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Acknowledgments Distinctive Features of the English-Chinese /Chinese-English Dictionary Abbreviations Used in the English-Chinese /Chinese-English Dictionary ENGLISH-CHINESE DICTIONARY How to Use this Dictionary I. Elements of English-Chinese Entries II. Guide to English Pronunciation III. Spelling /Pronunciation Ambiguities in English IV. Selection and Explication of English Entries V. English Parts of Speech and Other Entry Labels Appendixes I. Word Building in English II. English Irregular Verbs III. The English Number System IV. US States and a Few Major Cities V. Selected Countries and Their Capitals VI. English Graded Word Lists CHINESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY How to Use this Dictionary I. Elements of Chinese-English Entries II. Selection and Explication of Chinese Entries III. Explanatory Notes and Examples IV. Chinese Parts of Speech and Other Entry Labels V. Free and Bound Characters VI. Traditional and Simpli ed Characters Appendixes I. Basic Rules for Hanyu Pinyin Orthography II. Chinese Historical Chronology III. PY /WG /GR / YR/ ZF Comparative Table IV. Verb Complements in Chinese V. Major Administrative Divisions in China VI. Ethnic Minorities in China VII. Chinese Graded Word Lists VIII. Standard and Variant Character Forms IX. Stroke Order Index of Characters X. Introduction to the Radical Index of Characters XI. Radical Index of Characters

ABC English-Chinese Chinese-English Dictionary

Editors John DeFrancis Zhang Yanyin Associate Editors Tom Bishop Victor H. Mair Zhang Liqing Zhang Yanhua

University of Hawai`i Press Honolulu

ABC English-Chinese Chinese-English Dictionary c 2010 University of Hawai`i All rights reserved

Wenlin Institute, Inc. is licensed by the University of Hawai`i to publish the dictionary in electronic form. This PDF le contains portions of the frontmatter and appendixes, slightly edited to correspond to the software edition. A technical limitation of this PDF le is that copying and pasting of Chinese characters and pinyin does not work correctly. This limitation should be corrected in a future edition.

John DeFrancis 1911–2009 A visionary lexicographer, a perceptive theorist of writing systems, the author of the most widely used textbook series for English speakers learning Mandarin, and, for more than half a century, the foremost historian of Chinese and Vietnamese script reform.

AND China's Staunchest Advocates of Writing Reform
Lu Zhuangzhang 1854–1928 Pioneer reformer whose publication in 1892 of alphabetic schemes for several varieties of Chinese marked the beginning of Chinese interest in reform of the writing system. Lu Xun 1881–1936 China's greatest writer of the twentieth century, who passionately supported the Latinized New Writing of the 1930s. Mao Dun (Shen Yanbing) 1896–1981 China's foremost novelist and one-time Minister of Culture, who in 1962 was the rst to call for a policy of “walking on two legs” that involved using two writing systems—the traditional character system and the new pinyin alphabetic system. Wang Li and Lü Shuxiang 1900–1986 1904–1998 Two of China's most distinguished linguists who came out strongly for writing reform; the former criticized intellectuals for their opposition to such reform, and the latter criticized lexicographers for their failure to produce dictionaries based on a simple alphabetic arrangement. Zhou Youguang 1905– The most proli c and penetrating advocate of writing reform, who emphasizes that a “two-script system” or “digraphia” has to become an even more essential part of China's modernization if it is to make an ef cient entry into the computer age.

This dictionary has been made possible by the volunteer contributions of numerous individuals, by grants from the US Department of Education and the University of Hawai`i Of ce of Technology Transfer and Economic Development, and by the generosity of the University of Hawai`i Center for Chinese Studies through its successive directors Professors Roger T. Ames and Ronald Brown; its associate director Professor Cynthia Y. Ning, who was particularly helpful in arranging for all manner of logistical support; and its coordinator Daniel Tschudi, who helped out in myriad aspects of the project. Professor Victor H. Mair, editor of our whole ABC series, made major scholarly contributions that included participation in decision-making, checking the entire material, especially in the nal stages, and leading a team involved in the massive task of proofreading (see below). Tom Bishop, creator of Wenlin Software for Learning Chinese, assisted in every step of the project by providing linguistic expertise and technical implementation for the innumerable tasks involved in producing the dictionary, including addition of complex (traditional) forms of Chinese characters, addition of International Phonetic Alphabet for English pronunciations, creation of new entries, checking and revision of existing entries (for consistency, orthography, parts of speech, grammar, etc.), abridgment, indexing, and the nal production of camera-ready copy. Zhang Liqing, a retired professor from Swarthmore College, made the initial selection of terms for the Chinese-English section, a task that was particularly onerous because it had to be done twice, the initial draft having been lost somewhere in the transition from Pennsylvania to Hawai`i. Dr. Zhang Yanhua, a professor at Clemson University, was very helpful in establishing and testing inputting procedures in the initial stage of the dictionary. She was also one of the key gures in setting up the conventions for the EnglishChinese part of this dictionary. A considerable number of Chinese students and others at the University of Hawai`i helped in a variety of tasks related to the dictionary, such as inputting material, checking, and proofreading. They include O. T. Benson, Chen Xiaohua, Chu Wei, Roderich A. Gammon, He Jinli, Hu Leping, Max P. Hirsch, Huang Ying, Li Yanfeng, Li Xiangping, Lu Caixia, Nie Jiang, Matt Olsen, Pan Linlin, Kimberly M. Sato, Wang Qinghong, Wang Xiaoling, Wang Yanyan, Wu Lei, Yang Decheng, Yang Yide, Zhang Shanshan, and Zhu Kunlun. The proofreading team, led by Victor H. Mair, was assembled from individuals scattered across the world. Among them were the following: Liqing Zhang, Xu Wenkan, Jonathan M. Smith, Paula Roberts, Melvin Lee, Si Jia, Jiajia Wang, Chen Ruyan, Kenneth Yeh, Natalie Liu, Michael Sawer, Linda Li, Mi Yinan, and Endymion Wilkinson. Many scholars deserve thanks for contributions to the ABC Chinese-English Dictionary and ABC Chinese-English Comprehensive Dictionary because so much of the present dictionary was based on those earlier works. They include especially Robert Hsu, James Dew, and Robert Sanders; also Timothy Connor, Denis Mair, E-tu Zen Sun, Yin Binyong, Duan Xiaoping, Li Weiping, Li Ye, Chen Jing, Gu Xiurong, Fern Aki, Paul Hacker, Han Xiaorong, Huang Bihong, Li Yuenching, Liu Jiacai, Shoshana Su, Tian Chenshan, Wan Jianing, Wang Caixiang, Wang Huijing, Wang Shaoling, Mike White, Yang I-Te, Zhang Yao, Eric Meyer, Roger P. Bissonnette, Fang Zhizeng, Xu Ruzong, Bai Yuqing, Alan Adcock, Ang Woei, Joel A. de Benoit, Nghi Duc (Bruce) Chau, Robert K. Cliver, Tom Cullen, Jeffrey J. Hayden, Mun Yin (Carol) Li, Lisa Leigh Lian, Liu Dong, Ip Hung (Kim) Mar, David Pai, Sylvia Henel Sun, Kristina L. Taber, Jianqi Wang, Kai Wang, Ye Ding, Di Zhang, Ruohong Zhang, Zheng Jie, Liu Yongquan, Ke Chuanren, Michael Carr, Chu Kuangfu, Duan Xiaoqing, Jia Yunqi, Liu Ziheng, Lo Chihong, Thomas



Distinctive Features

H. Mair, Wei Xin, Apollo Wu, Xie Tianwei, Ted Yao, Zhang Zesheng, Robert Cheng, David Ashworth, Lo Chin-tang, and David W. Goodrich. Our own role as editors involved overall supervision of all aspects of the work as well as contributions to the detailed tasks in both sections of the dictionary. In all these tasks we had the invaluable help of those mentioned above, and we heartily thank them all. John DeFrancis, University of Hawai`i Yanyin Zhang, University of Canberra, Australia; University of Hawai`i

Distinctive Features of the ABC E-C/C-E Dictionary
1. In this student-oriented dictionary, the two sections, English-Chinese (E-C) and Chinese-English (C-E), together comprise a self-contained volume in which every Chinese and English expression used in a de nition or example of usage can be found as a headword or sub-headword. 2. All Chinese de nitions, example phrases, and sentences appear in both Pinyin and characters. 3. In comparison with similar works, both sections contain more of everything— more entries (headwords and sub-headwords), more illustrative or explanatory material, and more special features (noted below). The E-C section contains 29,670 entries (18,016 main entries and 11,654 sub-entries). The C-E section contains 37,952 entries (4,644 monosyllabic and 33,308 polysyllabic entries). Counting numbered de nitions as distinct entries, E-C/C-E contains 98,627 entries altogether. 4. In E-C Sections IV and V we present the novel format PY/HZ/ENG, i.e., Pinyin on top, Hanzi in the middle, and English on the bottom. (This format was prompted by the bopomofo/HZ format extensively used in Taiwan and the alternative formats PY/HZ and HZ/PY introduced in some PRC elementary school textbooks.) 5. As a special aid for student learners of Chinese and English, E-C/C-E features graded word lists prepared by PRC specialists in teaching the two languages. (See E-C Appendix VI and C-E Appendix VII.) 6. For all Pinyin transcriptions, changes in tone are indicated while preserving ´ the original tone (e.g., suoy , normally written suoy and pronounced suoy ). . In this way, E-C/C-E, uniquely among dictionaries, reduces the burden placed on students in coping with tonal changes. (Details are in C-E Section III, Explanatory Notes and Examples, Note 2.) 7. The E-C/C-E Dictionary carries forward the many special features of the ABC series of dictionaries (e.g., ABC Chinese-English Dictionary and ABC ChineseEnglish Comprehensive Dictionary), chief among them the strict alphabetic order of the Pinyin entries as by far the simplest and fastest way to look up a term whose pronunciation is known. 8. Two websites provide further information about E-C/C-E (including software versions) and other works which comprise the ABC Chinese Dictionary Series, and enable dictionary users to submit comments, questions, and suggestions for corrections and improvements: and The dictionary project also has the email addresses and

(Note: SMALL CAPITAL LETTERS are used for parts of speech. English parts of speech are explained in E-C Section V, and Chinese parts of speech are explained in C-E Section IV.) ¯ AB. abbreviation suoxie acct. accounting kuaij ´ ADJ. adjective x´ngrongc´ ADV. adverb fuc´ ´ agr. agriculture nongye ¯ A.M. aspect marker t biaoj ´ archeo. archeology kaoguxue . ´ archi. architecture jianzhuxue art. article guanc´ ¯ ´ ´ astr. astronomy tianwenxue ¯ A.T. abstruse term shen'aoc´

bio. Budd. ca. CCP cent. Ch. Ch. med. char. chem.

attributive auxiliary verb bound form biology Buddhism, Buddhist circa; about; approximately Chinese Communist Party century China, Chinese Chinese medicine character chemistry complement colloquial commerce computer comparative conjunction construction courteous coverb Cultural Revolution died Daoism, Daoist etc. derogatory economics education electrical engineering

coll. com. comp.


Cult. Rev. d. Dao. dd. derog. econ. edu. elec.

A™ ¡ b¹Í oÍ œ S§° £äf úQf  Í A‡f ñeÍ d ngyu ší zhudongc´ ©¨Í ´ ´ nianzhuo c´su ˜dÍ ¯ ´ shengwuxue if ´ Fojiao [Y ¯ dayue 9¦ ¯ ´ Zhongguo Gongchandang -ýq§Z . sh j ª ¯ ´ Zhongguo -ý ¯ Zhongy¯ -; z W ´ huaxue f buyu eí . kouyu ãí . ¯ shangye F j suanj¯ ¡—X b jiaoj´ ԃ§ ´ lianc´ ÞÍ jux´ng å‹ j ngc´ lž jiec´ ËÍ ´ ´ Wen-Ge ‡i sh sh  Daojiao SY dengdeng II . biany c´ ,IÍ j¯ngj ÏN jiaoyu Y² ¯ diangong 5å




g. forest. form. geog. geol. hist. humb.


Jp. KMT lg. lit. liv. loan log.

mach. math. med. met. metal. mil. min.

N. N.C. N.P. N.SING. N.U. NUM. ON.

orig. paleo. phil. photo. phy. phys.

P.P. PR.

especially xed expression gurative(ly) forestry formal geography geology history humble idiomatic saying in x informal interjection Japan, Japanese Kuomintang/Guomindang language, linguistics literal(ly) livestock husbandry loan word logic measure machinery mathematics medicine meteorology metallurgy military mining modal particle music noun countable noun plural noun singular noun uncountable noun number onomatopoeia original(ly) paleontology philosophy photography physics physiology plural politics past participle pronoun

tezh gud ng c´zu y nyu ¯ senl´n zhengsh yongyu dl d zh l sh ¯ qianc´ x´yu ¯ zhongzhu ¯ feizhengsh yu

y§ úšÍÄ » î— c(í 0¦ 0( †ò &Í `í -  ^cí gantan ù R ben åD ´ Guom´ndang ýZ ´ ´ yuyan(xue) í (f) z mian y WbI xumu \g ´ wailaic´ "eÍ ´ luoji ;‘ liangc´ ÏÍ j¯xie X° ´ shuxue pf ´ y¯xue ;f q xiang a yej¯n ¶Ñ ¯ junsh ›‹ kuangye ÿ yuq c´ íÍ y¯nyue óP m´ngc´ Í keshu m´ngc´ ïpÍ . fushu m´ngc´ pÍ ¯ danshu m´ngc´ UpÍ bukeshu m´ngc´ ïpÍ . shuc´ pÍ ¯ xiangshengc´ aðÍ ´ yuany Ÿ ¯ ´ gushengwuxue äif ´ ´ zhexue òf shey ng Dq wul i¦ ¯ ´ shengl xue ¦f fushu p zhengzh ?» ¯ guoqu fenc´ Ç»¦Í daic´ ãÍ






People's Republic of China pre x present participle printing province psychology past tense place word religion reduplicated form resultative verb somebody signifying, signalizing sociology subordinating particle something suf x superlative degree surveying stative verb theater topolect, non-Mandarin traditional traf c, communication Taiwan textile usually verb intransitive verb verbal measure word verb-object verb phrase transitive verb versus vulgar writing, wenyan zoology

print. prov. psy.
P.T. P.W.

R.F. R.V.

sb. sig. soc.



thea. topo. trad. traf. TW txtl. usu.
V. V.I. V.M. V.O. V.P. V.T.

vs. vulg. wr. zoo.

-NºqŒý w  °(¦Í pU sheng ¡ ´ x¯nl xue æf quoqush´ Ç»ö chusuoc´ ¤@Í ¯ zongjiao —Y ´ ´ chongdiec´ ÍàÍ ´ jieguo buyu Ӝeí . ´ mouren к biaosh h: ´ shehu xue >f ´ congshuc´ Î^Í moush Ћ houzhu   ¯ zu gaoj´  Ø§ cehu KØ j ngtai dongc´ Y¡¨Í x ju g ¯ ´ fangyan ¹  ´ chuantong ß ¯ ¯ jiaotong ¤ ´ ¯ Taiwan ð~ fangzh¯ ºÇ ¯ ´ tongchang 8 dongc´ ¨Í buj´wu dongc´ Êi¨Í dongliangc´ ¨ÏÍ ´ dong-b¯n l´hec´ ¨¾»¨Í dongc´ c´zu ¨ÍÍÄ j´wu dongc´ Êi¨Í du y ng ù” ´ suyu ×í ´ ´ ¯ wenyan, shumian ‡ , fb ´ dongwuxue ¨if
´ qianzhu ¯ xianzai fenc´ ¯ y nshua

¯ ´ ´ ´ ´ Zhonghua Renm´n Gongheguo

I. Elements of English-Chinese Entries

English headword and IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) transcription representing West Coast American English, including stress. Bullet(s) following IPA indicate grade level, here four bullets, the most advanced of four grade levels • , • , • • , •••• . Note: in Wenlin, unlike • • the book, grade levels are indicated by (A), (B), (C), (D) instead of bullets; (E) indicates an entry included in the book although not in the rst four grades.

Small caps indicate part of speech, here N.C. = countable noun. Pinyin and character translation follow.

A single verticle line introduces an example of usage of a headword. In the example a wavy line stands for the headword. A double verticle line introduces an expansion of the headword in which a hyphen stands for the headword.

Circled numbers indicate multiple de nitions of a headword.




Elements of E-C Entries

Angled brackets enclose English italics, here form. = formal and character equivalent for book = bookish.


A black diamond introduces a different part of speech related to the headword.

A headword preceded by a raised number indicates its relative importance among headwords with the same spelling.

Double slant lines indicate that the two preceding and the two following pinyin syllables or Chinese characters are equivalents.

Italicized notation represents irregular grammatical expansion of the headword.

II. Guide to English Pronunciation
Symbol Example p b t d k g tS dZ f v T D s z S Z h m n N l r w y pet back tea dog cat got chip judge fall voice thing this say zoo she vision hot me no sing love rose wood yes


['kAnsJnJnts] Fuy¯n
Pronunciation [ pEt ] [ bXk ] [ ti: ] [ dAg ] [ kXt ] [ gAt ] [ tSIp ] [ dZVdZ ] [ fAl ] [ vOIs ] [ TIN ] [ DIs ] [ seI ] [ zu: ] [ Si: ] [ 'vIZJn ] [ hAt ] [ mi: ] [ noU ] [ sIN ] [ lVv ] [ roUz ] [ wUd ] [ yEs ]

Vowels and [vaUlz Xnd Diphthongs 'dIfTANz]

i: i I E X A U u: u V J Jr eI aI aU OI Or oU

´ ´ Yuany¯n he ¯ ´ Shuangyuany¯n
Pronunciation [ si:t ] [ 'sVni ] [ sIt ] [ tEn ] [ kXt ] [ Arm ] [ pUt ] [ tu: ] [ du'Et ] [ kVt ] [ J'goU ] [ fJr ] [ eIt ] [ laI ] [ naU ] [ bOI ] [ hOrs ] [ boUt ]

Symbol Example seat sunny sit ten cat arm put too duet cut ago fur ate lie now boy horse boat

Stress [strEs]



Symbol Example '~


abacus [ 'XbJkJs ] about [ J'baUt ] ,~ evolution [ ,EvJ'lu:SJn ] necessary [ 'nEsJ,sEri ] A high vertical line [ ' ] before a syllable indicates primary stress. A low vertical line [ , ] before a syllable indicates secondary stress.

III. Spelling / Pronunciation Ambiguities in English
The following are a few of the many spelling/pronunciation ambiguities in English that the student should be aware of.

Spelling Pronunciation cchggeghguhhoknphpnpsquscwh[s] [k] [ tS ] [k] [g] [ dZ ] [g] [g] [h] [ hw ] [ hoU ] [A] [n] [f] [n] [s] [ kw ] [ sk ] [s] [h] [w] [ hw ] [r]

Example cell call cheese character go, gun gentle ghost guard have white hotel honest knife, know photo pneumonia pseudo quick scan scene who, whole white white (variants) write, wrong



IV. Y¯ngyu C´ti´o de Sh¯ ulu h´ Shu¯ m´ng a o e o Selection and Explication of English Entries
1. C´ti´o de sh¯ ulu g¯nju y xia bi¯ozhun: a o e a :

ñí Ía „ 6U Œ ô

͗ „ 6… Wn å § Æ a. Ch´ngjian ch´ngyong de c´ h´ x´yu a a e V Á V ( „ Í Œ –í b. Suoyou 6,500 ge <<Daxu´ Y¯ngyu Jiaoxu´ Dag¯ng C´hu biao>> zh¯ ng de c´ e e a o . d© 6,500 B <<9f ñí Yf 9² Íqh>> E „ Í (Shanghai Waiyu Jiaoyu Ch¯ banshe, 2000) u (w "í Y² úH>, 2000) c. Suoyou 850 ge <<Basic English>> zh¯ ng de c´ o . d© 850 B <<Basic English>> E „ Í
(C. K. Ogden. London: Paul Truebner & Co., 1930)

Entries are selected on the basis of the following criteria: a. Common and frequently used words, terms and expressions ¯ b. All 6,500 terms appearing in Daxu´ Y¯ngyu Jiaoxu´ Dagang C´hu biao e e (Shanghai: Waiyu Jiaoyu Ch¯ banshe, 2000) u c. All 850 words in Basic English (C. K. Ogden. London: Paul Truebner & Co., 1930) 2.

d© <<9²Íqh>> E 6,500 B Í ý © <<C´hu biao>> de s j´ f¯nbi´ bi¯ozhu w´i (A) f´ hao. e e a e u <<Íqh>> „ Û § ¦C §è X (A) &÷¢ (A) daibiao zh¯ ngxu´ ch´ngdu (1,800 ge c´), o e e ãh Ef ¦ (1,800BÍ), (B) daibiao daxu´ 1-4 j´ (2,400 ge c´), e ãh 9f 1-4 § (2,400BÍ), (C) daibiao daxu´ 5-6 j´ (1,300 ge c´), e ãh 9f 5-6 § (1,300BÍ), (D) daibiao daxu´ 6 j´ y shang (1,000 ge c´). e ãh 9f 6 § å(1,000BÍ)¢ ¯ The 6,500 entries from the Dagang C´hu biao <<9²Íqh>> are each marked with
Suoyou . <<Dag¯ng C´hu biao>> a zh¯ ng o 6,500 ge c´ d¯ u o an <<Basic English>> zh¯ ng de c´ yong BE bi¯ozhu. R´ , dust [dVst] BE(A) ... . o a u BE <<Basic English>> , dust [dVst] BE(A) ...

the symbol (A), corresponding to four designated grade levels in this work. Thus, (A) corresponds to middle school level (1,800 words), (B) to university 1-4 levels (2,400 words), (C) to university 5-6 levels (1,300 words), and (D) to university post-6 level (1,000 words).


E „ Í ( §è¢ ‚


Entries from Basic English are marked with BE. For example, dust [dVst] BE(A) ... . 4.

Ï B ͗ E © ýi ó§ èó © E d ð „ 9² sh y . Youxi¯ c´ti´o zh¯ ng h´i b¯okuo bu gu¯z´ e a o a a e Íqh §C Ø© Í9¡ Ês¢ ©› ͗ E Ø ¥ì  Ä% Hanz de li´nd´ y¯nbian, duanyu, x´yu j´ jux´ng. Sh y h´ l ju a u e x´ngsh , l ju, . ˜¡ ‹å¡ sW „ Þû óØ¡ íí¡ –í Ê å‹¢ Ês Œ ‹å f¯nbi´ j¯ n sh yong P¯ny¯n h´ Hanz . e e u e ¦C q ( üó Œ sW¢
Mei ge c´ti´o zh¯ ng you Gu´ j Y¯nbi¯o zhuy¯n, you 2 zh¯ ng suo shu de <<Dag¯ng a o o a o a , 2 << C´hu biao>> j´bi´, h´iyou c´x ng, e a >> , 14

Within an entry, the following information is provided: the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) transcription of pronunciation, the grade level as described in 2, the part(s) of speech, and de nitions. The following information is provided where necessary: irregular



Explication of English Entries

forms of the word, illustrative examples, tone sandhi (tone change) of Chinese words, phrases, idioms or xed expressions, and sentence constructions. Both P¯ny¯n and Hanz are used for the de nition and illustrative examples of the entry. 5. Weile biany´ xi¯nghu c¯nzhao, zai sh y h´ l ju zh¯ ng ch¯ xian de mei ge c´ d¯ u zai u a a e o u o , ben c´dian de Han-Y¯ng bufen bei liew´i c´ti´o. e a

X† ¿Ž ø ’  g @ Ês Œ ‹å E ú° „ Ï B Í ý @ D Íx „ s ñ è¦ « #X ͗¢
C´ de zhuy¯n zhuyao z¯ nzhao Meigu´ X¯bu Y¯ngyu de f¯y¯n bi¯ozhun, yong Gu´ j u o a a o

For easy cross-reference, all Chinese terms used in the de nitions and examples can be found as head entries in the Chinese-English section of the dictionary. 6.

Í „ èó Y  u g Žý è ñí „ Ñó § Æ, ( ýi Y¯nbi¯o bi¯ozhu zai f¯ngkuohao nei. Meigu´ X¯bu f¯y¯n de y¯ da tedian sh yu´ny¯n a a a o a a . ó§ §è @ ¹ ì ÷ …¢ Žý è Ñó „   9 y¹ / Có hou de [r], r´ hard u h´ car e Zai Y¯nggu´ Y¯ngyu h´ q´t¯ y¯xi¯ Y¯ngyu o e a e ¯  „ [r], ‚ hard Œ car ¢ @ ñý ñí Œ vÖ  › ñí f¯ngy´n zh¯ ng, zhe liang ge z de f¯y¯n m´iyou [r]. a a o a e ¹   E, Ù 6 B W „ Ñó ¡© [r]¢
[hArd] [hArd] [kAr]. [kAr]

The pronunciation of the head word is notated in International Phonetic Alphabet transcription in square brackets. The pronunciation is based mainly on the West Coast American dialect. A typical feature of this regional dialect is the post-vocalic [r] in words such as hard [hArd] and car [kAr]. In British English and some other varieties of English, these two words are pronounced without the [r] sound. 7. 

Ä% Í Œ ¨Í „ ͘ Ø" # @ Í9 u¢ ƒì „  Ä% x´ngsh zai yu´nkuohao nei, r´ bring h´ child. D¯ng c´x´ng bianhua zh x¯ yao shu¯ng a u e a u a ˜ @ ¦ ì ÷ …, ‚ bring Œ child¢ ƒ ͘ Ø" ê   Ì xie zu hou y¯ ge z mu sh´, shu¯ng xie de z mu liangbi¯n w´i pozh´hao, r´ cut. a a e e u . ™     B WÍ ö, Ì ™ „ WÍ 6¹ X 4˜÷, ‚ cut¢
Bu gu¯z´ m´ngc´ h´ dongc´ de c´x´ng bianhua lie zai c´x ng zh¯hou. T¯men de bu gu¯z´ e e a e bring ... V.T. p.t., p.p. (brought) child ... N.C. pl. (children) cut ... V. p.t., p.p. (cut); pres.p. (-tt-) Gu¯z´ m´ngc´ h´ dongc´ de c´x´ng bianhua, r´ fushu desks, guoqush´ listened, z´ m´iyou e e u e e , desks, listened, renh´ bi¯ozhu. e a

Ä% Í Œ ¨Í „ ͘ Ø" ‚ p û… §è¢


% ¡©

The conjugation of irregular nouns and verbs is provided in the entry after the part of speech. Full spelling of the conjugated form of irregular nouns and verbs is given in brackets, as bring and child show (see above). Where the conjugation requires only the doubling of the last letter, it is indicated by the doubled letter surrounded by dashes, as shown in cut (see above). If the conjugation is regular and rule-based, such as plural -s in desks, past tense -ed in listened, no special notation is used. 8. u a e a a e e Weile biany´ ch´zhao h´ xi¯nghu c¯nzhao, m´ngc´ h´ dongc´ de bu gu¯z´ x´ngsh bei , d¯n liew´i c´ti´o, b ng zhu you Gu´ j Y¯nbi¯o h´ c´ de yu´nx´ng, r´ , a e a o a e a u , , , children ['tSIldrJn] pl. of (child) brought [brAt] p.t. and p.p. of (bring)

X† ¿Ž å~ Œ ø’ Âg Í Œ ¨Í „  Ä% ˜ « … #X ͗ v è © ýi ó§ Œ Í „ Ÿ˜ ‚

û¥ ïå &Ç å~ Ÿ˜ Í —H ©s æÆ áo ‚ Ês¡ I¢
D´ zhe key t¯ ngguo ch´zhao yu´nx´ng c´ d´dao yougu¯n xi´ngx x nx¯, r´ sh y , u o a a e a a u . , dd.

Explication of English Entries



For ease of cross-reference, irregular forms of verbs and nouns also appear as head entries. The IPA transcription of the pronunciation, as well as the base form of the word, is provided, as the examples show (see above). Readers may refer to the base form for detailed information such as de nition, etc. 9.

Y ͗ … & © … ͗¢ … ͗ ( уW # @ Y ͗ „   ´ a houmian. Nei c´ti´o sh¯ ulule paish¯ngc´, r´ y´ u hard paish¯ng er l´i de hardness, a o e u o e ˜¢ … ͗ 6…† >Í, ‚ 1 hard >  e „ hardness, duanyu dongc´, r´ look after, gud ng yongyu, r´ go-slow, fuh´c´, r´ false alarm. u u e u . íí ¨Í, ‚ look after, úš (í, ‚ go-slow, ¨Í, ‚ false alarm. Dansh , b ng bu sh suoyou zhe lei c´ d¯ u bei sh¯ ulu w´i nei c´ti´o. Hen du¯ zuow´i o o e a o e . p/, v . / d© Ù { Í ý « 6… X … ͗¢ ˆ & ’X zhu c´ti´o ch¯ xian, y´ uq´ sh d¯ng mouge c´mu you xi¯ngd¯ng du¯ zhe lei de c´ a u o a a a o Y ͗ ú°, 6v / ƒ ÐB Íî © ø ƒ & Ù { „ Í sh´. L ngwai, nei c´ti´o b ngf¯i d¯ u y zhu c´ti´o de c´mu k¯ish . Gud ng yongyu r´ a e o a a u ö¢ æ", … ͗ v” ý å Y ͗ „ Íî  Ë¢ úš (í ‚ in the face of, lose face, lie zai face c´ti´o zh¯ ng. a o in the face of, lose face, # @ face ͗ E¢
Zhu c´ti´o nei hu you nei c´ti´o. Nei c´ti´o yong h¯it z a a a e
1 1

lie zai zhu c´ti´o de zu a

Within an entry, there may be subentries. All subentries are listed, in boldface, at the end of the main entry. Listed as subentries are terms derived from the headword, e.g., hardness from 1hard; phrasal verbs, e.g., look after; xed expressions, e.g., go-slow; and compound words, e.g., false alarm. Please note that not all compounds are treated as subentries. Many of them are in fact head entries, especially where there is a large number of relevant compounds. In addition, the subentry does not always start with the headword of the main entry. Fixed expressions (F.E.) such as in the face of, lose face are listed under face. 10.

