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1Department of Geology, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45501-0720, U.S.A.
2 Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, 1001 East Tenth Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47405-1403, U.S.A.

ABSTRACT: Diamictites and matrix-supported wackes of the upper relief volcanic settings. To date, there have been few reports of hypercon-
Cloverly Formation (Lower Cretaceous) represent rivers laden with centrated flow deposits in rocks of pre-Paleogene age or representing more
volcaniclastic sediment (hyperconcentrated flows). The Cloverly For- diverse environments (Sohn et al. 1999 is an exception). This paper doc-
mation of central Wyoming is dominantly fluvial, lacustrine, and playa uments hyperconcentrated-flow deposits in the upper part of the Lower
deposits. The sediments accumulated east of the Cordilleran foredeep Cretaceous Cloverly Formation in Wyoming. The deposits are preserved
during the early stages of the Sevier orogeny. The diamictites and as diamictites and wackes associated with a nonmarine foreland-basin fill.
wackes are decimeters thick and stacked vertically, forming rock bod- The sedimentary environment was a low-relief alluvial plain located hun-
ies up to 11 m thick. Pebbles and cobbles within the diamictites and dreds of kilometers from the mountain front.
wackes occur as isolated clasts or in poorly defined layers. Many such The mechanics of hyperconcentrated flows and the character of their
clasts exhibit some degree of polish. Clast lithologies can be correlated deposits are quite variable (Smith and Lowe 1991; Best 1992; Benvenuti
to rocks that were exposed in the mountain belt to the west. Provenance and Martini 2002; Manville and White 2003). The process-based approach
data are consistent with Early Cretaceous movement on the Meade– to the analysis of the Cloverly deposits complements previous studies by
Laketown–Paris–Willard thrust system. The clay fraction of the diam- providing additional insight as to the fluid and sediment dynamics of hy-
ictites and wackes is dominantly illite–smectite and smectite charac- perconcentrated flows. An additional aspect of the Cloverly diamictites and
teristic of altered volcanic ash. Diamictites and matrix-supported wackes that is of particular importance is the presence of polished pebbles
wackes lack primary sedimentary structures (e.g., cross-stratification)
and cobbles in a finer-grained matrix. The mechanics governing the move-
but do exhibit soft-sediment deformation features indicative of dewa-
ment of such outsized clasts by hyperconcentrated flows has been some-
tering. Erosional bases and bedding geometries are indicative of chan-
nelized flow. what problematic (Manville and White 2003). We present a quantitative
The diamictites and matrix-supported wackes resemble debris-flow paleohydraulic estimate for the entrainment and transport of these clasts.
deposits. However, maintaining debris flows that behave as Bingham Additionally, the compositions of Cloverly extraformational clasts yield
plastics on low depositional slopes 200–400 km from the mountain important information regarding events in the Sevier thrust belt to the west
front is improbable. Rather, the diamictites and wackes represent hy- from which the clasts were derived.
perconcentrated flows. Deposition, either en masse by a Newtonian (or Our interpretation of the polished pebbles and cobbles as components of
nearly Newtonian) flow that was turbulent throughout, or by progres- hyperconcentrated-flow deposits has additional significance. For nearly a
sive sedimentation from a stratified flow with a basal, incipient, gran- century these clasts have been regarded as dinosaur gastroliths, or ‘‘stom-
ular mass flow overlain by a turbulent suspension is more consistent ach stones’’ (Wieland 1906; Brown 1907; Hares 1917; for a historical
with the field data. Paleohydraulic calculations indicate that grain sizes account, see Stokes 1987; note that in some of the early literature, some
up to small pebbles could have been transported in suspension, with strata that were assigned to the underlying Morrison Formation have since
larger clasts transported as bedload, consistent with sedimentological been reassigned to the Cloverly Formation). Researchers cite the polish,
evidence. Much of the finer-grained suspended sediment was remobi- the local association with dinosaur-bone-bearing strata, and the presence in
lized volcanic ash likely derived from the Idaho batholith to the west- mudstones as some of the evidence indicating a dinosaurian origin. Al-
northwest. The polished extraformational pebbles and cobbles, long though some researchers questioned the dinosaurian origin (Stokes 1942,
regarded as dinosaur gastroliths (or ‘‘stomach stones’’), are simply 1944; Moberly 1960; Mirsky 1962; Ostrom 1970), none offered a suitable
clasts associated with the hyperconcentrated-flow deposits. The polish sedimentological interpretation and, today, the clasts are generally regarded
exhibited by many of the clasts is attributable to transport in ash-laden as gastroliths (e.g., Stokes 1987; Whittle and Onorato 2000). The persis-
flows. The occurrence of polished, extraformational stones in Cloverly tence of the gastrolith view is, in large part, due to the lack of detailed
diamictites and wackes may have implications for presumed gastroliths sedimentological study of the rocks that contain the stones. The stones are
in other fluvial rocks of the western interior (e.g., the Cedar Mountain present in what most researchers have regarded as fine-grained rocks. Be-
and Morrison formations). cause the diamictites and wackes occur in a succession dominated by fluvial
and lacustrine deposits, many researches have misinterpreted them as flood-
plain deposits, primarily on the basis of the grain size of the dominant
lithology. Hence, the gastrolith interpretation of outsized clasts in ‘‘flood-
A hyperconcentrated flow is a sediment–fluid flow intermediate in nature plain deposits’’ associated with dinosaur-bone-bearing strata.
between dilute, fully turbulent, stream flow and viscous, generally nontur- Although dinosaur fossils are known from the Cloverly Formation, we
bulent, debris flow (Smith and Lowe 1991; Benvenuti and Martini 2002). found no dinosaur fossils associated with any of the pebbles and cobbles.
Hyperconcentrated flows occur in a variety of depositional settings (in- Additionally, we found no pebbles or cobbles associated with deposits that
cluding volcanic, alluvial fan, fluvial, and glaciofluvial) and, hence, their would be expected to house dinosaur fossils and, hence, gastroliths (e.g.,
deposits should occur throughout much of the stratigraphic record. How- paleosols, floodplain deposits). Similar pebbles and cobbles do occur within
ever, most research has examined Paleogene and younger deposits in high- typical fluvial channel deposits of the middle Cloverly Formation. How-
ever, we found no dinosaur fossils associated with those clasts, and such
* Present address: RMT, Inc., 1143 Highland Drive, Suite B, Ann Arbor, Mich- pebbles and cobbles certainly are not unusual in fluvial channel deposits
igan 48108-2237, U.S.A. of the Mesozoic western interior. The data presented in this paper dem-


