Echipa Ştiinţifică : prof. univ. dr. ION NEGREŢ-DOBRIDOR, conf. univ. dr. CRENGUŢA OPREA, asist. univ. dr.

SILVIA FĂT, prof. dr. CRISTINA ELENA ANTON, prof. DIANA BRATOSIN, prof. ECATERINA BONCIU

DEZVOLTAREA PROFESIONALA CONTINUA PE COMPONENTA INSTRUIRII DIFERENTIATE A ELEVILOR

-suport de curs-

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Cuprins
CAPITOLUL I Noţiuni generale despre managementul carierei în învăţământ
1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. Cariera profesională şi viaţa în societatea modernă şi postmodernă Procesul dezvoltării profesionale Specificul profesiei didactice. Misiunea soteriologică şi paideutică a educatorului Competenţele educatorului de vocaţie şi optimizarea lor de-a lungul carierei. 1.4.1. Modelarea competenţelor 1.4.2. Structura competenţelor de-a lungul carierei didactice standard

Aplicaţia Nr. 1: Un model de carieră didactică

1.5.

Exigenţele profesiei didactice ca job, ca ocupaţie şi ca vocaţie
Aplicaţia Nr. 2. :Un studiu comparativ despre competenţele unor educatori celebri

CAPITOLUL II Optimizarea competenţelor didactice de-a lungul carierei.
2.1.Stadiile carierei didactice 2.1.1. Modele ale carierei ideale 2.1.2. Un model al stadiilor carierei didactice de succes
2.2. Ierarhiile profesionale şi succesul în cariera didactică 2.3. Optimizarea continuă a competenţelor în cariera didactică 2.3.1. Avansarea în cariera didactică 2.3.2. Iniţiere, consolidare, avansare, apogeu şi declin în cariera didactică

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CAPITOLUL III Formarea şi optimizarea continuă a abilităţilor de diferenţiere şi motivare a instruirii.
3.1. Importanţa optimizării capacităţilor şi abilităţilor didactice de diferenţiere şi motivare a instruirii 3.1.1. Dimensiunile şi semnificaţiile diferenţierii instruirii în clasa de elevi 3.1.2.Căror factori se datorează aceste diferenţe? 3.2. Distincţii între individualizarea instruirii, diferenţierea instruirii şi discriminarea în instruire 3.3. Aspectele negative ale discriminării şi aspectele pozitive ale individualizării şi diferenţierii
Aplicaţia Nr 3. Elaborare de microproiecte pentru diferenţierea şi motivarea instruirii în clasă
  

Aplicaţia Nr. 4. Elaborare de dramatizări simulate

Aplicaţia Nr. 5. Convertirea unor situaţii problematice în studii de caz şi/sau incidente critice

CAPITOLUL IV Managementul instruirii diferenţiate în clasă
( un ghid pragmatic pentru elaborarea microproiectelor şi scenariilor didactice pentru învăţarea difernţiată în clasă )
  

Aplicaţia Nr. 6: Elaborare de procedee de captare a atenţiei Aplicaţia Nr. 7: Elaborarea scenariilor unor microproiecte realizate în prealabil Aplicaţia Nr.8: Transformarea unor scenarii didactice în scenarii de film/material didactic Aplicaţia Nr. 9: Elaborarea unui studiu ştiinţific pe baza aplicaţiilor 7 şi 8 şi transpunerea lui pe site-ul ISJ Brăila *

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BIBLIOGRAFIE ANEXE DOCUMENTARE
Documentarul nr. 1: MANAGEMENTUL CARIEREI 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. Ce este cariera? Managementul carierei Career Planning
  

John Holland Frank Parsons Edgar Henry Schein

1.4. Programul KUDOS pentru alegerea carierei de către tineri Documentarul nr. 2 : COMPETENŢELE CADRULUI DIDACTIC 2.1. Key Competences for Lifelong Learning Education Competencies (North Carolina

2.2. Teacher University ) 2.3.

Proiectul european DICE

2.4. Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students (American Federation of Teachers, NEA, USA ) 2.5. Teaching Grammar ( National Capital Language Resource Center, Washigton DC ) Documentarul nr. 3 : DIFERENTIEREA ŞI INDIVIDUALIZAREA INSTRUIRII a. INDIVIDUALIZAREA 3.1. O sinteză a cercetărilor

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  

Keller Plan IPI – Individually Prescribed Instruction for Learning in

PLAN – Program Accordance with Needs

3.2.Studii semnificative privind individualizarea instruirii 3.3. Un exemplu sugestiv b. DIFERENŢIEREA 3.4. O sinteză a cercetărilor 3.5. Studii semnficative privind diferenţierea instruirii
 

Studiile Reading Rockets for Writing

Differentiated Instruction (ACCESS Center, USA ) Documentarul nr. 4 : DESIGN INSTRUCŢIONAL 4.1. Definition of Instructional Design 4.2. O istorie a designului instrucţional 4.3. Gagne's Conditions of Learning Theory 4.4. Carroll's Minimalist Theory of Instruction 4.5. Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains 4.6. Instructional Desighn & Learning Theories 4.7. Mastery Learning Paradigm

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CAPITOLUL I Noţiuni generale despre managementul carierei în învăţământ
1.1. Cariera profesională şi viaţa în societatea modernă şi postmodernă

Societatea secolului XXI diferă radical de cea a secolului XX. Lumea profesiilor şi a meseriilor s-a schimbat dramatic. In prima parte a secolului XX s-a dezvoltat spectaculos şi a atins apogeul industria capitalistă : societatea a devenit o „lume a coşului de fum”, simbolul şi baza ei fiind „fabrica” în care proletarii muncesc şi produc bunuri pentru „consumul de masă” prestând de-a lungul întregii vieţi fiecare aceeaşi meserie repetitivă însuşită încă din copilărie şi adolescenţă. Strungarul, oţelarul, forjorul, sudorul, minerul sau, mai generic, „mecanicul”etc. sunt personajele emblematice ale acestei lumi în care domnesc specializarea profesională îngustă şi permanenţa. Războaiele mondiale şi nevoia de progres au generat însă promovarea accelerată a transpunerii în practică a cunoaşterii ştiinţifice producând o copleşitoare revoluţie tehnologică. După „Al doilea Val al civilizaţiei omeneşti”1 s-a înstaurat în a doua jumătate a secolului XX, mai întâi lent, apoi de-a dreptul copleşitor, „Al Treilea Val”. Revoluţia în informatică şi electronică cu precădere au generat tehnologii uimitoare în centrul cărora se află computerul şi televiziunea. Nu are rost să inventariem aici toată gama de ustensile noi care prelungesc capacităţile creierului omenesc, mondializează cunoaşterea, globalizează economia şi transformă întreaga lume într-un kosmos oikoeumenos fabulos pe care unii l-au botezat deja ca fiind un Global Village în care fiecare ştie totul despre fiecare şi despre orice în fiecare clipă. Condiţia umană însăşi şi condiţia vieţii ca atare s-au modificat catastrofic. Permanenţa, stabilitatea, specializarea , ba chiar şi valorile legate de acestea au fost abandonate şi înlocuite cu sintagme oximoromice precum „permanentizarea schimbării”, „adaptarea la nou”, „mobilitatea profesională”, polispecializarea” etc. aducând cu ele alte valori şi o nouă mentalitate în strategiile de supravieţuire a speciei şi a fiecărui individ uman în parte. Pe scurt, la sfârşitul secolului XX s-a zvonit venirea unei Lumi Noi - mai îndrăzneaţă, mai primejdioasă, mai nesigură, mai ambiţioasă - şi acum trăim în ea cu bucurii şi spaime noi. Un paradis terestru somptuos care însă a fortificat şi Iadul cu feerii multiple. Este suficient să butonezi o zi întreagă televizorul conectat la cablu pentru a trăi din plin această senzaţie de fericire şi dezgust trăite laolaltă. Această transformare produsă în numai câteva decenii a antrenat o adevărată catastrofă în lumea profesiilor şi meseriilor specifice „civilizaţiei coşului de fum”. Majoritatea au devenit anacronice şi au fost abandonate. O generaţie încă tânără şi viguroasă, născută imediat după
1 Expresia celebră a folosită în anul 1981 de viitorologul Alvin Toffler în cartea Al Treilea Val pentru a