ƒ Л Í „ ü™ ø  p Ís " ͐  ö, ٛ Í ©g q´ ch¯ xian p´nlü bei liew´i but´ ng de c´ti´o. P´nlü yong shuz bi¯o zai c´ qi´n. R´ , u e o a a a u v ú° ‘‡ « #X  „ ͗¢ ‘‡ ( pW § @ Í w¢ ‚,
D¯ng mouxi¯ c´ de p¯nxie xi¯ngt´ ng dan c´y a e a o
1go, 2go, 3go, 4go

huo c´yu´n but´ ng sh´, zhexi¯ c´ anzhao a o e

Zhege f¯ngfa ye yongy´ c´x ng but´ ng de c´, y´ uq´ sh d¯ng mei ge c´x ng you xi¯ngd¯ng a u o o a a a , du¯ de sh y h´ yongfa sh´. o e
1hard 2hard

ÙB ¹Õ • (Ž Í9  „ Í 6v / ƒ Ï B Í9 © ø ƒ R´ , u & „ Ês Œ (Õ ö¢ ‚
[hArd] adj. ... [hArd] adv. ...

Where words are identical in spelling but differ in meaning or etymology, they are listed separately as two entries by order of frequency, which is indicated by a raised number before the word. Example (see above go). This method is also used for entries that have different parts of speech each of which contains a large number of de nitions and usages. Example (see above, 1hard, 2hard). 11.

D Íx Ç( Ž ü™Õ¢ ‹‚, behavior ( . / behaviour), theater (´r bu sh theatre. Mouxi¯ f¯i Meish p¯nfa ye lie w´i c´ti´o, y biany´ ch´zhao h´ e e e e a u a e . (  / theatre¢ Л ” Ž üÕ • # X ͗, å ¿Ž å~ Œ a u xi¯nghu c¯nzhao. L r´ , a ø’ Âg¢ ‹‚,
Ben c´dian caiyong Meish p¯nxiefa. . L r´ , behavior (´r bu sh behaviour), theater u e theatre See theater American spelling is used in this dictionary. For example, behavior (not behaviour), theater (not theatre). However, the non-American spelling variety is also listed as an entry for easy look-up and cross-references. For example see above.

E-C IV 12.


Explication of English Entries

Tone sandhi (tone change) within Chinese words is indicated by a dot or a line below the vowel. The original tone is still marked on top of the vowel. A dot signals the change to 2nd (rising) tone, while a line indicates the change to 4th (falling) tone. Although tone sandhi occurs extensively in speech, only four types are notated in this dictionary: a. When followed by a 4th tone syllable, y¯ ` ' is pronounced in 2nd tone y´. For example, y¯d ng ` ' becomes y´d ng, shown as y¯d ng. Neutral tone y´ ge . ` ' also follows this rule. b. When followed by a 3rd tone syllable, y¯ ` ' is pronounced in 4th tone y . For example, y¯bai ` ' becomes y bai, shown as y¯bai. ¯ ´ c. When followed by a 4th tone syllable, bu ` ' is pronounced in 2nd tone bu. For ´ example, bu sh ` ' becomes bu sh , shown as bu sh . . d. When there are two consecutive 3rd tone syllables, the rst syllable is pronounced ´ in 2nd tone. Example, suoy ` ' becomes suoy , shown as suoy . .

sW „ Þû óØ ó£ Ø" &Ç Có ¹ „ ¹ §° Œ •¿ §° e h: Ÿ ð£ Í6 §è @ Có ¹¢ ¹ bi¯oj zh y¯ndiao biand´ w´i d -er sh¯ng, d xian bi¯oj zh y¯ndiao biand´ w´i d -s a u e e a u e §° § ó£ Øû X ,Œ ð, •¿ §° § ó£ Øû X ,Û sh¯ng. Su¯r´n zai kouyu zh¯ ng li´nd´ y¯nbian f¯ich´ng pubian, ben c´dian j n bi¯ozhu e a o a u e a a . ð¢ }6 @ ãí E Þû óØ ”V nw, D Íx Å §è y xia s lei: å Û {: a. Zai s sh¯ng z qi´n, y¯ gai d´ er sh¯ng y´. R´ , y¯d ng ` š' gai d´ w´i y´d ng, e a u e u u e @ Û ð W w, y¯ 9 û Œ ð y´¢ ‚, y¯d ng ` š' 9 û X y´d ng, bi¯ozhu w´i y¯d ng. Q¯ngsh¯ng z y¯ ge ` B' ye z¯ nzhao zhege gu¯z´. a e e u e §è X y¯..d ng¢ { ð W y¯.. ge ` B' • ug ÙB Ä%¢ b. Zai s¯n sh¯ng z qi´n, y¯ gai d´ s sh¯ng y . R´ , y¯bai ` ~' gai d´ w´i y bai, a e a u e u u e @ © ð W w, y¯ 9 û Û ð y ¢ ‚, y¯bai ` ~' 9 û X y bai, bi¯ozhu w´i y¯bai. a e ¯ §è X y¯bai¢ ¯ ´ c. Zai s sh¯ng z qi´n, bu gai d´ er sh¯ng bu. R´ , bu sh `/' gai d´ w´i e a u e u u e ´ @ Û ð W w, bu 9 û Œ ð bu¢ ‚, bu sh `/' 9 û X ´ bu sh , bi¯ozhu w´i bu sh . a e . ´ bu sh , §è X bu sh ¢ . d. Liang ge s¯n sh¯ng z t´ ngsh´ ch¯ xian sh´, d -y¯ ge z gai d´ er sh¯ng. R´ , suoy a e o u u e u 6 B © ð W ö ú° ö, ,  B W 9 û Œ 𢠂, suoy ´ `då' gai d´ w´i suoy , bi¯ozhu w´i suoy . u e a e . ´ `då' 9 û X suoy , §è X suoy ¢ .
Hanz de li´nd´ y¯nbian (y¯ndiao bianhua) t¯ ngguo yu´ny¯n xiaf¯ng de dian bi¯oj h´ a u o a a a e ( ) d xian bi¯oj l´i biaosh , yu´n sh¯ngdiao r´ngr´n bi¯ozhu zai yu´ny¯n shangf¯ng. Dian a a a e e a a a a ,




 ~ /


V. Y¯ngyu C´x ng

English Parts of Speech and Other Entry Labels

ñí Í' Ê Ía §°
j´ C´ti´o Bi¯oj a a

å / ù D Íx E ͗ „ Í9 Œ vÖ d ( §° „ ô¢ ´ Mud sh wei d´ zhe t´g¯ ng c´ti´o de j¯ben yufa x nx¯, er bush z¯ ngh´ Y¯ngyu yufa. u o a o e Bu . . . î„ / X û¥ Л ͗ „ úD íÕ áo,  / ü¨ ñí íÕ¢  gu¯z´ dong/m´ngc´ de p¯nxie buzai shu¯ m´ng fanw´i zh¯nei, r´ (10) keshu m´ngc´, (16) guoqu e o e u . . Ä% ¨/Í „ ü™ @ ô £ô u…, ‚ (10) ïp Í, (16) Ç» f¯nc´, (19) xianzai f¯nc´, h´ (21) guoqush´. e e e ¦Í, (19) °@ ¦Í, Œ (21) Ç»ö¢
Y xia sh du ben c´dian zh¯ ng c´ti´o de c´x ng h´ q´t¯ suo yong bi¯oj de shu¯ m´ng. o a e a a o The following brief explication of English parts of speech and other labels used in the dictionary is aimed to provide users with basic grammatical information associated with and indicated in the lexical entries. As such, it is by no means comprehensive and should not be taken as a grammar of English. Spelling conventions are not discussed in, for example, (10) N.C. (16) P.P., (19) PRES.P., and (21) P.T. where irregular forms and exceptions exist.

1. AB. (Abbreviation, Su¯ xiec´ o

T¯ ngch´ng w´i m´ngc´ de su¯ xie huo shou z mu su¯ h´ c´. o a e o o e

A™Í) R´ , u & V X Í „ A™ " – WÍ A¨ Í¢ ‚,
GNP for Gross National Product, `Gu´ m´n Sh¯ngchan Zongzh´ o e ad. for advertisement, `guanggao



Usually shortened form or acronym of nouns. For example see above.

˜¹Í) ˜¹Í îp Í¢ ˜¹Í ï (’ ší Œ hí¢ (’ ší „ x´ngr´ ngc´ xi¯ sh q´ houbi¯n de m´ngc´, r´ , old zai an old car `y¯ liang jiuch¯' l xi¯ sh car, o u a u e u . ˜¹Í îp v ¹ „ Í, ‚, old @ an old car `  † çf' Ì îp car, black zai black hair `h¯i t´ ufa' l xi¯ sh hair. Yongzuo biaoyu de x´ngr´ ngc´ z´ c´ ng weiyu e o u o e o . black @ black hair `Ñ RÑ' Ì îp hair. (’ hí „ ˜¹Í % Î í de weizh shang xi¯ sh zhuyu. L r´ , old zai The car is old `Zhe liang ch¯ hen jiu' zh¯ ng u u e o . „ wn  îp Yí¢ ‹‚, old @ The car is old `Ù † f ˆ ç' E xi¯ sh The car, black zai Her hair is black `T¯ de t´ ufa sh h¯i de' zh¯ ng xi¯ sh Her hair. u a o e o u îp The car, black @ Her hair is black `y „ RÑ / Ñ „' E îp Her hair¢ o e e o e a Ju´dadu¯ shu x´ngr´ ngc´ you ch´ngdu zh¯ f¯n, j´ you put¯ ng j´, b jiaoj´ h´ zu g¯oj´ de e o Ý9&p ˜¹Í © ¦ u ¦, s © n& §, ԃ§ Œ  Ø§ „ x´ngsh . (Jian 6 h´ 23.) e ˜¢ (Jian 6 Œ 23¢)
2. ADJ. (Adjective, X´ngr´ ngc´ o X´ngr´ ngc´ xi¯ sh m´ngc´. X´ngr´ ngc´ ke yongzuo d ngyu h´ biaoyu. Yongzuo d ngyu de o u o e . Adjectives modify nouns. Adjectives have attributive and predicative uses. Attributive adjectives modify nouns following them, e.g., old modi es car in an old car, black modi es hair in black hair. Predicative adjectives, on the other hand, modify subject nouns from the predicative or post-verbal position. For example, old modi es The car in The car is old, and black modi es Her hair in Her hair is black. Most of the adjectives are gradable, showing a contrast between plain, comparative and superlative forms. (See 6 and 23.) 18

oÍ oÍ îp ¨Í ˜¹Í oÍ D« ó hå¢ îp ¨Í " åP sh´, fuc´ key zai q´ zh¯qi´n huo zh¯hou, dan bun´ng zaidongc´ h´ (jiand¯n) b¯nyu zh¯ji´n. a e e a a . ö, oÍ ïå @ v uw " u, p ý @¨Í Œ (€…) ¾í uô¢ ¯ ´ ¯ L r´ , Ta hen kuai ch¯wanle mianbao key sh u . ‹‚, Ö ˆ ë £Œ† ˜¥ ïå /
3. ADV. (Adverb, Fuc´ ) Fuc´ xi¯ sh dongc´, x´ngr´ ngc´, fuc´ bensh¯n, shenzh qu´nju. Xi¯ sh dongc´ huo juzi u o e a u , , , He nished the bread quickly, He quickly nished the bread, Quickly he nished the bread, dan bu key shu¯ o . *He nished quickly the bread.



English Parts of Speech

p  ïå ô

ƒ îp ˜¹Í Œ oÍ ö oÍ & V @ v uw ‚ really: really good hao j´le }† remarkably: remarkably clear(ly) f¯ich´ng q¯ngchu ”V¥Z e a Dabufen fuc´ t´ ng x´ngr´ ngc´ y¯yang, you ch´ngdu zh¯ f¯n, y¯nc you put¯ ngj´, b jiaoj´ o o e e o . 9è¦ oÍ  ˜¹Í  U, © ¦ u ¦, àd © n&§, ԃ§ h´ zu g¯oj´ de x´ngsh (jian 6 h´ 23). Zai Y¯ngyu zh¯ ng, you xi¯ngd¯ng y¯bufen fuc´ e a e o a a . Œ  Ø§ „ ˜ (Á 6 Œ 23)¢ @ ñí E, © øƒ  è¦ oÍ ´ a sh y´ u x´ngr´ ngc´ ji¯ c´wei -ly paish¯ng er l´i de, r´ happy—happily `g¯ox ng de', o o a e u a / 1 ˜¹Í   Íb -ly >  e „, ‚ happy—happily `Øt „/H', quick—quickly `kuai de'. Dansh , b ng bush mei ge dai -ly c´wei de c´ d¯ u sh fuc´, o . quick—quickly `ë „/H'¢ p/, v / Ï B 8 -ly Íb „ Í ý / oÍ, youxi¯ sh x´ngr´ ngc´. L r´ , e o u ©› / ˜¹Í¢ ‹‚, friendly youhao de Ë}„ . fatherly c´fub¯n de H6D„ a cowardly qienuo de Gæ„
D¯ng xi¯ sh x´ngr´ ngc´ h´ fuc´ sh´, fuc´ t¯ ngch´ng zai q´ zh¯qi´n, r´ , a u o e o a a u , , , Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs and entire sentences. When modifying a verb or a sentence, the adverb may be placed before or after it but not between the verb and the ¯ ´ ¯ (simple) object. For example, Ta hen kuai ch¯wanle mianbao can be rendered as He nished the bread quickly, He quickly nished the bread, Quickly he nished the bread, but not *He nished quickly the bread. When modifying an adjective or an adverb, the adverb usually occurs in front of it, e.g., really in really good; remarkably in remarkably clear(ly). Like adjectives, most of the adverbs are also gradable and thus have plain, comparative and superlative forms (see 6 and 23). In English, a high proportion of adverbs are derived from adjectives by adding the suf x -ly, e.g., happy—happily, quick—quickly. However, not every word that ends with -ly is an adverb. Some of them are in fact adjectives. Examples include friendly; fatherly; cowardly.


4. ART. (Article, Guanc´ ) o e . a Y¯ngyu zh¯ ng you liang ge guanc´: d ngguanc´ the h´ bud ng guanc´ a. D¯ng bud ng . . : the a.
Jn] Jn]

 Í ñí E © 6 B  Í š Í Œ š  Í ƒ š guanc´ zh¯hou de c´ sh yu´ny¯n k¯it´ u sh´, a de f¯y¯n sh [ , p¯nxie w´i an. Y¯ngyu de a a o a e  Í u „ Í / Có  R ö, a „ Ñó / [ , ü™ X an. ñí „ a e e u e e guanc´ yongl´i biaosh m´ngc´ suozh de y¯xi¯ tezh¯ng, r´ ted ng / f¯i ted ng, tezh / f¯i . ¯  Í (e h: Í d§ „  › y, ‚ yš / ” yš, y§ / ” tezh , x¯n / jiu x nx¯. y§, ° / ç áo¢
There are two articles in English: de nite article the, and inde nite article a. If the word following the inde nite article starts with a vowel sound, a is pronounced as [Jn], and spelled as

English Parts of Speech



an. English articles are used to denote several features of the noun referent: de nite/inde nite, speci c/nonspeci c, old/new information.

©¨Í Ù / ¨Í „   B ¦{ (e h: ö Ç»ö ¡ Œ ÛL yuq (ch´nshush , q´sh sh , x¯ n sh ) h´ yutai (beidong yutai). e u e Y¯ngyu l you liang . í (rð¡ H¡ Zß) Œ í¡ («¨ í¡)¢ ñí. Ì © 6 zhong zhudongc´: q´ngtai h´ f¯i q´ngtai zhudongc´. Q´ngtai zhudongc´ b¯okuo e e a Í ©¨Í: Å¡ Œ ” Å¡ ©¨Í¢ Å¡ ©¨Í ¥ì
can, will, must, may, shall, should, would, could, might. x´ngsh b x¯ w´i bud ngsh , l r´ , He can go now `T¯ key zou le'. u e . u a . , , He can go now ` '

5. AUX. (Auxiliary, Zhudongc´ ) Zhe sh dongc´ de y¯ ge f¯nlei, yongl´i biaosh sh´ (guoqush´), tai (w´nch´ng / j nx´ng), e a a e . , ( ), ( / ),

ƒì ¡© ºð Ø"    ,© ºð v ˜ „ ¨Í F¯i q´ngtai zhudongc´ e ˜ Å{ X š ‹‚ Ö ïå p † ¢ ” Å¡ ©¨Í you ©
T¯men m´iyou r´nch¯ng bianhua (bu ji¯ d -s¯n r´nch¯ng -s), q´ houmian de dongc´ a e e e a a e e ( -s), be, do/does/did, have/has/had.

d† å Ÿý u" ©¨Í Ø y© ¨Í Ä ‘îå Œ 8šå¢ ‹‚ Ö ¤Æ – #  ¤Æ¢
Ch´ le y shang g¯ ngn´ng zh¯wai, zhudongc´ h´i xi´zhu dongc´ zuch´ng y´wenju h´ u o e a e e e ,

foud ngju. L r´ , Does he know you? ... No, he doesn't `T¯ renshi n ma? ... Bu renshi.' u a . , Does he know you? ... No, he doesn't ` ? ... '

A subcategory of verb that typically marks tense (past), aspect (perfective/progressive), mood (indicative/imperative/subjunctive) and voice (passive). There are two types of auxiliary in English: modal auxiliary and non-modal auxiliary. The modal auxiliary includes can, will, must, may, shall, should, would, could, might. They do not in ect for person (third personal singular -s) and they must be followed by the in nitive form of a verb. For example, can in He can go now. The non-modal auxiliaries are be, do/does/did, have/has/had. Apart from the functions above, the auxiliary also assists the main verb in forming interrogative and negative structures. For example, does in Does he know you? ... No, he doesn't.

ԃ§ ƒ ԃ 6 B  „ iƒ " LX ö ˜¹Í Œ oÍ   ( b jiaoj´ x´ngsh . R´ guo x´ngr´ ngc´ sh d¯nyu´ny¯n, z´ x¯ yao ji¯ c´wei -er, r´ small—smaller u o a a e u a u ԃ§ ˜¢ ‚œ ˜¹Í / …Có, %     Íb -er, ‚ small—smaller `xiao—geng xiao', cold—colder `leng—geng leng'. Zhe ti´o gu¯z´ t´ ngyang sh yong y´ y a e o u `—ô ', cold—colder `·—ô ·'¢ Ù — Ä% U ¢( Ž å `y' ji´wei de du¯ y¯nji´ x´ngr´ ngc´, ru pretty—prettier `haokan—geng haokan', early—earlier e o e o `y' Ób „ &ó‚ ˜¹Í, ‚ pretty—prettier `}—ô }', early—earlier `zao—geng zao'. D¯ng x´ngr´ ngc´ sh du¯ y¯nji´ sh´, z´ x¯ ji¯ more, r´ more beautiful a o o e e u a u `é—ô é'¢ ƒ ˜¹Í / &ó‚ ö, %     more, ‚ more beautiful `geng piaoliang'. You y¯ xiaobufen x´ngr´ ngc´ de b jiaoj´ sh bu gu¯z´ de, r´ , o e u ¯ `ô ¢®'¢ ©   è¦ ˜¹Í „ ԃ§ /  Ä% „, ‚, good—better hao—genghao }—ô} bad—worse huai—genghuai y—ôy many/much—more du¯ —gengdu¯ &—ô& o o little—less shao—gengshao —ô far—farther/further yuan—geng yuan Ü—ôÜ Fuc´ de b jiaoj´ ji¯ more, r´ Xiao Wang runs more quickly than Xiao Li `Xiao W´ng a u a oÍ „ ԃ§   more, ‚ Xiao Wang runs more quickly than Xiao Li  ‹ b Xiao L pao de kuai'. Y xia sh y¯xi¯ l wai, . e . Ô.  x Ñ — ë'¢ å /  › ‹", well—better hao—genghao de }—ô}H
6. COMPAR. (Comparative Degree, B jiaoj´ ) D¯ng b jiao liang ge but´ ng de wut huo x´ngw´i sh´, x´ngr´ ngc´ h´ fuc´ x¯ yao yong a o e o e u ,

E-C V badly—worse huai—genghuai de

When comparing two objects or actions of unequal attributes, the comparative form of the adjective and adverb is used. If an adjective is monosyllabic, the suf x -er is added, e.g., small—smaller, cold—colder. This rule also applies to polysyllabic adjectives that end in `y', such as pretty—prettier, early—earlier. If the adjective is polysyllabic, the word more is used, e.g., more beautiful. There are a small number of adjectives whose comparative form is irregular. These include good—better; bad—worse; many/much—more; little—less; far—farther/further. For adverbs, the word more is used. For example, Xiao Wang runs more quickly than Xiao Li. Exceptions include well—better; badly—worse. 7. CONJ. (Conjunction, Li´nc´ a ) Li´nc´ li´nji¯ c´, duanyu huo juzi. a a e . ,



English Parts of Speech

A conjunction joins words, phrases or sentences. English conjunctions include (see above). 8. INTJ. (Interjection, Gantanc´ ) Gantanc´ biaosh j¯ngq´, t´ ngq´ng, huo sh¯wang. L r´ , o u , , ,

ÞÍ Y¯ngyu de li´nc´ you a ÞÍ Þ¥ Í íí " åP¢ ñí „ ÞÍ © and `h´ Œ', or `huozhe "¥', but `dansh p/', although `su¯r´n }6', e a so `y¯nc àd, suoy då'. . ùÍ ùÍ h: Êq Å " I'¢ ‹‚ My! `Ti¯n na! A£!' Alas! `w¯ h¯ ! ’|!' a u u

An exclamation word expressing surprise, sympathy or disappointment. For example, My! Alas! 

Í ñí „ Í © 6 { n& Í Á Œ  © Í¢ Zhu¯nyou m´ngc´ w´i r´nm´ng, gu´ ji¯, ch´ngsh , zuzh¯, sh¯ngp n p np´i, sh¯nmai, a e e o a e a a a  © Í X º¡ ý¶¡ ΢¡ ÄÇ¡ FÁ ÁL,¡ q©¡ h´li´ , dd. e u Ben c´dian ye yong N. l´i bi¯osh zhu¯nyou m´ngc´. a a a ³A¡ II¢ D Íx • ( N. e §:  © Í¢
9. N. (Noun, M´ngc´ ) Y¯ngyu de m´ngc´ you liang lei: put¯ ng m´ngc´ (jian 10-13) h´ zhu¯nyou m´ngc´. o e a . : ( 10-13)

The word class of noun in English consists of two subclasses: common nouns (see 1013) and proper nouns, which are names of people, countries, cities, organizations, brands, mountains, rivers, etc. In this dictionary, the label N. is also used for proper nouns.

ïpÍ ñí Í w© ïp9 Ù   íÕ ”9¢ ïp Í ïå 8 úp `y¯', twenty `ersh´' h´ shuliangc´ many `hen du¯ ', few `hen shao'. Keshu m´ngc´ f¯nw´i liang e o e e . . ` ', twenty `Œe' Œ pÏÍ many `ˆ &', few `ˆ '¢ ïp Í ¦X 6 lei, t¯ ngch´ng ch¯ngw´i gu¯z´ h´ bugu¯z´ m´ngc´. Biaosh fushu y y sh´, gu¯z´ m´ngc´ o a e e e e e e {, & V ðX Ä% Œ Ä% Í¢ h: p s ö, Ä% Í x¯ yao ji¯ fushu c´wei -s (huo -es). u a L r´ , u     p Íb -s (" -es)¢ ‹‚, three desks s¯n zh¯ng zhu¯ zi ©2vP a a o many churches hen du¯ jiaot´ng ˆ&Y¢ o a these lamps zhexi¯ t´id¯ng ٛðo e a e Bugu¯z´ keshu m´ngc´ bun´ng dai j¯shu, q´ fushu x´ngsh t¯ ngch´ng x¯ yao gaibian f¯y¯n e . e o a u a Ä% ïp Í ý 8 úp, v p ˜ & V   9Ø Ñó u a Youxi¯ bu gu¯z´ keshu m´ngc´ de e e . h´ p¯nxie, r´ foot—feet `jiao', child—children `h´izi'. e Œ ü™, ‚ foot—feet `&', child—children `iP'¢ ©›  Ä% ïp Í „ d¯n, fushu x´ngsh sh xi¯ngt´ ng de, r´ , sh `y´ ', deer `lu', sheep `y´ng'. a a o u u a …¡ p ˜ / ø  „, ‚, sh `|', deer `', sheep `Š'¢
10. N.C. (Countable Noun, Keshu M´ngc´ ) . Y¯ngyu m´ngc´ juyou keshux ng zhe y¯ yufa shux ng. Keshu m´ngc´ key dai j¯shu one . . . . one

English Parts of Speech



English nouns have the grammatical property of countability. A countable noun can take cardinal numbers such as one, twenty and quanti ers many, few. There are two subclasses of countable nouns, often referred to as regular and irregular nouns. A plural suf x -s (or -es) is required for regular countable nouns when the plural meaning is expressed. For example, three desks; many churches; these lamps. Irregular countable nouns, when pluralized, cannot combine with cardinal numbers and often differ from their singular counterpart in both pronunciation and spelling. For example, foot—feet, child—children. Some of the irregular countable nouns have the same form in both singular and plural, e.g., sh, deer, sheep. 

pÍ ’X ïp Í vE „   { Á ٛ p Í ê© p x´ngsh . L r´ , clothes `y¯fu', scissors `jiand¯o', trousers `kuzi', sweets `t´ngguo'. T¯men u a a a ˜¢ ‹‚, clothes `c', scissors `j ', trousers `äP', sweets `֜'¢ Öì bun´ng zh´ji¯ dai j¯shu. e e Youxi¯ fushu m´ngc´ (ye ch¯ngzuo `wuzh m´ngc´') shenzh m´iyou e e e ý ô¥ 8 úp¢ ©› p Í (• ð’ `i( Í') ó ¡© c´wei -s (huo -es, r´ , cattle `ni´ ', police `j ngch´'. u u a Íb -s (" -es, ‚, cattle `[' police `fß'¢
11. N.PL. (Plural Noun, Fushu M´ngc´ ) Zuow´i bukeshu m´ngc´ q´zh¯ ng de y¯ lei (N.U. jian 13), zhexi¯ fushu m´ngc´ fushu e o e . . (N.U. 13), As a subclass of uncountable noun (N.U., see 13), the plural noun appears only in plural form. For example, clothes, scissors, trousers, sweets. They cannot take numerals directly. Some of the plural nouns (also called `mass nouns') do not even have the suf x -s (or -es), e.g., cattle, police.

…pÍ Ù   { ïp Í Á ê© …p ˜¢  ,e© — E ´ de bukeshu m´ngc´ but´ ng de sh , zhe y¯ lei m´ngc´ ch´ngch´ng daiyou guanc´ a, er guanc´ o a a . . „ ïp Í  „ /, Ù   { Í VV 8©  Í a,   Í a sh bu key xi¯ sh bukeshu m´ngc´ de. u L r´ , The boss is in a good mood today `Laoban u . . . a /  ïå îp ïp Í „¢ ‹‚, The boss is in a good mood today `¡ j¯nti¯n q´ngxu bucuo'. Dansh , zhe y¯ lei bukeshu m´ngc´ bun´ng h´ shuc´ one `y¯' t´ ng a e e o . . . ÊA Åê '¢ p/, Ù   { ïp Í ý Œ pÍ one ` '  yong. (¢
12. N.SING. (Singular Noun, D¯nshu M´ngc´ a ) Zhe y¯ lei bukeshu m´ngc´ (N.U. jian 13) d¯nshu x´ngsh . Yu d -sh´s¯n ti´o zh¯ ng a a a o . . (N.U. 13) This subclass of uncountable noun (N.U. see 13) has only the singular form. This subclass is differentiated from the uncountable nouns in 13 because nouns marked as N.SING. in this dictionary are usually accompanied by the article a, which is not permitted for uncountable nouns. For example, a good mood in The boss is in a good mood today. However, this subclass of nouns cannot take the numeral word one. 

ïpÍ  ïp Í ý Œ pÍ (¢ ñí „  ïp Í ‚ ± furniture `ji¯ju', news `x¯nw´n', weather `ti¯nqi', harm `huaichu', water `shu ', y d¯nshu a e a a furniture `¶w', news `°û', weather `A ', harm `y¤', water `R', å …p u u L r´ , The furniture looks old u x´ngsh ch¯ xian, zuo zhuyu sh´, dongc´ x¯ yao yu q´ y¯zh . . . ˜ ú°, ’ Yí ö, ¨Í    v  ô¢ ‹‚, The furniture looks old `Ji¯ju kanshangqu hen jiu' zhe y¯ ju zh¯ ng de dongc´ look ji¯shangle d -s¯n r´nch¯ng a o a a e e . `¶w » ˆ ç' Ù   å E „ ¨Í look  † ,© ºð a d¯nshu c´wei -s, y¯nwei zhuyu furniture sh bukeshu m´ngc´, y¯nc sh d¯nshu. Zh´de zhuy a . . …p Íb -s, àX Yí furniture / ïp Í, àd / …p¢ <— è de sh , keshux ng zhe y¯ yufa shux ng quju´ y´ c´y h´ yongt´ . L r´ , d¯ng c´y w´i e u e u u a e . . ¯ „ /, ïp9 Ù   íÕ ”9 Ö³ Ž Ís Œ ( ¢ ‹‚, ƒ Ís X ´ a e `b¯ li' sh´, glass sh bukeshu m´ngc´. Er d¯ng c´y sh `b¯izi' sh´, glass sh keshu m´ngc´. o . . `»ƒ' ö, glass / ïp Í¢  ƒ Ís / `oP' ö, glass / ïp Í¢

13. N.U. (Uncountable Noun, Bukeshu M´ngc´ ) . Bu keshu m´ngc´ bun´ng h´ shuc´ t´ ngyong. Y¯ngyu de bu keshu m´ngc´, r´ money `qi´n', e e o u a . . , money ` ',



English Parts of Speech Dan d¯ng a 

U ƒ (e § i( ö ©› Í ‚ dR ïp¢ p ƒ yongl´i zh wuzh de bufen huo zhonglei sh´, beer sh keshu m´ngc´, r´ I'd like two beers `Wo a u . (e § i( „ è¦ " Í{ ö, beer / ïp Í, ‚ I'd like two beers ` yao liang b¯i/p´ng p´jiu'. e Youxi¯ bukeshu m´ngc´ y `s' ji´wei, r´ news `x¯nw´n', physics e e u e .  6 o/ö dR'¢ ©› ïp Í å `s' Ób, ‚ news `°û', physics `wul '. Zhel de `s' bu sh fushu c´wei, zhexi¯ m´ngc´ w´ lun zai x´ngsh shang h´ishi zai e u a . `i¦'¢ ÙÌ „ `s'  / p Íb, ٛ Í àº @ ˜  Ø/ @ yongt´ shang d¯ u sh d¯nshu. (You jian 11, 12.) u o a (  ý / …p¢ (È Á 11, 12¢)
T´ ngyang, d¯ng yongl´i zh wuzh sh´, youxi¯ m´ngc´, r´ beer `p´jiu' bukeshu. o a a e u . , , , beer ` ' Uncountable nouns (also called `noncount nouns') cannot occur with numerals. Some of the uncountable nouns are money, furniture, news, weather, harm, water. The uncountable noun is singular for the purpose of subject-verb agreement. Thus, the verb look in the following sentence is in ected for 3rd person singular -s because the subject furniture is an unaccountable noun, hence, singular: The furniture looks old. It is important to note that the grammatical property of countability is a function of meaning and use. The noun glass is uncountable when it means `b¯ li o ', but countable when it means `b¯izi e '. Similarly, when used to refer to a substance, some nouns, e.g., beer are uncountable. However, when referring to portions or types of beer, it is countable, e.g., I'd like two beers. The word- nal `s' in some of the nouns in this subclass, e.g., news, physics is not a plural suf x, and these words remain singular in form and use. (See also 11, 12.)