Copyright q 2005, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) 1527-1404/05/075-43/$03.00 DOI 10.2110/jsr.2005.005

FIG. 2.—Generalized stratigraphy of Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous rocks

in central Wyoming (after Zaleha 2003). The ‘‘rusty beds’’ and subdivisions of the
Cloverly Formation (A, B, and C) are informal. The Cloverly A interval is bounded
by unconformities. The Cloverly A–B unconformity represents the missing Aptian.

locally. Many mudstones of the C interval exhibit planar lamination and

FIG. 1.—Regional outcrop map of the Morrison and Cloverly formations, and wave-ripple cross-lamination and have been interpreted as lacustrine and
lithostratigraphic equivalents. Dots show locations of pebbles, cobbles, diamictites, playa deposits (Elliott 2002; Elliott et al. 2002). Other, less abundant mud-
and wackes identified in this study. BC, Baker Cabin Road; C, Cody; DD, Douglas
Draw; FW, Fort Washakie; L, Lander; MS, Maverick Springs; My, Mayoworth; stones, exhibit features indicative of pedogenesis, such as root and burrow
SM, Sheep Mountain; Th, Thermopolis; TS, Ten Sleep. The boxed area to the lower traces, ped structure, slickensides, and clay cutans, and are interpreted as
left is the approximate area shown in Figure 4. paleosols (Elliott 2002).
The age of the C interval is largely constrained by the ages of the ad-
jacent strata. Fission-track dates of zircons from the C interval have large
onstrate that the polished pebbles and cobbles are a product of transport errors and indicate that the C interval may be Neocomian, Aptian, or Albian
by hyperconcentrated flows and are not dinosaur gastroliths. (Chen and Lubin 1997). However, one sample suggests that the uppermost
C interval is Albian (Chen and Lubin 1997). Palynomorphs recovered from
LOCATION AND GENERAL GEOLOGY a mudstone of the underlying B interval near Manderson, Wyoming, yield-
ed a date of Albian (Furer et al. 1997). Two samples from the Fall River
The Cloverly Formation is Early Cretaceous in age and crops out in Formation in the Black Hills, which is correlative to the ‘‘rusty beds’’ in
central Wyoming. Fieldwork for this study included outcrops in the Wind central Wyoming, yielded palynological dates of Albian (this study; Way
River, Bighorn, and westernmost Powder River Basins (Fig. 1). The Clov- 1997). A bentonite in the basal Skull Creek Shale, which overlies the Fall
erly Formation is typically 24 m to 79 m thick and composed of fluvial, River Formation in the Black Hills, yielded an 40Ar/39Ar date on sanidine
lacustrine, and playa deposits (Meyers et al. 1992; Zaleha et al. 2001; crystals of Albian (104.4 6 0.5 Ma; Cobban et al. 1994). Collectively, the
Elliott 2002; Elliott et al. 2000; Elliott et al. 2002) which accumulated east data indicate that the age of the upper Cloverly C interval is Albian.
of the Cordilleran foredeep during the early stages of the Sevier orogeny. There are compositional differences between A-interval rocks and those
The Cloverly Formation unconformably overlies the nonmarine Jurassic of the B and C intervals. A-interval sandstones and conglomerates are dom-
Morrison Formation and is, in turn, overlain by the Sykes Mountain For- inated by gray and black chert grains (Meyers et al. 1992). In contrast, B-
mation in the Bighorn Basin and by the ‘‘rusty beds’’ (an informal member interval sandstones and conglomerates are dominated by intraformational
of the Thermopolis Formation) elsewhere (Fig. 2). Both the Sykes Moun- limestone and mudstone, and extraformational clasts of pink and white
tain Formation and the ‘‘rusty beds’’ represent transitional marine and ma- quartzite, gray and red chert, silicified limestone (some with body fossils),
rine transgressive deposits. crystalline quartz, chert conglomerate, and some undifferentiated litholo-
The Cloverly Formation has been informally subdivided by earlier work- gies (May 1992; Wiesemann and Suttner 1999; Wiesemann 2001). The
ers into three intervals, designated A, B, and C (Fig. 2; Meyers et al. 1992; compositions of these extraformational clasts are significant because they
May et al. 1995). The lower A and B intervals are dominated by sandstones are very similar to those of the polished pebbles and cobbles in C-interval
and conglomerates that represent channel-bar deposits of predominantly diamictites and wackes. Gray and black chert, which dominate A-interval
meandering rivers (some with associated channel fills). Paleoflow was sandstones and conglomerates, constitute less than 10% of B-interval sand-
mainly toward the northeast (Meyers et al. 1992; Zaleha et al. 2001). Less stones and conglomerates (Meyers et al. 1992). All extraformational pebble
abundant mudstones, locally interbedded with relatively thin sandstones, and cobble lithologies can be matched with rocks in the thrust belt to the
represent floodplain, lacustrine, and, to a lesser extent, fine-grained channel- west (see Provenance section below).
fill deposits (Nolan 2000; Elliott 2002). Some mudstones contain root and
burrow traces, ped structures, and other features indicative of paleosols PROVENANCE OF EXTRAFORMATIONAL CLASTS
(Elliott 2002; Elliott et al. 2000).
The C interval is characterized by mudstones, diamictites, and wackes The compositions of the extraformational pebbles and cobbles provide
(Elliott 2002; Elliott et al. 2000; Elliott et al. 2002; Wiesemann et al. 2000; constraints on sediment sources and establish that those sources were not
Wiesemann 2001). In the Bighorn Basin, the C interval roughly corre- local. Provenance data also yield information regarding events in the Sevier
sponds to the upper part of the Little Sheep Mudstone and the lower Himes thrust belt. We examined 433 randomly selected clasts from eight locations
Members of the Cloverly Formation (Moberly 1960). Elsewhere, the C in the Wind River, Bighorn, and westernmost Powder River Basins (Fig.
interval has been informally referred to as the ‘‘lavender beds’’ (Love 1). No significant variations were evident between the different locations,
1948). The C interval is generally 20 m thick, but may be over 40 m thick hence, collective results are discussed below.