desemna „civilizația coșului de fum”.

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Jean Baudrillard – au botezat „era coşului de fum” ca aparţinând modernismului iniţiat de Secolul Luminilor şi au declarat că acesta a „murit” fiind înlocuit de un spirit nou. dacă ar fi trăit în anii '80 ai veacului trecut. Skinner3 de a desfiinţa şcolile şi de a declara defunctă profesia de educator. În lucrarea The Technology of Teaching( 1968) tradusă la noi cu titlul Revoluția științifică a învățământului (1971) și mai ales în romanele utopic . Johann Georg Kant (1683-1746 ). Meşterul curelar din Koenisberg. Filosofi care străbătuseră secolul XX – precum Jacques Derrida. Avem în vedere eresurile americane ale lui Ivan Illich2 şi tentativa mult mai pragmatică a lui B. tăbăcarul etc. ea nu a fost abandonată deşi în a doua parte a secolului XX s-a încercat acest lucru de căteva ori.” 7 . Jean-Francois Lyotard. În cursul dedicat Abilitării curriculare am stăruit asupra acestor aspecte. de „Satul global”. Oţelarul. Actualmente se consideră că însuşi postmodernismul a murit şi că ne prăbuşim vijelios într-un alt viitor făurind o spiritualitate şi mai nouă. Oare profesia de educator. s-au văzut înlocuiţi de microprocesoare şi roboţi şi trimişi la recalificare sau chiar abandonaţi complet de noua societate. ar fi fost la fel de năuc ca mulţi dintre mulţi foştii meseriaşi şi proletari prestigioşi încă în viaţă. veche de cel puţin cinci milenii. 3 BURRHUS FREDERIC SKINNER ( 1904 – 1990) a propus într-o serie lungă de cercetări și lucrări înlocuirea tehnicilor tradiționale de învățământ cu instruirea programată bazată pe manuale programete și mașini de învățat. Pare însă neîndoielnic faptul că atât postmodernismul cât şi after-postmodernismul au impus şi impun şcolii şi educatorilor provocări şi exigenţe fără precedent.  Care este noua menire a educatorului şu ce responsabilităţi implică ea? 2 Răspopitul american de origine ruso elvețiană IVAN ILLICH ta susținut în cartea sa. aşa-zisul „after-posmodernism”. Exegezele au avut nevoie de etichete privind trăirile spirituale şi ideologiile acestor transformări.tehnologizanteWalden Two și Beyond Freedom and Dignity a decretat „moartea școlii. Dar se pare că noua etichetă era prea modestă. a fost luată prin surprindere. tatăl şi modelul de viaţă demnă şi prestigiu profesional al marelui filosof Immanuel Kant.In cele ce urmează stăruim asupra condiţiei educatorului în faţa exigenţelor şi provocărilor impuse de „Al Treilea Val”. Deschooling Society (1971) necesitatea de a desfința școala pe motiv că „este Fecioara Maria care s-a prostituat la curtea regilor”. vrând să spună că ș coala se supune ș i reproduce ideologia sistemului politic în vigoare. Gilles Deleuze. devenită best seller. strungarul.Cel de-al Doile Război Mondial. de „Civilizaţia Tehnotronică”. postmodernismul. a intrat şi ea în drama declaşată de acest vertij ştiinţifico-tehnic ? Desigur.F.

1.1. Iată unul dintre cele mai cunoscute modele: FazaI: AUTOEVALUAREA Faza V: PERFORMARE Dezvoltarea carierei Faza II:EXPLORAREA OPȚIUNILOR Faza IV: AFIRMARE(marketing self) Faza III:DEZVOLTAREA ABILITĂȚILOR Figura Nr. Procesul dezvoltării profesionale 1. De ce competenţe are nevoie şi cum şi le poate forma?  În ce constă specificul profesiei şi carierei didactice?  Cum trebuie să-şi planifice educatorul progresul profesional şi cariera didactică?  Ce modele de succes pot fi urmate în dezvoltarea şi managementul carierei didactice?  Cum pot fi perfecţionate continuu competenţele educatorului de vocaţie?  Cum se poate optimiza concret competenţa didactică prin însuşirea unor noutăţi psihopedagogiec – de exemplu cele privind tehnicile de diferenţiere a instruirii?ş.Cercetarea ştiinţifică modernă şi postmodernă din domeniul psihologiei organizaţionale a studiat posibilitatea construirii unor modele generale ale dezvoltării profesionale indiferent de profesia vizată. 1: Modelul general al dezvoltării în cariera profesională Conform acestui model pentafazic însuşi proiectul de dezvoltare a carierei trebuie să aibă în vedere următoarele elemente:  Faza I ( Assessing Self &Preferences ) .2.cunoaştere şi înţelegere de sine 8 .2.a.

identificare proactivă -înţelegerea de sine şi jocul/compararea/potrivirea sinelui cu posibilităţile proprii  presupune:  Faza a III-a (Developing skills & .obţinerea abilităţilor de a căuta şi obţine locul de muncă . Procesul dezvoltării şi carierei profesionale în MANAGEME domenii industriale figurat mai jos îşi are o anumită specificitate. Să considerăm acum un model specific.abilităţile de a menţine locol de muncă .dezvoltarea abilităţilor de a lua decizii eficiente legate de tranziţiile din carieră 1.presupune: .abilităţi proprii . aptitudini VALORILE interese .dezvoltarea abilităţilor de a lua decizii eficiente legate de carieră .dezvoltarea abilităţilor .valori la care aderi  Faza a II-a ( Exploring options ) .2.câştigarea de reputaţie Experience ) presupune:  Faza a IV-a ( Marketing Self ) presupune: .abilităţile de a schimba locuri de muncă  Faza a V-a ( Performing & Planning Next Steps ) presupune: .aprofundarea conoştinţelor . NT JOB SEARCH CAREER FOCUS /PREPARATION CERCETAREA INDUSTRIALĂ PERSONALITATEA 9 AUTOEVALUARE Abilităț i.interese proprii .2.