14. NUM. (Number, Shuc´ L r´ u

pÍ) ‹‚, E.g., one `y¯  ', twenty `ersh´ Œe', million `baiwan ~§'.

15. ON. (Onomatopoeia, Xiangsh¯ngc´ e

Zhexi¯ c´ m´ fang huo sh y t¯men suozh de d¯ ngxi e o a o .

—ðÍ) ¢L r´ u ٛ Í !ÿ " : ƒì d§ „ (¢‹‚ quack `y¯zi de jiaosh¯ng -P„ëð,' meow `mi¯o µ (m¯o de jiaosh¯ng a e a a e +„ëð)'.

These are words that imitate or are suggestive of the things they represent. Examples (see above).

Ç»¦Í) Y (Ž Œ „ ¨Í ˜ `Wo kanguo nage diany ng le'. H´i yongy´ beidong yutai (be+Vp.p.): a u ` Ç £B 5q †'¢ Ø (Ž «¨ í¡ (be+Vp.p.): Xiao Wang was killed by a car `Xiao W´ng bei ch¯ zhuangs le'. a e Gu¯z´ dongc´ e Xiao Wang was killed by a car ` ‹ « f ž{ †'¢ Ä% ¨Í ´ a e e e e t¯ ngch´ng yong c´wei -ed l´i zuch´ng guoqu f¯nc´, er bu gu¯z´ dongc´ x´ngsh z´ o a & V ( Íb -ed e Ä Ç» ¦Í,   Ä% ¨Í ˜ % du¯ yanghua, r´ hit—hit `da', cut—cut `qi¯', see—seen `kanjian', bring—brought `dail´i'. o u e a &U", ‚ hit—hit `ƒ', cut—cut `§', see—seen `Á', bring—brought `8e'¢ e e a e Bu gu¯z´ dongc´ h´ t¯men de guoqu f¯nc´ lie zai Fulu II.  Ä% ¨Í Œ ƒì „ Ç» ¦Í # @ h… II.
16. P.P. (Past Participle, Guoqu F¯nc´ e Zhuyao yongy´ w´nch´ngsh de dongc´ x´ngsh (have+Vp.p.): I have seen that movie u a e (have+Vp.p.): I have seen that movie A verb form mainly used in the perfective aspect (have+Vp.p.): I have seen that movie. It is also used in the passive voice (be+Vp.p.): Xiao Wang was killed by a car. Regular verbs typically take the suf x -ed to form the past participle, whereas irregular verbs vary in form, e.g., hit—hit, cut—cut, see—seen, bring—brought. A list of irregular verbs and their past participles is in Appendix II.

A bound morpheme attached to the beginning of a word. Examples of pre xes are anti-, re-, un-, non-, uni-. English pre xes are all derivational (see 22 for explanation). A list of pre xes is included in Appendix I. 18. PREP. (Preposition, Jiec´ ) H´ m´ngc´ huo daic´ y¯q biaosh sh´ji¯n, k¯ ngji¯n gu¯nxi de yufac´. e a o a a . . , in, on, of, for, from, into, with, at, against, between.

w  w  / h @ Í w „ Ïd í ‚ II¢ Y¯ngyu de qi´nzhu d¯ ush paish¯ng c´zhu (jian 22). Fulu I w´i ch´ngyong de qi´nzhu . a o e e a a ñí „ w  ý/ > Í  (Á 22)¢ h… I X V ( „ w ¢
17. PREF. (Pre x, Qi´nzhu a ) Qi´nzhu sh fu zai c´ qi´n de ni´nzhu´ yusu, r´ anti-, re-, un-, non-, uni-, dd. a a a o u , anti-, re-, un-, non-, uni-,

English Parts of Speech



ËÍ L r´ , u Œ Í " ãÍ  w h: öô zô sû „ íÕÍ¢ ‹‚,

A class of words used with nouns or pronouns to show relations in space or time. Some of the prepositions include (see above). 19. PRES.P. (Present Participle, Xianzai F¯nc´ e ) Xianzai f¯nc´ sh daiyou c´wei -ing de dongc´ x´ngsh , r´ , eating `ch¯', listening `t¯ng'. e u -ing , , eating ` ', listening ` '

The present participle refers to the verb form containing the suf x -ing, e.g., eating, listening. The present participle is mainly used in the progressive aspect (be+Vpres.p.) to indicate actions in progress. For example (see above). 20. PR. (Pronoun, Daic´ ) Zhe lei c´ b¯okuo (i) r´nch¯ng daic´, a e e (i) ,

°@¦Í °@ ¦Í / 8© Íb „ ¨Í ˜ ‚ £ D¢ T¯ ngch´ng yongy´ j nx´ngsh (be+Vpres.p.), biaosh dongzuo zhengzai j nx´ng. L r´ , o a u u & V (Ž ÛL (be+Vpres.p.), h: ¨’ c@ ÛL¢ ‹‚, The children are singing and dancing `H´izimen zhengzai changg¯ tiaowu a e iPì c@ 1L ó0'¢ ãÍ Ù { Í ¥ì ºð ãÍ I `wo ' (zhug´ Y`) e me `wo ' (b¯ng´ ¾`) e my `wo de „' (x´ngr´ ngc´ suoyoug´ ˜¹Íd©`) o e . mine `wo de „' (m´ngc´x ng suoyoug´ Í9d©`) e . myself `woz j êñ' (fansh¯n daic´ Í«ãÍ) e (ii) y´wen daic´, ‘î ãÍ, who `shu´ ¡' where `nar ê?' what `sh´nme Àr' e (iii) zh sh daic´, §: ãÍ, this `zhe Ù' that `na £' these `zhexi¯ ٛ' e those `naxi¯ £›' e

This word class includes (i) personal pronouns, (ii) interrogative pronouns and (iii) demonstrative pronouns. Examples (see above).

Ç»ö Gu¯z´ dongc´ de guoqush´ bi¯oj e a ñí „ ¨Í © h: öô „ ö¡ §°¢ Ä% ¨Í „ Ç»ö §° sh -ed (f¯y¯n w´i [t], [d] huo [ a e Bu gu¯z´ dongc´ de guoqush´ x´ngsh du¯ yanghua, youde e o / -ed (Ñó X [t], [d] " [ ¢  Ä% ¨Í „ Ç»ö ˜ &U", ©„
21. P.T. (Past Tense, Guoqush´ ) Y¯ngyu de dongc´ you biaosh sh´ji¯n de sh´tai bi¯oj . a a .
Id]). Id])



English Parts of Speech

ú2 ©„ / Œh  „ Í ‚ ó Z ©„ % ¡© û… ͘ Ø" ‚ `qi¯', hit—hit `da'. Zai ben c´dian l , bu gu¯z´ dongc´ de guoqush´ x´ngsh budan lie zai e e . `§', hit—hit `ƒ'¢ @ D Íx Ì,  Ä% ¨Í „ Ç»ö ˜ p # @ dongc´ de c´ti´o l , t´ ngsh´ ye zuow´i d´ l de c´ti´o ch¯ xian. Fulu II w´i bu gu¯z´ dongc´ a o e u a u e e ¨Í „ ͗ Ì, ö • ’X ìË „ ͗ ú°¢ h… II X  Ä% ¨Í h´ t¯men de guoqush´ x´ngsh . e a Œ ƒì „ Ç»ö ˜¢
biany¯n, r´ run—ran `pao', build—built `jianzao', youde sh w´nqu´n but´ ng de c´, r´ u a a o u , run—ran ` ', build—built ` ', , think—thought `xiang', do—did `zuo', youde z´ m´iyou renh´ c´x´ng bianhua, r´ cut—cut e e e u think—thought ` ', do—did ` ', , cut—cut English verbs are marked for tense, that is, the grammatical form indicating time reference. The past tense marker for regular verbs is -ed (pronounced as [t], [d] or [Id]). For irregular verbs, the past tense form varies, ranging from internal sound change, e.g., run—ran, build— built, to a completely new word, e.g., think—thought, do—did, or to no change at all, e.g., cut—cut, hit—hit. In the present dictionary, the past tense form of the irregular verb is provided in the entry of the verb as well as listed as a separate entry. A list of irregular verbs and their past tense forms can be found in Appendix II.

Øó ‚


  Y¯ngyu zh¯ ng you daliang de houzhu , o   / h @ Í  „ Ïd í ¢ ñí E © 9Ï „  , q´zh¯ ng hen du¯ key fuzhu´ y´ daliang de c´hu , b¯okuo x¯nc´. o o . o u a Y¯ngyu de houzhu you . vE ˆ & ïå hd Ž 9Ï „ Íq, ¥ì °Í¢ ñí „   © liang lei: paish¯ngx ng houzhu h´ q¯ zh´ bianhuax ng houzhu . Paish¯ngx ng houzhu yongl´i e e u e e a 6 {: >9   Œ ò˜ Ø"9  ¢ >9   (e gouc´, c lei houzhu you -less, -ly, -able, -tion, -er dd. Q¯ zh´ bianhuax ng houzhu z´ u e e „Í, d{   © -less, -ly, -able, -tion, -er II¢ ò˜ Ø"9   % yongy´ yufa g¯ ngn´ng, r´ biaosh fushu de -s, biaosh guoqush´ de -ed, biaosh j nx´ngsh u . o e u (Ž íÕ Ÿý, ‚ h: p „ -s, h: Ç»ö „ -ed, h: ÛL de -ing, biaosh d -s¯n r´nch¯ng d¯nshu de -s, biaosh b jiaoj´ de -er, h´ biaosh zu g¯oj´ a e e a e a „ -ing, h: ,© ºð …p „ -s, h: ԃ§ „ -er, Œ h:  Ø§ de -est. Fulu I w´i ch´ngjian de Y¯ngyu houzhu . e a „ -est. h… I X VÁ „ ñí  ¢
22. SUF. (Suf x, Houzhu ) Houzhu sh fu zai c´ hou de ni´nzhu´ yusu. a o A bound morpheme attached to the end of a word. English suf xes are large in number and many of them are extremely productive in that they can be added to a large number of words, including newly coined words. The English suf x falls into two categories: derivational and in ectional. The derivational suf x is used to form new words. Examples of the derivational suf x include -less, -ly, -able, -tion, -er, etc. The in ectional suf x, on the other hand, does not form new words but carries out grammatical functions such as plural -s, past tense -ed, progressive aspect -ing, 3rd person singular -s, comparative -er, and superlative -est, etc. A list of suf xes is included in Appendix II.

 Ø§ ƒ ԃ 6 B å  „ iƒ " LX ö   ( ˜¹Í h´ fuc´ de zu g¯oj´ x´ngsh . Q´ j¯ben yufa gu¯z´ h´ b jiaoj´ xi¯ngt´ ng (jian 6). e a e e a o . Œ oÍ „  Ø§ ˜¢ v úD íÕ Ä% Œ ԃ§ ø  (Á 6)¢ o a u D¯ny¯nji´ x´ngr´ ngc´ ji¯ houzhu -est, r´ , small—smallest `xiao de — zu xiao de', a e …ó‚ ˜¹Í     -est, ‚, small—smallest ` „ —   „', cold—coldest `leng de — zu leng de'. Y `y' ji´wei de du¯ y¯nji´ x´ngr´ ngc´ ye t´ ngyang, e o e o o cold—coldest `· „ —   · „'¢ å `y' Ób „ &ó‚ ˜¹Í • U, r´ pretty—prettiest `haokan de — zu haokan de', early—earliest `zao de — zu zao de'. u ‚ pretty—prettiest `} „ —   } „', early—earliest `é „ —   é „'¢ Q´t¯ du¯ y¯nji´ x´ngr´ ngc´ h´ fuc´ de zu g¯oj´ x´ngsh z´ t¯ ngguo ji¯ most l´i biaosh , r´ a o e o e a e o a a u vÖ &ó‚ ˜¹Í Œ oÍ „  Ø§ ˜ % &Ç   most e h:, ‚
23. SUPER. (Superlative Degree, Zu g¯oj´ a ) D¯ng b jiao liang ge y shang but´ ng de wut huo x´ngw´i sh´, x¯ yao yong x´ngr´ ngc´ a o e u o ,

English Parts of Speech



¢® „   ¢® „ š „   š H ¢ © p ˜¹Í Œ oÍ „  Ø§ ˜ /  Ä% de, r´ , u „, ‚, good/well—best hao—zu hao de }— }„/H bad/badly—worst huai—zu huai de y— y„/H little—least shao—zu shao de — „/H far—farthest yuan—zu yuan de Ü— Ü„/H
beautiful—most beautiful `piaoliang de — zu piaoliang de', rmly—most rmly `ji¯nd ng a beautiful—most beautiful ` — ', rmly—most rmly ` de — zu ji¯nd ng de'. a — ' You shaoshu x´ngr´ ngc´ h´ fuc´ de zu g¯oj´ x´ngsh sh bu gu¯z´ o e a e . When comparing more than two objects or actions of unequal attributes, the superlative form of the adjective and adverb is used. The basic rule is the same as the comparative structure (see 6). Monosyllabic adjectives take the suf x -est, e.g., small—smallest, cold— coldest. This rule also applies to polysyllabic adjectives that end in `y', as in pretty—prettiest, early—earliest. Polysyllabic adjectives, on the other hand, are preceded by most, e.g., beautiful—most beautiful. The superlative form of the adverb is also formed by inserting most in front of it, e.g., rmly—most rmly. There is a small number of adjectives and adverbs whose superlative forms vary. These include good/well—best; bad/badly—worst; little—least; far—farthest.

¨Í ¨Í „ d§ / L¨ Ç " ¶¡¢ @ D Íx E 8© bi¯ohao V. de dongc´ juyou j´wu (V.T.) h´ bu j´wu (V.I.) liang zhong g¯ ngn´ng. Xiamian a e o e . §÷ V. „ ¨Í w© Êi (V.T.) Œ ” Êi (V.I.) 6 Í Ÿý¢ ˜ d 25 h´ 26 duan sh du j´wux ng zhe y¯ yufa tezh¯ng de xi´ngx shu¯ m´ng. e e a o . ¯ , 25 Œ 26 µ / ù Êi9 Ù   íÕ y „ æÆ ô¢
25. V.I. (Intransitive Verb, Buj´wu Dongc´ Bu j´wu dongc´ (V.I.) bun´ng daiyou b¯nyu. e (V.I.)

24. V. (Verb, Dongc´ ) Dongc´ de suozh sh x´ngdong, guoch´ng, huo zhuangtai. Zai ben c´dian zh¯ ng, daiyou e o . , , ,

A verb indicates an action, a process or a state. In this dictionary, the label V. is used to indicate that the verb is both transitive (V.T.) and intransitive (V.I.). See 25 and 26 below for detailed explanations of the grammatical property of transitivity. 

Êi¨Í) Smile `xiao', hesitate `y´ uyu', rain `xiayu' o  Êi ¨Í ý 8© ¾í¢ Smile `', hesitate `¹k', rain `è' d¯ u sh bu j´wu dongc´. G¯nju c´y h´ yongfa de but´ ng, hen du¯ dongc´ j key sh o e e o o . ý /  Êi ¨Í¢ Wn Ís Œ (Õ „ , ˆ & ¨Í â ïå / j´wu dongc´, ye key sh bu j´wu dongc´. L r´ , d¯ng run de c´y sh pao sh´, t¯ sh u a a . Êi ¨Í, • ïå /  Êi ¨Í¢ ‹‚, ƒ run „ Ís / `Ñ' ö, ƒ / bu j´wu dongc´. Dan d¯ng t¯ de c´y sh j¯ngy´ng, guanl `manage' sh´, t¯ z´ sh j´wu a a a e .  Êi ¨Í¢ p ƒ ƒ „ Ís / `Ï%,¡¦ `manage' ö, ƒ % / Êi dongc´, x¯ yao you b¯nyu. u ¨Í,   © ¾í¢ Êi¨Í Kill `das ', like `x huan', use `yong', . Êi ¨Í ïå • Å{ 8© ¾í¢ Kill `ƒ{', like `œ"', use `(', avoid `b mian' d¯ ush j´wu dongc´. Youxi¯ j´wu dongc´, r´ give `gei', x¯ yao liang ge b¯nyu, o e u u avoid `M' ý/ Êi ¨Í¢ ©› Êi ¨Í, ‚ give `Ù',   6 B ¾í, e e y¯ ge sh zh´ji¯ b¯nyu, l ng y¯ ge sh jianji¯ b¯nyu. Zai Mary gave her mother a book . .   B / ô¥ ¾í, æ   B / ô¥ ¾í¢ @ Mary gave her mother a book
26. V.T. (Transitive Verb, J´wu Dongc´ ) J´wu dongc´ (V.T.) key ye b x¯ daiyou b¯nyu. u . (V.T.) An intransitive verb (V.I.) cannot take an object. Examples of such verbs are smile, hesitate, rain. Many verbs can be used both transitively and intransitively, depending on the meaning and use. For example, when run means pao , it is an intransitive verb, but when it means j¯ngy´ng , guanl , it is a transitive verb and thus requires an object. .




E-C V `Mal `


English Parts of Speech

›a ن y ˆˆ   D f Ù å Ý E / ô¥ ¾í¢
sh zh´ji¯ b¯nyu. e

geile t¯ m¯m¯ y¯ ben sh¯ ' zhe ju hua zh¯ ng, her mother sh jianji¯ b¯nyu, a book a a a . u o e ' , her mother , a book

/ ô¥ ¾í

A transitive verb (V.T.) can and must take an object. For example, kill, like, use, avoid. Some transitive verbs such as give, buy take two objects, one direct object and one indirect object. In Mary gave her mother a book, her mother is the indirect object and a book is the direct object.

I. Elements of Chinese-English Entries

Headword in boldface pinyin followed by characters, rst simpli ed and then traditional in square brackets, here with a dash to indicate a character that has not undergone simpli cation. Bullet(s) following characters indicate grade level, here four bullets, the most advanced of four grade levels • , • , • • , •••• . Note: in Wenlin, unlike the book, • • grade levels are indicated by (A), (B), (C), (D) instead of bullets.

Small caps indicate part of speech, here V.O. = verb + object, followed by de nition(s).

Circled numbers indicate multiple de nitions of headword.

A small cap M: introduces the appropriate measure word(s) to be used with the headword noun.

A single slant line indicates alternatives.

Double slant lines indicate that the two preceding and the two following terms are equivalent in usage.




Elements of C-E Entries

A black diamond indicates a variant part of speech.

A raised number before an entry indicates relative frequency of complete homographs.

An asterisk following pinyin indicates highest frequency among homographs if tones are ignored.

(bound form) indicates that the following de nition applies only if ¯ it is part of a multisyllabic term (here the noun zuofeng `style of work').

A vertical line introduces an example of usage and a wavy line replaces the headword.

II. Selection and Explication of Chinese Entries
1. In the selection of entries we have given primary attention to the work of Chinese specialists in teaching English who, under the auspices of the PRC State Education Commission, have compiled a basic list of 8,822 terms graded into four levels. In the main body of the dictionary we have labeled each of the 8,822 entries as either (A), (B), (C) or (D) so students can determine the relative importance of a term on encountering it. We have devoted special attention to de ning and illustrating these terms. We have presented the four graded lists in Appendix VII as a guide to students in prioritizing their acquisition of vocabulary. Apart from the emphasis on using graded materials, we have also sought to select the most important terms in our ABC C-E Dictionary and in works from which we have culled additional entries. We have sought to provide coverage at least as great as that of comparable works. In de ning the entries we have consulted works that re ect usage in Taiwan as well as the PRC. De nitions include additional cues on areas and environment of usage (such as linguistics, computers, etc.) and register (such as slang, formal, etc.). Further explication is provided by many sentences providing examples of usage. The strict single-sort alphabetical order of this dictionary distinguishes it from the double-sort “alphabetic” dictionaries where the order is determined by the alphabetic sequence of the head character. In such conventional dictionaries ´ ¯ the entries l´nbie `at parting' and l´nzhong `near death' both precede l ngwai `moreover' because l´n precedes l ng. In the present work, as in dictionaries of Western languages based on the Latin alphabet and in romanized dictionaries of Japanese, the sequence is strictly letter-by-letter. Hence the three words appear in the order ´ l´nbie




l ngwai

¯ l´nzhong 5.

RC æ" RÈ

Entries start with transcription in large boldface type followed by the appropriate simpli ed characters. Single-character entries include in square brackets the traditional complex form of the character if the traditional form is different from the simpli ed form. (Note that there are restrictions on some of the equivalences.) Parts of speech are presented in BOLDFACE SMALL CAPS, environments in italics, de nitions in roman type, and illustrative phrases and sentences in semi-bold italics followed by English renderings in roman type. Characters are provided only for head entries but can easily be recovered for other transcriptions since great pains have been taken to make sure that all additional transcriptions can be found elsewhere in the dictionary together with the corresponding characters. Head entry transcriptions with the same sequence of letters are ordered rst strictly by letter sequence regardless of tones, then by initial syllable tone in the sequence 0 1 2 3 4. For entries with the same initial tone, arrangement is by the tone of the second syllable, again in the order 0 1 2 3 4. For example: sh¯shi sh¯sh¯ sh¯sh´ sh¯sh sh¯sh sh´sh¯ sh´sh sh sh¯ sh sh¯




Explication of Entries


Irrespective of tones, entries with the vowel u precede those with ü. For example: ´ ´ lu lu lu lü lü lü nu nü


Entries without apostrophe precede those with apostrophe. For example: bian argue b 'an the other shore


Lower-case entries precede upper-case entries. For example: houj n aftereffect Hou J n Later Jin dynasty


For entries with identical spelling, including tones, arrangement is by order of frequency, indicated by a raised number before the transcription, a device adapted from Western lexicographic practice to distinguish homonyms. In the case of monosyllabic entries, our frequency order is based largely on Xiandai Hanyu P´nlü C´dian. In the case of entries of more than one syllable, we have ¯ ¯ also made use of Zhongw´n Shumianyu P´nlü C´dian. For entries not found in e either work, we have made subjective judgments of relative frequency. For entries that are homographic if tones are disregarded, the item of highest frequency is indicated by an asterisk following the transcription. For example: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ´ ´ ba* ba ba ba . . . ba ba ba ba ba . . . ba (For the characters corresponding to these transcriptions, see the main body of the dictionary.) Frequency information, while useful also for students, is provided chie y as an aid to determine the default items in computer usage. Our unique combination of letters, tone marks, and raised numbers provides a simple and distinctive one-to-one correspondence between transcription and character(s) that is intended to facilitate computerized handling of the entries.
1 2 3 6 1 2 1 2 6

III. Explanatory Notes and Examples
1. When a syllable beginning with a, e, or o appears non-initially in a polysyllabic word, it is preceded by an apostrophe. Compare: ¯ tian t´'an

dangan 2.


The lack of a tone-mark indicates that a syllable is to be pronounced in the ´ neutral tone, as zi in haizi `child', and bu in kanbujian `can't see'. (Some words can be pronounced with either neutral or original tones. This dictionary indicates ordinary pronunciation of most speakers in normal conversation.) For the most common changes in tone other than neutral tone, namely sequences of syllables involving consecutive 3rd tones, bu `not', and y¯ `one', we show the original tone for each syllable, and also indicate changes in the following manner: (i) A dot under a vowel indicates that the syllable should be pronounced as ´ ´ ´ 2nd tone. For example: suoy > suoy `therefore', wo ye you > wo ye you `I . . . ´ also have'; y¯yang > y´yang `alike', budu > budu `wrong'. . . (ii) A short dash under the syllable y¯ indicates that it should be pronounced as 4th tone. For example: y¯dianr > y dianr. ¯ Since erization is largely restricted to the Beijing dialect, and is further restricted to some usages of the term, we place the r in parentheses unless a term occurs only with r. For example: y¯dian(r) ¯ ¯ ¯ gepian(r) ´ panrcai

A Ðr Æb ™r



proposal = dan + gan V. dare to; be reckless to the extent of = dang + an N. le; record; dossier; archives



´ kuai(r)tou


Note that in actual speech, n preceding r in this term is not pronounced. Thus the term would be pronounced y¯diar. ¯ In addition to the general category of V., we have singled out the subcategories of V.O. and R.V. to draw attention to the fact that they allow elements to be inserted between the two parts. For example: dianhuo re . . .') kanjian

 ¹(?) LG(?) W(?)R Ø?Ü


a bit; a little

song sheet <topo.> size; stature; build


ready-cooked dish


We present under the category of CONS. the special constructions in which some of the entries appear. For example, for the entry bux´ng `won't do/work', we add

¹k Á


light a re (This permits dianle huo . . . `having lit the


see (This permits kanbujian `can't see')

´ s.v. de bux´ng awfully s.v. Wo mang de bux´ng. I'm awfully busy.




Explanatory Notes and Examples


To save space we sometimes give one de nition for two parts of speech when readers can be expected to make the necessary adjustments in phrasing. Thus ¯ bagong represents both the noun and the verb-object construction `go on strike'.



go on strike


Slightly variant meanings of entries are separated by semicolons. For example: baihuai More widely different meanings are distinguished by circled numbers. For example:
2 1



ruin; corrupt; undermine

´ baich¯ bai


Angled brackets enclose an abbreviation for level of speech, or “register,” or for the environment in which a term is used. For example: fei




A idiot B idiocy; fatuity

A hundred B numerous


V. <coll.> A cost; spend; expend B <slang> talk nonsense 0 S.V. wasteful

¯ daijunzhe ¯ ´ fangcheng 10.

A de nition may be directly followed by an illustrative sentence or phrase. For example: b nglie In general, a slash stands for “and/or” For example: ´ bailun

&Ì¥ ¹
N. V.


<med.> carrier

<chem./math.> equation



¯ fang'an

´ fangtan

A slash between characters separates variant characters, the rst being the more commonly used. For example: baifeijux¯ng If a string includes more than one variant, we repeat the string with two slant lines in between. For example: baobao 12. 13. ¯ b gongb j ng

v# Fn % ¹r ¿¨

be juxtaposed; stand side by side ~ d -y¯ tie for rst place balance (of watch/clock); balance wheel scheme M: zhong/ge interview




~Ÿñ wt
/ //

F.E. All neglected tasks are being undertaken.

Changes in parts of speech are signaled by the symbol 0 . For example: ¯ fenl´

To save space we use a tilde (~) to replace a head entry. Thus under the head entry ¯ baituo ´ ¯ we have the illustrative phrase ~ wailai ganshe shake off external interferences

 ÝÝ ÕmÕl ÅmÅl ¦»

<topo.> precious/darling baby

separate; sever 0 N. discreteness; disjunction



cast/shake off


Square brackets enclose the traditional character equivalent(s) for the preceding character(s). For details, see Section VI. Traditional and Simpli ed Characters below.

Explanatory Notes and Examples




The notation M: indicates the appropriate measure word(s) that should be used for a particular noun: ´ ´ lunchuan Any N. without indication of a measure word either does not ordinarily have one, or can take the general measure word ge or a collective measure word such as zhong `sort; kind' and du¯ `pile'. In the body of the dictionary the two kinds of bound forms (see Section IV. Parts of Speech and Other Entry Labels) are handled as follows: ´ meaningful bound forms: fa ´ against taofa



steamship M: 2s¯ u o



´ meaningless bound forms: 19hu



fell; cut down 0 B.F send an expedition ´ ´ in hudie



IV. Parts of Speech and Other Entry Labels
¯ 1. AB. (Abbreviation, Suoxiec´ ). Multi-syllable nominal phrase usually ´ shortened to two or three syllables. E.g., Bei Da for Beij¯ng Daxue. 2. ADV. (Adverb, Fuc´ ). Adverbs modify the action of the verb. Verbal modi cation includes (i) intensi cation, e.g., hen in hen hao `is very good'; ¯ (ii) negation, e.g., bu in bu shuo `doesn't speak'; (iii) quanti cation, e.g., ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ dou in dou shuo `all say'; (iv) repetition, e.g., zai in zai shuo `say it again'; etc. Most stative verbs (S.V.) can also function as adverbs (sometimes with reduplication), e.g., man in manman ch¯ `Take your time (eating)' and ¯ ¯ renzhen in renzhen de xie `write carefully'. However, this is only a secondary function of a stative verb. Therefore stative verbs are not additionally labeled as adverbs in this dictionary. ¯ 3. A.M. (Aspect Marker, T biaoj ). Aspect means the stage of completion of an action. Chinese usually uses verbal suf xes as a means of indicating this information. Examples of Chinese aspect include the (i) durative (action in progress, much like `-ing' in English), e.g., zhe in kanzhe `is watching'; (ii) perfective (completed action), e.g., le in kanle wu ge diany ng, `saw ve movies'; and (iii) experiential (much like the `ever' in the question `Have you ¯ ever . . . ?'), e.g., guo in jianguo ta `have met him before'. Note that aspect is not the same thing as tense. Tense refers to when the action takes place relative to when the utterance is actually spoken, and so at most any language can have only three tenses: past, present and future. Aspect, on the other hand, can occur in any tense, so that even completed action can be spoken ¯ ´ ¯ of in the (a) past, e.g., Ta zuotian daole Beij¯ng `He arrived in Beijing yes¯ terday'; (b) present, e.g., Ta xianzai daole Beij¯ng `He has now arrived in ¯ ¯ Beijing'; or (c) future, e.g., Ta m´ngtian zheige sh´hou y jing daole Beij¯ng `He will already have arrived in Beijing by this time tomorrow'. (See also M.P. for usage of le as a sentence- nal particle.) ¯ 4. A.T. (Abstruse Term, Shen'aoc´ ). A term that occurs so infrequently or has such unclear syntactic behavior that its part of speech cannot be ´ determined with assurance, if at all. E.g., geqian. 5. ATTR. (Attributive, D ngyu ). An attributive is any word, phrase, or sentence that is found directly in front of a noun or noun phrase and functions to modify that noun. Just about any word, phrase, or sentence in Chinese can easily function as an attributive. Because of this, the label ATTR. is limited in this dictionary only to those entries that have no possible function other than that ¯ ¯ ¯ of attributive. Examples include gonggong in gonggong q che `(public) bus', ´ ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ qian in qianban ` rst half', Zhong-Mei in Zhong-Mei guanxi `Sino-American relations', etc. 6. AUX. (Auxiliary Verb, Zhudongc´ ). This is what schoolteachers often call a “helping verb.” Auxiliary verbs in Chinese always precede the ´ ´ ¯ ´ main verb, e.g., neng in neng shuo Y¯ngwen `able to speak English'. When an auxiliary verb co-occurs with a coverb (COV.), then the auxiliary verb ´ ¯ ´ ´ ¯ ´ always precedes the coverb, e.g., neng gen waiguoren shuo Y¯ngwen `able to speak English with foreigners'. In any sentence containing an auxiliary verb, ´ negation is always placed directly in front of the auxiliary verb, e.g., buneng ¯ ´ ´ ¯ ´ gen waiguoren shuo Y¯ngwen `unable to speak English with foreigners'.






