ES i f h zG i f h v S p f a y;cJ h y gonf /
,if ; jyyG J t aMumif ; ud k q&may:opf
(OD;0if;wif) utvS&SmawmfykHpmtkyf wGif

Exhtibition

rsm;teufvuf&maygif;rsm;pGmonfyef;csD
jrwfEkd;olrsm;ESifh ]rsuf}yGef;wwD;&SdcJhaom
vuf&mrsm;jzpfonf/ qdkygpdkY? OD;bMunf?
OD;wifxGef;? OD;ÓmPf&Sdef? OD;vSwifxGef;?
OD;ausmfvIdif? OD;at;wif? OD;MunfwdkY\
qDaq;a&aq;vuf&mrsm;pGmudk ppfNyD;
acwfyef;csDjyyGJrsm;wGif ESpftqufquf
uRef a wmf w d k Y a wG U bl ; jrif b l ; Munf E l ; pG m
ESpfNcKdufcJhbl;NyD/
,ckolwdkYvuf&mrsm;tjyif rxif

&Sm;aomfvnf; ajymifajrmufrw
I iG f ravsmh
redrahf om vuf&mrsm;udv
k nf; þjyyGw
J iG f
awGU&avonf/
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jyyGJBuD;rsm;wGif rjrifcJh&bl;aom vuf&m
rsm;teuf OD;nGefYwif? OD;at;? OD;pH&if
(acsmuf) OD;xGef;pdef(rdk;ukwf) OD;cifvdIif
(rEÅav;) a':arb( orkid ;f ) OD;armifarmif
od e f ; ? OD ; ud k u d k B uD ; ? OD ; od e f ; (ppf u d k i f ; )
OD;udkav;(a&Tusif) wdkY\vuf&mrsm;jzpf
onf/
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aumif ; ?vuf & moef Y v uf & m
opf vuf&mrGerf sm;udk awGUcJ&h í
jref r mh yef ; csD t em*wf t wG u f
uRefawmfwdkYtm;wufrdonf/
yef;csDq&mwd\
Yk ravsmhaom ZGv
J v
YHk
wkYdonf yef;csDaq;ypönf; ud&d,m&Sm;yg;rI
rS tptm;ay;csDajr§mufrI acgif;yg;aejcif;
txd BuHKawGUae&aom ,aeYtcuftcJ
tusyftwD;rsm;udk tpd;k &ud,
k w
f idk zf zd pd ;D pD;
ydkrdkulnDydkrdkajz&Sif;vmatmif aphaqmfay;
Edkifvdrfhr,f[kvnf; uRefawmf,kHMunfrd
onf/
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k w
f t
hJ aMumif;
t&mrsm;uawmh jref r mjynf r S m acwf
tqufqufjyocJhwJh jrefrmhyef;csDjyyGJ
ordkif;pOfrSm wa'gifhwae&mrS rdrdwwf
uRrf;aom yef;csDtEkynm&yfjzifh wwyf
wtm;tm;BudK;rmefwufyg0ifjyoMuwJh
ausmif;oifyef;csDq&mrsm;eJY yef;csDynm
tkyfrsm;&JU yef;csDjyyGJrsm;tMumif; &SmazG
awGU&Sd orQawGudk pmayyef;csDrdwfo*F[
rsm;ESifh pm½Iolvkyfom;jynfol taygif;udk
wifjyvdkuf&ygaMumif; cifAsm;.../
rif ; wif a tmif

aEGOD;ESvHk;av;(Spring Heart)yef;csDjyyGJjyornf
þodkY uavmifuGefY cJhygonf/
b0ifat;p&m tjcm; yef;csDjyyGw
J pfck
um; wynfah umif;r&Sd aom ausmif;q&m
rsm;\ vuf&mjyyGJ jzpfonf/
olwdkYonf yef;csDq&mjzpf\/ yef;csD
udkjrwfEkd;í yef;csDynmudk jzefYjzL;&if;
yef;csDudk ukd;uG,fum tEkynmzefwD;
ol r sm;jzpf y gvQuf yef ; csD r sKd ; aph B uJ & ef
wynfrh &So
d l q&mrsm;jzpfonf/ xdaYk Mumifh
wynfh aumif;r&Sdaom q&mrsm;[kqdk
vkdufrdonf/
pifppfq&mrsm;\ vuf&mudk þrQ
tqifhjrifhvdrhfrnf[k uRefawmfwdkYrawG;

ajr§mrf cd /hJ olwo
Ykd nf vGecf ahJ omq,fEpS cf eYf
uyif tpkd;&ausmif;rsm;ü yef;csDoifwef;
rsm;jzKwfvu
dk í
f twef;pmudo
k mjy ae&ol
rsm;jzpfonf/ odaYk omf olwo
Ykd nf yef;csDukd
tarGcef; rjzwf? yef;csDESifh rjywfpJ? yef;csD
onf olwdkYaoG;xJwGif&Sdonf/ pmoifcef;
wGif yef;csDroif&aomtcg tm;vyfcdkuf
wGif yef;csDqGJMuonf/ q,fESpfq,frdk;
olwdkY BudK;pm;cJhMuorQonf rysufaom
vuf & m? rysuf ½ k H r u wk d ; wuf a om
vuf&mtjzpf ,aeY uRefawmfwdkYawGU&
ayNyD/
q&maygif;ig;q,fausmf\ vuf&m