I Self-Assessment Se începe cu explorarea interioară care ajută la înţelegerea unor elementele vitale. Invaţă care sunt tendinţele pieţei care potrivite şi alege ceea ce este unic despre tine apoi învaţă cele mai eficiente strategii pentru a obţine un anumit loc de muncă. Integrând în personalitate aptitudinile. Planificarea carierei profesionale eficientă necesită informaţii despre piaţa de muncă actuală şi tendinţele din industrie. Aceasta include II Industry Research III Goal Clarification IV Job Search 10 . Integrarea „auto-informaţii” despre proppria persoană cu informaţii actuale de pe piaţa de locuri de muncă vă permite să vă focalizaţi pe o direcţie de carieră precisă. Lucru are nevoie pentru a se potrivi personalităţii dumneavoastră şi cunoaşterea de sine este primul pas în acest proces. clienţii pot extinde cunoştinţele despre titluri de locuri de muncă şi funcţiile de locuri de muncă. care vă tine conectat la muncă într-un mod semnificativ. interesele şi veţi fi într-o poziţie mai bună pentru a crea o viaţă de muncă. Procesul dezvoltării carierei în domenii profesionale industriale Iată un ghid pragmatic în acest sens.Figura Nr 2. care vă va permite să te exprimi pe deplin. Prin intermediul bibliotecii şi publicate pe Internet surse. valorile.

4 aptitudini. Aceasta nu înseamnă că ea nu este şi ocupaţie sau job. sentimente. CAPACITĂȚ ILOR A CUNOȘ TINȚ este uşor de identificat. Propunem în acest sens un model relativ cunoscut. Urmăriţi cu atenţie Figura Nr. Reţineţi datele din figura din figura Nr. Desigur există similitudini.1. Rezultă cu claritate următoarele: Ș I COMPETENȚ ELOR  Natura profesiei didactice diferă de natura muncii de producerea bunurilor de consum : PÂNĂ LA NIVELUL  Profesia didactică nu este doar un job oarecare. 3. dar mai ales deosebiri între modelul general şi modelul specific dezvoltării în cariera unei profesii industriale faţă de modelul carierei didactice. Specificul profesiei didactice. 1. VALORI FORMAREA CULTURII ȘI MORALE ESENȚIALMENTE PROFESIA DIDACTICĂ ESTE FORMAREA COMPETENȚELOR O VOCAȚ IE DE SPECIALITATE PEDAGOGICE INIȚIALE deprinderi aptitudini ÎNTR-UN DOMENIU minimale Valori morale. ideal de viață paideutic exemple pedagogice A PROFESIEI DIDACTICE Experiențe proprii. consiliere avizată.3. DECIZIA DE ALEGERE soteriologice.dezvoltarea unui CV concentrat. îmbunătăţirea abilităţilor de comunicare şi de adoptarea unei abordări flexibile de gestionare a schimbării. V Career Management Înţelegerea relaţiilor interpersonale la locul de muncă. Specificul acesteia ELOR. OPTIMIZARE CONTINUĂ  Profesia didactică nu este doar o ocupaţie profesională MĂIESTRIEI PEDAGOGICE FORMAREA DEPLINĂ A Reţineţi: Atunci ce este profesia didactică? COMPETENȚ ELOR PEDAGOGICE DE SPECIALITATE ȘI MORALE PERSONALITAT E CULTURII cunoștințe Motivație.3. Dar nu se restrânge la aceste dimensiuni empatie. atitudini practice. cunoștințe. o scrisoare de însoţire scurtă şi eficientă. înclinații privind 11 VOCAȚIA PEDAGOGICĂ CULTURA GENERALĂ .Procesul dezvoltării în cariera didactică poate fi şi el modelat. modele de profesori. relaţionare şi intervievare. 1.

Figura Nr. Un model al dezvoltării carierei didactice Job (5 %) OCUPAȚIE (15%) 12 VOCAȚ IE (80%) . 3.

4.3. capacităţile.2.Figura Nr. Ce conferă profesiei didactice această specificitate? Pot fi invocate ca fundamentale elementele de mai jos:  Natura şi scopul muncii  Misiunile ce trebuie asumate pentru îndeplinirea ei cu succes  Cunoştinţele. Structura praxeologică a profesiei didactice 1.Educaţia MISIUNI COMPETENŢE FUNDAMENTALE WELTANSCHAUUNG -Misiunea soteriologică:salvarea -Competenţa pedagogică -Viziune despre lume ca un loc în care individul .Cultură generală vastă 13 . competenţele solicitate pentru desfăşurarea acestei munci  Weltanschauung NATURA/SCOPUL MUNCII .

4. munca didactică incumbă.Misiunile socialeconomice şi umanitare( eradicarea ignoranţei şi sărăciei prin educaţie.1.V î. .4. Deosebirea profundă faţă de acestea o constituie faptul că munca educativă nu produce bunuri de consum ci dăruieşte indivizilor umani şi societăţilor demnitatea şi puterea de a le putea produce.Misiunea paideutică . 1. 1/2010 COMPETENȚELOR Comp.VII. în proporţiile sus specificate. In Cultura. sec.Competenţa morală uman trebuie considerat întotdeauna ca scop şi niciodată ca mijloc. Teacher's Competencies. irepetabilă şi sacră specialitatea predată . Competenţele educatorului de vocaţie şi optimizarea lor de-a lungul carierei 1. ) şi profundă şi uman este o entitate competenţă maximală în unică. Modelarea competenţelor Din perspectivă practică. social-culturale COMPETENȚELE PROFESIONALE 4 KIYMET SELVY. comunicaționale Competențe afective . ) indivizilor umani de „maladia apaideusiei”(ignoranţă.-Transformarea animalului din specia Homo în personalitate umană prin physiopoiesis( „a doua natură”-Democritus din Abdera. digitale Comp. ambientale 14 Competențe.Credinţa că individul . Figura de mai jos4 este numai una dintre încercările de a modela competenţele cadrului didactic într-o manieră exhaustivă: CURRICULUMUL COMPETENȚELOR Cercetarea competențelor Lifelong learning comp. no. DOMENIUL Comp. S-a încercat modelarea competenţelor cadrului didactic atât sub raport vocaţional cât şi sub raport tehnico pragmatic. toate componentele de mai sus. gr. Se poate observa cu uşurinţă că aproape nici una dintre aceste componente nu sunt absolut necesare pentru îndeplinirea cu succes a unor job-uri şi meserii de tip industrial. Hr.). vol. etc. International Journal of Philosophy of Culture ALE EDUCATORULUI and Axiology. funcţionăresc sau de orice altă natură.

