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DIESEL HYDROTREATING UNIT (DHDT)
5.1 Introduction The objective of the diesel hydro-treating (DHDT) unit is to treat and upgrade the existing quality of HSD to meet the EURO III & EURO IV equivalent specification and also to produce SKO/ATF in a blocked out operation. DHDT has been designed to operate Diesel mode and Kero mode to produce diesel with Cetane No. 52 and to improve smoke point of kerosene (ATF) to 21 mm. Diesel Hydrotreating is a catalytic refining process employing a selected catalyst and a Hydrogen rich gas to decompose organic sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen compound contained in hydrocarbon fractions. In addition, hydro-treating removes organo-metallic compounds and saturates olefinic and aromatic compounds. The catalyst employed has alumina base impregnated with cobalt or nickel and molybdenum. Volumetric recoveries of products depend on the sulphur and olefinic contents. The products from this unit are Hydro-treated diesel with sulphur content matching with the Euro IV norms, Hydro-treated ATF and stabilized Naphtha which is the feed for the Hydrogen Generation Unit (HGU). 5.2 FEED SPECIFICATION: (FROM ASSAM CRUDE) Basically, two cases of feed are taken in this unit; one from ASSAM CRUDE and the other from the mixture of ASSAM CRUDE and BONNY LIGHT CRUDE. Here the specifications of the feed from ASSAM CRUDE are only tabulated: SR NO TESTS SR KERO-I SR KERO-II SR GAS OIL 1 Total Sulphur(Wt%) 2 Total nitrogen (Wt%) 3 Polyaromatics 61.6 59.4 57.9 76.6 4 15 163 128 0.05 0.10 0.24 COKER KERO 0.16
4 12.3 <0 25. (CN) Cetane Index (CR) Water Content (ppmw) max Total S content (ppmw) max Colour D-86 Distillation (°C) IBP FBP 142 365.0 0.9 0.2 18.8 37 0.0 0.3 PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS HYDROTREATED DIESEL : SERIAL NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Density @15°C Cetane No.32 (Wt%) 4 5 6 7 8 Monoaromatics Diaromatics PAH Cetane No.3 52 48.8454 22 18. Density @ 15°C 9 10 11 Flash Pt (°C) Pour Pt (°C) Distillation ASTM D 86°C IBP FBP 168 256 196 290 224 387 128 269 50.8697 20.7 HSD-SOR 834.8 <0 64.3 3.1 37.6 0.8888 18 4.3 200 40 Not worse than feed .0 <0 79 15 27.8054 5.3 38.6 41 0.3 0.
3 5 5.5 5.33 STABILIZED NAPHTHA: SERIAL NO 1 2 3 4 5 Parameters Density @15°C (Kg/m3) Total S content (ppmw) max C:H ratio (w/w) max Olefins (vol%) max D-86 Distillation IBP (°C) FBP (°C) 6 RVP @37.1 0.4 EQUIPMENTS MENTIONED IN THE PROCESS DESCRIPTION A) Reactors Design pressure 1) 1st Reactor 2) 2nd Reactor B) Columns 1) 2) 3) Stripper Column Naphtha Stabilizer Column Sour FG Absorber Column 145 Kg/cm2 139 Kg/cm2 design temperature 425°C 450°C C) Vessels 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Feed Surge Drum Wash Water Drum High Pressure Separator Flash Drum (LP Separator) Recycle Gas Suction KOD Stabilizer Reflux Drum Stripper Reflux Drum Sour FG KOD .5 0. max 47 176.8°C Kg/cm².15 Start of Run 744.
Three Stage and Motor Driven Suction pressure: 21.34 D) Compressors 1) Recycle Gas Compressor Type: Centrifugal.2 Kg/cm2 E) Safety valves and control valves F) Feed pump G) Heat exchangers Sl no.5 Kg/cm2 2) Make-up Gas Compressor Type: Reciprocating. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Shell feed H/C Feed Recycle gas Recycle gas H/C Feed H/C Feed Stripper feed Stripper feed Hydro-treated Diesel Stripper O/H Stabilizer feed Stabilized Naphtha Stabilizer O/H Tube feed 2nd Reactor effluent 2nd Reactor effluent 2nd Reactor effluent 2nd Reactor effluent 2nd Reactor effluent Stripper bottom 2nd reactor effluent Cooling water Cooling water Stabilizer bottom Cooling water Cooling water Discharge pressure: 132 Kg/cm2 Discharge pressure: 132 Kg/cm2 . Single Stage and Steam Turbine Driven Suction pressure: 105.