txkyw
Ü dÅ

uav;wpfa,mufrS vli,fwpfa,muf
vli,fwpfa,mufrS vl½G,fwpfa,muf
vl½G,fwpfa,mufrSvlBuD;wpfa,muf
vlBuD;wpfa,mufrS vlwpfa,muf
vlwpfa,mufrS aeyl
vlwpfa,mufrS rkd;BuD;
vlwpfa,mufrS 0if½kd;pGef;
vlwpfa,mufrS {&m0wD /
bmpmtkyfvJ
bmoifcef;pmvJ
bm bmompum;vJ
bmacwfvJ ? NyD;
'DvkdzGifhajymao;
igurif;pD;qif;aew,fxifvkdUyg /
tm;emygw,f
uRefawmfpD;qif;aeygw,f/
/

atmifcsdrfh

&efukefNrdKU? A[ef;NrdKUe,f? r[mpnf omoemh&dyfomvrf;? trSwf(81-pD)&Sd 0g
qdkyef;csDjycef;wGif (6?10?2012)&ufrS (8? 10?2012)&uftxd aEGOD;ESvHk;om; (Spring
Heart)yef;csDjyyGJudk cif;usif;jyo oGm;rnf[kod&onf/
¤if;yef;csDjyyGJwGif yef;csDq&mq&mrrsm;jzpfMuonfh OD;vGef;<u,f? vGef;jrjr?
vGef;opf? OD;jr[ef? pwm;jroef;? wifvS0if;xif? OD;apmvdIif? armifMo? BuD;jrifh
apm? bdk*sD;? at;udk? rif;udkEkdif? *sifrD? aX;<u,f? NyHK;csKd? armifaX;atmif? armif
aX;atmif? rmPfZm[dPf;? BuD;pdk;? o&Zef? udkuD;? atmifoD[? vSwifxGef;? atmif
ausmfxuf? jrifhaqGvdIif? jrwf[ef? 0if;aomf? udkoD;? atmifEkdif0if;? usKdufvwf
0if;armif? oef;0if;xGef;? aumif;pH? 0if;jrifhrdk;? apmwifarmif? Kausmf? &efaemif
xGef;? OD;atmifvdIif? oufaX;? aX;ydkif? rGefouf? armifoef;0if;? csif;csif;? ausmf pdk;?
vSxGPf;atmif? yGifhzl;? yef;Munf? aX;jrifh? pdk;oef;? 0if;ausmf[ef? cifaZmfvwf?
Or®m? aZ,smat;? wif0if;(AdóEdk;)? ausmfaumif;? apmausmfaZm? aumif;xufausmf?
armifaeMunf? armifvl&Sif? wifvSav;? qktdjE´m? TG atmif? TQ? a&mifeDrif;?
xGef;xGef;? opfaeqef;? atmifpnfaersKd;? NrdKUjyvli,f? &Jaumif;? rif;om;BuD;? aejcnf?
jrifhqef;jrifh? rif;&JaxG;? *sifeD? vSvS0if;? xGef;0if;? atmifausmfxGef;? ausmfrif;xl;?
rkd;oufrdk;? aeatmif½I? jrifhjrwfokc? cifzkef;? a'gufwm cifarMunf? rif;ol&def?
armifod'¨d? apmnDaxG;? nDarmifpdk;? ½dIif;vl? &J&ifhEdkif? vSzkef;? &Sdef? &D&Dcif? eZmerD?
&Srf;av;wdkY a&;qGJxm;Muonfh yef;csDum;rsm;jzpfonf/
onfjyyGJonf &efyHkaiGyef;csDjyyGJjzpfNyD; &&Sdonfh&efyHkaiGrsm;udk xdefvif;tcrJh
aq;cef;odkYvSL'gef;rnf[kod&onf/
KZY

V o l : ( 2) , N o . ( 2 4 )

uarÇmZbPf*,ufjzpf&jcif;rSm OD;atmifu0kd if;&Suw
f wfí[kqkd
NyD;cJo
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bPfOuú| OD;atmifudk0if;udk zrf;oGm;NyD/
uarÇmZbPfudk zsufodrf;awmhrnfqdk
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xdkodkYxGufay:vmrIaMumifh uarÇmZbPf
ESiyhf wfoufí aumvm[vrsm; trsKd;rsKd;
jzpfay:vmcJhonf/ onftaMumif;ESifhywf
oufí toHrsm;wdk;&mrSus,fvmonfh
tcg uarÇmZbPfupd u
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bPf? jrefrmEkdifiHbPfvkyfief;&Sif;rsm;
toif; UMFCCI u wm0ef&SdolawG yg
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jrefrmEkdifiHawmfA[dkbPfu wpfpHkwpfck
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csKyf OD;0if;aomfu rD',
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32

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7 , 10 , 2012, Sunday

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