1.4. 1 Descieţi un model de carieră didactică excepţională cunoscut sau imaginar. Nr. Structura competenţelor de-a lungul carierei didactice standard 15 . 5 Componentele competenţelor profesionale ale profesorului ( apud Kiymet Selvy) APLICAŢIA NR.2.c Fig. Scrieţi un eseu pe această temă de minimum 5 pagini şi prezentaţi-l în seminar pentru dezbatere.

pedagogică corelaţiile dintre Integrează alte subiecte în disciplinele studiate.Nivelul I Cadru didactic profesionistNivel II Master Teacher . B. Profesorul utilizează în mod corespunzător o varietate de metode de predare şi a resurselor pentru fiecare zonă de învăţat. în grupuri mici. D. Profesorul demonstrează cunoaşterea cu exactitate a zonei de conţinut şi curriculumul aprobat Profesor provizoriu . Proiectează activităţi şi ca elevii să lucreze adecvate de învăţare în angajează studenţi în grup mare. şi de lucru. Dă explicaţii clare cu privire B. Comunică cu precizie în zona de conţinut şi poate crea mai multe modalităţi de abordare a problemelor studiate. Profesor provizoriu . Oferă oportunităţi pentru A. Comunică cu precizie în zona de conţinut. curriculumul aprobat. Redăm un model propus de TeachNM de la University of New Mexico College of Education ( New Mexico ) în anul 2010. Proiectează de posibilităţi A. D.Nivelul III A. activităţi independente şi în grupuri mari. Poate articula în logică the content curriculum. Comunică cu precizie în zona de conţinut. Îmbunătăţeşte şi extinde curriculumul aprobat.S-a încercat chiar „radiografierea” structurării competenţelor de-a lungul carierei didactice standard. prin experienţe independente . C. independent. I. Contribuie la perfecţionarea şi dezvoltarea curriculumului aprobat. C. Dă explicaţii clare cu privire B. şi grup mic.Nivelul I Cadru didactic profesionistNivel II Master Teacher . Selectează dintr-o varietate B. Utilizează o varietate de B. B. Oferă explicaţii clare cu privire la conţinutul lecţieişi la conţinutul lecţieişi la conţinutul lecţiei şi la procedurile didactice procedurile didactice proceduri în mai multe moduri şi este conştient de cunoştinţele şi ideile preconcepute pe care elevii le pot aduce la subiect C. Integrates other subjects into D. II. A. Evidenţiază strânsa corelaţie a componentelor zonei de conţinut . conţinutul curricular. Utilizeaza şi îmbunătăţeşte A. selecţie Demonstreaza şi 16 . grupuri mari. grupri mici. D..Nivelul III A.

inclusiv efectivă de o varietate de resurse excursii pe teren. demonstrează sau comunică relevanţa subiectelor şi activităţilor. Profesor provizoriu . se angajează. E. şi teoriile cunoştinţele şi abilităţile bazate modalităţi diferite. integrează o varietate de C. astfel încât elevii modificările necesare şi adaptări cu handicap au acces la în instruire şi curriculum. materiale şi experienţe de învăţare în suplimentare tipărite. şi practica lucru. practică. C. C. practica independent). constant comunica elevilor intenţia de instruire. manipulatives. independenta. cu colegii şi modificările necesare şi părinţii pentru a proiecta adaptări în instruire şi colaborare şi punerea în aplicare curriculum. astfel programa de învăţământ încât elevii cu handicap au acces general în mediu mai puţin la programa de învăţământ restrictivă. de metode de a face cunoştinţe lucru. astfel încât elevii cu handicap au acces la programa de învăţământ general în mediu mai puţin restrictivă. interogatoriu. curriculum. stil de preferinţe. şi Master Teacher . Modelează oportunităţi ca elevii să se aplice. inclusiv demonstraţii. şi tehnologie. Efectiv explică. pentru obiective specifice de instruire şi scopuri. cum ar fi excursii. şi demonstreze cunoştinţele şi stilurilor de învăţare.Nivelul I A. B. şi tehnologie. studenţii implică în stabilirea 17 . student iniţiat de (demonstraţii. B. E. explică şi / sau demonstrează relevanţa subiectelor şi activităţilor. direcţii. Angajează elevii în explicarea şi / sau să demonstrează relevanţa subiectelor şi activităţilor. pe cunoştinţe de modalităţile de învăţare. de metode de predare utilizarea eficientă a o varietate prelegeri. Comunică elevilor intenţia de instruire.metode. Demonstreaza integrarea resurse în instruire.Nivelul III A. demonstrează înţelegerea şi D. grupuri de accesibile tuturor elevilor. aplicarea corespunzătoare a pentru ca elevii să aplice. manipulatives. Cadru didactic profesionist . D. prelegeri. Oferă oportunităţi pentru D. şi de inteligenţă. general în mediu mai puţin III. B. inteligenţelor. desene şi pune în aplicare E. grupuri de lucru.Nivel II A. Profesorul comunică cu şi obţine feedback de la elevi într-o manieră care îmbunătăţeşte învăţarea şi înţelegerea. şi să demonstreze abilităţile învăţate prin modalităţile. Utilizeaza o varietate de resurse.. direcţii. sau plan. implementează modificările necesare şi adaptări în instruire şi curriculum. proiecte studentesti. materialele suplimentare tipărite. practică.

Selectează cele mai eficiente B. stiluri niveluri. Comunică în mod regulat cu F. E. Prezintă direcţii şi explicaţii D. şi într-o varietate de moduri dă explicaţii atunci când elevii pentru a asigura elevilor nu înţeleg. referitoare la diverse medii. E. gândirea divergentă. Clarifică acţiuni.planuri.Nivel II A. Utilizează tehnici de tehnici de predare pentru a aborda pentru a acomoda o serie de predare adaptate nivelurilor de o varietate niveluri. stiluri de învăţare. înţelegerea celor studiate. 18 . studentului. Adaptează tehnici de predare B. Integrează consecvent în instruire abilităţi utile de gândire cognitivă. cum ar fi gândirea critică. gândirea divergentă şi de luarea deciziilor. cum ar fi gândirea critică. Comunică în mod regulat cu F. C. Instruieşte elevii prin utilizarea de abilităţi de gândire cognitive. Solicită de comunicare activ în învăţare pentru a activă din partea studentilor cu realiza scopul instruirii privire la procesul de învăţare. Comunică în mod regulat cu elevii despre progresul lor. Angajează elevii în analiza şi evaluarea rezultatelor învăţării şi ajustează instruirea bazându-se pe feedback-ul oferit de student. cum ar fi gândirea critică. direcţii. IV. Solicită elevii să participe E. rezolvarea problemelor. Stabileşte expectanţele şi standardele oficiale privind performanţele elevilor. D. rezolvarea problemelor. gândirea divergentă şi de luarea deciziilor. C. precum şi interese studentului. ritmuri. ritmuri şi stilurilor de de învăţare şi nevoi ale învăţare şi nevoi speciale ale învăţare ale elevilor. elevii despre progresul lor. D. Stabileşte expectanţele şi standardele oficiale privind performanţele elevilor. C. B. Cadru didactic profesionist l II . rezolvarea problemelor. Stabileşte expectanţele şi standardele oficiale privind performanţele elevilor. şi luarea deciziilor.Nivelul III A.Nivelul I A. Integrează consecvent în instruire abilităţi utile de gândire cognitivă. Prezintă direcţii şi explicaţii într-o varietate de moduri pentru a asigura elevilor înţelegerea celor studiate. Profesor provizoriu . direcţie de instruire şi planuri. Master Teacher . F. Profesorul întelege principiile de progres în dezvoltare şi învăţare şi le aplică în mod corespunzător. elevii despre progresul lor. planificate şi aflată în curs de desfăşurare. ritmuri.