this bed is known as the catalyst Guard Bed. reactor effluents being on the tube side.9% pure obtained from HGU) coming from the recycle gas compressor and make-up H2 compressor respectively. 5. After proper mixing in the feed surge drum. The outlet temperature of the feed from the outlet of the furnace is about 380°C. it is pumped by the centrifugal feed pump to the feed preheat train.5. in two pass feed heaters. the first having three catalyst beds and the second having two.5 PROCESS DESCRIPTION The following process is described for the Diesel operating mode as the Kero mode was not implemented presently. The combined preheated feed would now enter the furnace. The first bed of the first reactor has five different catalytic regions.3 Reactor section: The reactor section is the most important section of this unit. the gases themselves are preheated through the shell side of two recycle gas/ reactor effluent heat exchangers. The feed is now ready to enter the reactors. The pressure in the feed surge drum is maintained by nitrogen blanketing. bottom fired and has 6 Fuel Gas burners.5. The second . The combined feed is routed to the feed surge drum through an Auto Backwash Filter to remove any over rust and polymeric components of size more than 25µm followed by a feed water coalescer for water removal.1 Feed section: Cold blend of straight run feed streams (SRGO + KERO-I + KERO-II) from the CDU and CK from DCU in the ratio 81:19 are taken through the battery limit as feed for this unit. 5. Before mixing with the feed. The feed at this point is mixed with recycle gas (discussed later) including the make-up H2 (99.2 Preheat train and the furnace: The feed is preheated in the shell side of three feed/reactor effluent heat exchangers. The furnace is a forced draft type. 5. The feed temperature changes from 40°C in the surge drum to 340°C after preheating. this is brought to the temperature suitable for the hydrotreating reactions to occur in the reactor. reactor effluent being on the tube side.5. The feed enters the top of the first reactor at a temperature of 380°C.35 5. In the furnace. There are two reactors in the unit.
five types of catalysts are used in these reactors. Some amount of hydrogenolysis and hydrocracking also occurs during normal reaction. Hydrodenitrification and aromatic saturation. coke fines and scale.36 and third beds in the first reactor and the two beds in the second reactor are of same type catalyst. Silica is generally found in coker streams and is a permanent poison for the catalyst. It primarily handles Hydrodesulphurisation. The higher void fraction of this guard bed provides a large reservoir for iron. They are: 1) IE-1: it is a large void inert top bed material commonly used in the Guarded reactor bed. It provides better flow distribution throughout the reactor and increase void for large particle accumulation. Fig 5.1: arrangements of the catalyst beds in the two reactors . 5) IE-5: It is the main hydrotreating catalyst. Basically. It is a highly active Ni/Mo catalyst best suitable for hydrotreating olefin free feedstock. 2) IE-2: Iron Guard Bed and particulate capturing Guard Bed. 4) IE-4: low active Ni/Mo catalyst having hydrogenation and silica removal function. Te catalytic activity of this catalyst slows the rate of coking and fouling and hence it protects the main catalyst bed and extends overall catalyst life. 3) IE-3: Guard Bed catalyst meant for removal gum and polymeric material when feedstock contains cracked components.
The separator is designed for a 3-phase separation of gas. The overhead gas from the KOD is the recycle gas which is compressed in the recycle gas compressor and is further mixed with make-up H2 coming from the make-up H2 compressor.37 Hydrotreating reactions start from the last division of the first bed of the first reactor itself and continue till the last bed of the second reactor in stages. wash water from the Wash Water Drum is injected at the inlet of the reactor effluent condenser.5. This resultant gas is partly used for quenching in the reactor inter-bed section (discussed earlier) and partly mixed with the initial feed before the feed mixture enters the furnace (discussed earlier). The four main Hydrotreating reactions taking place in the reactor catalyst beds are: 1) Olefin saturation 2) Hydrodesulphurisation 3) Hydrodenitrogenation 4) Aromatics saturation The reactor effluent outlet temperature is around 397°C. All the unwanted impurities gets separated in the first four divisions of the first bed of the first reactor. Water separation takes place in the boot leg of the HP vessel. 5. The overhead gases are sent to the recycle gas suction KOD (knock out drum) to separate out the entrained liquid particles from the gas. 3 being feed/reactor effluent exchangers. To avoid ammonium salt deposits and the risk of corrosion. 2 being recycle gas/reactor effluent exchangers and 1 being stripper feed/reactor effluent exchanger. The wash water is a mixture of recycled non. Until this point. hydrocarbon liquid and free water.4 HP Separator and Flash Drum section: The effluent enters the HP Separator at a temperature of 45°C and 106 Kg/cm 2 pressure. It is then cooled in the tube side of a series of heat exchanger train of 6 exchangers. As the feed sulphur is low the H2S in this recycle gas is less than 1 mol% and does not require an Amine Absorber for H2S removal for reaching the final product specifications.phenolic water from the sour water stripper and make-up chemically free BFW. It is now further cooled in the Reactor Effluent Air Condenser before being finally routed to the High Pressure Separator vessel. Cold quenches of H2 are being injected in the inter-bed sections of the reactors as shown in the figure to limit the temperature increases in the reactor. The hydrocarbon effluent from below the HP Separator is flashed in the flash-drum (also called the LP Separator) under a reduced pressure . the temperature drops to around 170°C.