Compositions and Sources Most of the Cloverly clasts can be correlated to lithologies that were
likely exposed on the Willard and Meade thrust sheets during the Early
The total population of extraformational clasts has a composition of 38%
Cretaceous, with the exception of the Proterozoic quartzites, basement crys-
quartzite, 33% silicified limestone, 10% chert, 5% quartz arenite, 5% con-
talline quartz, and the Lower Cretaceous Ephraim clasts. The only possible
glomerate and litharenite, 4% crystalline quartz, and 5% unidentified li-
source for the Proterozoic quartzites and crystalline quartz was the Paris
thrust sheet because these lithologies were not yet exposed on the other
Quartzite and Crystalline Quartz.—Quartzite clasts include maroon,
thrust sheets (Craddock 1992; Yonkee 1992; DeCelles et al. 1993; DeCelles
coarse-grained, cross-stratified quartzite; pink, submature, pebbly quartzite;
1994; DeCelles and Mitra 1995). The source for the Ephraim clasts was
and gray, supermature, vitreous quartzite (Fig. 3A). These clasts likely were
most likely the Meade thrust sheet. DeCelles et al. (1993) present con-
derived from the upper Proterozoic–lower Cambrian Brigham Group,
vincing evidence for movement on the Meade thrust, erosion of the Ephra-
which contains more than 3000 m of quartzites in southeastern Idaho and
im Formation, and incorporation of Ephraim clasts into the overlying and
north-central Utah (Christie-Blick 1982, 1997). The maroon quartzite ap-
adjacent Bechler conglomerate (also part of the Gannett Group). The first
pears to have been derived from the Proterozoic Mutual Formation. The
occurrence of Ephraim clasts in both the Bechler Formation and the Clov-
pink, pebbly quartzite may have been derived from the Lower Cambrian
erly B/C interval suggests that these units are stratigraphically equivalent
Camelback Mountain Quartzite (or equivalent Tintic or Geertsen Canyon
(Zaleha 2003). Our interpretations of provenance and Early Cretaceous
quartzites). The gray quartzite may have come from multiple sources, in-
movement on the Meade–Laketown–Paris–Willard thrust system is consis-
cluding, for example, the Proterozoic Caddy Canyon Formation. Clasts of
tent with previous data and interpretations (Wiltschko and Dorr 1983; Crad-
white and pink crystalline (‘‘vein’’) quartz (Fig. 3A) may have been de-
dock 1992; DeCelles et al. 1993; DeCelles 1994).
rived from basement rocks.
Silicified Limestone.—Clasts of silicified limestones are typically gray,
tan, and orange-red. Many clasts contain fossils, including foraminifera DIAMICTITES AND WACKES
(abundant fusilinids), brachiopods, gastropods, echinoderms, bryozoans, The diamictites and wackes (sensu Pettijohn et al. 1987 and Boggs 1992)
and sponge spicules (Fig. 3B, C). Such fossils are common to many of the are the most problematic lithologies in the study area. A diamictite is a
Mississippian through Permian carbonates in the thrust belt, such as the matrix-supported conglomerate, a conglomerate being any rock with $
Madison, Amsden, Wells, and Phosphoria formations (cf. Moberly 1960; 30% grains . 2 mm in size (Boggs 1992, 2001). A wacke is a sandstone
Oberlindacher and Roberts-Tobey 1986). Moberly (1960) noted Permian with 15% to 75% matrix of grains , 0.03 mm in size (medium silt; Pet-
fusilinids in a jasper clast. Stokes (1944) identified Carboniferous and tijohn et al. 1987). Neither term is intended to carry any genetic connota-
Permian fusilinids in several clasts. Some silicified limestones exhibit brec- tion.
ciated textures.
Chert.—Chert clasts are typically gray, black, and red, and mottled com-
binations thereof (Fig. 3D). Most chert is different in appearance from the Description
Permian Phosphoria-derived chert common to Lower Cretaceous conglom-
Diamictites (Fig. 5) are typically light gray, and individual beds are
erates in the region (e.g., Cloverly A interval, Kootenai Formation; Suttner
typically 0.3 m to 1.0 m thick. Diamictites consist of granules, pebbles,
1969; Furer 1970; May 1992, 1993). Likely sources of the gray and black
and cobbles surrounded by a matrix of sand-, silt-, and clay-size grains.
chert are chert layers and nodules in Mississippian and Pennsylvanian car-
The composition of the clay-size fraction of both diamictites and wackes,
bonates, such as the Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation and the Per-
as determined by X-ray diffraction, is dominantly mixed-layer illite–smec-
mo-Pennsylvanian Wells Formation (cf. Oberlindacher and Roberts-Tobey
tite and smectite. The cement is silica. Many granules, pebbles, and cobbles
1986). The red chert, as well as other gray and black chert clasts, may be
exhibit some degree of polish, but unpolished stones also are common.
the result of the disaggregation of conglomerate and pebbly litharenite
Mean grain size of the diamictites (as determined from hand samples) is
clasts (see below). Some red chert also may be unfossiliferous parts of the
typically granules (2–3 mm). The amount of matrix generally ranges from
red silicified limestone discussed above.
30 to 50%. Most diamictites exhibit concentrations of pebbles and cobbles
Quartz Arenite.—Clasts of red, fine-grained, quartz arenite (Fig. 3E)
(3–5 cm, up to 7–8.5 cm, b axis) in poorly defined, discontinuous layers
appear to have been derived from Triassic red beds, such as the Ankareh
in the lower 10–30 cm of beds. Granules and small pebbles (0.5–1.5 cm),
Formation (cf. Lawton 1994). Such units are laterally extensive throughout
and more rarely large pebbles and cobbles, occur sparsely distributed
southern Idaho and northern Utah, and are common to all of the major
throughout the beds. Aside from these trends, diamictites exhibit no grain-
thrust sheets in the mountain belt.
size segregation (Fig. 5A). Locally, gravel-size clasts exhibit a poorly ex-
Conglomerate and Litharenite.—Clasts of conglomerate and pebbly
pressed imbricate fabric, particularly in the lower parts of beds (Fig. 5B).
litharenite are of two types. Both types contain abundant grains of gray
Diamictites lack primary sedimentary structures such as cross-stratification,
and black chert, but only one type contains red chert. Those with only gray
ripple cross-lamination, and planar stratification. Evidence of pedogenesis,
and black chert are quite distinctive and were derived from conglomerates
such as root and burrow traces, blocky structure, slickensides, clay cutans,
and sandstones of the Lower Cretaceous Ephraim Formation (lower Gan-
and mineral segregations, also is absent. Some diamictites, however, do
nett Group) in the thrust belt (Fig. 3F; cf. Eyer 1969; Furer 1970; DeCelles
exhibit soft-sediment deformation features, such as flow structures.
et al. 1993). Clasts with red chert are of unknown origin. Disaggregation
Wackes are typically light gray, and individual beds are typically 0.2–
of both types of clasts may have supplied some of the gray, black, and red
0.5 m thick. There are two types of wackes: (1) those that are matrix-
chert grains mentioned above.
supported, typically consisting of , 50% sand, and (2) those that are grain
supported, typically consisting of . 50% sand. Mean grain size (as deter-
mined from hand samples and thin sections) typically ranges from very
The Sevier orogenic belt developed in association with an Andean-type fine to very coarse sand. The matrix is a mixture of silt- and clay-size
plate boundary located at the western margin of North America. Sevier particles whose abundance varies from 40 to 70% (typically 40–60%).
thrusting commenced during the Late Jurassic and continued into the early Granules, pebbles, and/or cobbles are sparsely distributed throughout many
Cenozoic (Lageson and Schmitt 1994; Taylor et al. 2000). The major west- wackes but typically constitute , 1% of the population that is of sand size
ward-dipping thrusts that developed in Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming are and greater.
shown in Figure 4. Matrix-supported wackes (Fig. 6) are similar to the diamictites; the only