Selectează materiale dintre C. V. stiluri şi nevoi ale elevului. personalul din şcoală. alte categorii de personal şcoală. C. şi membrii comunităţii în curriculum. Profesorul utilizează eficient tehnicile şi procedurile de evaluare. Menţine constant comunicarea cu elevii şi cu familiile despre progresul elevilor. ritmuri şi stiluri ale elevului. Utilizează materiale şi mass-media adaptându-le la niveluri de învăţare.C. stiluri şi niveluri. agenţii de servicii. a aborda o serie de a aborda o varietate de de niveluri. Menţine documentaţia privind progresul elevilor. Selectează instrumente adecvate de evaluare şi strategii pentru rezultate specifice ale învăţării. B. Master Teacher . Profesor provizoriu Cadru didactic profesionist Master Teacher 19 . D. nevoi speciale ale studentului. Utilizează informaţii obţinute din evaluarea continuă pentru remedierea şi planificarea instruirii. Integrează resurselor comunitare. Profesor provizoriu . părinţi. Proiectează şi foloseste metode multiple de măsurare a înţelegerii elevilor şi de progres al învăţării. C. B. ritmuri şi stiluri ale elevului. Profesorul gestionează starea educaţiei într-o manieră care promovează comportamentul pozitiv al elevilor şi un mediu sigur şi sănătos. Menţine documentaţia privind progresul elevilor. B. VI. D. D. Cadru didactic profesionist -Nivel II A. Adaptează materiale şi cele mai eficiente şi mass-media mass-media ptr. stiluri şi nevoi ale elevilor. ritmuri de învăţare. ritmuri.Nivelul I A. C. Utilizează evaluarea formativă şi sumativă pentru remedierea şi planificarea instruirii.Nivelul III A. Utilizeaza resurse cum ar fi: agenţii de servicii comunităţii. şi părinţii pentru a satisface Niveluri. D. D. D. Integreaza date din surse multiple de evaluare în planificarea şi optimizarea instruirii. C. Dezvoltă un sistem cu două sensuri de comunicare cu elevii şi cu familiile despre progresul elevilor. ritmuri. Comunică progresul elevilor şi familiilor în timp util. Selectează dintr-o varietate de agenţii în folosul comunităţii. Utilizeaza o varietate de instrumente de evaluare şi de strategii. personal şcolar specializat şi părinţii pentru a aborda diferite niveluri de învăţare. Menţine documentaţia privind progresul elevilor.

A. Profesor provizoriu . VII. Stabileşte şi învaţă rutine efective şi eficiente. Handles transitions effectively. D.Nivel II Master Teacher . G. G. D. E. Identifică pericolele. Conduce comportamentul elevilor în mod eficient şi corespunzător. H. Identifică pericolele. explică. Minimizează distragerile şi întreruperile. Elevii se angajează în stabilirea aşteptărilor pentru a construi o comunitate de învăţare în clasă. evaluează riscurile şi ia măsurile corespunzătoare. C. Pregăteşte dinainte şi gata pregătite pentru utilizare de aranjează materiale pentru a către elevi. Stabileşte şi consolidează comportamentele studentului care promovează cetăţenia în comunitatea clasei de elevi. Identifică pericolele.Nivelul I Nivel II . clasa de elevi. C. pro-sociale. Dezvoltă un sistem de management al clasei care promovează comportamentul elevilor acceptabil şi adecvat. Stabileşte un mediu în care materialele şi mass-media sunt disponibile şi gata de utilizare de către student. F. întreruperile. C. G. Menţine relaţii manierate în D. Profesorul recunoaşte diversitatea elevilor şi creează o atmosferă care să conducă la promovarea implicării pozitive a studenţilor pe calea proprie. evaluează riscurile şi ia măsurile corespunzătoare. H. Serveşte drept model pentru modele constructive de comportamentul constructiv. Stabileşte şi învaţă rutine efective şi eficiente. B. Minimizează distragerile şi întreruperile. Executa sarcini de rutină efectiv şi eficient. H. B. E. Are materiale şi mass-media E.Nivelul III A. Monitorizează şi direcţionează comportamentul elevilor în mod eficient şi corespunzător. Minimizează distragerile şi F. B. evaluează riscurile şi ia măsurile corespunzătoare. comportament. Stabileşte şi consolidează aşteptări/speranţe pentru comportamentul elevilor. F.Nivelul III 20 .Nivelul I Cadru didactic profesionist . Menţine relaţii manierate în clasa de elevi. Identifică.. accesibiliza învăţarea elevilor. Integrează în mod regulat în predare comportamente constructive. şi A.

Promovează pozitiv F. asiatici americani. americani. Angajează elevii în experienţe E. B. precum şi precum şi alte grupuri recente alte grupurilor recente de de imigranţi . afro-americani. Dezvolta la studenţi "stima G. E. B. F. de învăţare a idei. afroamericani. A. divergentă. C. Demonstreaza o conştientizare a influenţelor de context. nativii americani. exemplu. de învăţare a nevoilor. cultura şi pe student de învăţare. nevoilor. Încurajează dezvoltarea 21 . G. D. nativii americani. pe baza nevoilor individuale de învăţare. G. pentru a satisface nevoile diverse. şi intereselor. Proiectează activităţi de învăţare care promovează posibilităţi de implicare activă specifice care necesită o creativitatea. critică şi gândirea şi creativitate. B. Recunoaşte performanţele şi realizările elevilor . limba. Reglează practici bazate pe observaţie şi cunoaştere a elevilor cu dizabilităţi şi / sau din punct de vedere cultural şi lingvistic diverse grupuri (de exemplu. şi sentimentele de sentimentele studenţilor cu studenţi cu dizabilităţi şi / sau dizabilităţi şi / sau din punct de din punct de vedere cultural şi vedere cultural şi lingvistic lingvistic medii diverse (de medii diverse (de exemplu. D. Recunoaşte că fiecare elev învăţarea şi adaptează instruirea poate învăţa. C. Recunoaşte constant performanţele şi realizările elevilor . oferă studenţilor cu E. Proiectează oportunităţi care necesită şi consolidează necesită şi consolidează responsabilitatea studentului responsabilitatea studentului pentru învăţare. imigranţi). Proiectează oportunităţi pentru fiecare elev pentru a reuşi. D.A. handicap. pentru învăţare. Înţelege modul în care elevii diferă în modul lor de a aborda C. afro-americani. implicare activă şi creativitate. intereselor. Oferă oportunităţi pentru ca elevii să fie responsabili pentru comportamentul lor şi de învăţare. hispanici hispanici americani. asiatici americani. asiatici americani. hispanici americani. Oferă acomodări şi intervenţii care să permită fiecărui student de a reuşi pe baza nevoilor individuale de învăţare. Creează proiecte curriculare care includ performanţele elevilor şi confirmă de realizările lor. Demonstrează sensibilitatea şi capacitatea de reacţie la A. Proiectează oportunităţi care F. precum şi alte grupuri recente de imigranţi). nativii americani. Oferă oportunităţi pentru fiecare student pentru a reuşi şi a înţelege modul în care elevii diferă în demersurile lor de învăţare bazate pe diverse medii culturale şi lingvistice şi exceptionalities. Recunoaşte şi validează ideile personale.