Parts of Speech


´ ´ 7. B.F. (Bound Form, Nianzhuo C´su ). Morphemes which do not function as free words in a sentence and cannot be handled using one of the other bound category labels, such as pre x, suf x, measure word, or particle. A given character may represent a free word in one or more of its meanings but a bound morpheme in other meanings. E.g., qiang is a bound form ¯ meaning `rush' in qiangshou `rush a harvest', but a free form as a verb meaning `pillage'. In addition to these meaningful bound forms, which we de ne and illustrate with one or more examples, there are many characters that have no meaning of their own but simply represent a syllabic sound. E.g., 8 ´ ´ ´ pu and 6tao in putao `grapes'. For these entries we provide neither entry label [in the printed book, but see CHAR. below] nor de nition but simply note words in which the character occurs. See also III. Explanatory Notes and Examples no. 15 above, and Section V. Free and Bound Characters below.








8. CHAR. (Character, Z ). This label is used in the electronic edition (rather ´ ´ than the absence of an entry label) for characters such as 8pu and 6tao , as described in the preceding section for B.F. 9. CMP. (Complement, Buyu ). A complement is a post-verbal syllable, word, phrase or sentence that indicates the end result of the action carried out ´ ´ by the main verb. This end result may be (i) a state, e.g., wan in ch¯wan ` nish ¯ eating', zhu in zhuazhu `grasp tightly'; (ii) physical displacement, e.g., guolai ´ ´ in na guolai `bring over', shangqu in na shangqu `take up'; (iii) psychological displacement, e.g., xialai in mai xialai `buy sth. (and thus bring it “down” into one's own realm)', etc. For all types of complement it is further possible to indicate the potential for that complement to be realized as a result of carrying out the main action. That potential or lack of potential is indicated by inserting a -de- (indicating positive potential) or a -bu- (indicating no potential whatsoever) directly between the main verb and its complement, ´ ´ e.g., ch¯dewan `able to nish sth. if one tries', ch¯buwan `unable to nish sth. no matter how hard one tries'. See also Resultative Verb construction (R.V.). ´ 10. CONJ. (Conjunction, Lianc´ ). A conjunction is a word that joins phrases or sentences together to form a larger sentence or chunk of thought. Some ´ ´ examples include erqie `furthermore', su¯ran `although', suoy `therefore', jiu ´ `then' and yaoburan `otherwise'. 11. CONS. (Construction, Jux´ng ). A xed sentence pattern. E.g., yuq´ V1 ´ buru V2 `rather than V1 it is better to V2' (where V1 and V2 represent any ´ two verbs); cong A q `starting/beginning from A' (where A represents any word). 12. COV. (Coverb, Jiec´ ). Entries of this category frequently translate into English as prepositions. They directly precede nouns, which in turn are ¯ ¯ ´ ´ followed immediately by the main verb/action, e.g., gen in gen waiguoren ¯ ´ ´ shuo Y¯ngwen `speak English with foreigners', gei in gei pengyou mai l wu `buy a present for a friend'. 13. F.E. (Fixed Expression, Gud ng C´zu ). Set expressions that allow for little if any freedom to substitute different words. They include (i) utterances whose meanings are exactly equivalent to the meaning of their parts, e.g., ´ haojiubujian `haven't seen (you) for a long time', bair zuomeng `daydream', ¯ zhan de gao, kan de yuan `be farsighted'; (ii) parallel nominal, verbal, ´ ´ ´ ´ or phrasal expressions, e.g., meiwanmeiliao `endless', p¯honggualü `drape honori c red silk band over sb.'s shoulders'; (iii) expressions whose meanings,










Parts of Speech

although strictly speaking metaphorical, can nevertheless still be fairly easily ¯ understood when encountered in context, e.g., zoumakanhua `know only from cursory observation'. Very frequently example sentences are necessary for students to know how to use entries from this category actively. 14. ID. (Idiom, X´yu ). A subset of xed expressions whose meanings cannot be understood from context, but rather depend upon the listener/reader's specialized cultural, literary and / or historical knowledge in order to be understood. Most, if not all, idioms require example sentences in order for ¯ ´ students to know how to use them actively, e.g., jiangher xia `go from bad ´ ¯ ´ ´ ´ to worse'; muy chengzhou `what's done can't be undone'; wangyangbulao `better late than never'. ¯ 15. INF. (In x, Zhongzhu ). The two bound markers of the potential in 3 resultative verb (see R.V. below) and directional verb constructions, i.e., de ´ ´ , bu , e.g., ch¯dewan `able to nish sth. if one tries', na bu xialai `unable to get sth. down no matter how hard one tries'.



16. INTJ. (Interjection, Gantanc´ ). An unbound exclamation. E.g., 2 ¯ ¯ ai expressing sentiment / sympathy / disappointment; aiyo expressing surprise/pain. 17. M. (Nominal Measure Word, M´ngliangc´ ). In Chinese it is not possible to count the quantity of something simply by using a bare number, followed immediately by a noun. Rather, Chinese nouns all behave like the English nouns `paper', `water' and `dynamite'. That is, when we count these three nouns in English, we must include an additional word, such as `sheet', `cup' or `stick' directly after the quantity, and directly in front of the noun. This additional word tells us something about the shape, size, unit of measurement, ¯ etc., of the noun in question. Some Chinese examples include zhang in y¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ zhang zhuozi `one desk'; ba in liang ba y zi `two chairs'; and 4zh¯ in san zh¯ ¯ qianb `three pencils'. In recent years ge , the nonspeci c measure word, has gradually been displacing the other, more speci c measure words. In the dictionary, nouns that do not have a speci c measure word may be used with ge. In actuality, ge is also used with many other nouns as well. 




18. M.P. (Modal Particle, Yuq c´ ). These are sentence- nal particles that express some kind of attitude, opinion, or feeling of the speaker. A few of the attitudes commonly expressed by modal particles in Mandarin include (i) ´ ´ supposition, e.g., ba in N sh Meiguoren ba? `You're an American, right?'; ´ ¯ (ii) warning, e.g., a in N bie shang ta de dang a! `Don't be fooled by him!'; (iii) exclamation, e.g., lou in Ch¯fan lou! `Time to eat!'; (iv) new (or currently relevant) situation, e.g., le in Tai gu le. `It's too expensive.' 19. N. (Noun, M´ngc´ ). We use this label to cover a broad range of nominal expressions, from simple names of persons or things, to extended noun phrases (m´ngc´ c´zu ). (More technically: An expression that can be modi ed by a demonstrative pronoun plus a measure word. ¯ ¯ E.g., shu in na ben shu `that book'.) Chinese nouns, unlike their English counterparts, usually do not inherently contain a sense of location. That is, while one can comfortably say: `He is eating by the picnic table' in English, the same sentence cannot be translated directly into Chinese without modi cation. This is because the action of eating is taking place at a speci c ¯ location by the picnic table, yet zhuozi `table' all by itself in Chinese is merely a physical object. It lacks any natural sense of location. Therefore, some sort ¯ of locational information, e.g., neibianr `there', xiamian `under' or l `in', is




Parts of Speech



¯ required after zhuozi in order to locate the action in physical space. See P.W. (Place Word) for the special subtype of Chinese noun that does not require additional locational information when the noun serves as a location. The label N. is used for both nouns and noun phrases; the latter include (i) cases of the form `XX de Noun' or `XX zh¯ Noun', where modi cation of a noun ´ takes place using a Subordinating Particle (S.P.), e.g., ai de jiej¯ng `child of ¯ a couple in love', baijunzh¯jiang `general of a defeated army', as well as (ii) cases where two or more levels of modi cation exist; `XX YY Noun' and the complex entry itself is neither a proper technical term nor an accepted piece ´ ¯ of jargon, e.g., aiguo weisheng yundong `patriotic health campaign'. 20. NUM. (Number, Shuc´ ¯ 21. ON. (Onomatopoeia, Xiangshengc´ ). These are terms that imitate or are suggestive of the sounds of the things they represent. Examples include ¯ ¯ ¯ d¯da `sound of dripping water' and wuwu `sound of hooting'. 22. PR. (Pronoun, Daic´ ). Includes (i) personal pronouns, e.g., wo `I, me'; (ii) interrogative pronouns, e.g., shu´ `who?'; and (iii) demonstrative pronouns, e.g., zhe `this'. ´ 23. PREF. (Pre x, Qianzhu ). Always bound and pre xed to (i) nouns, 2 ´ ¯ ¯ e.g., lao `old' in Lao Wang `old Wang'; fei `non' in feij¯nshu `non-metal'; 2 ¯ (ii) numbers, e.g., d `sequence' in d -san `third'; or (iii) verbs, e.g., ke `can' 2 ´ ´ in kex´ng `doable'; hao `good' in haoch¯ `delicious'; nan `dif cult' in nanch¯ `bad tasting'. 24. P.W. (Place Word, Chusuoc´ ). Most Chinese nouns do not convey a sense of location. Therefore, when a Chinese noun is used to indicate the whereabouts of another object or the setting of a particular action, it is normally necessary to place some sort of locational information, e.g., ¯ neibianr `there', xiamian `under', l `in', etc., directly after the reference noun (see discussion of N. above). However, there are certain types of nouns in Chinese that actually do inherently contain a salient enough sense of location that the inclusion of additional location information about that noun is largely unnecessary. These special nouns are called place words, and ¯ ´ include (i) names of countries, e.g., Zhongguo `China', (ii) institutions, e.g., ´ ´ ´ ´ Beij¯ng Daxue `Beijing University', (iii) organizations, e.g., Lianheguo `United ´ ¯ Nations' and (iv) buildings, e.g., tushuguan `library'. ´ ´ 25. R.F. (Reduplicated Form, Chongdiec´ ). Terms containing the reduplication of one or two basic syllables. Examples include (i) XXYY reduplica¯ ¯ tion, e.g., mamahuhu `so-so', and (ii) XYY reduplication, e.g., lengb¯ngb¯ng `very cold'. ´ 26. R.V. (Resultative Verb, Jieguo buyuc´ ). Sometimes Chinese focuses not only on the action itself, but also on the end result or goal ´ ´ of that action, e.g., ch¯wan (lit. `eat and nish') and na guolai (lit. `pick up and bring over'). `Finish' is the end result of eating, and `ending up over here' is the nal result of picking sth. up and carrying it somewhere. These verb-complement constructions (see CMP. above) are labeled here as ´ resultative verb constructions, even though some people might call na guolai by a different name. For both types of constructions it is further possible to indicate the potential for the goal of that action to be realized. That potential or lack of potential is indicated by inserting an in x (see INF. above) -de(indicating positive potential) or -bu- (indicating no potential whatsoever) directly between the main verb and the complement that follows it, e.g.,

¯ ). E.g., y¯ `one', er `two', san `three'.








Parts of Speech

´ ´ ch¯dewan `able to nish sth. if one tries', na bu guolai `unable to bring sth. on over no matter how hard one tries'. ´ 27. S.P. (Subordinating Particle, Congshuc´ ). Used to link either (i) a modifying clause with the head noun that follows it, i.e., 1de and zh¯ , ¯ ¯ e.g., tamen kan de shu `the book they read'; (ii) an adverbial with the verb 2 ¯ ¯ that follows it, i.e., de , e.g., gaox ng de shuo `say happily'; or (iii) a verb ¯ and the manner clause that follows it, i.e., 3de , e.g., shuo de hen kuai `speak quickly'.





28. SUF. (Suf x, Houzhu ). Always bound, most suf xes combine with ¯ ¯ ´ nouns, e.g., 2hua, r, bian, l , wai, zhong, though verbal suf xes, e.g., budie, ¯ chulai, also exist. Aspect markers (A.M.) are one type of verbal suf x, but are treated as an independent category here. Note that whereas monosyllabic position morphemes such as l and wai are suf xes, their bisyllabic semantic ¯ ¯ ¯ equivalents l tou, waibian, zhongjian, etc., are place words (P.W.). 29. S.V. (Stative Verb, J ngtai Dongc´ ). These entries are frequently translated into English as adjectives, even though they actually behave in Chinese as verbs. That is, the sense of `to be' is already incorporated into these verbs, e.g., Zheige hen hao `This is quite good'. In fact, it is simply ungrammatical to place the verb sh , `to be', directly in front of a stative verb. Because stative verbs are actually verbs, they are directly negated by bu, e.g., bu hao `not good', and can be further modi ed by adverbs of degree such ¯ ´ ¯ as hen `quite', feichang `extremely' and sh´fen `very; utterly'. One common function of stative verbs is that they may serve as adverbs to other actions, ¯ e.g., manman in manman ch¯ `take your time (eating)' and renzhen de xie `write carefully'. 30. V. (Verb, Dongc´ ). A word indicating an action or existence. E.g., ch¯ `eat', zai `exist; be at'. (More technically: A word that can be modi ed by the ´ ´ negatives bu `not' and mei `have/did not'. E.g., bu qu `do not go', mei qu `did not go'.) See also Stative Verb (S.V.) and V.O. construction. 31. V.M. (Verbal Measure Word, Dongliangc´ ). These are bound syllables, suf xed to a quantity, that indicate the number of times an action ¯ has taken place, e.g., c , tang: qu y¯ tang `go once'; 3bian: zai shuo y¯ bian `say it again'. ´ 32. V.O. (Verb-Object Construction, Dong-B¯n Jiegou ). Many English verbs get translated into natural Chinese as a verb plus an object noun, ¯ e.g., ch¯fan for `eat', shuohua for `speak', etc. It is important for two reasons to know what is merely a verb in Chinese and what is actually a verb-object construction. First, verb-object constructions can never take a second object, i.e., ch¯fan can never be followed directly by something else to be eaten. Second, a verb and its object can be separated from one another, thus allowing (i) aspect particles to be placed directly after the verb, e.g., ch¯le fan `after ¯ ´ nishing eating'; (ii) modi cation of the object, e.g., ch¯ Zhongguofan `eat ¯ Chinese food'; and (iii) quanti cation of the noun, e.g., ch¯le san wan fan `ate three bowls of rice'. See also Stative Verb (S.V.). 33. V.P. (Verb Phrase, Dongc´ C´zu ). This includes (i) descriptive ´ predicates that do not behave as stative verbs, e.g., airan `amicable; amiable', as well as (ii) phrases and longer chunks containing a verb that are not ´ ´ ¯ ¯ xed expressions, e.g., bailaibaiqu `sway; waver', aidao tianhei `bear up until nightfall'. 








V. Free and Bound Characters
As an integral part of our labeling of parts of speech we make a distinction between those that are “free” and those that are “bound” and we further recognize two levels of “boundness”. First there are those characters that individually have no meaning of their own (at least in modern Chinese) but require one or more companion characters to form a meaningful word. The characters x¯ and shuai separately have no more meaning than English `cric' and `ket', but together they represent a word, x¯shuai, meaning `cricket'. In our singlecharacter entries, such characters are neither labeled [in printed form, but in electronic form they are labeled CHAR.] nor de ned but simply followed by a word (occasionally more than one word) in which the given character occurs. Exhibiting a second level of boundness are those characters that do have meaning of their own, and often carry this meaning into many different compound words, but that do not occur independently as free words in standard modern Chinese (though they may be free words in classical Chinese or in very formal ´ written styles of the language). Examples are nü `female' in nüren `woman', 2 ´ ¯ nühaizi `girl', nüde `woman, female', and funü `woman, women'; and sheng ´ ´ ¯ ¯ `student' in xuesheng `student', nansheng `male student', nüsheng `female ¯ ¯ student', and zhaosheng `recruit students'. Many characters are bound in some 2 ¯ meanings but free in others. For example, sheng , in addition to being bound ¯ ´ in the meaning of `student', is also bound in its meaning of `life', as in shenghuo ¯ `life, livelihood' and shengs `life and death'. But in the meaning `to give birth' or `to be born' it is a free word, a verb. We label such characters B.F., for `bound form', when they occur only in compound words; and those that are bound in some meanings and free in others are labeled accordingly in the several sub-de nitions within their entries. These categorizations should be valuable to users of the dictionary in at least two ways. Like the other entry labels, N., V., S.V., etc., they enhance the semantic de nition of a term, providing grammatical information to improve the user's understanding of how the terms are used. And beyond that, they serve the very practical purpose of a caution sign, indicating that one cannot turn the Chinese-toEnglish de nitional equivalents around and assume that a given English concept is expressed in Chinese by the single character in question. For example, one cannot say that the Chinese word for `woman' is nü or the word for student ¯ is sheng, because these are not “words” in Chinese but bound morphemes, or “parts” of words.





VI. Traditional and Simpli ed Characters
The reality confronting most people seeking to cope with the Chinese system of writing is that they must acquire command of both the simpli ed and the complex forms of characters. Most of the former were created anonymously and have been in common informal use, especially in personal handwritten materials, for many centuries. Together with a few new creations they were promulgated as the of cial PRC standard starting in 1955. The complex forms have remained the standard in Taiwan, in Hong Kong up to 1997, and in many overseas Chinese areas, where the simpli ed forms are known generally and used informally but are frowned upon in publication and other public display. Because of the need to cope with materials of diverse origin in time and place, we provide help in learning both the simpli ed and complex forms. The present note explains how the simpli ed/complex connection is handled in the main body of the dictionary. For single-syllable/single-character entries, traditional equivalents of practically all characters that have been simpli ed are provided in square brackets. For example,

Note that and are both used for zhe in Taiwan, and in general, complex forms in brackets do not imply any standard (or historical precedence) ´ for traditional characters. Similar examples include yu [ ], j [ ], and ´ ´ tai . For 1cai , the notation is meant to suggest that even where complex forms are preferred, may be more commonly used than . (For some purposes, such as ordering the variants in wei [ / ], l [ / ], and xian , we have taken into consideration the “Big5” character set used for electronic text in Taiwan. The basic version of that character set does not include , , , , or .) For entries of two or more syllables / characters the traditional forms are provided in the following manner:

l½ ¬ ˆ[[[]]] ‘
ç[[º/]2] X| Ñ[[î]] Ñ @[ ‡] @ ‡ ð[ ú] M[-/”]M ¿[Ú/«] @ù2Ï «
ma ¯ ma q´ jiu wei ¯ fa fa zhe jiur [ ´ rengjiu shoujiupai ¯ ¯ luanq¯bazao

horse mother ride astride old; bygone for send out hair durative aspect marker

Ž¼ ùá X º 2 ̔ Ï á

This notation highlights the complex equivalents of simpli ed characters and saves space by avoiding repetition. The dash represents one or more characters (like r in jiur ) that were not simpli ed and hence have no separate traditional equivalent. See also Appendix VIII, Standard and Variant Character Forms.

] Íç [-
-] ˆç> [‚-] q£kß

former days still; as before conservatives at sixes and sevens



E-C Appendix I. Word Building in English A. Pre xes
Pre x antiExamples against, opposite (fan[du ] matter (wuzh bewar (zhanzh¯ng e

cause to be or have (sh friend (p´ngyou e little (xiao


two, twice, double (er form (x´ngzhuang monthly (yuek¯n a


life (sh¯ngm ng e sphere (fanw´i e

chemistry (huaxu´ e centi-

hundredth part (baif¯n zh¯y¯ e grade (du meter (m


with, together (g´ ngt´ ng o o author (zuozhe exist (c´ nzai u


with, together (gongt´ ng o centric (zh¯ ngx¯n de o join (c¯nji¯) a a


(y y t´ ng shang, yong zai z mu m, b h´ p de qi´nmian o e a p ) passion (j¯q´ng ) – compassion (t´ ngq´ng o , xi¯ngfan a opposite (fandu , xi¯ngdu a


missile (daodan counteropposite (fandu attack (g¯ ngj¯ o de-

natural (z r´n de a

revolution (g´m ng e

indicating the opposite, to remove, to reduce (f¯i e jianshao ) . nationalize (gu´ youhua o code (m ma value (jiazh´ ) – decode (jiema . )


) – devalue (sh. bianzh´ ) not, the opposite/reverse of (foud ng , xi¯ngfan a advantage (y¯ udian o agree (t´ ngy o ) – disagree (bu t´ ngy o

honest (ch´ngsh´ de e en-

cause to become, put into the stated condition (sh ch´ngw´i e e zhuangtai ... ) danger (w¯ixian e large (da ) – endanger (w¯ihai e ) ) ) – enlarge (kuoda


body (sh¯nt e

power (qu´nl a

former (y qi´n de a wife (q¯z

minister (buzhang extra-

outside, beyond (ch¯och¯ a u curricular (kech´ng de e

Íù i( Íi( ‰ Í„  © Ë åË¡¦ù…  ,N Œ Ì 6 ˜¶ Œ˜„ ¨ ̨ } i f if £ô i¨ ~¦u  ¦ ~¦¦„ s ˜s q Œ  w \¥ ¨W¥ X@ qX q Œ  w EÄ EÄ   „¨ s (@WÍ Œ „wb ÀÅ Å Íù øÍ øù üW ÍWƒüW ê6„ ÝÍê6„ Íù øÿ øù ;û Í; i} Íi} ^ øÍ d» Ï ý© ^ý© Æ¡ ã¡ ÷< ,< 8š øÍ ¹ X¹   ڞ„ ڞ„ X ¤Ž ¶¡ qi q³ 9 i9 «S S° g› ˆg åw„ wû„ è wûè »P w» …ú @ u" þ „ þ"„
[ ]) ) – antimatter (fanwuzh , you ) ) ) – antiwar (fanzhan de ) ) – befriend (y p´ngyou taidu du dai e ) , shu¯ng a , liangbei ) ) ) – belittle (biand¯ ) – biform (er x´ng de ) ) ) – bimonthly (shu¯ngyuek¯n a a ) ), (sh¯ngwu e ) – biochemistry (sh¯ngwu huaxu´ e e ) ) ) – biosphere (sh¯ngwuqu¯n e a ) ) – centigrade (b´if¯n du de a e ) – centimeter (l´m ) ) , [h´...] y¯q [ ...] e ¯ ) – coauthor (h´zhuzhe e ) ) ) ) – coexist (gongc´ n u , [h´...] y¯q [ ...] e ) ¯ ) – concentric (t´ ng zh¯ ngx¯n de o o ) ) – conjoin (li´nh´ a e , m, b ) ) ) – contramissile (fandandao daodan , xi¯ngfang a , xi¯ngdu a ) ) ) – contranatural (weifan z r´n de a . ) ) ) – counterattack (fang¯ ng o ) – counterrevolution (fang´m ng e ) , xi¯ngfan a , ch´ qu u , ) – denationalize (f¯igu´ youhu´ e o a ) ) ) – disadvantage (qu¯dian e ) ) ) – dishonest (bu ch´ngsh´ de e ) , sh. chuy´ ... u ) – embody (t xian ) ) – empower (shouqu´n a , qi´nren de a ) ) ) – ex-minister (qi´nren buzhang a ) , zai ... zh¯wai ... ) ) – ex-wife (qi´nq¯ a ) ) – extracurricular (kewai de )


E-C Appendix I

















ordinary (put¯ ng de o ) – extraordinary (f¯ich´ng de e a ) in advance, before, in or at the front (yuxi¯n a , qi´n a , zai qi´nmian de a ) leg (tu ) – foreleg (qi´ntu a ) warn (j nggao ) – forewarn (yuxi¯n j nggao a ) not (bu , f¯i e , w´ u ) ability (n´ngl e ) – inability (w´ n´ng u e ) direct (zh´ji¯ de e ) – indirect (jianji¯ de e ) (y y t´ ng shang, yong zai z mu l de qi´nmian o a , l ) legal (h´fa de e ) – illegal (bu h´fa de e ) (y y t´ ng shang, yong zai z m´ m, b h´ p de qi´nmian o u e a , m, b p ) balance (p´ngh´ng e ) – imbalance (bu p´ngh´ng e ) moral (daod´ de e ) – immoral (bu daod´ de e ) . possible (ken´ng de e ) – impossible (bu ken´ng de e ) (y y t´ ng shang, yong zai z mu r de qi´nmian o a , r ) regular (gu¯z´ de e ) – irregular (bu gu¯z´ de e ) in, into (nei , neixiang ) door (m´n e ) – indoor (hunei de ) x (¯nzhu¯ng a a ) – in x (qianru ) between, among (huxi¯ng a , zai ... zh¯ji¯n a ... ) change (g¯nghuan e ) – interchange (ji¯ohuan a ) national (gu´ ji¯ de o a ) – international (gu´ j de o ) inside, within (zai ... zh¯nei ... ) city (ch´ngsh e ) – intracity (sh nei de ) department (x ) – intra-departmental (x nei de ) thousand (qi¯n a ) gram (ke )– kilogram (qi¯nke a , g¯ ngj¯n o ) meter (m ) – kilometer (qi¯nm a , g¯ ngl o ) large (da de ), (h´ nggu¯n de o a ) economics (j¯ngj xu´ e ) – macroeconomics (h´ nggu¯n j¯ngj xu´ o a e ) structure (ji´gou e ) – macrostructure (h´ nggu¯n ji´gou o a e ) bad, badly (huai , buli´ng a , budang ) . function (g¯ ngn´ng o e ) – malfunction (g¯ ngn´ng zhang'ai o e ) treat (du dai ) – maltreat (nüedai ) extremely small (j´ xiao de ) computer (j suanj¯ ) – microcomputer (w¯ix´ng j suanj¯ e ) surgery (waik¯ e ) – microsurgery (xianw¯i waik¯ e e ) middle (zh¯ ngji¯n o a ) day (b´iti¯n a a ) – midday (zh¯ ngwu o ) night (yewan ) – midnight (wuye ) small, short (j´ xiao de , j´ duan de ) bus (g¯ nggong q ch¯ o e ) – minibus (xiao g¯ nggong q ch¯ o e ) skirt (q´ nzi u ) – miniskirt (ch¯oduanq´ n a u ) bad, badly, wrongly (huai , bu zhengd¯ng a ) . judge (panduan ) – misjudge (cuowu de panduan ) understand (l.jie ) – misunderstand (wujie ) one, single (d¯n a , y¯ ) plane (f¯ij¯ e ) – monoplane (d¯ny j¯ a ) tone (y¯ndiao ) – monotone (d¯ndiao a ) many, more than one (du¯ o ) purpose (mud ) – multipurpose (du¯ yongt´ de o u ) story (l´ uc´ng o e ) – multistory (du¯ c´ng de o e ) new (x¯n ) classical (gudianzhuy de ) – neoclassical (x¯ngudianzhuy de . . ) conservative (baoshoupai de ) – neoconservative (x¯n baoshoupai de . . ) not (bu , f¯i e , w´ u ) metal (j¯nshu ) – nonmetal (f¯ij¯nshu e )

n&„ ^V„ „H w @wb„  w ft „Hft  ^ à ý› àý ô¥„ ô¥„ s (@WÍ „wb ¨Õ„ ¨Õ„ s (@WÍ Œ „wb sa sa ƒ·„ ƒ·„ ïý„ ïý„ s (@WÍ „wb Ä%„ Ä%„ … … è 7…„ ‰Å Le ’ø @ uô ô˜ ¤˜ ý¶„ ýE„ @ u… ΢ ¢…„ û û…„ C K CK l¤ s Cs lÌ 9„ Â„ ÏNf ÂÏNf ӄ Âӄ y o ƒ Ÿý Ÿýœ ù… P… „ ¡—X ®‹¡—X "Ñ >®"Ñ Eô }A EH (Z H( „ í„ lq}f lq}f ÙP …íÙ y cƒ 6­ ïH6­ ¦ã ïã U   ÞX UüX ó£ U£ & î„ &( „ |B &B„ ° äxYs„ °äxYs„ ݈>„ °Ýˆ>„  ^ à Ñ^ ^Ñ^


Word Building in English

Word Building in English




pro pseudo-












resident (d ngj¯ de u ) – non(-)resident (f¯i d ngj¯ de e u ) outside, beyond (ch¯oyue a , ch¯oguo a , shengguo ) live (sh¯nghu´ e o ) – outlive (b ... hu´ de ch´ng o a ... ) number (shuliang ) – outnumber (zai shuliangshang ch¯oguo a ) ´ too much, above, additional (guofen , zai... shangmian ... , ewai de ) head (t´ u o ) – overhead (zai t´ ud ngshang de o ) population (r´nkou e ) – overpopulation (r´nkou guosheng e ) time (sh´ji¯n a ) – overtime (ji¯b¯n a a ) many (du¯ o ) centric (zh¯ ngx¯n o ) – polycentric (du¯ zh¯ ngx¯n de o o ) directional (f¯ngxiang de a ) – polydirectional (du¯ f¯ngxiang de o a ) later than, after (zai ... zh¯hou ... ) war (zhanzh¯ng e ) – postwar (zhanhou de ) before, in advance (zai ... zh¯qi´n a ... , yuxi¯n a ) pay (zh¯fu ) – prepay (yufu ) war (zhanzh¯ng e ) – prewar (zhanqi´n de a ) for, supporting (zh¯ch´ ) American (Meigu´ de o ) – pro-American (zh¯ch´ Meigu´ de o ) not real, false (jia , wei ) classical (gudian de ) – pseudoclassical (wei gudian de ) . . . science (k¯xu´ e e ) – pseudoscience (weik¯xu´ e e ) again, back to a former state (zai , hu´fu ) pay (zh¯fu ) – repay (ch´nghu´n a a ) use (sh yong ) – reuse (ch´ ngfu sh yong o ) half, partly (ban , bufen de ) circle (yu´n a ) – semicircle (banyu´n a ) nal (ju´sai e ) – semi nal (banju´sai e ) under, below, less important (zai ... xia ... , d¯y´ u , c y´ ... de u ... ) section (bum´n e ) – subsection (f¯nbu e ) way (lu ) – subway (d tie ) greater or more than (ch¯oj´ a , ch¯oguo a ) market (sh chang ) – supermarket (ch¯oj´ sh chang a ) natural (z r´n de a ) – supernatural (ch¯oz r´n de a a ) at or over a long distance (yuan [jul´] [ ]) photo (zhaopian ) – telephoto (yuanju zhaoxiang de ) heat (re ) chemistry (huaxu´ e ) – thermochemistry (rehuaxu´ e ) meter (y´biao ) – thermometer (w¯nduj e ) across, on or to the other side of (h´ngyue e ) Atlantic (Dax¯ Y´ng a ) – transatlantic (h´ngyue Dax¯ Y´ng de e a ) plant (zhongzh´ ) – transplant (y´zh´ ) three (s¯n a ) angle (jiao ) – triangle (s¯njiaox´ng a ) cycle (yu´nqu¯n a a ) – tricycle (s¯nl´ nch¯ a u e ) beyond, very, too (ch¯oguo a , j´du de, ) modern (xiandai de ) – ultramodern (ch¯o xiandai de a ) not (bu , f¯i e ) fortunately (x ngyun de ) – unfortunately (bux ng de ) . important (zhongyao de ) – unimportant (bu zhongyao de ) . too little, below (guoshao , zai ... xiamian ... ) development (f¯zhan a ) – underdevelopment (qian f¯d´ a a ) sea (hai ) – undersea (haid de ) . one, single (d¯n a , y¯ ) directional (f¯ngxiang de a ) – unidirectional (d¯nxiang de a ) serial (y¯x lie de ) – uniserial (d¯nlie de a ) . next in rank below (fu ) chairman (zhux´ ) – vice-chairman (fuzhux´ ) president (zongtong ) – vice-president (fuzongtong ) . .