FIG. 3.—Extraformational pebbles and cobbles. Some clasts are reflective because of their high degree of polish. A) Crystalline (‘‘vein’’) quartz, left; quartzite on the
right. B) Silicified limestones with fossils. C) Silicified limestone with fusilinids. D) Red and black chert. E) Red quartz arenite. F) Ephraim conglomerate with gray and
black chert. Scales are in centimeters.

Diamictites and both types of wackes are typically stacked vertically,

forming larger-scale rock bodies 2–11 m thick (Fig. 8), herein referred to
as diamictite/wacke bodies. Lateral extents of these bodies in outcrop are
on the order of hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. Diamictite/wacke
bodies typically overlie laminated mudstones. Basal surfaces are erosional
with local relief generally 2 m or less. Basal surfaces either parallel the
underlying bedding or are concave upward with observable large-scale re-
lief up to 5 m. Hence, some diamictite/wacke bodies exhibit channel mor-
phologies, whereas others are tabular. The lowermost bed of a diamictite/
wacke body is typically a diamictite (decimeters to 1 m thick) with intra-
formational and extraformational clasts. Intraformational clasts are typically
mudstone comparable to the underlying bed. The tops of diamictite/wacke
bodies are generally flat and overlain by laminated mudstones with burrow
Where diamictite/wacke bodies are differentially cemented by silica,
bedding is readily evident. In other areas diamictite/wacke bodies are poor-
ly to moderately cemented and highly weathered, exhibiting a crumbly
appearance. In such cases, internal bedding, if present, is difficult to dis-
cern. Where evident, bedding is either parallel to that of subjacent and
superjacent laminated mudstones, inclined in one direction (typically #
108), or convex upward. The outcrop at Douglas Draw is a particularly
good example of bedding geometry (Fig. 8; see Fig. 1 for location). The
outcrop consists of two faces that are roughly perpendicular to each other.
In one face, the diamictite/wacke body exhibits a concave-upward basal
erosion surface. This surface is overlain by a succession of convex-upward
beds in which the inclinations decrease upward (Fig. 8A). In the side view,
these same beds are inclined in one direction and decrease in inclination
upward (Fig. 8B). Beds throughout this diamictite/wacke body are arranged
into couplets, or bedsets, that typically exhibit erosional bases. Each bedset
consists of either a diamictite overlain by a wacke, or a matrix-supported
wacke overlain by a grain-supported wacke. Some bedsets are capped by
laminated mudstones. The Douglas Draw outcrop is typical of diamictite/
wacke bodies; however, some lack interbedded grain-supported wackes and
mudstones. Still other relatively thin diamictite/wacke bodies lack bedding.

FIG. 4.—Tectonic map of the Idaho–Wyoming–Utah salient showing the major The geometries, bedding, and sedimentary structures of the diamictite/
westward-dipping thrusts (barbed lines) of the Sevier fold-thrust belt (modified from
DeCelles and Cavazza 1999). See Figure 1 for location of this map. wacke bodies, as well as their association with nonmarine facies, indicate
deposition by some type of subaerial flow. The large amount of illite–
smectite and smectite suggests that the clay-size fraction represents altered
notable difference is that of grain size. Matrix-supported wackes lack pri- volcaniclastic material, consistent with the findings of Tabbutt and Barreiro
mary sedimentary structures and lack evidence of pedogenesis. Granules, (1990), Elliott (2002), and Elliott et al. (2002). Because of this alteration,
pebbles, and cobbles are sparsely distributed but are concentrated locally it is not possible to determine the original grain size of the current clay-
in the lower parts of beds, forming poorly defined, discontinuous layers size fraction (i.e., originally it may have been coarser than clay size). The
(Fig. 6A, B). Matrix-supported wackes also exhibit soft-sediment defor- erosional basal surfaces and abundant intraformational mudstone clasts in-
mation structures, such as compaction features and flow structures (Fig. dicate that the diamictites and matrix-supported wackes were deposited by
6A, C). Load features, such as ball-and-pillow and flame structures, are flows that were turbulent at least part of the time. Concave-upward basal
evident along some basal surfaces. erosion surfaces indicate channelized flow. The tabular diamictite/wacke
Grain-supported wackes are markedly different from matrix-supported bodies are interpreted as laterally connected channel deposits comparable
wackes and diamictites. Grain-supported wackes exhibit planar lamination to fluvial sandstones and conglomerates of the underlying A and B intervals
and cross-lamination (Fig. 7A, B). Current-ripple cross-lamination is most (Yokoyama 1999; Nolan 2000; Zaleha et al. 2001), as well as fluvial sand-
common. In some cases, it is difficult to determine the specific type of stones elsewhere (e.g., Willis 1993; Zaleha 1997). The lack of primary
cross-lamination, but some might be wave-ripple cross-lamination. Soft- sedimentary structures indicative of bedload transport, such as planar and
sediment deformation features such as distorted and convolute laminae are cross-stratification, suggest that grain sizes up to small pebbles were trans-
common, particularly in what appear to have been planar-laminated wackes ported in suspension. Larger pebbles and cobbles associated with erosion
(Fig. 7B). Load features, such as ball-and-pillow and flame structures, are surfaces likely were transported as bedload, but they were too few to form
present along some basal surfaces. Grain-supported wackes are typically bedforms.
interbedded with decimeter-scale mudstone beds that exhibit planar lami- The diamictites and matrix-supported wackes have affinities for the con-
nation, cross-lamination, and rare climbing-ripple cross-lamination. Burrow tinuum of processes from fluvial to debris flow. However, the sedimentary
traces, millimeters in diameter and mainly oriented oblique to laminae, are characteristics of the diamictites and matrix-supported wackes are incom-
common in some mudstone beds (Fig. 7C). Locally, burrowing appears to patible with sediments transported and deposited by typical rivers. Such
have obliterated laminae. Mudcracks are apparently absent. deposits display ubiquitous cross-stratification, planar stratification, and/or