caută informaţii cu privire la metodologia. Demonstreaza cunoştinţe de cercetare şi proiectare pentru bune practici care sporesc optimizarea strategiilor de învăţarea. lingvistice. background -uri şi experienţe personale. aceste cunoştinţe în deciziile curriculare şi metodologia de instruire. pentru limba. Recunoaşte că schimbarea B. pentru capacitatea despre abilităţi sale de învăţare. Demonstrează cunoştinţe despre background-ul fiecărui I. Caută informaţii cu privire la metodologia. de a aborda mai multe perspective. recunoscând şi proiectând instruirea pentru diferenţele individuale dintre culturi. Încurajează aşteptări foarte H. limbi. de cercetare şi tendinţele actuale în domeniul educaţiei pentru a spori şi a îmbunătăţi calitatea învăţării. VIII. conştientizare şi respect pentru despre experienţele background-ul fiecărui elev. motivatia. Asumă rol de leader în studiul 22 . simţul de responsabilitate diferenţele culturale. de cercetare şi tendinţele actuale în domeniul educaţiei pentru a spori şi a îmbunătăţi calitatea învăţării. înalte. Profesorul demonstrează dorinţa de a examina şi de a implementa schimbarea. de sine. experienta. civică. după caz.relaţiile student / profesor. motivat şi de a-şi asuma riscuri pentru îmbunătăţirea procesului de predare. despre medii diferite. Stabileşte şi comunică unor standarde de performanţă mari student. de a fi creativ. C. fundamentale ale fiecăruia. aşteptări mari pentru toţi elevii. religioase şi de handicap. lui de învăţare. Colaborează cu colegii din B. si limbi. caracterul şi respectului pentru individualitate. H. şi culturi şi încorporează cultura sa. A. Demonstrează o student. Angajează elevii în stabilirea H. A. Demonstreaza capacitatea de a raţiona de a motiva. abilităţile de învăţare. B. C. instruire . Tratează toţi studenţii echitabil. I. Participa la îmbunătăţirea C. Implementează o varietate de strategii pentru a optimiza învăţarea. I . Profesor provizoriu -Nivelul I Cadru didactic profesionist Nivel II Master Teacher -Nivel III A.

şi punerea în aplicare a optimizării instrucţionale şi a iniţiativelor de reformă şcolară. D. părinţii. profesor şi părinţi. D. B. după strategiilor de soluţionare a când este necesar. Utilizeaza strategii de C. Utilizeaza strategii de C. Profesorul lucrează productiv cu colegii. Angajeaza parintii si membrii comunitatii în mod productiv în activitatea şcolii. caz. cvasi-implicit. Colaborează cu colegii. ca ocupaţie şi ca vocaţie În continuitate cu tradiţiile pedagogice ale Europei şi. Profesor provizoriu . ale României putem sistematiza caracteristicile şi exigenţele ale profesiei didactice astfel: CA JOB CA OCUPAŢIE CA VOCAŢIE 23 . comunitate şi resursele care pot sprijini învăţarea elevilor.5. 1. creativ cu colegii. reformă şcolară. şi membrii comunităţii cu privire la problemele educaţionale.Nivelul III A. Oferă un sistem de B. Exigenţele profesiei didactice ca job. educaţionale.Nivel II A. Asistă colegii în utilizarea soluţionare a conflictelor atunci soluţionare a conflictelor. şi şi membrii comunităţii cu membrii comunităţii cu privire la privire la problemele problemele educaţionale. Comunică într-un mod E. familie. E. A. Master Teacher .Nivelul I Cadru didactic profesionist . Comunică cu părinţii în mod comunicare interactivă între regulat. Promovează roluri active pentru părinţi şi membrii comunităţii în învăţare. părinţii.implică un risc dar modificările instruirii şi la iniţiativele de pot fi necesare. B. E. Comunică într-un mod profesionist cu colegii. IX. Promovează activ relaţii colegiale cu personal din alte şcoli. Demonstreaza cunoştinţe specifice despre şcoală. D. Lucrează colaborativ şi profesionist cu colegii. conflictelor. Serveşte ca un model pentru relaţiile de colaborare în întreaga profesie. părinţii. C. părinţii şi membrii comunităţii. Implică părinţii în comunitatea şi în mediul de învăţare.

sociologie. erudiţie  Prestaţia unei munci  Stăpânirea unuia sau mai pedagogice pozitive  Convingeri şi pasiune specializate pentru obţinerea unui salariu multor domenii ale culturii cuprinse în curriculum  Cunoştinţe teoretice vaste pentru misiunea paideutică  Respectarea legislaţiei. atitudini şi regulamentelor şcolare şi îndeplinirea corectă a sarcinilor  Cunoaşterea acceptabilă în domeniul ştiinţelor educaţiei conduite motivate soteriologic  Cunoştinţe de psihologie  Capacităţi empatice şi stăpânirea adecvată a „meseriei” de educator  Cunoştinţe de  Weltanschauug centrat pe filosofie. antroplogie. a  Convingeri.  Capacităţi de importanţa omului în Univers  Convingeri şi trăiri comprehensiune şpedagogică şi demonstrare logică a cunoştinţelor de specialitate  Capacităţi de aplicare a filantropice.(5%) LUCRATIVĂ (15%) (80%)  Loc de muncă  Cultură generală largă şi  Aptitudini şi atitudini profundă.onoare -distincţie -modestie  Capacităţi de analiză a  Calităţi morale privind 24 . biologie etc. respingerea mizantropiei  Calităţi morale ilustrate cunoştinţelor de specialitate în contexte revelatoare pentru cel care învaţă prin conduite adecvate lor: -demnitate .

christică) -încrederea -speranţa -răbdarea  Capacităţi de apreciere şi  Calităţi morale privind evaluare înţelegerea celorlalţi: -iertarea -mila 25 .conţinuturilor de predare prevăzute în curriculum conducerea de sine: -conştiinţă de sine -încredere în sine -discernământ -calm -curaj -moderaţie -echilibru sufletesc  Capacităţi de interpretare  Calităţi morale privind relaţionarea cu ceilalţi: -reţinere -responsabilitate -intenţii bune -prietenie -devotament -blândeţe  Capacităţi de sinteză şi  Calităţi morale privind abilităţi de proiectare pedagogică credinţa: -iubirea (universală.

-compasiunea  Calităţi morale privind recunoştinţa: -recunoştinţa universală -generozitatea -mărinimia -aprecierea  Calităţi morale privind armonia: -optimism -cooperare -entuziasm  Calităţi morale privind perseverenţa: -efort -străduinţă -rezistenţă  Calităţi morale privind respectul pentru viaţa socială: -toleranţă -curtoazie -cooperare  Calităţi morale speciale privind grija faţă de copii: -iubire filetică -compasiune -îndatorare 26 .