^šE„ …Ç ÜÇ Ô ;— @pÏ…Ç Ǧ @ b "„ R @Rv„ ºã ºãÇi öô  í & Eà &EÄ ¹„ &¹„ @ u ‰ „ @ uw „H /Ø „Ø ‰ w„ /¡ Žý„ /¡Žý„ G * äx„ *äx„ Ñf *Ñf  Þ /Ø Ø ( Í( J 覄 ¦ J¦ ³[ J³[ @  NŽ !Ž „ èè ¦è ï HÁ …§ …Ç ¢X …§¢X ê6„ …ê6„ Ü Ý» gG ÜÝgø„ í f íf êh )¦¡ *Š 9 *Š9 „ Í û © Ò ©Ò˜ ¦¨ ©nf …Ç ¦„ °ã„ …°ã„  ^ xÐH xH ́„ ́„ Ç @ b ÑU Ѿ w w•„ U   ¹„ U„  û#„ U#„ o YE oYE Yß oYß

šE„ …Š ; pÏ


E-C Appendix I

E-C Appendix I


Word Building in English

B. Suf xes (noun-forming)
Suf x -ability, -ibility -age -al -an, -ian, -arian -ance, -ence -ancy, -ency -ant, -ent -cy -dom -ee -er, -or, -ar Examples able (n´nggou de e ) – ability (n´ngl e ) exible (r´ uren de o ) – exibility (r´ ur´nx ng o e ) post (y´ uzheng o ) – postage (y´ uz¯ o ) shrink (sh¯ usu¯ o o ) – shrinkage (su¯ shu o ) arrive (daod´ a ) – arrival (daod´ a ) refuse (juju´ e ) – refusal (juju´ e ) library (t´ sh¯ guan u u ) – librarian (t´ sh¯ guan guanl yu´n u u a . music (y¯nyue ) – musician (y¯nyueji¯ a ) appear (ch¯ xian u ) – appearance (ch¯ xian u ) refer (c¯nkao a ) – reference (c¯nkao a ) emerge (ch¯ xian u ) – emergency (j nj´ q´ngkuang ) expect (q¯dai ) – expectancy (q¯dai ) serve (f´ wu u ) – servant (p´ r´n ue ) study (xu´x´ e ) – student (xu´sh¯ng e e ) accurate (zhunque de ) – accuracy (zhunquex ng ) bankrupt (pochan de ) – bankruptcy (pochan ) free (z you de ) – freedom (z y´ u o ) king (gu´ w´ng o a ) – kingdom (w´nggu´ a o ) absent (qu¯x´ e ) – absentee (qu¯x´zhe e ) employ (guyong ) – employee (guyu´n a ) paint (hu hua ) – painter (huaji¯ a ) conduct (chu´ndao a ) – conductor (daot ) . beg (q.tao ) – beggar (q gai ) brave (yonggan de ) – bravery (yonggan ) . . slave (n´ l u ) – slavery (n´ l zh u ) China (Zh¯ nggu´ o o ) – Chinese (Zh¯ nggu´ r´n o oe ) Japan (R ben ) – Japanese (R benr´n e ) actor (yanyu´n a ) – actress (nüyanyu´n a ) . lion (sh¯zi ) – lioness (mush¯ ) hand (shou ) – handful (y¯ ba de liang ) ¯ spoon (sh´ozi a ) – spoonful (y¯ sh´o liang a ) ¯ child (h´izi a ) – childhood (t´ ngni´n o a ) likely (ken´ng de e ) – likelihood (ken´ngx ng e ) electron (dianz ) – electronics (dianz xu´ e ) linguist (yuy´nxu´j¯a a e ) – linguistics (yuy´nxu´ a e ) collect (sh¯ uj´ o ) – collection (sh¯ uj´ o ) compose (chuangzuo ) – composition (zuow´n e ) observe (gu¯nch´ a a ) – observation (gu¯nch´ a a ) hero (y¯ngxi´ ng o ) – heroism (y¯ngxi´ ngzhuy o ) social (shehu de ) – socialism (shehu zhuy ) social (shehu de ) – socialist (shehu zhuy zhe ) violin (xiaot´q´n ) – violinist (xiaot´q´nshou ) cruel (c´nren de a ) – cruelty (c´nren a ) pure (ch´ n de u ) – purity (ch´ nj ng u ) move (yundong ) – movement (yundong ) retire (tu xi¯ u ) – retirement (tu xi¯ u ) dark (h¯i'an de e ) – darkness (h¯i'an e ) happy (x ngf´ de u ) – happiness (x ngf´ u ) future (weil´i a ) – futurology (weil´ixu´ a e ) music (y¯nyue ) – musicology (y¯nyue y´nji¯ a u ) friend (p´ngyou e ) – friendship (youy ) partner (huoban ) – partnership (huoban gu¯nxi a ) decide (ju´d ng e ) – decision (ju´d ng e ) expand (p´ngzhang e ) – expansion (p´ngzhang e ) young (ni´nq¯ng de a ) – youngster (ni´nq¯ngr´n a e ) gang (y¯ b¯ng a ) – gangster (feit´ u ) ¯

-ery -ese -ess -ful -hood -ics -ion, -ition, -ation -ism -ist -ity, -ty -ment -ness -ology -ship -sion, -ssion -ster

ý1„ ý› Ôç„ Ôç9 ®? ®D 6A A4 H¾ H¾ ÒÝ ÒÝ þf† þf†¡¦ˆ ó€ ó€¶ ú° ú° £ £ ú° '7ŵ 1… 1… ¡ ƺ f– f Æn„ Æn9 R§„ R§ ê1„ ê1 ý‹ ‹ý XE XE¥ Ç( Lj Ø; ;¶ ü üS ”¨ ” Çb„ Çb t¶ t¶T Eý Eýº åD åDº ˆ sˆ îP Íî K  Š„Ï úP  úÏ iP åt ïý„ ïý9 5P 5Pf í f¶ í f 6Æ 6Æ '\ \‡ Âß Âß ñÄ ñÄYs >„ >Ys >„ >Ys¥ ÐR ÐRK ‹Í„ ‹Í ¯„ ¯À Ш Ш     ї„ ї x„ x Be Bef ó€ ó€ v Ë Ë 4 4sû ³š ³š ¨À ¨À t{„ t{º  F *’


Word Building in English

close (gu¯nb a expose (sh baolu

sí ´2


) – closure (gu¯nb a ) ) – exposure (baolu

E-C Appendix I



C. Suf xes (verb-forming)
Suf x -en -ify -ize, -ise -fy, -ify Examples deep (sh¯n de e ) – deepen (ji¯sh¯n a e ) fast (l´ogu de a ) – fasten (zh¯l´o aa ) class (zhonglei ) – classify (f¯nlei e ) simple (jiand¯n de a ) – simplify (jianhua ) modern (xiandai de ) – modernize / modernise (xiandaihua popular ( li´ x´ng de) – popularize / popularise (puj´ u ) code (fagu¯ , daima ) – codify (bi¯nj´ a ) beauty (meil ) – beautify (meihua )

ñ„ bú„ Í{ €U„ °ã„ AL„ ÕÄ ã¡ Ža ¢¨

 ñ Nb ¦{ Ž




D. Suf xes (adjective-forming)
Suf x -able, -ible -al -an, -arian, -ian -ant, -ent -ary, -ory -ate -en -ese -fold -ful -free -ic, -ical -ish -ive -less -like -ly -most -ous, -ious -proof Examples suit (sh h´ e ) – suitable (h´sh de e ) admit (zhunxu j nru ) – admissible (ke zhunxu j nru de . . education (jiaoyu ) – educational (jiaoyu de ) nature (z r´n a ) – natural (z r´n de a ) suburb (ji¯oq¯ a u ) – suburban (ji¯oq¯ de a u ) discipline (j lü ) – disciplinarian (zh´x´ng j lüzhe ) Canada (Ji¯n´da a a ) – Canadian (Jian´da de a ) differ (but´ ng o ) – different (but´ ng de o ) result (ji´guo e ) – resultant (zuow´i ji´guo de e e ) advise (quangao ) – advisory (zh¯ nggao de o ) custom (x´guan ) – customary (x´guan de ) consider (kaolü ) – considerate (kaolü zh¯ udao de o ) fortune (yunq ) – fortunate (x ngyun de ) gold (hu´ngj¯n a ) – golden (j¯nzh de ) wood (mutou ) – wooden (muzh de ) China (Zh¯ nggu´ o o ) – Chinese (Zh¯ nggu´ de o o , Hanyu de Japan (R ben) – Japanese (R ben de , R yu de ) two (liang ) – twofold (shu¯ngch´ ng de a o ) many (xudu¯ o ) – manifold (gezhong geyang de ) care (xiaox¯n ) – careful (xiaox¯n de ) pain (t´ngtong e ) – painful (t´ngtong de e ) care (xiaox¯n ) – carefree (w´ y¯ uw´ lü u o u ) pain (tongku ) – painfree (w´ tongku de u ) atom (yu´nz a ) – atomic (yu´nz de a ) biology (sh¯ngwuxu´ e e ) – biological (sh¯ngwuxu´ de e e ) girl (nüh´i a ) – girlish (nüh´izi s de a ) red (h´ ngse o ) – reddish (sh¯o dai h´ ngse de a o ) create (chuangzhao ) – creative (you chuangzhaol de ) support (zh¯ch´ ) – supportive (zh¯ch´ de ) hope (x¯wang ) – hopeless (m´iyou x¯wang de e ) job (zh´ye ) – jobless (sh¯ye de ) child (h´izi a ) – childlike (h´izi b¯n de a a ) lady (gu fur´n e ) – ladylike (gu fur´n s de e ) man (n´nr´n a e ) – manly (juyou n´nz q gai de a ) month (yue ) – monthly (mei yue de ) inner (l mian de ) – innermost (zu l mian de ) upper (shangmian de) – uppermost (zu shangmian de ) space (k¯ ngji¯n o a ) – spacious (ku¯nchang de a ) danger (w¯ixian e ) – dangerous (w¯ixian de e ) sound (sh¯ngy¯n e ) – soundproof (g´y¯n de e ) water (shu ) – waterproof (f´ngshu de a )

¨¢„ ƸÛe ïƸÛe„ Y² Y²„ ê6 ê6„ Ê: Ê:„ ª‹ gLª‹¥  ÿ9  ÿ9„  „ Ӝ \XӜ„ t àt„ –ï –ï„ £Q £QhH„ Ð xЄ ÄÑ ÑT„ @R @T„ Eý Eý„ Ií„ åD åD„ åí„ 6 Ì̈́ ¸& ¤Í¤7„ à Ä ¼Û ¼Û„ à àçàQ Ûæ àÛæ„ ŸP ŸP„ if if„ si siP<„ ¢r 8¢r„ '2 ©'2›„ /¡ /¡„ ' ¡©'„ v& I&„ iP iP,„ 5‡º 5‡º<„ 7º w©7P‚„ ¨ Ϩ„ Ìb„  Ìb„ b„  b„ zô ½^„ qi qi„ ðó ”ó„ 4 24„


E-C Appendix I
-ward -y

down (xiangxia) – downward (xiangxia de) home (ji¯ a ) – homeward (hu´ji¯ de a ) hair (m´ofa a ) – hairy (du¯ m´o de o a ) noise (xu¯nhu´sh¯ng a a e ) – noisy (xu¯nhu´ de a a 

¶ ÛÑ §×𠹄 Å1„   Ÿ vք


„ Þ¶„ &ۄ §×„

Word Building in English


E. Suf xes (adverb-forming)
Suf x -ly Examples easy (r´ ngy de o ) – easily (r´ ngy de o ) quick (xunsu de ) – quickly (xunsu de ) -ward, -wards north (bei ) – northward(s) (xiangbei de ) up (xiangshang ) – upward(s) (xiangshang de -wise clock (zh¯ ng o ) – clockwise (shunsh´zh¯n f¯ngxiang e a other (q´t¯ de a ) – otherwise (zai q´t¯ f¯ngmian a a

¹H Å1H H H zöˆ¹ @vÖ¹b
) )


E-C Appendix II. English Irregular Verbs
Verb abide arise be (am, is, are) bear beat become befall beget begin behold bend bereave beseech beset bet bid bide bind bite bleed blend bless blow break breed bring broadcast browbeat build burn burst buy cast catch chide choose cling clothe come cost creep crow cut deal dig dive do draw dream drink drive dwell eat Past tense abode, abided arose was, were bore beat became befell begot began beheld bent bereaved, bereft besought, beseeched beset bet, betted bade, bid bode, bided bound bit bled blended, blent blessed, blest blew broke bred brought broadcast, broadcasted browbeat built burnt, burned burst bought cast caught chid, chided chose clung clothed, clad came cost crept crowed, crew cut dealt dug dived, dove did drew dreamed, dreamt drank drove dwelt, dwelled ate Past participle abode, abided arisen been borne, born beaten become befallen begotten, begot begun beheld bent bereaved, bereft besought, beseeched beset bet, betted bidden, bid bided bound bitten, bit bled blended, blent blessed, blest blown broken bred brought broadcast, broadcasted browbeaten built burnt, burned burst bought cast caught chid, chidden, chided chosen clung clothed, clad come cost crept crowed cut dealt dug dived done drawn dreamed, dreamt drunk driven dwelt, dwelled eaten


E-C Appendix II
fall feed feel ght nd ee ing y forbear forbid forecast forego forerun foresee foretell forget forgive forsake freeze get gild gird give go grind grow hang have (has) hear heave hew hide hit hold hurt inlay keep kneel knit know lade lay lead lean leap learn leave lend let lie light lose make mean meet melt misgive mislay mislead fell fed felt fought found ed ung ew forbore forbade, forbad forecast, forecasted forewent foreran foresaw foretold forgot forgave forsook froze got gilded, gilt girded, girt gave went ground grew hung, hanged had heard heaved, hove hewed hid hit held hurt inlaid kept knelt, kneeled knitted, knit knew laded laid led leaned, leant leapt, leaped learned, learnt left lent let lay lit, lighted lost made meant met melted misgave mislaid misled


English Irregular Verbs
fallen fed felt fought found ed ung own forborne forbidden, forbid forecast, forecasted foregone forerun foreseen foretold forgotten, forgot forgiven forsaken frozen got, gotten gilded, gilt girded, girt given gone ground grew hung, hanged had heard heaved, hove hewn, hewed hidden, hid hit held hurt inlaid kept knelt, kneeled knitted, knit known laded, laden laid led leaned, leant leapt, leaped learned, learnt left lent let lain lit, lighted lost made meant met melted, molten misgiven mislaid misled

English Irregular Verbs
mistake misunderstand mow outbid outdo outgo outgrow outride outrun outsell outshine outshoot outsit outspend outwear overbear overbid overblow overbuild overbuy overcast overcome overdo overdraw overdrive overfeed over y overgrow overhand overhear overlay overleap overlie override overrun oversee oversell oversew overshoot oversleep overspend overtake overthrow overwrite partake pay precast prove put quit read rebuild recast relay rend repay reset retell rid

mistook misunderstood mowed outbid outdid outwent outgrew outrode outran outsold outshone outshot outsat outspent outwore overbore overbid overblew overbuilt overbought overcast overcame overdid overdrew overdrove overfed over ew overgrew overhung overheard overlaid overleapt, overleaped overlay overrode overran oversaw oversold oversewed overshot overslept overspent overtook overthrew overwrote partook paid precast proved put quitted, quit read [red] rebuilt recast relaid rent repaid reset retold rid, ridden mistaken misunderstood mowed, mown outbid, outbidden outdone outgone outgrown outridden outrun outsold outshone outshot outsat outspent outworn overborne overbidden, overbid overblown overbuilt overbought overcast overcome overdone overdrawn overdriven overfed over own overgrown overhung overheard overlaid overleapt, overleaped overlain overridden overrun overseen oversold oversewed, oversewn overshot overslept overspent overtaken overthrown overwritten partaken paid precast proved, proven put quitted, quit read [red] rebuilt recast relaid rent repaid reset retold rid, ridden

E-C Appendix II

E-C Appendix II
ride ring rise run saw say see seek sell send set sew shake shave shear shed shine shoe shoot show shred shrink shut sing sink sit slay sleep slide sling slink slit smell smite sow speak speed spell spend spill spin spit split spoil spread spring stand steal stick sting stink strew stride strike string strive swear sweat sweep rode rang rose ran sawed said saw sought sold send set sewed shook shaved sheared shed shone shod, shoed shot showed shredded, shred shrank, shrunk shut sang, sung sank, sunk sat slew, slayed slept slid slung slunk slit smelled, smelt smote sowed spoke sped, speeded spelled, spelt spent spilled, spilt spun spat, spit split spoiled, spoilt spread sprang, sprung stood stole stuck stung stank, stunk strewed strode struck strung strove, strived swore sweat, sweated swept


English Irregular Verbs
ridden rung risen run sawn, sawed said seen sought sold send set sewn, sewed shaken shaved, shaven shorn, sheared shed shone shod, shoed, shodden shot shown, showed shredded, shred shrunk, shrunken shut sung sunk, sunken sat slain slept slid, slidden slung slunk slit smelled, smelt smitten, smote sown, sowed spoken sped, speeded spelled, spelt spent spilled, spilt spun spat, spit split spoiled, spoilt spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk strewn, strewed stridden struck, stricken strung striven, strived sworn sweat, sweated swept

English Irregular Verbs
swell swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw thrust tread unbend unbind underbid undercut underfeed undergo underlay underlie underrun undersell understand undertake underwrite undo unwind uphold uprise upset wake waylay wear weave wed weep wet win wind withdraw withhold withstand work wring write swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought thrived, throve threw thrust trod unbent unbound underbid undercut underfed underwent underlaid underlay underran undersold understood undertook underwrote undid unwound upheld uprose upset woke, waked waylaid wore wove wedded, wed wept wet, wetted won winded, wound withdrew withheld withstood worked, wrought wrung wrote

swollen, swelled swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrived, thriven thrown thrust trodden, trod unbent unbound underbidden, underbid undercut underfed undergone underlaid underlain underrun undersold understood undertaken underwritten undone unwound upheld uprisen upset woken, woke, waked waylaid worn woven wedded, wed wept wet, wetted won winded, wound withdrawn withheld withstood worked, wrought wrung written

E-C Appendix II

E-C Appendix III. The English Number System A. Cardinal and Ordinal
Cardinal 1 one y¯ 2 two er 3 three s¯n a 4 four s 5 ve wu 6 six liu 7 seven q¯ 8 eight b¯ a 9 nine jiu 10 ten sh´ 11 eleven sh´y¯ 12 twelve sh´'er 13 thirteen sh´s¯n a 14 fourteen sh´s 15 fteen sh´wu 16 sixteen sh´liu 20 twenty ersh´ 21 twenty-one ersh´y¯ 30 thirty s¯nsh´ a 40 forty s sh´ 50 fty wush´ 100 one hundred y¯bai ¯ 101 one hundred (and) one y¯bai l´ng y¯ ¯ 1,000 one thousand y¯qi¯n a ¯ 1,000,000 one million y¯ baiwan ¯ 1,000,000,000 one billion sh´y 1,200,402,361 one billion two hundred million four hundred (and) two thousand three hundred (and) sixty-one sh´'er y s sh´ wan erqi¯n s¯nbai liush´y¯ a a

  Œ © Û ” m £ k “ A

A  AŒ A© AÛ A” Am ŒA ŒA  ©A ÛA ”A  ~  ~ö   C  ~§ A¿

AŒ¿ÛA§ ŒC©~mA 
1/8 1/4 3/5 1/2 2 3/4

Ordinal 1st rst d -y¯ 2nd second d -er 3rd third d -s¯n a 4th fourth d -s 5th fth d -wu 6th sixth d -liu 7th seventh d -q¯ 8th eighth d -b¯ a 9th ninth d -jiu 10th tenth d -sh´ 11th eleventh d -sh´y¯ 12th twelfth d -sh´'er 13th thirteenth d -sh´s¯n a 14th fourteenth d -sh´s 15th fteenth d -sh´wu 16th sixteenth d -sh´liu 20th twentieth d -ersh´ 21st twenty- rst d -ersh´y¯ 30th thirtieth d -s¯nsh´ a 40th fortieth d -s sh´ 50th ftieth d -wush´ 100th one-hundredth d -y¯bai ¯ 101st one-hundred (and) rst d -y¯bai l´ng y¯ ¯ 1,000th one-thousandth d -y¯qi¯n a ¯ 1,000,000th one-millionth d -y¯ baiwan ¯ 1,000,000,000th one-billionth d -sh´y 1,200,402,361st one-billion two-hundred-million four-hundred-(and)-two-thousand three-hundred (and) sixty- rst d -sh´'er y s sh´ wan erqi¯n s¯nbai liush´y¯ a a

,  ,Œ ,© ,Û ,” ,m ,£ ,k ,“ ,A ,A  ,AŒ ,A© ,AÛ ,A” ,Am ,ŒA ,ŒA  ,©A ,ÛA ,”A , ~ , ~ö  , C , ~§ ,A¿

,AŒ¿ÛA§ ŒC©~mA 

B. Fractions
(1) ordinary fractions one/an eighth one/a quarter three- fths one/a half two and three-quarters b¯ f¯nzh¯ y¯ a e s f¯nzh¯ y¯ e wu f¯nzh¯ s¯n e a er f¯nzh¯ y¯ e er you s f¯nzh¯ s¯n e a

k¦u  Û¦u  ”¦u© Œ¦u  ŒÈÛ¦u©


The English Number System
(2) decimal fractions 21.5 90.25 (3) zero 0 2.05 zero (also pronounced as "oh") two-point-zero/oh- ve twenty-one point ve ninety point twenty- ve or nine-zero point two- ve

ersh´y¯ dian wu jiush´ dian er wu

E-C Appendix III

ŒA ¹” “A¹Œ”

l´ng er dian l´ng wu



C. A few usages
(1) dates 1949 1026 5/4 7/4/1776 nineteen forty-nine ten twenty-six May 4th July 4, 1776

(2) telephone numbers 1-800-784-7653 956-1234 (3) addresses 205 Main Street, Room 8

y¯ b¯-l´ng-l´ng q¯-b¯-s q¯-liu-wu-s¯n a a a jiu-wu-liu y¯-er-s¯n-s a

er l´ng wu Daji¯ b¯ hao f´ngji¯n e a a a

 “Û“  §Œm ”¨Ûå  ££mt£¨Ûå  k§§£kÛ£m”© “”m Œ©Û Œ§”9Wk÷?ô
y¯ jiu s jiu y¯ l´ng er liu Wuyue s r y¯ q¯ q¯ liu ni´n Q¯yue s r a

E-C Appendix IV. US States and a Few Major Cities
¯a a Alabama Al¯b¯ma (AL) ¯a a Alaska Al¯s¯ji¯ (AK) Arizona Yal s¯ngna a (AZ) ¯ Arkansas Akense (AR) California Ji¯l f´ n´ya a u (CA) Los Angeles Luosh¯nj¯ a big city and seaport da ch´ngsh h´ haigang e e San Francisco Jiuj¯nsh¯n a cultural center w´nhua zh¯ ngx¯n e o Colorado K¯lu´ l¯du¯ e oa o (CO) Denver D¯nf´ a o capital and largest city shoufu j´ zu da ch´ngsh e Connecticut K¯ngnied´g´ a e (CT) New Haven Niuh¯iw´n e e cultural center w´nhuazh¯ ngx¯n e o Delaware Tel¯hu´ a a (DE) Florida F´ lu´ l d´ o o a (FL) Georgia Zuozh ya (GA) Atlanta Yatel´nda a capital and largest city shoufu j´ zu da ch´ngsh e Hawai`i Xiaw¯iy´ e (HI) Honolulu T´nxi¯ngsh¯n a a a capital and largest city shoufu j´ zu da ch´ngsh e Idaho Aid´h´ a e (ID) Illinois Y¯l nuoy¯ (IL) Indiana Y nd '¯nna a (IN) Iowa Aih´hu´ e a (IA) Kansas Kansas¯ (KS) Kentucky Kentaj¯ (KS) Louisiana Luy s¯'¯nna a (LA) Maine Miany¯n (ME) Maryland Mal l´n (MD) . a Massachusetts Masazh¯ se u (MA) Boston B¯ sh dun o capital and cultural center shoufu j´ w´nhua zh¯ ngx¯n e o Michigan M xi¯g¯n e e (MI) Minnesota M´ngn´s¯ d´ u a (MN) Mississippi M x¯x¯b (MS) Missouri M s¯ l u (MO) Montana M´ngdan´ e a (MT) Nebraska Neibul¯s¯ji¯ a a (NE) Nevada Neihu´d´ a a (NV) New Hampshire X¯nhanbush´'er (NH) New Jersey X¯nz´x¯ e (NJ) New Mexico X¯nmox¯g¯ e (NM) New York Niuyu¯ e (NY) North Carolina Bei Kalu´ l´ina oa (NC) . North Dakota Bei D´k¯t¯ a ea (ND) ´ Ohio Ehai'´ e (OH) ´ a e Oklahoma Ekel¯h´ma (OK) ´ a Oregon Eleg¯ng (OR) Pennsylvania B¯nx¯fan´ya (PA) Philadelphia Feich´ng e cultural center w´nhua zh¯ ngx¯n e o

?Éôl ?ɯ  šAQ£ ?¯r  A<š sö 9΢Œw/ çÑq ‡Eà чÉ& W[ –œÊ 9΢ ·…Ä< ½Ñ‡ ‡Eà yÉN [‡Ì¾ P»š šyp9 –œÊ 9΢ ¡U €™q –œÊ 9΢ 1¾w

p,‰³ 1wN *(¯ ¯Tú ﯉£ ¥à lÌp l(ø^ âë –œÊ‡Eà ÆG9 <Ͼ ÆÔ ÆÏÌ ™9ÿ …£É¯  …N¾ °…£À °ý °¨å ½¦ a‡e³ ¾ÑÖ Ä¥Ä ÄKÉUl Ä҈ ¾!Õ<š 9Î ‡EÃ

US States and a Few Major Cities

Rhode Island Lu´ d´dao o e (RI) South Carolina N´nkalu´ l´ina a oa (SC) South Dakota N´nd´k¯t¯ a a ea (SD) Tennessee Ti´nnax¯ a (TN) Texas D´kesas¯ e (TX) Utah Y´ ut¯ o a (UT) Vermont F´ m´ngte o e (VT) Virginia F´ j´n´ya u (VA) Washington Hu´shengdun a (WA) Seattle X¯yat´ u cultural center w´nhua zh¯ ngx¯n e o West Virginia X¯f´ j´n´ya u (WV) Wisconsin W¯is¯k¯ngx¯ng e a (WI) Wyoming Hu´i'´m´ng a e (WY)

‡—› Wa‡e³ W¾ÑÖ 0³ —K(¯ ¹Ö [™y #©<š NÛ Åþ ‡Eà #©<š ¡¯·  Ä


E-C Appendix IV

E-C Appendix V. Selected Countries and Their Capitals
¯ Afghanistan Afuhan — Kabul K¯bu'er a ¯ Albania A'erb¯n´ya a — Tirana D l¯na a ¯ ¯ Algeria A'erj´l ya — Algiers A'erj´'er Australia Aodal ya — Canberra K¯np´il¯ a e a Austria Aod l — Vienna W´iyena e Belgium B l sh´ — Brussels Bulusai'er Brazil B¯x¯ a — Brasilia B¯x¯l ya a Cambodia Jianpuzhai — Phnom Penh J¯nbi¯n a . Canada Ji¯n´da a a — Ottawa Wotaihu´ a China Zh¯ nggu´ o o — Beijing Beij¯ng Cuba Gub¯ a — La Havana H¯wana a Czech Republic Ji´ke e — Prague Bul¯g´ a e Denmark D¯nmai a — Copenhagen G¯benh¯g¯n e a e England Y¯nggu´ o — London L´ nd¯ n u u ¯ Egypt Aij´ — Cairo K¯ilu´ a o France Fagu´ o — Paris B¯l´ a Germany D´gu´ e o — Berlin B´ l´n o Greece X¯la — Athens Yadian India Y ndu — New Delhi X¯nd´l e Indonesia Y ndun´x¯ya — Jakarta Yaji¯d´ a a Iran Y¯lang — Teheran D´h¯il´n e e a Iraq Y¯l¯ke a — Baghdad B¯g¯d´ a e a Ireland Ai'erl´n a — Dublin D¯ b´ l´n u o Israel Y selie — Tel Aviv Tel¯w´if¯ a e u Italy Y dal — Rome Lu´ ma o Japan R ben — Tokyo D¯ ngj¯ng o Korea (North) Ch´oxian a — Pyongyang P´ngrang Korea (South) H´ngu´ a o — Seoul Shou'er Laos Laow¯ o — Vientiane Wanxiang Malaysia Mal´ix¯ya a — Kuala Lumpur J´l´ ngp¯ o o Mexico Mox¯g¯ e — Mexico City Mox¯g¯ch´ng e e Mongolia Menggu — Ulan Bator W¯ l´nb¯tu¯ ua a o Nepal N´b´ 'er o — Kathmandu Ji¯d´mand¯ a e u ¯ Netherlands H´l´n ea — Amsterdam Amus¯ted¯n a Pakistan B¯j¯s¯tan a — Islamabad Y¯s¯l´nbao a Philippines F¯ilüb¯n e — Manila Man´l¯ a Poland B¯ l´n oa — Warsaw Hu´sh¯ a a ´ o Russia Elu´ s¯ — Moscow Mos¯k¯ e Saudi Arabia Sh¯te Al¯b´ a ¯a o — Riyadh L yad´ e Singapore X¯nji¯p¯ a o — Singapore X¯nji¯p¯ a o South Africa N´nf¯i a e — Pretoria B letu´ l ya o Spain X¯b¯ny´ a a — Madrid Mad´l e Sweden Ru dian — Stockholm S¯d´g¯'erm´ e e o Switzerland Ru sh — Bern B´ 'ern´ o Syria Xul ya — Damascus Damash g´ e Thailand Taigu´ o — Bangkok Mangu United States of America Meigu´ o — Washington, D. C. Hu´shengdun teq¯ a u Vietnam Yuen´n a — Hanoi H´nei e

?ÌW €£ ?ô<š HÉ£ ?ÊAš ?Ê ³9Aš *ùÉ eHA ô•£ ÔAö £^ ô ôAš ìÔè ѹ  ÿ9 %BN Eý ¬ äô Èæ£ wK £É< W¦ åDÈ9 ñý &f ÃÊ  ‡ Õý ôÎ ·ý ϗ J Åx p¦ °·Ì p¦<š Å ¾
# ·Ñp
ÉK ô<¾ 1p ýϗ år# yÉôC 9A ‡l åD (¬ )œ sä éý – ¡) §— leš ©†— ¨å ¨åÎ ™ä vpôX <Ê  ·áý wp ?ƯyW ôú¯f
¯p! ò‹¾ l<É âp N™ ć¯ «¯Ñ ™y?É/ AÅ· ° — ° — W^ ÔÒ@Aš íY l·Ì ”x ¯·åi ”ë /< ÙAš 9lëi ðý üU Žý ŠW ³…



E-C Appendix VI. English Graded Word Lists
(These lists are omitted from this PDF le. For Wenlin, simply choose Graded Word Lists from the List menu.)