FIG. 5.—Polished slabs of diamictites (in both, up is to the top of the page). A) Poorly sorted diamictite lacking primary sedimentary structures and pedogenic features.
B) Diamictite with a poorly expressed imbricate fabric (long axes of grains trending lower left to upper right). Scales are in centimeters.

current-ripple cross-lamination (e.g., Jackson 1976; Ashley 1990). Rather, A hyperconcentrated flow generally is regarded as a sediment–water
the diamictites and matrix-supported wackes more closely resemble the mixture containing 20–47 volume percent sediment (40–70 weight percent;
deposits of debris flows. However, debris-flow mechanics and the paleoen- Beverage and Culbertson 1964; Costa 1988). However, the rheology of
vironmental setting argue against a debris-flow interpretation. such flows is dependent not only on sediment concentration but also on
The sediment source for the clasts in the diamictites and wackes was the parameters such as sediment composition and size, shear rate, and bed
Sevier orogen, located 200 km to 400 km to the west. Reconstructed chan- roughness (Hampton 1972; Metzner 1985; Wan and Wang 1994; Wang
nel slopes of B-interval rivers are on the order of 1024 (see Zaleha et al. and Larsen 1994; Coussot 1995; Wang et al. 1998; Baas and Best 2002).
2001 for methods and comparable data). The depositional slopes associated For example, flows may acquire a shear strength (non-Newtonian character)
with the C interval are assumed to be comparable because the B and C and exhibit laminar flow (or stratified turbulent and laminar flow) at clay-
intervals are in conformable contact and there are numerous associated lake mineral concentrations as low as 3–13 vol.% (Hampton 1972; Wan and
and playa deposits. The elevation of the Sevier mountain belt during the Wang 1994; Baas and Best 2002). The acquired shear strength apparently
Early Cretaceous was on the order of 1.5 km to a maximum of 4 km, with results from electrostatic forces acting between clay-mineral particles.
topographic relief on the order of 1–2 km (Jordan 1981; Yonkee et al. Flows with purely noncohesive particles may remain Newtonian and tur-
1989; DeCelles 1994). Given that runout distances for most debris flows bulent throughout up to sediment concentrations of 47 vol.% (Rodine and
are typically # 25 times their descent height (Iverson 1997), debris flows Johnson 1976; Metzner 1985; Wan and Wang 1994). This is relevant to
originating in the Sevier mountain belt would be expected to have had the Cloverly deposits because it is not possible to determine the original
maximum runout distances on the order of 25–50 km. Hence, it appears amount of clay, if any, because of diagenetic alteration of the volcanic ash.
physically impossible that debris flows behaving as non-Newtonian Bing- Flows with . 47 vol.% sediment, regardless of grain composition, exhibit
ham plastics could be maintained on such low slopes 200–400 km from significant shear strength and are regarded as debris flows. However, rhe-
the mountain front. An alternative explanation is deposition from hyper- ology also is dependent upon shear rate. For example, an increase in shear
concentrated flows. There are both qualitative and quantitative criteria for rate may cause either an increase or a decrease in apparent viscosity (de-
interpreting the Cloverly diamictites and matrix-supported wackes as the pending on the details of the flow) such that a given flow may transform
result of deposition from either fully turbulent or stratified hyperconcen- from Newtonian to non-Newtonian or vice versa (Metzner 1985; Coussot
trated flows. 1995). The grain size of bed material and bed roughness also can affect
Hyperconcentrated Flows.—The evidence suggests that the flows re- turbulence, drag, and fluid velocity through a variety of processes, some
sponsible for deposition of the diamictites and matrix-supported wackes of which may include a series of feedback mechanisms (Wan and Wang
behaved largely as Newtonian fluids; either as true, purely Newtonian flu- 1994; Wang and Larsen 1994; Wang et al. 1998; Baas and Best 2002).
ids, or as non-Newtonian fluids with negligible shear strength and not be- The fact that flows with similar sediment concentrations can exhibit dif-
having as Bingham plastics. Transport and deposition by hyperconcentrated ferent rheologies, and vice versa, has led to confusion regarding the use of
flow can account for these hydraulic characteristics, as well as the sedi- the term ‘‘hyperconcentrated flow’’ (see Manville and White 2003 for a
mentological characteristics of the diamictites and matrix-supported wack- discussion). As originally used by Beverage and Culbertson (1964), the
es. term pertains only to sediment concentration (40–80 wt.%), not rheology