Trandafir Dl. Mariu Chicoş Rostogan Cel mai competent profesor din şcoala dvs.etc. 27 .-respect -bunătate -responsabilitate -autoritate -înţelegere -empatie -simpatie .2 1. APLICAŢIA NR.Vucea Dl. Realizaţi un studiu comparativ pornind de la personajele de mai jos PERSONAJUL COMPETENŢA DE SPECIALITATE COMPETENŢA PEDAGOGICĂ COMPETENŢA MORALĂ Dascălul Chiosea Dl.

Stadiile carierei didactice 2. S-a încercat modelarea „stadiilor carierei psihologică: ETAPE VÂRSTA ideale” 1 pornind de la stadiile de dezvoltare STADIILE 1 Vide SCHEIN în D. Modele ale carierei ideale Există oare o carieră didactică standard? Poate fi ea descrisă şi reglementată strict? În privinţa „job-ilor” şi a „profesiilor” obişnuite s-a încercat şi s-a reuşit acest lucru. HALL Personnel Management. Iată câteva exemple celebre. Organizaţi în seminar o dezbatere liberă privind cele 6 personaje indicănd şi argumentând calităţi şi defecte. 1995 28 .1.Cel mai incompetent profesor pe care l-aţi cunoscut 2.1.1. CAPITOLUL II Optimizarea competenţelor didactice de-a lungul carierei 2. Prentice Hall.T. Modelul lui Schein. London.

1985 29 .. Modelul lui Klatt Alţi autori2 didactice. KLATT &col. DEZVOLTARE. au propus modele mai adecvate dar fără a surprinde specificul profesiei 2 V.45 40 + 40 + 60 +         O simplă privire a tabloului de mai sus este suficientă pentru a observa că modelul ideal nu se potriveşte decât vag cu stadiile carierei didactice. FANTEZIE Intrarea în câmpul muncii Pregătirea de bază Cariera timpurie Mijlocul carierei Crizele de la mijlocul carierei Cariera târzie Declin Eliberare şi pensionare II III IV V VI VII VIII IX 16 -25 16 -25 17.Human Resource Management.30 25 + 35 .L.A.I 0 -21  EXPLORARE.

A. 6. london. Prentice-Hall. WAGNER & J. 1992 30 .Nr. 1985 ) Modelul lui Wagner şi Hollenbeck3 3 J. Stadiile carierei ( după Klatt.R. Management of Organizational Behaviour. HOLLENBECK. Englewood Cliffs.Fig.

Care sunt aceste „obstacole”? Sunt mai multe şi relativ diferite. 2. Depăşirea lor la timp şi cu performanţe maximale constituie conditio sine-qua-non a ceea ce numim „cariera de succes”.Un model al stadiilor carierei didactice de succes  Ce este cariera didactică de succes? Cariera în genere şi cariera profesională în special este o „cursă cu obstacole” care se poate întrerupe brusc la fiecare confruntare cu oricare dintre ele. în funcţie de „ruta” şi dimensiunile. Nr.Fig. 1. Există două condiţii esenţiale ale reuşitei în profesia didactică:   ALEGEREA CORECTĂ A „RUTEI” PROGRESUL NEÎNCETAT PE CALEA ALEASĂ 31 . pe care le poate lua cariera didactică. 7 Modelul lui Wagner şi Hollenbeck (1992) 2.

. dimpotrivă. se vor face de râs şi vor aduce multe daune şcolii . sunt capabili să o şi conducă.  IERARHIA MATHETICĂ: . nu vor avea o carieră managerială de succes ci. pedagogice şi morale.. .este numai acelor educatori care îşi descoperă aptitudini şi calităţi de organizator şi leader. stultis non scientia paedagogica.aduce dascălului recunoştinţa acelor diligenter studiosi care au devenit. mistic chiar şi cu cunoştinţe manageriale temeinice să se ilustreze ca mari conducători şi reformatori de şcoală obţinând gloria şi recunoaşterea sublimă a dreptului de a intra în galeria măreaţă a marilor personalităţi pedagogice româneşti în fruntea cărora străluceşte etern Spiru Haret.aduce profesorului prestigiul de doctor singularis şi de „illustrissimus magister” în comunitatea educativă şi în societate.este deschisă de obsesia de a studia şi cerceta neîncetat pentru creşterea cunoaşterii şi îmbogăţirea culturii universale care nutreşte instituţiile academice. ..aduce dascălului prestigiu academic şi recunoaştere naţională şi internaţională.permite celor cu talent. . în timp. 32 . . Cele mai importante dimensiuni de organizare ierarhică sunt:  IERARHIA PROFESIONALĂ PROPRIU-ZISĂ : – este deschisă tuturor celor care au luat decizia de a urma cariera didactică.permite profesorului progresul neîncetat al competenţelor de specialitate. cu simţ al responsabilităţii paideutice profund. -nu şi acelora care cred că dacă au slujit la catedră sau au trecut ca elevi prin şcoală. .Aceste „itinerarii” sunt „deschise” de ierarhiile sistemului şi procesului educaţional. splendens discipuli şi chiar scolaribus magna vitae fermentum superbus.atinge apogeul atunci când comunitatea recunoaşte profesorului calităţile de Magistratus Artes Disciplina  IERARHIA MANAGERIALĂ : .

informarea permanentă. apogeu creativ  19-21 ani    profesor  21-23 ani 22-2528 ani   Şef de catedră   Doctorat/ lector universitar   Director de şcoală  Conferenţiar universitar/şef de catedră/ director de departament/ prodecan Profesor universitar/ prodecan/decan 25-35 ani   Inspector şcolar de specialitate judeţean  30-3540 ani  33 . Rutele carierei de succes sunt următoarele: IERARHIA PROFESIONALĂ în învăţământul preuniversitar  IERARHIA MANAGERIALĂ în sistemul de învăţământ - IERARHIA MATHETICĂ în învăţământul preuniversitar şi universitar Obţinerea Licenţei şi a atestatului de cadru didactic masterat VÂRSTA Pregătire pedagogică şi de specialitate in perioada studiilor de licenţă Profesor fără definitivat Profesor definitiv/posibilităţi de avansare pe ruta învăţământ superior şi cercetare ştiinţifică Profesor cu gradul didactic II/posibilităţi de avansare pe ruta învăţământ superior şi cercetare ştiinţifică Profesor cu gradul didactic I. autoformarea continuă şi creativitatea conferă prin ele însele momentele de succes necesare împlinirii carierei academice.. * 2.2.oferă şansa de a intra în galeria marilor personalităţi ale culturii române. . Ierarhiile profesionale şi succesul în cariera didactică Putem însă descrie succesul în cariera didactică luând în considerare criteriul „avansare în carieră” luînd în considerare aceste trei dimensiuni. -efemere şi consumatoare de timp funcţiile de conducere din învăţământul superior nu conferă prin ele însele nici presigiu înalt şi nici recunoaştere acadică aparte.