C-E Appendix I Basic Rules for Hanyu Pinyin Orthography
(GB/T 16159-1996)

National Standard of the People's Republic of China (ICS 01.140.10). Approved and issued by the State Technology Supervision Bureau on January 22, 1996; effective on July 1, 1996.

1. Main Topics and Applications
This Standard sets the regulations for alphabetic spelling of modern Chinese using the “Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet.” It contains rules for separating and joining words; rules ´ for spelling fused phrase expressions (chengyu), foreign loan words, and personal and place names; rules for representing tones; rules for hyphenation at the ends of lines; etc. It also provides some methods for making technical modi cations for special purposes. As the uni ed regulations for alphabetic spelling of modern Chinese using the “Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet,” this standard is applicable to the elds of education, publication, information processing, and other domains.

2. Terminology
Hanyu Pinyin Orthography. The standard for spelling Hanyu Pinyin and norms for its written forms. “The Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet” provides rules for alphabetic spelling of syllables. “Basic Rules for Hanyu Pinyin Orthography” comprise a rm foundation for further consolidation of the standard writing of words (c´ ).


3. Principles for Formulation of the Rules
3.1 To make the word (c´) the basic spelling unit of Hanyu Pinyin, while taking into consideration the phonological, semantic, and other such factors, as well as an appropriate degree of word length. 3.2 These rules are described according to the different grammatical parts of speech. 3.3 Each rule should be as simple and concise as possible, in order to facilitate mastery of application.

4. Basic Rules for Hanyu Pinyin Orthography 4.1 General Guidelines
4.1.1 The alphabetized transcription of Putonghua (modern standard Chinese) in principle takes the word (c´) as the unit of spelling. ´ ren `person' hao `good' hen `quite' qiaokel `chocolate' ´ yuedu `reading' ´ nianq¯ng `young' wanhu `evening meeting' ¯ sh wei `to demonstrate' ´ chuanzh¯ `ships' ¯ ´ feichang `extraordinarily' ´ ¯ tushuguan `library'

4.1.2 Structures of two or three syllables that express an integral concept are to be written together as one word. ¯ gangtie dahu ´ zhongtian

º } ˆ çK› ¥û t{ Z& :¡ Wê ”V þf†

pao `run' ´ he `and' ´ ´ furong `cottonrose hibiscus' ´ pengyou `friend' d zhen `earthquake' zhongsh `to value' ¯ qianm´ng `to sign' niuzhuan `to turn around' dansh `but' diansh j¯ `television set'


™É Ë H§ ÍÆ ~ ml p/ 5ÆX

¢Á `steel' 9& `plenary session' Í0 `to till land'

´ wenda ´ hongq´ ´ ´ quanguo 59

îT `questions and answers' ¢× `red ag' hý `the whole nation'

Hanyu Pinyin Orthography dapo `to break' ´ ¯ hushuo `to talk nonsense' ¯ ´ qiuhaitang `begonia' du buq `ask pardon' ¯ haifeng `sea breeze'

4.1.3 Terms of four or more syllables that express an integral concept are to be divided on the basis of word boundaries or juncture. If this is not possible, then the term should be written as one word. ´ ¯ wufeng gangguan `seamless steel tube' ´ huanj ng baohu gu¯hua `environmental protection' ¯ j¯ngt guan gonglü fangdaq `transistor power ampli er' ¯ ´ ´ ´ ´ Zhonghua Renm´n Gongheguo `People's Republic of China' ¯ ´ ¯ ´ Zhongguo Shehu Kexueyuan `Chinese Academy of Social Sciences'

ƒ4 áô Ëwà ùw wÎ


¯ kaihu `to hold a meeting' ´ zoulai `to come on' danxiao `timid' ¯ ainiaozhou `bird preservation week' ¯ ch¯dexiao `able to stand'

 & pe Æ 1h £—ˆ

C-E Appendix I

4.1.4 Monosyllabic words when reduplicated are written together as one word; bisyllabic words when reduplicated are written separately as two words. ´ ´ ºº `everyone' niannian tt `every year' ¯  `have a look' shuoshuo ôô `say something' ´ ´ 99 `very large' honghong de ¢¢„ `red' ´ ´ BB `every one' tiaotiao —— `every stripe' ´ ¯ ´ ¯ yanjiu yanjiu vv `to study and consider' ´ ´ changsh changsh )Õ)Õ `to have a try' ´ ´ xuebai xuebai ê}ê} `snow white' ¯ ´ ¯ ´ tonghong tonghong &¢&¢ `thoroughly red' AABB type reduplicative constructions are to be written with a hyphen between, AA-BB. ´ ´ lailai-wangwang ee€€ `walk to and fro' ¯ ¯ shuoshuo-xiaoxiao ôô `chatting and laughing' q¯ngq¯ng-chuchu ¥¥ZZ `very clear' ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ wanwan-ququ GGòò `twisting and turning' ¯ ¯ jiajia-huhu ¶¶UU `each and every family' ¯ ¯ qianqian-wanwan gg§§ `numerously' ´ ´ renren kankan dada gege

à)¢¡ ¯ƒÝ¤Ä vƒ¡Ÿ‡>9h ExºqŒý Eý>&Ñf˜ ´ ¯ ¯ yanjiushengyuan v˜ `post-graduate school' ´ hongsh´z hu ¢eW& `the Red Cross' ´ yux¯ngcaosu |es `cordate houttuynia' ¯ ´ ¯ gushengwuxuejia äif¶ `paleontologist'

4.1.5 Hyphens may be used to link words together in order to facilitate reading and understanding. ´ ´ huan-bao (ab. for huanj ng baohu) – `environmental protection' ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ gong-guan (ab. for gonggong guanxi) – `public relations' ¯ ¯ ba-jiu tian `eight or nine days' ¯ sh´q¯-ba su `17-18 years old' ´ ren-j¯ du hua `man-machine dialogue' ¯ ´ zhong-xiaoxue `primary and middle schools' ¯ ¯ lu-hai-kongjun `army-navy-air force' ´ bianzheng-weiwuzhuy `dialectical materialism'

k“A e£k ºXùÝ Ef pwz› ©Á/iYs ¡ o c P ?

¯Ý ¯ƒÝ¤ ls lqsû

4.2 Nouns
4.2.1 Nouns plus pre xed or suf xed monosyllables are to be written together as one unit. ¯ (Some common pre xes are fu`vice-', zong`general', fei`non-', fan`anti-', ¯ ´ chao`sur-', lao`Old', A`Ah', ke`-able', wu`-less', etc. Some common ´ suf xes are the noun suf xes -zi , -r , -tou , as well as -x ng `-ness', -zhe , -yuan ¯ `-er', -jia `-ist', -shou `-or', -hua `-ize', the pluralizing suf x -men , etc.)

” Í 9 ¥ ˆ ¶ u " ì ¯ ´ fubuzhang oè `vice-minister' zonggongchengsh¯ Yå ¨ `chief engineer' ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ feij¯nshu ”Ñ” `non-metal' chaoshengbo …ðâ `ultra-sonic waves' ¯ zhuozi vP `table' mutou @R `wood' ´ ´ ¯ chengwuyuan ˆ¡ˆ `train attendant' y shujia zG¶ `artist' … ï R à


C-E Appendix I

Ñf9 °ã" `modernization' iPì ÖÉXu `tractor driver' ÍWƒüW ”&¡ºˆ 4.2.2 Position words that occur after nouns are to be written separately. ¯ shan shang q `on the mountain' shu xia  `under the tree' ´ ´ men wai è" `outside the door' men waimian è"˜ `outside of the door' ´ ´ he li ³Ì `in the river' he l mian ³Ì˜ `in the river' ¯ huoche shangmian kf˜ `on the train' ´ Yongd ng He shang Vš³ `on the Yongding River' ´ ´ ¯ xuexiao pangbian f3Á¹ `beside the school' ´ ´ ´ Huanghe y nan Ä³å‡ `south of the Yellow River' Note, however, that fused expressions such as haiwai w" `overseas' are to be written as one word. (Haiwai w" is not equivalent to hai de waimian w„"˜.) ¯ tianshang A `in the sky' d xia H `underground' ¯ ¯ kongzhong zE `in the air' haiwai w" `overseas'
¯ ´ kexuex ng `scienti c(ness)' xiandaihua ´ ¯¯ haizimen `children' tuolaj¯shou fandandao daodan `anti-ballistic missile' ¯ ´ ´ feiyewu renyuan `nonprofessional personnel' ´ L Hua ¯ ¯ Dongfang Shuo Lu Xun ¯ ¯ Zhang San


Hanyu Pinyin Orthography

4.2.3 Chinese people's names are to be written separately with the surname rst, followed by the personal name written as one word, with the initial letters of both capitalized. Pen names and other aliases are to be treated in the same manner.

Professional titles or other forms of address are to be written separately after names and are to be written entirely in small letters. ´ Wang buzhang ¯ L xiansheng

xx (¹ Å 2©

´ ´ Wang Jianguo ¯ Zhuge Kongm´ng ´ ´ ¯ Mei Lanfang ´ ´ Wang Mazi

‹úý ø[T …p³ ‹»P

0Yû `Director Tian' u× `Comrade Zhao' The initial letters of the terms of address Lao ¡, Xiao , Da 9, and A c are all to be capitalized. ´ ´ Xiao Liu $ `Young Liu' Lao Qian ¡± `Old Qi´n' (seniority) a ¯ Da L 9x `Big Li' A San c© `Ah San' ´ Wu Lao R¡ `Elder Wu' (respectful)
´ Tian zhuren ´ Zhao tongzh Certain proper names and titles have already fused and are written as one word with the initial letter capitalized. Kongz X¯sh¯ 4.2.4 Chinese place names should be alphabetized according to the “Spelling Rules for Chinese Geographical Place Names,” document no. 17 (1984) of the State Committee on Chinese Geographical Place Names. Separate the geographical proper name from the geographical feature name and capitalize the rst letter of both. Beij¯ng Sh ¯ ¯ Yalu Jiang ´ Dongt´ng Hu ´ #¬¢ (Beijing Municipality) Hebei ¯Sheng ³#¡ (Hebei Province) -ÿ• (Yalu River) Tai Shan ðq (Tai Shan Mountain) ´ ¯ ´ ­† (Dongting Lake) Taiwan Haixia ð~wá (Taiwan Straits)

‹è `Minister Wang' xH `Mr. Li'

TP (Master Confucius) ½ (an historical gure)

¯ ¯ Baogong (Duke Bao) ´ ¯ Mengchangjun (an historical gure)



If a geographical proper name or geographical feature name has a monosyllabic adjunct, write them together as one word. ´ ´ X¯liao He (West Liao River) ¯ ¯ J ngshan Houjie (Jingshan Back Street) ´oyangmennei Nanxiaojie ´ ´ ´ ¯ Cha (South Street inside Chaoyangmen Gate) The names of smaller villages and towns and other place names in which it is not necessary to distinguish between the proper place name and the geographical feature name are to be written together as one unit. ´ ¯ Wangcun ¯ Zhoukoudian

½³ oqW


‹ (Wang Village) h㗠(an historical site)

¯ ´ Jiuxianqiao ¯ ´ Santany nyue

RÙe (a place name) ©mp¨ (a scenic spot)

Hanyu Pinyin Orthography


C-E Appendix I

4.2.5 In accordance with the principle of adhering to the original, non-Chinese people's and place names are to be written in their original roman (Latin) spelling. But people's and place names from non-romanized scripts are to be spelled according to the rules for romanization for that language. For reference, Chinese characters or their Hanyu Pinyin equivalent may be noted after the original name. Under certain conditions, the Hanyu Pinyin may precede or replace the original spelling. Ulanhu Seypidin Darwin Einstein Urumqi Lhasa Paris Tokyo

Transliterated names that have already become Chinese words are to be spelled according to their Chinese pronunciation. ¯ ¯ Feizhou ´ ´ Deguo

vpC [ ¾ ‡ 1à¯f v@€ É( ôÎ (¬

Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme Marx Newton Akutagawa Ryunosuke Hohhot London Washington

c›-cúKŽ lK) [ ¥Ý™uË |Œiy 8f xÛ ‡Ž (South America) (‡š (Southeast Asia)

”2 (Africa) ·ý (Germany)

´ Nanmei ¯ ´ Dongnanya

4.3 Verbs
Verbs plus the aspectual suf xes -zhe unit. kanzhe kanle kanguo 

d `keep watching' † `have seen' Ç `have already seen' The sentence- nal particle le † is to be written as a separate unit. ¯ Huoche dao le. kfH†¢`The train has arrived.' 4.3.2 Verbs and their objects are to be written separately. ´ kan x n á `read a letter' ch¯ yu £| `eat sh' ¯ ´ ¯ ´ jiaoliu j¯ngyan ¤Aό `exchange experiences' kai wanxiao  © `to make a joke'
Verb-object compound verbs are to be written separately when other elements are inserted within them. ¯ ¯ jule y¯ ge gong ¯ l guo san c fa

d, -le †, and -guo Ç are to be written together as one j nx´ngzhe ÛLd `be carrying out' j nx´ngle ÛL† `carried out' j nx´ngguo ÛLÇ `carried out already'

When both a verb (or adjective) and its complement are monosyllabic, they are to be written together; otherwise the two are to be separated.

 † B¬ `bowed once' ¦Ç©!Ñ `have had three haircuts' 

y `to break' das ƒ{ `to beat to death' ´ Ÿ `completely ripe' jiancheng ú `to build to be' "X `become' dangzuo ƒZ `to treat as' zou j nlai pÛe `to come into' zhengl hao t¦} `to put in order' ´ ´ jianshe cheng ú¾ `to construct to be' gaixie wei 9™X `to rewrite as'
gaohuai ´ shutou ´ huawei

4.4 Adjectives
4.4.1 A monosyllabic adjective and a preceding or following reduplicated adjunct are to be written together as a unit. ¯ ¯ mengmengliang ¯ ¯ liangtangtang

¯ ¯ Complements of extent such as xie, y¯xie, dianr, y¯dianr `somewhat, a little' after adjectives are to be written separately. ¯ da xie kuai dianr

™™® ` rst glimmer of dawn' ®¢¢ `very bright'

9› `somewhat bigger' ë¹? `quicker'

¯ da y¯xie kuai y¯dianr

9 › `a little bigger' ë ¹? `a little quicker'

C-E Appendix I


Hanyu Pinyin Orthography

4.5 Pronouns
4.5.1 The pluralizing suf x -men is to be written together with the preceding pronoun as one word. ¯ women `we' tamen `they' 4.5.2 The demonstrative pronouns zhe `this', na `that', and the interrogative pronoun na `which' are to be written separately from most nouns or classi ers that follow them. ´ zhe ren `this person' na c hu y `that meeting' ¯ chuan ´ `this ship' zhe zh ¯ng baozh na zha `which newspaper?' ¯ ¯ ¯ When the morphemes xie , -me , yang , b an ,l , bian , hu r , and the general classi er -ge occur immediately after the demonstrative pronouns zhe `this', na `that', or the interrogative pronoun na `which', they are to be written together with that pronoun as one unit. ¯ zhexie `these' zheme `so' ¯ nayang `like that' zheban `this way, so' nali `there' nali `where' ¯ zhebian `here' zhehu r `this time, now' zhege `this' zhemeyang `in this way' ¯ 4.5.3 Words such as ge `each', mei `every', mou `some', ben `this', gai `that', wo `our', n `your', etc., are to be written separately from the nouns or classi ers that follow them. ´ ge guo `each country' ge ge `every' ´ ´ ¯ ge ren `every person' ge xueke `each eld of study' ´ mei nian `each year' mei c `each time' ´ ¯ mou ren `a certain person' mou gongchang `a certain factory' ´ ben sh `this municipality' ben bumen `our department' ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ gai kan `that journal' gai gongs¯ `that company' ¯ wo xiao `our school' n danwei `your organization'




Ùº £!&® ÙêW ê2¥¸ › B


Öì £


ٛ £U £Ì Ù¹ ÙB





&? Ù

Ùr ÙD êÌ Ù&? ÙrU

¤ý ¤º Ït к D¢ å 3

¤B ¤fÑ Ï! Ðå‚ Dèè ålø –…w e” “e“

4.6 Numbers and Classi ers
4.6.1 Numbers from 11 to 99 are to be written as one word. sh´y¯ `eleven' sh´wu ` fteen' ¯ ¯ sansh´san `thirty-three' jiush´jiu `ninety-nine' ¯ 4.6.2 The numbers bai `hundred', qian 'thousand', wan `ten thousand', and y `one hundred million' when preceded by a single digit number are to be written as one unit. When the numbers wan and y are preceded by any number of ten or more, they should be written separately. ¯ ¯ jiuy l´ng q¯wan erqian sanbai wush´liu `900,072,356' ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ liush´san y q¯qian erbai liush´ba wan s qian l´ng jiush´wu `6,372,684,095'

e  ©e©





“¿ö£§Œg©~”em me©¿£gŒ~mek§Ûgö“e” 4.6.3 A hyphen is to be inserted between the ordinal pre x d - and the number following it. d -y¯ ,  ` rst' ¯ d -sh´san ,e© `thirteenth' ¯ d -ersh´ba ,Œek `twenty-eighth' ¯ d -sanbai wush´liu ,©~”em `356th' 4.6.4 Numbers and classi ers are to be written separately. ´ liang ge ren 6Bº `two people' y¯ da wan fan  9—m `a big bowl of rice' ¯ ´ wush´san renc ”e©º! ` fty-three man-times' ¯ ¯ liang jian ban wuzi 6ôtuP `two and a half rooms' ¯ ´ Numbers are to be written separately from words denoting approximation, such as duo &, lai e, and j à. ¯ y¯bai duo ge  ~&B `more than one hundred' ´ ´ sh´ lai wan ren ee§º `some hundred thousand persons'

ය `several families' àAåC `a few days' time' Sh´j eà `ten and some' and j sh´ àe `several tens of' are to be written together as one unit. ´ sh´j ge ren eàBº `ten and some persons' ¯ ¯ j sh´ gen gangguan àeW¢¡ `tens of steel tubes'
¯ ´ j jia ren ¯ ¯ j tian gongfu

Hanyu Pinyin Orthography


C-E Appendix I

4.7 Function Words
Function words are to be written separately from other words. 4.7.1 Adverbs

hen hao `quite good' ¯ ´ dou lai `all come' geng mei `more beautiful' zu da `biggest' ´ bu lai `not coming' ¯ y¯ng bu y¯nggai `ought or not' ¯ ¯ ganggang zou `have just gone' ¯ ´ feichang kuai `extraordinarily fast' ¯ sh´fen gandong `deeply touched' 4.7.2 Prepositions ´ zai qianmian `in front' ¯ ¯ xiang dongbian qu `go east' ´nm´n fuwu ´ wei re `serve the people' ´ ng zuotian q ´ ¯ co `since yesterday' ¯ng yu 1940 nian ´ ´ she 1940 `born in 1940' ¯ ´ guanyu zhege went´ `on this question' 4.7.3 Conjunctions

ˆ} ýe ôŽ  9 e ””å &&p ”Vë e¦¨

@w˜ (¹» Xº¡ Î(Aw Ž t sŽÙBî˜

庌œ `workers and peasants' I™pè `glorious but arduous' pë } `not only quick but also good' –eØ/e? `Are you coming or not?' 4.7.4 The subordinating particles de „ (...'s, of ...), de H (-ly), de — (nominalizer), and zh¯ u (of ...). ´ dad de nü'er 9H„s? `daughter of the earth' ¯ Zhe sh wo de shu. Ù/„f¢`This is my book.' ´ ¯ ´ Women guozhe x ngfu de shenghuo. ìÇdx„;¢`We live a happy life.' ¯ ¯ Shangdian l baimanle ch¯ de, chuan de, yong de. F—ÌFᆣ„¡„¡(„¢ `The store is full of things for eating, wearing, and daily use.' ´ mai q¯ngcai luobo de †‚Ü’„ `one who sells vegetables' ¯ ¯ Ta zai dajie shang manman de zou. Ö@9WbbHp¢`He is walking slowly on the street.' ´ Tanbai de gaosu n ba. f}tɖ9¢`Frankly speaking...' ¯ ¯ Ta y¯ bu y¯ ge jiaoy nr de gongzuozhe. Ö e B&p?Hå’d¢ `He works steadily with every step leaving its imprint.' ¯ dasao de ganj ng ƒk—rÀ `swept clean' xie de bu hao ™—} `not well written' ´ hong de hen ¢—ˆ `bright red' ¯ leng de fadou ·—Ñ– `shivering with cold' ´ ¯ shaonian zh¯ jia tu¶ `home of the youths' ¯ ´ ´ ¯ zu fada de guojia zh¯ y¯  Ñ¾„ý¶u  `one of the most well-developed countries' Note: when necessary for technical purposes, the characters „, H, and — may be spelled as
¯ ´ ´ ´ gongren he nongm´n ¯ ´ ´ ¯ guangrong er jianju ´ budan kuai erqie hao ´ ´ ´ N lai haishi bu lai? d, di, and de respectively.

C-E Appendix I 4.7.5 Modal Particles


Hanyu Pinyin Orthography

–åƒ# rØeJ ë»9 Ö/&e„¢ 4.7.6 Interjections ¯ A! Zhen mei! J! 1Ž! `Oh! Really beautiful!' ¯ ´ Ng, n shuo shenme? ï, –ôÀr? `Huh? What did you say?' ´ Hm, zouzhe qiao ba! ü, pd§9! `Hmm, let's wait and see!' 4.7.7 Onomatopoetic Words Pa! j `Bang!' Huahua ×× `whoosh' jiji-zhazha ýý³³ (a twittering sound) ¯ “honglong” y¯ sheng “p†”  ð `a loud booming sound' ¯ Da gongj¯ wo-wo-t´. 9l!””|¢`The big rooster crows, cockadoodle doo!' ¯ “Du—” q d´ xiang le. “—” }͆¢`Woo! blew the steam whistle.'
N zh¯dao ma? ? `Do you know?' ´ ´ Zenme hai bu lai a? ? `Why hasn't (she) come yet?' Kuai qu ba! ! `Go at once!' ¯ ´ Ta shi bu hu lai de. `Certainly he won't come.'

4.8 Fused Phrase Idioms (Ch´ngyu) e
4.8.1 Four-syllable fused phrase idioms that can be divided into two two-syllable parts will have one hyphen inserted between the two parts. ´ ¯ ´ cengchu-buqiong ¯ fengp´ng-langj ng ¯ ¯ aizeng-fenm´ng ´ ´ shu dao-qucheng ´ ´ ¯ yangyang-daguan ¯ ¯ p´ngfen-qiuse ¯ guangm´ng-leiluo ¯ ¯ diansan-daos

4.8.2 Fused phrase idioms and other such proverbial phrases that cannot be divided should be written together as one unit. ¯ buy lehu ´ ´ zong'eryanzh¯ ´ aimonengzhu y¯y¯daishu ´ ´ hulihutu ¯ ¯ ¯ heibuliuqiu ´ ¯ diao'erlangdang

fúw `to emerge in an endless stream' Îsj‰ `calm and tranquil' 1Ž¦ `to be clear-cut in what ones loves and hates' RH2 `when conditions are ripe, success will come' 9 `a spectacular sight' s¦Ër `to go fty- fty' IÊ= `to be open and aboveboard'  ©Û `to turn things topsy-turvy' 

¦€x `extremely' Y u `to sum it up' 1«ý© `sympathetic but unable to help'  c8R `a narrow strip of water in between' ÊÌʂ `all in a muddle' ÑœË `swarthy' ?΃ `careless and casual'

4.9 Capitalization
4.9.1 Capitalize the rst letter of each sentence in prose, and capitalize the rst letter of each line of a poem. (No examples given.) 4.9.2 Capitalize the rst letter of a proper noun.

Î ¥‚ If a proper noun consists of two or more words, capitalize the rst letter of each word. ´ ¯ Guoj Shudian ýif— `International Bookstore' ´ Hep´ng Binguan Œs¾† `Peace Hotel' ¯ Guangm´ng R bao Iå¥ `Guangming Daily' 4.9.3 Capitalize the rst letter of a combination of a proper noun and a common noun. ¯ ´ ´ Zhongguoren Eýº `the Chinese' M´ngsh ò `Ming dynasty history' ¯ Guangdonghua (Ý `Guangdong dialect'

Beij¯ng `Beijing' ´ ´ Changcheng `the Great Wall' ´ Q¯ngm´ngjie `Qingming Festival' (at the fth solar term)

Hanyu Pinyin Orthography ¯ guanggan ¯ ¯ ´ zhongshanfu ¯ ¯ chuanxiong zangq¯ngguo


C-E Appendix I

Terms that have already become common nouns are not capitalized.

Ñ `Cantonese orange' Eq `a Chinese tunic' ݎ (a medicinal rhizome grown in Sichuan) ςœ `chinko' (a species of olive grown on the Xizang plateau)

4.10 Hyphenation at the End of a Line
4.10.1 At the end of a line, words should be divided according to syllabi cation, and a hyphen placed after the syllable at the end of the line. ¯ guangm´ng `glorious' but not “gu¯ angm´ng”.

4.11 Tone Marking
4.11.1 Words are to be marked with their original tones; tone variations are not to be noted. y¯ jia ´ y¯ tou q¯wan ¯ ba ge bu qu ´ buzh yu

However, for the purpose of training in phonetics, tone variants may be marked as necessary. Note: In addition to the normal tone symbols stipulated in the “Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet,” when necessary for certain technical purposes, the tones may be represented by numerals or Latin letters.

 ¶ `one...'  R `one head of' £§ `seventy thousand' kB `eight...' » `not going' óŽ `be unlikely to'

¯ y¯ tian `one day' y¯ wan `one bowl' q¯ ben `seven volumes' ¯ q¯shang-baxia `to be agitated' bu du `not correct'

 A  — £D £k ù

Additional Notes:
These basic rules were jointly promulgated and put into force in July 1988 by the State Education Commission and the State Language Commission. The Committee for Hanyu Pinyin Orthography was responsible for drafting the basic rules. The main authors of the basic rules were Yin Binyong .


WŒ¸, Li Leyi x€Å, and Jin Huishu

Editor's Note: The sections numbered 4.1.1–4.11.1 are virtually identical to those numbered 0.1–10 in Appendix I of the ABC Chinese-English Dictionary (1996). They were translated into English by John S. Rohsenow and edited by Wang Jun of the State Language Commission. The introduction and end notes are new. The most important change is that the rules have now been given the of cial stamp of approval as the standard procedures for writing pinyin text.

C-E Appendix II Chinese Historical Chronology
Note: This Appendix gives only a truncated form of the late imperial conventional listing of dynasties.


Zh¯ u Dynasty o 1046–256 B.C.


Han Dynasty 202 B.C.–220 A.D.

I °  (I  O ©ý  I  4 K K (K Amý
 
Three Kingdoms 220–280 J n Dynasty 265–420

F ·  h (h æ

Sh¯ng Dynasty c. 1600–1046 B.C. a

Y¯n-Sh¯ng period c. 1300–1046 B.C. a Western Zh¯ u o 1045–771 B.C. Eastern Zh¯ u o 770–256 B.C.