5. The off gas from the reflux drum is routed to the Sour Fuel Gas Amine Absorber along with the stabilizer off gas (discussed later) and the flash drum off gas. The trim condenser outlet is routed to strip reflux drum. C4 and C5 products to the fuel gas system. The condensed liquid hydrocarbon. The bottom product from the stripper comes out at a temperature of 247°C is pumped to the tube side of stripper feed/bottom heat exchanger followed product air-cooler and then finally cooled in product cooler using cooling water before being routed to storage.5.5 Stripper section: The hydrocarbon effluent enters the stripper at 290°C.38 of 20 Kg/cm2. Water is removed from the boot and is sent to the Sour Water Stripping unit to make it free from sulphur.6 Naphtha stabilizer section: The unstabilised naphtha from the stripper reflux drum is routed through shell side of a stabilizer feed/bottom exchanger to the Stabilizer for stabilization. 5. The bottom product from the Stabilizer is pumped to the tube side of Stabilizer feed/bottom exchanger . The water is separated in the boot and the hydrocarbon effluent after passing through the shell side of two heat exchangers and gaining heat enter the stripper at 290°C. In the stripper hydrogen sulphide is being stripped off from the reactor products using Medium Pressure Steam. In the Flash Drum there is further 3phase separation of gas. water and gas are separated in the reflux drum. The overhead condenser minimizes the losses of C3. The stabilizer gas is routed along with the Stripper and Flash Drum off gas to the Sour Gas Amine Absorption Unit (AAU). Corrosion inhibitor diluted in stabilized naphtha is injected into the overheads to prevent corrosion in the overhead system. 5. The Hydro-treated Diesel is routed to storage through a coalescer. The stabilizer overheads are condensed in the stabilized overhead condenser and routed to the stabilizer reflux drum. This vast difference in pressure from the HP Separator to the LP Separator is utilised to drive the main feed pump (mentioned earlier). The two exchangers being stripper feed/bottom exchanger and stripper feed/reactor effluent exchanger. hydrocarbon liquid and free water. this product is Hydro-treated Diesel or Hydro-treated Kero based on the operating mode. The overhead vapours are routed to the stripper overhead. The temperature now is reduced to 40°C. The condensed overhead liquid is partly refluxed back to the stripper and the balance routed to the Naphtha Stabilizer for stabilization on flow control cascaded with level in the stripper reflux drum. The stripper overhead products are condensed in the stripper overhead condenser followed by the stripper overhead trim condenser.
5. Sour gas from the unit Fresh Amine (MDEA) to DHDT FG system AAU ARU Sweet fuel gas Rich amine (Amine + H2S) KOD Fig. The rich MDEA (amine + H2S) is now routed to the Amine Regeneration Unit (ARU) for the recovery of the lean amine. CO2 and mercaptans are absorbed in lean MDEA (Methyldiethanolamine).7 Sour Gas Amine Absorption section: The sour gases generated in the unit to an Amine Absorber column where the H2S. . Sweet Fuel Gas (sulphur free) is routed to the DHDT fuel gas system for distribution through a sweet Fuel Gas filter separator to knock out carry over amine.39 and then cooled in the cooling water exchanger before being routed to the Naphtha storage or as the feed for the HGU.2: block diagram of Amine Absorption and Amine Regeneration Units. This lean Amine is circulated again to the AAU.5. COS.5.