FIG. 6.—Matrix-supported wackes. A) Polished slab with dispersed granules and

a pebble (up is to the top of the page). The soft-sediment deformation feature as-
sociated with the pebble (left) likely resulted from compaction that accompanied
dewatering. B) Outcrop of the lower part of a matrix-supported wacke bed with a
large pebble and a cobble. C) Polished slab exhibiting soft-sediment deformation
structures attributable sediment flowage during dewatering (up is to the top of the FIG. 7.—Polished slabs of grain-supported wackes and an associated mudstone (in
page). Scales are in centimeters. all photographs, up is to the top of the page). A) Grain-supported wacke exhibiting
an end-on view of current-ripple cross-lamination. B) Grain-supported wacke exhib-
iting distorted and convolute laminae. C) Mudstone with burrow traces (several
highlighted with arrows) and planar laminae. Bioturbation increases vertically.
Scales are in centimeters.
(although their research focused on flows with substantial clay-mineral con-
centrations). Later, Pierson and Costa (1987) and Costa (1988) applied the
term to flows with 40–70 wt.% (20–47 vol.%) sediment, but did implicate cipient granular mass flow. Both interpretations are consistent with ob-
rheology. To simplify our discussion, we follow the usage of Beverage and served characteristics and similar in their implications.
Culbertson (1964) and apply the term only with regard to sediment con- Fully Turbulent Flow, en masse Deposition.—Under this scenario,
centration, but using the values of Costa (1988; i.e., 20–47 vol.%). We do, each hyperconcentrated flow represents a large-discharge event. The flow
however, acknowledge the rheologic complexities of sediment-laden flows was turbulent throughout and exhibited Newtonian or largely Newtonian
and their nomenclature. characteristics. Grains up to granules or small pebbles were transported in
The physical processes by which sediment is transported by, and depos- suspension, supported by turbulence and the buoyancy of the sediment–
ited from, hyperconcentrated flows are unclear. Below, we present two water mixture. Here, the sediment–water mixture is treated as a single-
possible scenarios for the formation of the diamictites and wackes by de- phase fluid (see Wan and Wang 1994 for a discussion; also Rodine and
position from hyperconcentrated flows: (1) fully turbulent flow with en Johnson 1976). Much of the finer-grained suspended sediment was remo-
masse deposition, and (2) stratified flow with deposition from a basal, in- bilized volcanic ash from mountain slopes upstream, floodplains, and/or

FIG. 8.—Outcrop of the diamictite/wacke body

at Douglas Draw (see Fig. 1 for location). A)
The deposit displays a concave-upward basal
surface (highlighted by the resistant layer
indicated with arrows) that is overlain by a
sequence of convex-upward beds (most
prominent in the central part of the deposit)
whose inclinations decrease upward. The
orientation of current-ripple cross-lamination
indicates that paleoflow was out of the page and
to the right. The photograph in Figure 8B was
taken perpendicular to this photograph around
the left side of the hill. Maximum thickness of
the deposit is 11.5 m. B) In this view, the beds
are inclined to the right, and their inclinations
decrease upward. Paleoflow was to the right and
into the page. People at right for scale.

river beds. One probable source for the ash was the Idaho Batholith to the ential deposition associated with local variations in turbulent shear stress
west-northwest (Tabbutt and Barreiro 1990). Larger pebbles and cobbles and flow velocity related to channel morphology. The decrease in incli-
were transported as bedload. Transport of the clasts in ash-laden flows can nation of successive beds vertically through a diamictite/wacke body re-
account for the polish exhibited by many of the stones (Elliott 2003). flects progressive channel filling.
Deposition results from rapid flow deceleration accompanying passage In some diamictite/wacke bodies (and unusually thick beds), bedding is
of the flood wave. Under this scenario, deposition occurred very rapidly, poorly expressed or absent, even in fresh exposures. The uniform appear-
en masse or nearly so (cf. Wan and Wang 1994; Vrolijk and Southard ance is attributed to successively stacked diamictites and/or matrix-sup-
1997; Dinehart 1998). En masse deposition would result in poor grain-size ported wackes. Because of the similarity of these deposits, bedding surfaces
segregation and an absence of primary sedimentary structures (Figs. 5A, would be difficult to discern (cf. Major 1997). Similarly, the large pebbles
6A). Upon deposition, the sediment dewatered and compacted, producing and cobbles that appear to ‘‘float’’ in the matrix and that could be inter-
the various soft-sediment deformation features (Fig. 6A, C). Rare imbri- preted as having been part of the suspended load, may represent bedload
cation (Fig. 5B) may have resulted from compaction, shearing of the de- associated with indiscernible bedding surfaces.
formable bed by the overriding fluid, or erosion of the bed around the Equations that describe fluid flow and sediment dynamics can be used
grains (cf. Allen 1982). to estimate the conditions under which the diamictite and matrix-supported
Sediment deposition and dewatering caused a decrease in the sediment wacke sediment was transported and deposited. The equations presented in
concentration of the flow until it became a more typical two-phase stream the Appendix were used to estimate the maximum grain sizes that could
flow, i.e., sediment and water treated separately (cf. Sohn et al. 1999). Such be transported in suspension by the hyperconcentrated flows, and also to
flow transformations have been noted during the waning stages of modern evaluate the conditions necessary to transport the largest pebbles and cob-
hyperconcentrated flows and inferred from recent deposits (Scott 1988; bles as bedload. The following exercise quantitatively evaluates the feasi-
Best 1992). The grain-supported wackes were deposited during this dilute bility of the qualitative interpretations above, but it is not intended as a
stream flow. Planar stratification, cross-stratification, and cross-lamination
rigorous paleohydraulic reconstruction.
(Fig. 7A) were produced by low-relief bedwaves (Best and Bridge 1992),
Equation 5 (Appendix) can be solved for volumetric sediment concen-
dunes, and current ripples, respectively (Ashley 1990). Flame structures
trations in the range for hyperconcentrated flows, i.e., 20–47 vol.%. Values
associated with the basal surfaces of some grain-supported wackes attest
for most parameters necessary to apply Equation 5 are given in the Ap-
to the fluidized nature of the underlying deposits. Local climbing-ripple
cross-lamination is consistent with flow deceleration, high suspended-sed- pendix. The remaining parameters that need to be estimated are slope, S,
iment concentrations, and rapid grain fallout (Ashley et al. 1982). Planar- and flow depth, d. Channel slopes were taken to be comparable to those
laminated wackes and mudstones represent the final stages of deposition reconstructed for B-interval rivers in this part of the basin (see Zaleha et
as suspended sediment settled out of slow-moving or stagnant water (Fig. al. 2001 for methods and comparable data). As noted previously, this is a
7B, C). Subsequently, as the substrate stabilized, burrowing organisms dis- reasonable assumption given that the B and C intervals are in conformable
rupted the sediment (Fig. 7C). The absence of mudcracks, if not a sampling contact, and considering the aggrading, nonmarine foreland basin setting
or preservational bias, indicates that the river was probably perennial. and abundant lakes and playas. Channel slopes reconstructed from three
The above describes the sequence of events leading to the deposition of B-interval channel deposits were 1.83 3 1024, 2.00 3 1024, and 2.04 3
a single bedset, or couplet (cf. Sohn et al. 1999). Hence, each bedset rep- 1024. In this study we used a channel slope of 2.00 3 1024.
resents deposition from a single hyperconcentrated flood. Bedding in diam- Two different approaches were used to estimate channel depth, d. The
ictite/wacke bodies, as is evident at Douglas Draw (Fig. 8), requires suc- first was to assume that the channels were comparable in depth to those of
cessive hyperconcentrated flows. Such bedding is morphologically similar the B interval: 4.5 m, 6.8 m, and 6.8 m, mean of 6.0 m. The second
to that associated with point bars and braid bars in more typical fluvial approach is comparable to the methods applied to fluvial deposits. The
channels. However, bedding associated with diamictite/wacke bodies would thickness of a diamictite/wacke body was taken as the channel depth, pro-
have been produced by a different process under this scenario because there vided that bedding was clearly discernible to ensure that the body consisted
was minimal bedload transport. The bedding may reflect areas of prefer- of a single channel deposit (i.e., a single ‘‘story,’’ sensu Bridge and Diemer