%Ë ý

Spring and Autumn 770–476 B.C. Warring States 475–221 B.C.

Q´n Dynasty 221–207 B.C. Western Han 202 B.C.–25 A.D.

X¯n Dynasty 9–23 Eastern Han 25–220

Wei 220–265 Shu Han 221–263

W´ 222–280 u

Western J n 265–316 Eastern J n 317–420

Sixteen Kingdoms 304–439


Northern and Southern Dynasties 420–589

            

W  ‹ 

Southern Dynasties 420–589

Northern Dynasties 386–581

‹ P   H  O  (O  P O    h
  

Song 420–479 Q´ 479–502 Li´ng 502–557 a Ch´n 557–589 e Northern Wei 386–534 Eastern Wei 534–550 Northern Q´ 550–577 Western Wei 535–556 Northern Zh¯ u 557–581 o

Su´ Dynasty 581–618 T´ng Dynasty 618–907 a


Chinese Historical Chronology


C-E Appendix II

”ã ‹

Five Dynasties 907–960 

‹ W‹ ½  Ñ C  ¥ ENý ENºqŒý
Song Dynasty 960–1279


  K  I   h
    

Later Li´ng 907–923 a Later T´ng 923–936 a Later J n 936–946 Later Han 947–950 Later Zh¯ u 951–960 o

Ten Kingdoms 902–979 Northern Song 960–1127 Southern Song 1127–1279

Li´o 916–1125 a

Western Xia 1038–1227 J¯n 1115–1234

Yu´n 1272–1368 a M´ng 1368–1644 Q¯ng 1636–1912 Republic of China 1912– People's Republic of China 1949–

Ch´n e 557–589 Han 202 B.C.–220 A.D. — — Later — —, 947–950 J¯n 1115–1234 Jn 265–420 — — Later — —, 936–946 Li´ng a 502–557 — — Later — —, 907–923 Li´o a 916–1125 M´ng 1368–1644 Q´ 479–502 — — Northern — —, 550–577 Q´n 221–207 B.C. Q¯ng 1636–1912 Sh¯ng a c. 1600–1046 B.C. Shu Han 221–263

H I I Ñ K K   ½  P P æ ¥ F  I

Index of Dynasty Names

Song 420–479, also 960–1279 Su´ 581–618 T´ng a 618–907 — — , Later —— 923–936 Wei 220–265 — — , Eastern —— 534–550 — — , Northern —— 386–534 — — , Western —— 535–556 W´ u 222–280 X¯ Xia 1038–1227 X¯n 9–23 Y¯n c.1300–1046 B.C. Yu´n a 1271–1368 Zh¯ u o 1045–256 B.C. — — , Later —— 951–960 — — , Northern —— 557–581

‹ ‹   O (O O O 4  ° · C h h h

C-E Appendix III PY/WG/GR/YR/ZF Comparative Table
PY WG GR YR ZF PY a ai an ang ao ba bai ban bang bao bei ben beng bi bian biao bie bin bing bo bu ca cai can cang cao ce cen ceng cha chai chan chang chao che chen cheng chi chong chou WG a ai an ang ao pa pai pan pang pao pei pen peng pi pien piao pieh pin ping po pu ts'a ts'ai ts'an ts'ang ts'ao ts'e ts'en ts'eng ch'a ch'ai ch'an ch'ang ch'ao ch'e ch'en ch'eng ch'ih ch'ung ch'ou GR a ai an ang au ba bai ban bang bau bei ben beng bi bian biau bie bin bing bo bu tsa tsai tsan tsang tsau tse tsen tseng cha chai chan chang chau che chen cheng chi chung chou YR a ai an ang au ba bai ban bang bau bei ben beng bi byan byau bye bin bing bwo bu tsa tsai tsan tsang tsau tse tsen tseng cha chai chan chang chau che chen cheng chr chung chou ZF Pinyin Wade-Giles Guoyeu Romatzyh Yale Romanization Zhuyin Fuhao PY chu chua chuai chuan chuang chui chun chuo ci cong cou cu cuan cui cun cuo da dai dan dang dao de dei deng di dian diao die ding diu dong dou du duan dui dun duo e ei en WG GR YR ZF

& 0 4 6 2 ¥& ¥0 ¥4 ¥6 ¥2 ¥1 ¥5 ¥7 ¥9 ¥94 ¥92 ¥9) ¥95 ¥97 ¥' ¥@ $& $0 $4 $6 $2 $( $5 $7 & 0 4 6 2 ( 5 7 @7 3

ch'u chu chu ch'ua chua chwa ch'uai chuai chwai ch'uan chuan chwan ch'uang chuang chwang ch'ui chuei chwei ch'un chuen chwun ch'o cho chwo tz'u tsy tsz ts'ung tsong tsung ts'ou tsou tsou ts'u tsu tsu ts'uan tsuan tswan ts'ui tsuei tswei ts'un tsuen tswun ts'o tsuo tswo ta tai tan tang tao te tei teng ti tien tiao tieh ting tiu tung tou tu tuan tui tun to e,o ei en da dai dan dang dau de dei deng di dian diau die ding diou dung dou du duan duei duen duo e ei en da dai dan dang dau de dei deng di dyan dyau dye ding dyou dung dou du dwan dwei dwun dwo e ei en

@ @& @0 @4 @6 @1 @5 @' $ $@7 $3 $@ $@4 $@1 $@5 $@' ©& ©0 ©4 ©6 ©2 ©( ©1 ©7 ©9 ©94 ©92 ©9) ©97 ©93 ©@7 ©3 ©@ ©@4 ©@1 ©@5 ©@' ( 1 5


PY/WG/GR/YR/ZF Table PY er fa fan fang fei fen feng fo fou fu ga gai gan gang gao ge gei gen geng gong gou gu gua guai guan guang gui gun guo ha hai han hang hao he hei hen heng hm hng hong hou hu hua huai huan huang hui hun huo ji jia jian WG erh fa fan fang fei fen feng fo fou fu ka kai kan kang kao ko kei ken keng kung kou ku kua kuai kuan kuang kuei kun kuo ha hai han hang hao ho hei hen heng GR ei fa fan fang fei fen feng fo fou fu ga gai gan gang gau ge gei gen geng gong gou gu gua guai guan guang guei guen guo ha hai han hang hau he hei hen heng YR er fa fan fang fei fen feng fwo fou fu ga gai gan gang gau ge gei gen geng gung gou gu gwa gwai gwan gwang gwei gwun gwo ha hai han hang hau he hei hen heng ZF

70 PY jiang jiao jie jin jing jiong jiu ju juan jue jun ka kai kan kang kao ke kei ken keng kong kou ku kua kuai kuan kuang kui kun kuo la lai lan lang lao le lei leng li lia lian liang liao lie lin ling liu lo long lou lu lü luan lüe lun WG chiang chiao chieh chin ching chiung chiu chü chüan chüeh chün k'a k'ai k'an k'ang k'ao k'o k'en k'eng k'ung k'ou k'u k'ua k'uai k'uan k'uang k'uei k'un k'uo la lai lan lang lao le lei leng li lia lien liang liao lieh lin ling liu lung lou lu lü luan lüeh lun GR jiang jiau jie jin jing jiong jiou jiu jiuan jiue jiun ka kai kan kang kau ke

C-E Appendix III YR jyang jyau jye jin jing jyung jyou jyu jywan jywe jyun ka kai kan kang kau ke ZF

hung hou hu hua huai huan huang hui hun huo chi chia chien

hung hou hu hua huai huan huang huei huen huo ji jia jian

hung hou hu hwa hwai hwan hwang hwei hwun hwo ji jya jyan

8 ¨& ¨4 ¨6 ¨1 ¨5 ¨7 ¨' ¨3 ¨@ & 0 4 6 2 ( 1 5 7 @7 3 @ @& @0 @4 @6 @1 @5 @' & 0 4 6 2 ( 1 5 7 § @7 3 @ @& @0 @4 @6 @1 @5 @' 9 9& 94

ken ken keng keng kong kung kou kou ku ku kua kua kuai kwai kuan kwan kuang kwang kuei kwei kuen kwun kuo kwo la lai lan lang lau le lei leng li lia lian liang liau lie lin ling liou long lou lu lü luan liue lun la lai lan lang lau le lei leng li lya lyan lyang lyau lye lin ling lyou long lou lu lyu lwan lywe lwun 

96 92 9) 95 97 A7 93 A A4 A) A5 & 0 4 6 2 ( 1 5 7 @7 3 @ @& @0 @4 @6 @1 @5 @' & 0 4 6 2 ( 1 7 9 9& 94 96 92 9) 95 97 93 ' @7 3 @ A @4 A) @5

C-E Appendix III PY luo ma mai man mang mao me mei men meng mi mian miao mie min ming miu mo mou mu na nai nan nang nao ne nei nen neng ng ni nian niang niao nie nin ning niu nong nou nu nü nuan nüe nuo o ou pa pai pan pang pao pei pen WG lo ma mai man mang mao me mei men meng mi mien miao mieh min ming miu mo mou mu na nai nan nang nao ne nei nen neng ni nien niang niao nieh nin ning niu nung nou nu nü nuan nüeh no o ou p'a p'ai p'an p'ang p'ao p'ei p'en GR luo ma mai man mang mau me mei men meng mi mian miau mie min ming miou mo mou mu na nai nan nang nau ne nei nen neng ni nian niang niau nie nin ning niou nong nou nu niu nuan niue nuo o ou pa pai pan pang pau pei pen YR lwo ma mai man mang mau me mei men meng mi myan myau mye min ming myou mwo mou mu na nai nan nang nau ne nei nen neng ni nyan nyang nyau nye nin ning nyu nung nou nu nyu nwan nywe nwo o ou pa pai pan pang pau pei pen ZF

71 PY peng pi pian piao pie pin ping po pou pu qi qia qian qiang qiao qie qin qing qiong qiu qu quan que qun ran rang rao re ren reng ri rong rou ru ruan rui run ruo sa sai san sang sao se sen seng sha shai shan shang shao she shei shen sheng WG p'eng p'i p'ien p'iao p'ieh p'in p'ing p'o p'ou p'u ch'i ch'ia ch'ien ch'iang ch'iao ch'ieh ch'in ch'ing ch'iung ch'iu ch'ü chüan ch'üeh ch'ün jan jang jao je jen jeng jih jung jou ju juan jui jun jo sa sai san sang sao se sen seng sha shai shan shang shao she shei shen sheng

PY/WG/GR/YR/ZF Table GR peng pi pian piau pie pin ping po pou pu chi chia chian chiang chiau chie chin ching chiung chiou chiu chiuan chiueh chiun ran rang rau re ren reng ry rong rou ru ruan ruei ruen ruo sa sai san sang sau se sen seng sha shai shan shang shau she shei shen sheng YR peng pi pyan pyao pye pin ping pwo pou pu chi chya chyan chyang chyau chye chin ching chyung chyou chyu chywan chywe chyun ran rang rau re ren reng r rung rou ru rwan rwei rwun rwo sa sai san sang sau se sen seng sha shai shan shang shau she shei shen sheng ZF 

@' §& §0 §4 §6 §2 §( §1 §5 §7 §9 §94 §92 §9) §95 §97 §93 §' §3 §@ & 0 4 6 2 ( 1 5 7 9 94 96 92 9) 95 97 93 @7 3 @ A @4 A) @' ' 3 ¦& ¦0 ¦4 ¦6 ¦2 ¦1 ¦5

¦7 ¦9 ¦94 ¦92 ¦9) ¦95 ¦97 ¦' ¦3 ¦@ 9 9& 94 96 92 9) 95 97 A7 93 A A4 A) A5 "4 "6 "2 "( "5 "7 " "@7 "3 "@ "@4 "@1 "@5 "@' %& %0 %4 %6 %2 %( %5 %7 !& !0 !4 !6 !2 !( !1 !5 !7

PY/WG/GR/YR/ZF Table PY shi shou shu shua shuai shuan shuang shui shun shuo si song sou su suan sui sun suo ta tai tan tang tao te tei teng ti tian tiao tie ting tong tou tu tuan tui tun tuo wa wai wan wang wei wen weng wo wu xi xia xian xiang xiao xie xin xing xiong WG shih shou shu shua shuai shuan shuang shui shun shuo szu/ssu sung sou su suan sui sun so t'a t'ai t'an t'ang t'ao t'e t'ei t'eng t'i t'ien t'iao t'ieh t'ing t'ung t'ou t'u t'uan t'ui t'un t'o wa wai wan wang wei wen weng wo wu hsi hsia hsien hsiang hsiao hsieh hsin hsing hsiung GR shy shou shu shua shuai shuan shuang shuei shuen shuo sy song sou su suan suei suen suo ta tai tan tang tau te tei teng ti tian tiau tie ting tong tou tu tuan tuei tuen tuo ua uai uan uang uei uen ueng uo u/wu shi shia shian shiang shiau shieh shin shing shiong YR shr shou shu shwa shwai shwan shwang shwei shwun shwo sz sung sou su swan swei swun swo ta tai tan tang tau te tei teng ti tyan tyau tye ting tung tou tu twan twei twun two wa wai wan wang wei wen weng wo wu syi sya syan syang syau sye syin sying syung ZF

72 PY WG hsiu hsü hsüan hsüeh hsün ya yen yang yao yeh i yin ying yung yu yü yüan yüeh yün tsa tsai tsan tsang tsao tse tsei tsen tseng cha chai chan chang chao che chei chen cheng chih chung chou chu chua chuai chuan chuang chui chun cho tzu tsung tsou tsu tsuan tsui tsun tso GR shiou shiu shiuan shiue shiun ia ian iang iau ie i/yi in ing iong iou iu iuan iue iun tza tzai tzan tzang tzau tze tzei tzen tzeng ja jai jan jang jau je jei jen jeng jy jong jou ju jua juai juan juang juei juen juo tzy tzong tzou tzu tzuan tzuei tzuen tzuo

C-E Appendix III YR syou syu sywan sywe syun ya yan yang yau ye yi yin ying yung you yu ywan ywe yun dza dzai dzan dzang dzau dze dzei dzen dzeng ja jai jan jang jau je jei jen jeng jr jung jou ju jwa jwai jwan jwang jwei jwun jwo dz dzung dzou dzu dzwan dzwei dzwen dzwo ZF

! xiu !3 xu !@ xuan !@& xue !@0 xun !@4 !@6 ya !@1 yan !@5 yang !@' yao % ye %@7 yi %3 yin %@ ying %@4 yo %@1 yong %@5 you %@' yu yuan & yue 0 yun 4 6 za 2 zai ( zan 1 zang 7 zao 9 ze 94 zei 92 zen 9) zeng 97 zha @7 zhai 3 zhan @ zhang @4 zhao @1 zhe @5 zhei @' zhen zheng @& zhi @0 zhong @4 zhou @6 zhu @1 zhua @5 zhuai @7 zhuan @' zhuang @ zhui zhun 9 zhuo 9& zi 94 zong 96 zou 92 zu 9) zuan 95 zui 97 zun A7 zuo 

93 A A4 A) A5 9& 94 96 92 9) 9 95 97 9' A7 93 A A4 A) A5 #& #0 #4 #6 #2 #( #1 #5 #7 & 0 4 6 2 ( 1 5 7  @7 3 @ @& @0 @4 @6 @1 @5 @' # #@7 #3 #@ #@4 #@1 #@5 #@'

C-E Appendix IV Verb Complements in Chinese
Complements ´ lai qu shang xia shanglai Meaning come go ascend, up descend, down ascend toward ascend away from descend toward descend away from return come back go back enter to be, become well badly open up die fully nish become, as rmly ever experience Examples ´´ nalai bring ´ naqu take away ¯ genshang catch up with daxia lay a foundation zou shanglai walk up toward one zou shangqu walk away from one zou xialai walk down toward zou xiaqu walk down away from ¯ zhaohu´ recall ´ ´ na hu´lai bring back ´ na hu´qu take (away) back zouj n walk into ´ zaocheng create, bring about zuohao nish doing sunhuai damage, injure ¯ ¯ fenkai separate das beat to death ¯ chuantou pierce/pass through ´ ch¯wan nish eating ´ ´ chengwei become, turn into ´ nazhu hold rmly N quguo Shanghai ma? ? Have you ever been to Shanghai? ¯ ¯ ´ Women canguanle bowuguan.

e »

e shangqu
» xialai e xiaqu » hu´ Þ ´ hu´lai Þe hu´qu Þ» jnÛ ´ cheng  hao } huai O ¯ kai   s { tou  ´ wan Œ ´ wei : zhu O guo Ç


ÿe ÿ» ß
S p
e p
» p e p » ÛÞ ÿÞe ÿÞ» pÛ  Z} _O ¦  S{  £Œ : ÿO `»Ç

completed action


d zhene d˜

be doing very, extremely 

ì†Zi†¢ We visited the museum. ¯ ¯ Ta xiaozhe shuo... Ödô... He said, smiling, ... hao zhene }d˜ very good


C-E Appendix V Major Administrative Divisions in China
´ A. Centrally Controlled Municipality (zh´xiash


¬ (¬) ͆ ()
w (ª) )% (%) B. Provinces (sheng ¡)
Beij¯ng (J¯ng) Ch´ ngq ng (Y´ ) o u Shanghai (Hu) Ti¯nj¯n (J¯n) a

(short name indicated in parentheses)

‰½ – ¨¥ ú ý Þ ƒ G pÞ  ¤ Þ  B W 5Þ 5Ô 53 wW < wã ³ € ó¶„ Ñ™_ Ñ Èè ³W k ÑÞ V ¢ fI VW X ™ _Ï Ï W¬ _ c W ©— © 7 ½ ½ ˆ3 Rw R  q  NW q u *Ÿ U U ‰ ÛÝ Ý  ý ‘W ‘Ç ¦ Y_ Y mÞ ¯ C. Autonomous Regions (z zh qu ê»:)
¯ Anhu¯ (Wan ) — H´f´i ee F´ jian u (M n ) — F´ zh¯ u u o G¯nsu a (G¯n, Long a , ) — L´nzh¯ u a o Guangd¯ ng o (Yue ) — Guangzh¯ u o Guangx¯ (Gu ) — N´nn´ng a Gu zh¯ u o (Gu , Qi´n a , ) — Gu y´ng a Hain´n a (Qi´ ng o ) — Haikou H´bei e (J ) — Sh´ji¯zhu¯ng a a H¯il´ ngji¯ng e o a (H¯i e ) — H¯'erb¯n a H´n´n e a (Yu ) — Zhengzh¯ u o H´ bei u (E ) — Wuhan H´ n´n u a (Xi¯ng a ) — Ch´ngsh¯ a a Ji¯ngs¯ a u (S¯ u ) — N´nj¯ng a Ji¯ngx¯ a (Gan ) — N´nch¯ng a a J´l´n, Kilin (J´ ) — Ch´ngch¯ n a u Li´on´ng a (Li´o a ) — Sheny´ng a Q¯nghai (Q¯ng ) — X¯n´ng Sh¯nd¯ ng a o (Lu ) — J n´n a Sh¯nx¯ a (J n ) — Taiyu´n a Shanx¯, Shanxi (Shan ) — X¯'¯n a S chu¯n a (Chu¯n, Shu a , ) — Ch´ngd¯ e u Y´ nn´n u a (Y´ n, Di¯n u a , ) — K¯ nm´ng u Zheji¯ng a (Zhe ) — H´ngzh¯ u a o

(province name, short name in parentheses, and capital name)

(autonomous region name, short name in parentheses and capital name) Guangx¯ Zhuang (Gu ) — N´nn´ng a Neimenggu, Nei Mongol, Inner Mongolia — H¯ h´haote, Hohhot u e N´ngxia Hu´ (N´ng ) — Y´nchu¯n a X¯nji¯ng W´iw´ 'er a e u (X¯n ) — W¯ lumuq´, Urumuqi u X¯zang,Tibetan (Zang ) — L¯sa, Lahsa a

W …™ä |Œiy Þ  öÝ °†ôb ° L(P Ï Ï É(

î B

C-E Appendix VI


Ethnic Minorities in China

´ ¯ D. Special Administrative Regions (tebie x´ngzhengqu Aom´n, Macao e (Ao Xi¯nggang, Hongkong a E. Contested Region T´iw¯n a a

³è ³) MSAR ™/ (Gang /) HKSAR


ð~ (T´i ð) T´ibei — ð a a
C-E Appendix VI Ethnic Minorities in China

Name — Distribution ¯ ¯ Achang — Chie y Yunnan ´ Bai — Chie y Yunnan ¯ Bao'an — Chie y Gansu Bulang (Blang) — Chie y Yunnan Buy¯ (Bouyi) — Chie y southern and western Guizhou ´ Chaoxian (Korean) — Concentrated on Northeast border of North Korea, scattered in Northeast provinces Dai — Chie y southern Yunnan ´ Dawo'er (Daur) — Scattered in Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region ´´ De'ang — Chie y Yunnan Dong — Chie y Guizhou, a few in Northeast ¯ ¯ Dongxiang — Chie y Gansu ´´ Dulong — Chie y Yunnan ´ ´ Eluos¯ (Russian) — Chie y Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region ´ ¯ Elunchun (Oroqen) — Chie y Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Heilongjiang ¯ Ewenke (Ewenki) — Chie y Inner Mongolia ¯ ¯ Gaoshan — Chie y eastern Taiwan ¯ Gelao — Chie y Guizhou Han — Densely concentrated in China's main provinces, scattered in border regions, especially in cities ¯ Han´ — Chie y Yunnan ¯ Hasake (Kazak) — Chie y Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, a few in Gansu ´ Hezhe (Hezhen) — Chie y Heilongjiang Hu´ — Widely scattered among Han Chinese, concentrated in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Gansu, and Qinghai J¯ng Gin) — Chie y Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region ¯ J ngpo — Chie y Yunnan J¯nuo (Jino) — Yunnan


? ݉ £ £ ® £ ¾¡ ·¢ — a ì™ ÄW¯ ¢&7 ¢)K Øq ál I È< È(K kò Þ ¬ o‡ úú

Ethnic Minorities in China

¯ Ke'erkez¯ (Kirgiz) — Chie y Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region ¯ Lahu — Yunnan L´ — Chie y Hainan L su — Chie y Yunnan ¯ Luoba (Lhoba) — Xizang Zang Autonomous Region Man — Chie y Heilongjiang, but widely scattered ´ ´ Maonan — Chie y Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region ´ ¯ Menba — Chie y Xizang Zang Autonomous Region Menggu (Mongol) — Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and adjacent regions ´ Miao — Widely located in Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hubei, Guangdong Mulao (Mulam) — Chie y Guangxi Nax¯ — Chie y Yunnan Nu — Chie y Yunnan Pum (Primi) — Chie y Yunnan, also in Sichuan ¯ Qiang — Chie y Sichuan ¯¯ Sala (Salar) — Chie y Qinghai ¯ She — Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Anhui Shu (Sui) — Gu zh¯ u o Taj´ke (Tajik) — Southern part of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Tata'er (Tatar) — Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Tu — Chie y Qinghai ¯ Tujia — Chie y Hunan and Hubei Wa (Va) — Chie y Yunnan ´ ´ Weiwu'er — (Uygur) Chie y Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region south of Tianshan ¯ ´ Wuz¯bieke — (Uzbek) Chie y Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region ´ X¯bo — (Xibe) Chie y Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Liaoning ´ Yao — Chie y Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Hunan, Yunnan, Guangdong, Guizhou Y´ — Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangxi Yugu — (Yugur) Chie y Gansu Zang — (Tibetan) Chie y Xizang Zang Autonomous Region, also Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan Zhuang — Chie y Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, also Yunnan, Guangdong, Hunan, Guizhou, Sichuan

ïK\ É\ Î ˆó Þô á Û¾ èô ™ä × ël ³  ns Œ ’É r 4 T©K TT  ¶ d ôb L\CK !/ v “ Õú Ï î


C-E Appendix VI

C-E Appendix VII. Chinese Graded Word Lists
(These lists are omitted from this PDF le. For Wenlin, simply choose Graded Word Lists from the List menu.)


C-E Appendix VIII Standard and Variant Character Forms
Standard Variant Examples

ˆ 7  ô y þ Ê , ¶ £ 0   è o æ  ¸ Í + 7 ;  p Ð   ( ‰

3 B 4 B 5 B 5 C 1 C 1 C 3 C 4 C 4 C 5 D 1 D 1 D 1 D 1 D 1 D 2 D 2 D 3 D 3 D 4 D 4 E 2 E 3 E 5 F 1 F 2 F 3 F 3

  k  5 ¿ ‰ „ ? Í ¤ ¨ u k G a ˆ q 0 ¥ 6 ¬ ƒ … € ) B ' -























wrM QÊþB 43ý£ ö÷ú ±I6‚p IT½ 8§Œ ¦¶Å ÑS ÍÞç sŒ³ ˜‹ éÝ ¯ä ö÷ dxÑ »½Ê mÔ ×Ç1 ?¤/ <> &nZ  sâ5 !$M £þ% î À#Y
a* c* d* e* f*

Standard Variant Examples


§ $ v n 4 Ò B M ¥ ô Œ ¼ à … 7 ¨ < Þ ¤ V K  C n Ä a b e

4 F 4 F 4 F 4 G 2 G 3 G 3 G 3 H 1 H 1 H 1 H 2 H 3 H 5 I 2 I 2 I 3 I 3 I 5 J 1 J 1 J 1 J 3 J 4 K 1 K 3 K 5 L 3

& w o 3 þ P ’  ¤ ‡ ¯ Þ „ ¶ » Á Œ ‹ Š I  © ž à † ! g


fò( @î{ üyö Ω ï1^ ãn4 b$ê ZÉT ýW* < n wkU NK© ïý ÿe“ )2 Ñ>¼ BEl w¨> š ²h¬ ," xk  Ge# ÚÙ *œã Ïak ¨D´ ³b¤


h* i*


C-E Appendix VIII


Standard and Variant Character Forms

In the preceding list, column one comprises modern standard forms, column two the corresponding obsolete variant forms, and column three examples of the standard forms. A circled number, or stroke, indicates the number of strokes, or initial stroke type, of the preceding form. This information will facilitate use of the Stroke Order Index (Appendix IX) and Radical Index (Appendix XI). Although some variants, such as from and

included within brackets in the main body of this dictionary and may be found in the indexes, this dictionary normally follows the standard described here, even for the complex equivalents of simpli ed characters. For example, only not

Q ‰

in some character sets such as the Unicode Standard), are

L and

(which are treated as distinct

However, the radical charts also include variants such as the traditional order of the 214 radicals. The usage of both radical 188 is analogous to the traditional usage of both


J, is used, even as a component in


V (whose simpli ed form is J and

radical 162: only the forms with fewer strokes actually occur as components.

¨ S » » ¨ µ ¶
G and


J that affected I for C for



c. Exceptions: d.

e. Exception: f. g. h.

forms with

i. All characters with

Consequently, this rule, like the preceding rule for complex equivalents of simpli ed characters.

ˆ   )ãìj 7 w ] k ¦Rv º ¹ q ¸ + * “ , @ 6 7 ; : —h> n o jß N Ç ¼ Y ¥ à à mq ¼
is the top of certain characters and components. Not applicable to , etc. itself or are and . Not applicable to itself or , etc.

is the top of certain characters and components. Additional examples

I and

I both have

, not


is an upper component. Not applicable to is written with , not with


, or



is a left-side component. Not applicable to is a left-side component. Not applicable to

itself or itself or

, etc. , etc.

has the simpli ed form

. All other characters with .

have simpli ed

G, e.g.,

have simpli ed forms with

C, e.g.,


, only affects the

C-E Appendix IX Stroke Order Index of Characters
Characters with the same number of strokes are ordered by shape of initial stroke and subsequent strokes, according to ve basic stroke ´ types, exempli ed by the character zha, in the following order:

´ 1   heng horizontal or þ t´ rising ¯ 2 @ shu vertical or … shugou with left hook 3 ¤ pie falling to left 4 TŸ dian dot or ü na falling to right ´ 5 ‰‘ zhe sharp turn

(This index is omitted from this PDF le. For Wenlin, simply choose Characters by Stroke Count from the List menu.)


C-E Appendix X Introduction to the Radical Index of Characters
Appendix XI presents an integrated index of the 9,638 characters (including 2,491 complex equivalents of simpli ed characters) that occur in this dictionary. The index is based on the K¯ngx¯ a Dictionary (1716) traditional arrangement of characters under 214 radicals. The characters are presented in a “three-sort” arrangement:


1st sort:

by radical. If a character's radical is not obvious, the character may be listed separately under two or three components that might be considered as the radical.

2nd sort: by number of additional strokes. A pre xed number introduces the characters with the same number of strokes. 3rd sort: by shape of initial stroke (and subsequent strokes) exclusive of the radical. ´ There are ve basic types of strokes (exempli ed by the character zha), which have been standardized by the PRC National Language Work Committee in the following order:


1  2@ 3¤ 4 TŸ 5 ‰‘ 

þ t´ rising ¯ … shugou with left hook pie falling to left dian dot or ü na falling to right
´ heng horizontal or shu vertical or ´ zhe sharp turn

For example, to nd the character , rst look under radical 9, then under the characters with eight additional strokes, and nally under those whose additional strokes start with in the rst category. (The subsequent strokes determine the exact order, so that precedes .) 5y , by which its entry in the main body of Shown next to in the index is its pronunciation the dictionary can be found alphabetically. The traditional system of 214 radicals treats modi ed and abbreviated forms of radicals as equivalent to primary forms. For example, radical 85 (shu `water') includes three-stroke as well as the primary four-stroke . The same convention applies to modern simpli ed radicals: ´ radical 149 (yan `words') includes as well as . Characters whose non-radical parts have been simpli ed are listed according to their actual stroke counts. Thus, is listed under radical 9 with four additional strokes, and its traditional equivalent is listed under radical 9 with eleven additional strokes. In the index, traditional equivalents of simpli ed characters are distinguished by being followed by a raised dot. (In the corresponding entries in the main body of the dictionary, these traditional forms are enclosed in square brackets following the simpli ed forms.) The end pages of the dictionary contain two charts that provide alternative approaches to nding one's way in the Radical Index of Characters. The Kangxi Radical Chart presents the 214 radicals in their traditional order. The Comprehensive Radical Chart presents the same radicals but in addition includes their various modi ed, abbreviated, and simpli ed forms, ordered rst by stroke count and then subordered by the ve basic stroke types. In combination, the two charts provide conformity with the traditional system while making it easier for users who may not yet have memorized, for example, that is an abbreviation of (radical 162—note that this radical is always abbreviated, in both complex and simpli ed characters; its primary form does not occur in modern Chinese either as a component or as a whole character). For those who are accustomed to different radical systems, such as the 189 radicals of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), adjusting to the Kangxi system should present no great dif culty. Of the 189 CASS radicals, 187 are equivalent to Kangxi radicals and can be found easily in the Comprehensive Radical Chart. Only two CASS radicals, and , are not equivalent to Kangxi radicals. In this dictionary, is listed under radical 1 ; under 163 


1 ú








& v  º


Immediately below we present notes indicating how the radicals are de ned. Attention is also drawn to the formal and popular names and to major variants in form. The twenty- ve most frequently occurring radicals are starred as worthy of memorization since they enter into two-thirds of commonly used characters. Some examples of their occurrences in characters are shown in these notes; for further examples see the Radical Index of Characters. The pronunciations of some radicals are enclosed in parentheses below, to indicate that there are no entries for them in the main body of this dictionary. For example, radicals 2 and 3 have the historical names gun and zhu, found in old dictionaries but rarely spoken and perhaps not widely known. Radical 4 is commonly called pie, but we also enclose pie in parentheses since the form is not used as a character by itself in ordinary writing (unlike pie), and therefore has no entry in the main body of this dictionary.

)(‘); ÿ under 17 õ; ù under 204 ù; v under 12 k;  under 99 ; and ¯ under 69 ¤.

Introduction to the Radical Index


C-E Appendix X






B stroke
1 2 3 4 5


C strokes
7 8 *9

´   y¯ one. Also called  * y¯ heng `one horizontal'. Examples: ¡, £, ©, , , , 8. @ (gun) downstroke. Commonly called shu or  Ö y¯ shu `one vertical'. Examples: B, C, H, f, R. T (zhu) dot. Commonly called dian, or  ¹ y¯ dian `one dot'. The formal name zhu comes from association with the character Y zhu. Examples: s, X, Y. c (pie) left-falling stroke. Also called  ‡ y¯ pie. Examples: y, v, w, x. ‰ y bent. Characters under this radical mostly begin with, or contain, a stroke that turns a sharp corner, such as • and k. In s, q, and ‚, the last stroke is the radical. ´ ¯ … (jue) left-hooked downstroke. Commonly called  þ y¯ gou `one hook'. Examples: †, ˆ, ‰, ‹.



12 13 14

15 16 17

´ Œ er two. Another name is 6* liang heng. Various characters that include two horizontal strokes are listed under this radical, such as Ž, •, ’, and ›. ´ ´ ´   (tou) cover. Colloquial names are ‡WR wen z tou and  ¹ * y¯-dian-y¯´ heng `one dot one horizontal'. It is the top of ¦, ¤, ¥, ¬, etc. See also radicals 67 ‡, 145 c, 189 Ø, and 210 t €. ´ º »ren person. Most often written », as a left-side component, when it is called ¯ ´ ´ ¯ ´ …ºÁ dan ren pang `single person side component' (or …˺ dan l ren `single standing person') as contrasted with radical 60 s When written º, it is usually at . the top of a character. Examples: Á, w, –, Ë, ¡, Ä. ´ ´ ? (ren) person (going). As a character, ? is the simpli ed form of R er, but as ´ a radical, it is considered to be a variant of º ren. It is usually at the bottom of a character. Examples: C, K, F. e ru enter. Besides the character e itself, only three characters in this dictionary are listed under radical 11: g (a variant of …), h, and i. (We also list h under radical 9 º, since in modern writing the top of h is like the tops of Ë, ¡, etc.) ¯ kU ba eight. It is at the bottom of m, q, v, and at the top of n, l, as well as p, s, |, etc., where the two strokes point inward. ¯ ‚ (jiong) borders. Examples: …, ˆ, Œ, , h. – (m ) cover. It is at the top of —, ™, ›,  ; it is also in œ. Sometimes called ¯ ÃÖ tu baogai, `blunted treasure cover', since it is like radical 40 € baogai without the dot. ¯ «(b¯ng) ice. It is the radical in ° b¯ng `ice', · leng `cold', ¬ dong `winter', etc. Called 6¹R liang dian shu `two-dot water' as contrasted with radical 85 S . à j¯ table. It is the top of á and ä, the bottom of í and ë, the right side of ï and ñ. ¯ õ (kan/qian) receptacle. It is also called qW• shan z d . Examples: ö, û, ø, ù, ú, ý.

C-E Appendix X * 18

D strokes
* 30 31 * 32 33 34 35 36 37 * 38 39 * 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

¯ ¯  ¢ dao knife. Most often written¢ (called A  l dao) on the right side of a character, as in H, T, A, C. It is also the radical of §, ¦, ), etc., as well as . 19 › l strength. The right side of , ¨, ©, etc.; the bottom of ¡, £, ³, etc. ¯ ¯ ´ 20 ù (bao) wrap. Called ¥WR bao z tou. Examples: ú, ÿ,  , ¥, . 21 ! (b ) spoon. In % it originally depicted a spoon. In " and # it was originally º `person' upside-down or reversed. See also radical 81 Ô. ¯ 22 & (fang) basket. Examples: ), 2, B. See also the following radical (23 V). 23 V (x ) box. Examples: X, d, W, Y. Radicals 22 & and 23 V are not normally ¯ distinguished in modern writing. Both are called XWp qu z kuang (or 2Wp ¯ jiang z kuang). 24 e sh´ ten. Examples: g, r, q, t, x, , ‡. In , the left side is e, two strokes, not to be confused with three-stroke form Äof radical 61. 25 ’ bu to divine. It is the top of —, –, , etc.; the right side of •, f, g, etc.; and the bottom of ”. See also radical 141 M. ´ 26 i > (jie) a seal, stamp. When it has the formi at the right side of p, o, t, s, ¯ etc., it is called …QS dan erduo `single ear', contrasted with radicals 163 and 170 ). It also has the form > in n, q, w. 27 ‚ (han) cliff. Examples: †, š, Ÿ, ¦. In modern usage, ‚ by itself is the simpli ed ¯ form of à chang `factory'. A colloquial name is O‚? pian changr. 28 ¶ (s¯) private. The bottom of », ¾, and ¿; the top of  and Ã. The word s¯ `private' is now written Á. 29 È you hand; also. Examples: Ê, É, Ë, Í, Ö. We also list " and ¾ under È, as well as under their traditional radicals ( and ¹).


Introduction to the Radical Index

ã kou mouth. Examples: on the left, ö, ë, S, Y; on the top, ÷, ê, D; elsewhere, E, ä, ï, î, i. ´ ´ × (wei) enclosure. Examples: ô or  wei `surround', and ý, à, Þ, þ, â. 1 tu earth. Examples: on the left, H, x, , ™; on the bottom, @, , –, . ë sh scholar, of cial. Examples: ì, î, ð, ö, ý. ¢ (zh ) step forward. It usually originates from b zh `foot' (radical 77) upside-down. The top of ¡, §, and ë. See also the following (radical 35 ).  (su¯) walk slowly. In modern writing, normally the same shape as radical 34 ¢, but at the bottom, as in , , and . ! x¯ evening. Picture of the crescent moon, like ¨. Examples: ", %, &, (, ¦, 1, 4. 9 da big, great. Examples: A, C, B, D, V, W, f, †, ‡. s nü woman, female. Examples: on the left, ‡, }, y, ¹; on the bottom, Ô, ÿ, Ü, j. P Q z son, child. Examples: T, d, c, X. ´ € (mian) roof. A colloquial name is Ö baogai. Examples: ˆ, ‰, š, Ò. See also radical 116 t. Characters such as z and  are listed under t, not under €. ø cun inch. Examples: ù, ¡, ú, ü.  xiao small. Examples: , , $, ƒ, &, ‰. ¯ 4 (wang) lame. Examples: 6, @, I, R. At the bottom of 9 it has the form @. ¯ ´ It is sometimes called 6WÁ you z pang. See also radical 212 ™(). V sh¯ corpse. Examples: X, `, a, e, ”. ´ n (che) sprout. The only common character with this radical is o tun. ¯ q shan mountain. Examples: ­, û, , —, ”, ³. ¯ Ý Û chuan river, stream. Examples: Þ, á, â. ¯ å gong work. Examples: æ, ç, è, é, ë, î, ï. ñ j self. Examples: ò, ó, ô, õ, ÷, ý . þ j¯n napkin; turban. Examples: ¡, £, ¨, ¦, 8, a. ¯ ¯ r gan shield. Examples: s, t, v, x, y. (r is also the simpli ed form of ~ gan `dry' and y gan `do'.) ¯ z yao little. Examples: —, {, |, }, ~.

Introduction to the Radical Index 53 54

55 56 57 58 59 60

E strokes
* 61 62 63 * 64

 (yan) a shelter. Examples: œ, ¦, E. In modern usage,  by itself is the simpli ed form of ã guang. See also radicals 198  and 200 ». 5 ô (y n) move on. It is grouped with the three-stroke radicals, as though written 5, but is actually written ô, two strokes. Examples: ÷, ö, ú. It is called úuÁ ´ jian zh¯ pang. Compare radical 162 ¶(µ). þ (gong) folded hands. Examples:  , ¢, ¤, §.  (y ) dart. Examples: , , 0, . ¯  gong a bow. Examples: !, #, ', 1, 2, I, G. ´ €  (j ) pig's head. Examples: ‚, ‡, …, †, ‰. Sometimes called *q heng ¯ shan `horizontal mountain'. ¯ ¯ — (shan) feathers. Examples: ˜, l, i, {. Sometimes called ©‡ san pie. ¯ ´ ´ sch left step. Sometimes called ̺Á shuang ren pang, as contrasted with radical 9 » Originally abbreviated from radical 144 L. Characters like W, with  . on the right side, are listed under radical 144 L.


C-E Appendix X

65 66 67 68 69 70 71 * 72 73


* 75 76 77 78

79 80 81 82 83

à ė x¯n heart. Examples: on the bottom, ×, õ, 7; on the left, with the three-stroke form Ä Ù, 9, Å; with the altered form —, Ý, m, U. , ¯ ¨ ge halberd. Examples: , $, H. In some characters, the rst stroke of ¨ is written, then the non-radical part, and nally the last three strokes of ¨, as in , , ". Even more intricately woven are , Á, 4. U T hu door; household. Examples: b, d, c, g. u vshou hand. Examples: ÿ, Œ, i. The three-stroke form vis most common, as ´ in ƒ, Š, §; it is known as ÐuÁ t´ shou pang `rising-hand component' (the last stroke in vis þ a rising stroke). / zh¯ branch. The only common characters under this radical are / itself, and Å (whose traditional radical is 124 ½); a rare one is 2. See also radical 207 . ¯ ´ ´ 4 5 (pu) tap, rap. It nearly always appears as 5, called ͇Á fanwenpang, as in Y, Q, O, b, but it has the form 4 in r and Ç. ´ ‡ wen written language. Examples: ‹, ‘, , ’, “. — dou a peck. Examples: ™, œ, ›, . (— is also the simpli ed form of %/&//* dou ` ght', radical 191.) ¤ j¯n catty, half kilogram. Examples: ¥, ©, §, °. ¯ ¹ fang square. Examples: ½, Å, Á. ´ à á wu not, without. The only common character with this radical (besides à itself) is â j , in which it is written á. å r sun, day. Examples: æ, ö, /, %. See also the following (radical 73 ð). ¯ ð yue say. As a radical component, ð is normally written the same as radical 72 å. Relatively few characters are listed under radical 73. Examples: ò, ô, ÷, ø, ÿ,  . ¨ yue moon. See also radical 130 ¨(‰) `meat'. Only a few characters are listed under `moon', including ©, , , and 1. The majority of characters that appear to have radical 74 `moon' really have radical 130 `meat'. ´ @ mu tree, wood. Examples: E, s, p, S, B, c. It is called @WÁ mu z pang. It is written A in —, f, ², T, etc. qian owe, de cient. Examples: ", ', L. b zh stop. It originally depicted a foot. Examples: c, d, e, f, g, j. y z dai bad. Examples: {, |, , –. The variant form z is a component in  and ², but not in any of the common characters that are traditionally listed under ¯ radical 78. (z is also a nonstandard simpli ed form of  can `meal'.) ¯ ³ shu pole-axe; kill. Examples: ´, µ, º, ¼. ´ Ë Í wu do not. Examples: Ë, Í, Ï, Ò, Ó. Ô b compare. Examples: Õ, ×, Ö, Ù, Ú. ´ Û mao hair. Examples: á, ë, ó, õ, §, ¨.  sh clan. The only common characters listed under this radical (besides  itself) are , , and .

C-E Appendix X 84 * 85

* 86

87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94

F strokes
95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 * 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 * 112 113

R SX S ©¹R ¡Õ;wñ X ð kl o®mp l Û¹k 6¹!gí ¬ Z å Ñ *+ ÇÅ-15, Ü 6 789: ; = > ?D ¦§BF ¶Àî  ¬ës G HMLR Y Z Y ªÅ & Y [\ izr_b ¬­ ®Ê¶N{ ­ ͬÁ ¯*+ ×

q breath, air. Examples: , , . shu water. Examples: , , , , . It most often has the form , ¯ called san dian shu `three-dot water', as in , , , , . It also has a ve-stroke form as in . huo re. Examples: , , , . At the bottom of a character it often has the form , called s dian huo `four-dot re', as in , , , , . See also radicals 187 , 195 , 196 , and 203 . zhao claw. Examples: , , , , , . Compare radical 97 . fu father. Examples: , , , . ´ yao intertwine. Examples: and . ´ (qiang) piece of wood. Examples: , , , . We also include , , , , , here as well as under their traditional radicals ( , , ). pian a strip, slice. Examples: , , , . ´ ya tooth. is the only common character traditionally listed under , but we list , , , and under as well as under their traditional radicals. ´ niu ox, cow. Examples: , , , , . quan dog. Examples: , , , , . It most often has the three-stroke form ´ , called fanquanpang, as in , , , and the modern word for `dog', gou.

'95 Vf”õÉ


Introduction to the Radical Index


115 116 117

´ „ xuan dark, obscure. The only characters we list under this radical are „ itself and ‡. (For convenience, we also list both „ and ‡ under radical 8  .) ‰ ‹ „ yu jade. With a few exceptions, such as º and §, this radical is nearly ´ always written without the dot, like ‹ (wang `king'). Examples: ¯, £, °, ¦, R. ¯ Ü gua melon. Examples: Þ, à, â, ã, ä. Compare radical 87 *. a æ wa tile. It is grouped with the ve-stroke radicals, as though written a, but is actually written æ, four strokes. Examples: ï, ÿ, ö, î, ÷. ¯  gan sweet. Examples: , , , . ¯  sheng give birth. Examples: , #, &, %. ( yong use. Examples: ), +, ,, -, /. ´ 0 tian eld, paddy. Examples: 1, 2, 3, 5, L, 8, 7, ;, O, ×. ‹ p bolt of cloth. Examples: , ‘. As a character by itself, ‹ is used as a variant of W p . ´ ’ (n ) sick. Called ÅWR b ng z tou. Examples: —, ¾, ¼, Û. ¯ ¯ ´ v (bo) back to back. Called {WR deng z tou. Examples: x, {, |. ´ } bai white. Examples: „, Ž, ‚, ‡, ~. ® p´ skin. Examples: ±, °, ´ ¿ m n dish, receptacle. Examples: Ê, Ð, Ö, Û, Ø. Compare radical 143 @. î ‚ mu eye. Examples: ï, ò, d, ø, ‹, `. The form ‚ is in b and ~. More often ‚ is a form of radical 122  wang `net'. ´ Û mao lance, pike. Examples: Ô, Ü, Þ. â sh arrow. Examples: ã, å, é, í, î. ó sh´ stone. Examples: , 4, l, è, §, Ê. : ;sh show. Examples: h, m, _, . It most often has the four-stroke form ;, ´ called :WÁ sh z pang, as in <, ], x. Not to be confused with radical 145 d(c). ´ q ¸ (rou) animal track. Examples: º, ¹, », ½. In both » and ½, it has the four-stroke form ¸, while in º and ¹ it has the ve-stroke form q (with the central vertical stroke elongated). ´ ´ ´ ¾ he grain. It is called ¾@Á hemupang. Examples: Ò, Ë, é, Ã, À, É. ´ t xue cave, hole. Examples: z, , , ¨. Compare radical 40 €. Ë l stand. Examples: Ù, í, §, ², Ö. See also radicals 180 ó and 212 .

Introduction to the Radical Index

G strokes
* 118 119 * 120 121 122


C-E Appendix X

123 124 125 126 127 128 129 * 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 * 140

141 * 142 143 144 * 145


H strokes
147 148 * 149

´ ù ® zhu bamboo. Examples: , ,, I, ¡. s m rice. Examples: ˜, —, ¾, Ÿ, ±, Ü. ø Ÿ(m /s¯) silk. Examples: û, , /. As a side component it is simpli ed to Ÿthree ´ strokes, as in  , ¢, Ï. It is called Þ)Á jiao s¯ pang `twisted silk component'. T fou crock, jug. Examples: V, X, €, f, h.  ‚ wang net. It nearly always has the form ‚, as in ‡, , j, n. The only exceptions in this dictionary are … and „, and the character  itself. ‚ is sometimes informally called ÛWè s z bu. Compare radical 109 ‚(î). ´ Š yang sheep, goat. Examples: š, , Œ, Ž, ”, ¤. ½ yu feathers, wings. Examples: Á, Å, Ê, Ì. ¡ ¢ lao old. Examples: £, ¥, ¤, . ´  er moreover. The only characters we list under this radical are  itself, , and .  lei a plow. Examples: $, #, !, %. Q er ear. Examples: Y, c, U, u, , }.  € yu writing brush. Examples: †, „, ], ƒ, …. ‰ ¨ rou meat, esh. Examples: , €, ¡, V, ², ´. Compare radical 74 ¨ `moon'. ´ ã chen minister of state. Examples: g, ç, è. ê z self; from. It depicted a nose. Examples: ì, í, ò. See also radical 209 Y. ó zh arrive, reach. Examples: ô, ú, û. ü jiu a mortar. Examples: þ,  , ¢, §, ¤, ¥, . ´  she tongue. Examples: , , , . ' chuan opposed. Examples: (, 0. ¯ 1 zhou boat. Examples: H, D, B, W. n gen a limit; perverse. Examples: o, p, q. r se color. Examples: s, t, w. xy (cao) grass, herbs. As a radical it is always abbreviated to the three-stroke form ´ y, called sWR cao z tou. Examples: ±, æ, ñ, =. The word cao `grass' is now written s. ´ M N hu tiger. Called NWR hu z tou. Examples: O, Q, Z. ´ k chong insect, bug, worm. Examples: y, Š, •, ð, Ê. @ xie blood. Examples: D, E. L x´ng walk, go; do. Examples: M, W, ]. Compare radical 60 s. c dy¯ clothing. In its primary form c, it occurs at the bottom, or occasionally the top, of a character, as in Â, Å, ô, Ô. It is sometimes split into   on top, the rest on the bottom, as in p, ¤, ù, . It is distorted in h, . Most often it is on the left ´ side, in the ve-stroke form d(called cWÁ y¯ z pang), as in k, œ, ,  (not to be confused with the four-stroke form ;of radical 113 :). ~€ (ya) cover. Standing by itself, the radical is written ~.  xia `west' is listed under it. Otherwise, it is written €, as in , ƒ, †.

150 151 152

‹ Á jian see, perceive. The simpli ed form Á is four strokes. Examples: Â, À, Ä, , È, ½, É, º. Ò jiao horn; angle. Examples: ã, å, æ, Ü, ñ. ´    yan speech. As a left-side component, it has the two-stroke simpli ed form   ´ ´ (called  WÁ yan z pang), as in ¡, Ý, ÷ (whose complex forms are ¨, q, Ë respectively). It is not simpli ed when it is at the bottom, as in “, f, l. U gu ravine, valley. Examples: 2, c, e. p dou bean. Examples: s, v, x, €. … sh pig. Examples: —, , “, n, ˜, j.

C-E Appendix X 153

* 154 155 156 157

158 159 160 161 * 162 163

164 165


I strokes
* 167 168

x zh beast. Examples: y, z, ‰. It has often been used in variation with radical ¯ 94 ­¬), as in + or “ mao `cat'. Some rare variants, such as  for ø l´ `fox', are ( not included in this dictionary.   bei cowry; valuable. The simpli ed form  is four strokes. Examples: ", ¡, 4, ¼, 5, ´. d ch red; naked. Examples: f, g, j, k. p – zou run, walk. Examples: w, Š, …, £. ´ ³ Ê zu foot; suf cient. Most often it has the form Ê as a left-side component, as in Ñ, ó, ï, ß, but also occurs at the bottom with its primary form ³ as in ¸, Y, i. ¯ « shen body; oneself. Examples: ¬, ¯, ², º. ¯ Ê f che vehicle. The simpli ed form f is four strokes. Examples: g, Ë, †, , ›, Í. › x¯n bitter, suffering. Examples: œ, Ÿ, £, ¨. ´ ° chen morning; time. Examples: ±, ². µ ¶ (chuo) move forward. In characters, it always has the three-stroke form ¶. Examples: Ñ, ¦, &, ƒ. ‘ )(on right) y town, district. In characters, it always has the two-stroke form ), on the right side, as in ¦, £, ý, è. See also radical 170 )(), which is always on ( the left side. Radicals 163 and 170 have colloquial names óQS you erduo `right ear' and æQS zuo erduo `left ear', respectively. They also share the name ÌQS ¯ shuang erduo `double ear', contrasted with radical 26i `single ear'. I you new wine. Examples: M, ‰, R, K, q. Æ (bian) distinguish. Examples: É, Ê, Ë, Ç. It is an old form of ¨ bian, but is not used by itself as a modern character. It is seven strokes, written c over s. Compare Ç cai, which is eight strokes, + over @; Æ and Ç are unrelated in origin, but Ç is traditionally listed under Æ due to the coincidental similarity. Ì l village; half-kilometer. Examples: Î, Í, Ï. (Ì is also the simpli ed form of á/Ï l `inside'.)


Introduction to the Radical Index

169 * 170


172 173 174 175

Ñ …j¯n metal, gold. As a left-side component, it has the ve-stroke simpli ed form … ´ (called ÑWÁ j¯n z pang), as in ±, , ö, Á, while at the bottom of a character it has its full form Ñ, as in t, ®, Ö. In Ü, the rst two strokes of Ñ are merged with bottom of 6. ´ w x  chang long. The simpli ed form  is four strokes. The only character in this dictionary that has traditionally been listed under this radical is w itself. For convenience, we list ‡ and † under this radical, as well as under their traditional radicals (37 9 and 129 , respectively). See also radical 190 ß. ´ € è men door. The simpli ed form è is three strokes. Examples: é, ‚, ô, “, ú, ¨. ( )(on left) fu hillock. In characters, it always has the two-stroke form ), on the left side. Examples: R, €, —, d. See also radical 163 )‘), which is always on ( the right side. ¶ (dai) reach to. The character ¶ was originally used for the word dai `catch', which is now written F. ¶ is now used as the simpli ed form of ¸ l . No other characters in this dictionary are listed under this radical. ¹ (zhu¯) short-tailed bird. Examples: ¾, Õ, À, Æ. è yu rain. Examples: ê, ö, ÷, §. ‚  q¯ng blue, green, black. The form ‚ has become standard. Examples: ƒ, ‰, ‘, †. ¯ ” fei not. – and — (and ” itself) are the only characters in this dictionary that are traditionally listed under ”. We also list ˆ and ) under ” as well as under radical 159 Ê.

Introduction to the Radical Index

J strokes
176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184


C-E Appendix X

˜ i Ëæ ìÜ í  y ó ¡u †$ ¨Î ØÄ ÛÞ ß cà

185 186

K strokes
187 188 189 190 191

mian face. Examples: , , . ( is also the simpli ed form of mian `noodles'.) ´ ge rawhide. Examples: , , , . ´ wei leather. The simpli ed form is four strokes. Examples: , , , , , . jiu leeks. Except for itself, the only characters that we list under this radical are and (although they have traditionally been listed under radical 210 ). y¯n sound. Examples: , , . ye head; page. The simpli ed form is six strokes. Examples: , , , , , . Compare radical 185 . ¯ feng wind. The simpli ed form is four strokes. Examples: , , , , , . ¯ fei to y. The only characters we list under this radical are itself, and its three-stroke simpli ed form . sh´ eat. At the bottom of a character, it has its full form as in , , . As a left-side component, it has the three-stroke simpli ed form (called ´ sh´ z pang), as in , , (whose complex forms are or , , and , respectively, with the slightly-abbreviated eight-stroke form ). shou head. The only characters listed under this radical in this dictionary are itself, , and . ¯ xiang fragrant. The only characters listed under this radical in this dictionary are itself, , and .

í õöÿ – Þ

ehf ˜ ‹­ æ





– — ˜ ™ ™ ¥ ¨


t {¨z¦ Õ¼Ò¯ Û ß . c ßWÁ â Qò à –

192 193 194

L strokes
195 196 197

¬ l ma horse. The simpli ed form l is three strokes. Examples: o, ´, p, ³, ~, Õ, ¯, ®. » ¨ gu bone. It is grouped with the ten-stroke radicals, for its old form », but the modern standard form is ¨, nine strokes. Examples: °, ¸, Ó. ¯ Ø gao high. The only character we list under this radical is Ø itself. ¯ ß (biao) hair (on the head). Examples: æ, î. % dou ght, struggle. All the characters with this radical have simpli ed equivalents that do not contain %. % itself (and its variants &/-/*) is simpli ed to —. ', ), and . have simpli ed forms with è (ù, , and ¤). / chang sacri cial wine. The only characters in this dictionary with this radical are / itself, and 1. 2 l cauldron. The only characters we list under this radical are 2 itself, and ;. Á < gu spirit, devil. It is grouped with the ten-stroke radicals, based on an old way of writing it, but the modern standard is to write it with nine strokes. Examples: A, E, B, T.
´ Z | yu sh. The simpli ed form | is eight strokes. Examples: ¸, è, Ã, , Ö, I, Ž, _. å  niao bird. The simpli ed form  is ve strokes. Examples: #, ô, %, ×, 3, . ud lu salt (unre ned). The simpli ed form d is seven strokes. The only characters in this dictionary with the simpli ed radical d are d itself, and ~ (whose complex form is z). Other characters with the complex radical u have simpli ed forms without u or d. (¸ for y; Ð for }; and ±/w for |.)  lu deer. Examples: ’, Ÿ, —, . ¥¦ mai wheat, barley. The simpli ed form ¦ is seven strokes. The only characters in this dictionary with the simpli ed radical ¦ are ¦ itself, and ¸ (whose complex form is ©). Other characters with the complex radical ¥ have simpli ed forms without ¥ or ¦. (˜ for µ; and ò for ´/¯.)

198 199

C-E Appendix X 200

M strokes
201 202 203 204

´ » ma hemp. Example: ¼. Most of the characters that contain » as a component are traditionally listed under other radicals, such as è under ó; i under u; — under ”; and T under <. For convenience, we also list è, i, etc., under », under radical 53 , and under ó, u, etc. ´ Ã Ä huang yellow. It is grouped with the twelve-stroke radicals, for the form Ã, but the eleven-stroke form Ä is now standard. Examples: È, É, Ì. Í shu glutinous millet. Examples: Î, Ï. ¯ Ñ hei black. Examples: Ø, Ô, ç, è. ù zh embroidery. Examples: û, ü.


Introduction to the Radical Index

N strokes
205 206 207 208

O strokes
209 210

ý þ (meng) frog, toad. The simpli ed form þ is eight strokes. Examples: , ÿ, , ©. Í  d ng tripod cauldron. It is grouped with the thirteen-stroke radicals, but the modern standard form is twelve strokes. The only characters we list under this radical are  itself, and .  gu drum. The only characters we list under this radical are  itself, and %. 2 shu rat, mouse. Examples: 4, D, G, I, Ä. Y b´ nose. Examples: b, e, s. t€ q´ even, uniform. The simpli ed form € is six strokes, as in  (whose complex form is y). Other characters with the complex radical t have simpli ed forms without t or € (‹ for u; and M for x). For convenience, we also list € and  under radical 67 ‡. ‚  ch teeth; age. The simpli ed form  is eight strokes. Examples: „, —, ˆ, f, ‹, r.
´  ™ long dragon. The simpli ed form ™ is ve strokes. Examples: ž, , ­, r, ›, •. œŸ gu¯ turtle, tortoise. The simpli ed form Ÿ is seven strokes. The only characters we list under this radical are Ÿ and œ themselves. ute. The only characters we list under this radical are

P strokes
211 212

Q strokes

R strokes


  itself, and ¥.

C-E Appendix XI Radical Index of Characters
(This index is omitted from this PDF le. For Wenlin, simply choose Radicals by Stroke Count from the List menu.)


ABC Chinese Dictionary Series
Victor H. Mair, General Editor The ABC Chinese Dictionary Series aims to provide a complete set of convenient and reliable reference tools for all those who need to deal with Chinese words and characters. A unique feature of the series is the adoption of a strict alphabetical order, the fastest and most user-friendly way to look up words in a Chinese dictionary. Most volumes contain graphically oriented indices to assist in nding characters whose pronunciation is not known. The ABC dictionaries and compilations rely on the best expertise available worldwide and are based on the application of new strategies for the study of Sinitic languages and the Chinese writing system, including the rst clear distinction between the etymology of words, on the one hand, and the evolution of shapes, sounds, and meanings of characters, on the other. While aiming for conciseness and accuracy, series volumes also strive to apply the highest standards of lexicography in all respects, including compatibility with computer technology for information processing. Some of the dictionaries in this series are concerned with different varieties of modern Chinese, whereas others present the latest scholarly ndings concerning earlier stages of development. All are aimed at facilitating the research and reading of scholars and students alike. Published Titles in the Series ABC Chinese-English Dictionary (desk reference and pocket editions) Edited by John DeFrancis ABC Dictionary of Chinese Proverbs Edited by John S. Rohsenow ABC Chinese-English Comprehensive Dictionary Edited by John DeFrancis An Alphabetical Index to the Hanyu Da Cidian Edited by Victor H. Mair Handbook of Phags-pa Chinese W. South Coblin ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese Axel Schuessler Minimal Old Chinese and Later Han Chinese: A Companion to Grammata Serica Recensa Axel Schuessler

Zhang Liqing 1936–2010

John DeFrancis 1911–2009