TABLE 1.—Paleohydraulic parameters and maximum grain sizes capable of being TABLE 2.—Paleohydraulic parameters and maximum grain sizes capable of being
transported in suspension by hyperconcentrated flows of various concentrations, transported in suspension by hyperconcentrated flows of various concentrations,
with channel depth (d) of 6.0 m, and slope (S) of 2.00 3 10 24. with channel depth (d) estimated from outcrops, and slope (S) of 2.00 3 10 24.

Volumetric Volumetric
Sediment rf t u* D Sediment rf t u* D
Concentration (kg m23) (N m22) (m s21) (mm) Concentration (kg m23) (N m22) (m s21) (mm)
0.00 1000 11.8 0.11 0.28 (med sand) Douglas Draw, lower diamictite/wacke body: d 5 11.5 m
0.20 1330 15.6 0.11 1.36 (vc sand) 0.00 1000 22.6 0.15 0.52 (c sand)
0.30 1495 17.6 0.11 3.32 (granules) 0.20 1330 30.0 0.15 2.53 (granules)
0.40 1660 19.5 0.11 9.01 (pebbles) 0.30 1495 33.7 0.15 61.7 (pebbles)
0.47 1776 20.9 0.11 19.79 (pebbles) 0.40 1660 37.4 0.15 16.74 (pebbles)
For convenience, grain size has been converted from meters to millimeters. med: medium; vc: very coarse. 0.47 1776 40.1 0.15 36.81 (pebbles)
Douglas Draw, upper diamictite/wacke body: d 5 2.3 m
0.00 1000 4.5 0.07 0.11 (vf sand)
0.20 1330 6.0 0.07 0.55 (c sand)
1983; Willis 1993; Zaleha 1997) and not vertically stacked channel deposits 0.30 1495 6.7 0.07 1.34 (vc sand)
0.40 1660 7.5 0.07 3.65 (granules)
(i.e., multi-story). 0.47 1776 8.0 0.07 8.02 (granules)
The values above were used in Equation 5 to estimate the maximum
Maverick Springs: d 5 5.5 m
grain size capable of being transported in suspension by the hyperconcen- 0.00 1000 10.8 0.10 0.23 (f sand)
trated flows. To show the effect of increasing sediment concentration and 0.20 1330 14.4 0.10 1.12 (vc sand)
fluid density, grain sizes for clear water flows (0.00 vol.%) also were cal- 0.30 1495 16.1 0.10 2.74 (granules)
0.40 1660 17.9 0.10 7.44 (pebbles)
culated. Results are presented in Tables 1 and 2. Observations suggest that 0.47 1776 19.2 0.10 16.34 (pebbles)
for most diamictites and matrix-supported wackes the maximum grain size For convenience, grain size has been converted from meters to millimeters. vf: very fine; f: fine; med:
that appears to have been transported in suspension is 5 mm (i.e., the largest medium; c: coarse; vc: very coarse.
grains dispersed throughout the deposit). Rarely, this maximum grain size
is 10–15 mm. Results presented in Tables 1 and 2 indicate that it was
physically possible for the hyperconcentrated flows to transport these grains In this scenario, the flow is turbulent throughout during rising stage,
in suspension. Additionally, the onset of suspension for grains with sizes eroding the channel and entraining intraformational mudstone clasts. As
greater than the thickness of the viscous sublayer may occur at Vgs/ u* peak discharge is approached, progressively more sediment is added to the
values greater than 1 (where Vgs is a grain’s settling velocity in a sediment– flow by bed erosion and sediment delivery from upstream. The clay fraction
water mixture and u* is the shear velocity), possibly as high as 2.5 (Niño of the total sediment load is negligible. As mentioned previously, much of
et al. 2003; also see discussion in Komar 1988). This would effectively the clay-size fraction in the diamictites and wackes originally may have
increase the grain-size results in Tables 1 and 2. Hence, our estimates of been granular, noncohesive volcaniclastics. Sediment concentration contin-
the maximum grain size capable of being transported in suspension are ues to increase until vertical variations in sediment concentration cause the
conservative. flow to become stratified (‘‘gravity transformation’’ of Fisher 1983) into a
The calculated bed shear stresses (according to Equation 7 in the Ap- basal incipient granular mass flow, a transition zone, and a superjacent
pendix) permit an evaluation of the feasibility of transporting the larger turbulent suspension (cf. Vrolijk and Southard 1997). This type of strati-
pebbles and cobbles as bedload. The maximum grain size that appears to fication for granular, sediment-laden flows is opposite that observed by
have been transported as bedload in most diamictites and wackes is 3–5 Baas and Best (2002) for clay-rich hyperconcentrated flows where the basal
cm (b axis). The largest cobbles that we observed, although rare, are on layer is turbulent and the superjacent zone is laminar plug flow. Sediment
the order of 7–8.5 cm (b axis). Relationships between critical shear stress concentrations decrease vertically throughout the entire flow. The basal
and grain size are imperfect (see discussions in Komar 1988 and Manville layer possesses the highest sediment concentration; the transition zone is
and White 2003). Studies that have attempted to relate the two often treat an area of rapid vertical decrease in sediment concentration; and the tur-
the threshold of entrainment on a bed of uniform grain size with a fluid bulent suspension is an area of gradual vertical decrease in sediment con-
density that of water. Such was clearly not the case for the diamictites and centration.
wackes because the large pebbles and cobbles are sparsely distributed. A The incipient granular mass flow (‘‘frictional zone’’ of Sohn 1997) de-
decrease in the mean grain size of bed material results in a decrease of the velops above the static bed. A granular mass flow (sensu Iverson and Vall-
critical shear stress (Middleton and Southard 1984). Further, an increase in ance 2001; essentially a debris flow for the purposes here) exhibits a time-
fluid density also produces a decrease in the critical shear stress (although dependent rheology that is a function of mixture agitation, sediment con-
an increase in suspended-sediment concentration also tends to damp tur- centration, and fluid pressure. Manville and White (2003) include the word
bulence). With these considerations in mind, comparisons of the bed shear ‘‘incipient’’ to indicate that propagation of the basal flow is due not only
stresses in Tables 1 and 2 with standard relationships between critical shear to inertial gravity forces (as in the case of a granular mass flow sensu
stress versus grain size (e.g., Komar 1988; Bridge 2003) indicate that the stricto) but also to tangential boundary shear stresses imposed by the su-
calculated shear stresses are of the order necessary to transport the larger perjacent turbulent suspension (cf. Vrolijk and Southard 1997). The incip-
pebbles and cobbles as bedload. ient granular mass flow exhibits laminar flow and shearing.
Stratified Flow.—This interpretation of the diamictites and matrix-sup- The basal flow is coupled to the superjacent turbulent flow by turbulent
ported wackes invokes essentially the same processes as the model pro- shear and momentum transfer resulting from particle exchange between the
posed by Manville and White (2003) for sediment-laden flows associated two layers. As a result, the basal layer is capable of flowing on low slopes
with the Taupo breakout flood deposits (although the settings are different). (Manville and White 2003; Rodine and Johnson 1976). This momentum
Many aspects of their model are similar to those presented by Postma et transfer occurs across the transition zone (the ‘‘collisional zone’’ of Sohn
al. (1988), Best (1992), Sohn (1997), and others. The reader is referred to 1997) which is dominated by grain-to-grain interactions.
these four papers, and references therein, for details of the sediment dy- The downward transport of particles by turbulence and rapid suspension
namics. Below we present the fundamentals of the model as they pertain settling results in the transfer of particles from the turbulent flow to the
to the Cloverly deposits, with some minor modifications to fit our obser- incipient granular mass flow. Particles with variable hydrodynamic prop-
vations. erties will inevitably intersect the incipient granular mass flow because of

their random turbulent motions. High particle concentrations inhibit the to 11 m deep. Paleohydraulic calculations indicate that clasts up to small
transfer of remobilized grains from lower to upper parts of the flow. These pebbles could have been transported in suspension, with larger clasts trans-
processes produce poor sorting in the granular mass flow and result in a ported as bedload. Much of the finer-grained suspended sediment was re-
poorly sorted deposit. mobilized volcanic ash likely derived originally from the Idaho Batholith
Deposition from the incipient granular mass flow occurs by incremental to the west-northwest.
frictional freezing near the base. This accounts for the lack of primary The lithologies of extraformational pebbles and cobbles within the diam-
sedimentary structures such as cross-stratification. Continuous sedimenta- ictites and wackes can be correlated to rocks that were exposed in the
tion at the base of the flow results in a steady rise of the depositional Sevier mountain belt to the west. Provenance data is consistent with Early
surface (i.e., the static bed). The thickness of the granular mass flow is Cretaceous movement on the Meade–Laketown–Paris–Willard thrust sys-
maintained by the continuous transfer of sediment from the superjacent tem. The first occurrence of these clasts in fluvial sandstones and conglom-
turbulent suspension. Progressive aggradation of the bed results in a deposit erates of the Cloverly B interval, and their first association with the diam-
whose thickness is a function of the rate and duration of sedimentation ictites and wackes within the C interval, suggest that these deposits can be
rather than the overall depth of the flow. used for stratigraphic correlation.
Clasts too large to be transported in suspension travel along the static The extraformational pebbles and cobbles, long regarded as dinosaur
bed. Clasts smaller than the thickness of the incipient granular mass flow gastroliths, are simply clasts deposited by the hyperconcentrated flows. The
are entrained within it, transported by the rheologic strength of the flow, polish exhibited by many of the clasts is attributable to transport in the
buoyancy, and grain-to-grain collisions. These clasts, as well as other ash-laden flows. We do not deny the existence of gastroliths. Those found
smaller pebbles and granules, experience shearing, which may result in in the rib cages of, or in close association with, dinosaur fossils (e.g.,
imbrication or flow-parallel alignment. Clasts larger than the thickness of Gillette 1995; Mateus 1998; Sanders et al. 2001) are excellent candidates
the basal layer project into the turbulent suspension, where they are exposed (although some of those are debated, as well; Lucas and Heckert 2000).
to strong viscous drag and Bernoulli lift forces. These larger clasts move However, the stones in diamictites and wackes of the upper Cloverly For-
as bedload by rolling, which is possible because the basal layer in which mation are not gastroliths. Researchers are cautioned to carefully examine
they are partially embedded is deformable. Because of this rolling action, the sedimentology of nonmarine rocks housing similar stones, such as the
larger clasts may exhibit imbrication. With progressive sedimentation, Cedar Mountain and Morrison formations.
clasts of all sizes eventually become buried by the rising aggradational
surface. Hence, the position of each clast represents the former position of ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
the aggrading bed.
Clasts may form crude layers along the bed at an instant in time. Larger This research was funded, in part, by National Science Foundation grant EAR-
clasts that are dispersed throughout the diamictites and matrix-supported 9628367 to L.J. Suttner and Zaleha. Critical reviews for the Journal of Sedimentary
wackes also reflect the former bed position. However, because sedimen- Research by G. Nadon, C. Paola, and M. Stokes, and technical editing by J. Sou-
tation occurs by continuous frictional freezing, no sharp textural boundary thard, G. Nadon, and M.J. Kraus, are appreciated and improved the manuscript. K.L.
Milliken handled the final editorial phases. We thank L.J. Suttner for assistance in
is produced. This would account for large ‘‘floating’’ clasts that are not clast identification, and W.S. Elliott and E. Kvale for their assistance in the field.
associated with a discernible bedding surface (Fig. 6B).
During waning flow stages, the rate at which sediment is transferred from
the basal flow to the static bed exceeds the rate at which sediment is sup-
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[ ]
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[ ][ ]
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1 2
ZALEHA, M.J., 2003, Sevier orogenesis and nonmarine basin filling: implications of new strati- u* 5 (6)
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Received 29 May 2003; accepted 9 June 2004. are assumed to be comparable).