Avansarea în cariera didactică.1. decizia de alegere a profesiei didactice  II. apogeul  VI. apogeu şi declin în profesia didactică Cum trebuie realizată optimizarea continuă a competenţelor cadrului didactic de-alungul acestor stadii? 34 . declinul  VII.2. avansarea  V.3.3. avansare.Iniţiere. consolidare.3. Optimizarea continuă a competenţelor în cariera didactică 2.iniţierea pedagogică  III. există unele similitudini care ne permit să decelăm trei mari stadii:  I. iniţierea -formarea de specialitate .  Apogeu creativ Inspector şcolar minister Director general ministerial Ministru al educaţiei Declin şi pensionare   prorector/rector Apogeu creativ Apogeu creativ 30-45 ani 35— 45 ani 45-60 ani 60 -70 ani  Apogeu creativ    Apogeu creativ   Apogeu creativ Declin şi pensionare   Apogeu creativ Pensionare 2. Dincolo de văditele deosebiri dintre modelele de dezvoltare a carierei profesionale faţă de modele care vizează profesii şi meserii „lucrative” în domenii precum cele industriale sau funcţionăreşti. consolidarea  IV. eliberarea şi pensionarea 2.

35 . . Lăsăm de o parte stadiile I. -filosofia educaţiei -doctrine pedagogice -teoria curriculumului -teorii ale motivaţiei. teorii ale personalităţii.mastery în designul instrucţional . -stăpânirea completă a domeniului de specialitate.Competenţă deplină în proiectarea pedagogică -abilităţi de -Competenţă management al deplină în clasei de elevi managementul clasei - mastery în designul instrucţional .stăpânirea -trăirea sentimentului de „misiune paideutică îndeplinită”.capacităţi de proiectare diversificată -studiu zilnic în domeniul specialităţii şi aprofundare în ştiinţele educaţiei -aspiraţie spre erudiţie şi completaea continuă a culturii proprii -studiu zilnic în domeniul specialităţii şi aprofundare în ştiinţele educaţiei -proces de conştiinţă şi autoevaluare profesională FORMAREA .Vom reţine desigur numai pe cele semnificative. . Considerând esenţiale opt categorii şi capacităţi implicate în exercitarea cu succes a profesiei didactice vom reţine următoarele exigenţe de optimizare INIŢIERE CONSOLIDA RE AVANSARE APOGEU DECLIN INFORMARE -aprofundarea -studiu zilnic în A CONTINUĂ culturii generale domeniul specialităţii -studiu zilnic în domeniul -cunoştinţe specialităţii aprofundate de pedagogie . -însuşirea tehnicilor informatice -didactica specialităţii .exploatarea surselor de informare -studiu zilnic în domeniul specialităţii şi iaprofundare în ştiinţele educaţiei. ştiinţele sociologie.Abilităţi de CONTINUĂ design instrucţional .inţiere în psihologie . VI şi VII din motive care se subânţeleg. . .capacităţi de proiectare diversificată -stăpânire completă a teoriei şi a metodelor de predare învăţare -stăpânire completă a teoriei şi a metodelor de predare învăţare -proces de conştiinţă şi autoevaluare profesională DEZVOLTAR EA CAPACITĂŢI -LOR DE -stăpânirea completă a domeniului de specialitate. .stăpânirea -stăpânirea completă a domeniului de specialitate.stăpânirea -stăpânirea completă a domeniului de specialitate. etc. educaţiei filosofie.

-determinarea eficacităţii generale a instruirii. . -determinarea mastery learning deplină a principiilor şi exigenţelor fundamentale de proiectare pedagogică şi de motivare a elevilor. . -determinarea eficacităţii generale a instruirii. completă a individualizată tehnicilor de instruire diferenţiată şi activă 36 . .stăpânirea completă a tehnicilor de instruire diferenţiată şi activă . deplină a principiilor şi exigenţelor fundamentale de proiectare pedagogică şi de motivare a elevilor.stăpânirea deplină a principiilor şi exigenţelor fundamentale de proiectare pedagogică şi de motivare a elevilor.COMPREHE -înţelegerea NSIprincipiilor şi exigenţelor UNE fundamentale de proiectare pedagogică şi de motivare a elevilor deplină a principiilor şi exigenţelor fundamentale de proiectare pedagogică şi de motivare a elevilor. .abilităţi de instruire activă.stăpânirea completă a tehnicilor de instruire diferenţiată şi activă -stăpânirea completă a domeniului de specialitate. -determinarea eficacităţii generale a instruirii.stăpânirea diferenţiată.

profundă MULTIPLICA -REA ABILITĂŢIL OR APLICATIVE -Abilităţi elementare de proiectare şi implementare a exigenţelor de tehnologie educaţională -abilităţi elementare de diferenţiere şi motivare a instruirii -Competenţă în proiectare şi în implementarea exigenţelor de tehnologie educaţională în clasa de elevi. -stăpânirea deplină a exigenţelor de comunicare educaţională. -dezvoltarea .Aplicare creativă a exigenţelor de tehnologie educaţională --elaborare creativă de sarcini de instruire diferenţiată -elaborare creativă de situaţii optime de învăţare -Stăpânirea deplină a exigenţelor ştiinţifice de tehnologie educaţională. aprofundarea aptitudinilor şi stăpânirea completă a tehnicilor empatice. . -exersarea aptitudinilor empatice -stăpânirea exigenţelor de comunicare educaţională. -dezvoltarea . stăpânirea deplină a exigenţelor de comunicare educaţională. -dezvoltarea şi aprofundarea aptitudinilor empatice. -dezvoltarea aptitudinilor empatice -stăpânirea deplină a exigenţelor de comunicare educaţională.Aplicare creativă a exigenţelor de tehnologie educaţională -Proces de conştiinţă şi autoevaluare profesional -elaborare -abilităţi şi corectă de competenţe de sarcini de bază pentru instruire diferenţierea şi diferenţiată motivarea -elaborare instruirii corectă de situaţii optime de învăţare 37 .Construirea corectă de strategii didactice centrate pe obiective operaţionale Stăpânirea completă a tehnicilor de proiectare şi transpunere în clasa de elevi. . -trăirea sentimentului de responsabilitate paideutică profundă.OPTIMIZAR EA CAPACITĂŢI -LOR DE EMPATIE ŞI COMUNICAR E -asimilarea exigenţelor de comunicare educaţională. . aprofundarea -trăirea aptitudinilor şi sentimentului stăpânirea de completă a responsabilitate tehnicilor paideutică empatice. -Construirea creativă de strategii didactice centrate pe obiective operaţionale -Stăpânirea deplină a exigenţelor ştiinţifice de tehnologie educaţională.

Cercetări ştiinţifice în domeniul educaţiei de tip: -experimental -documentar -hermeneutic etc. Cercetări ştiinţifice în domeniul educaţiei de tip: -experimental -documentar -hermeneutic etc.eseuri privind TEA profesia PEDAGOGIC didactică Ă . I. Proiecte II. Studii de sinteză pe teme sinteză pe teme pedagogice pedagogice fundamentale III. Studii de sinteză pe teme pedagogice fundamentale III. II. Studii de II. Proiecte 38 .EXERSAREA CONTINUĂ A CAPACITĂŢI -LOR DE ANALIZĂ ŞI SINTEZĂ -Identificare de tehnici şi procedee pedagogice adecvate pentru predareaînvăţarea în domeniul de specialitate -Identificarea continuă şi folosirea ingenioasă de noi tehnici şi procedee pedagogice adecvate pentru predareaînvăţarea în -Organizarea şi domeniul de desfăşurarea de specialitate microcercetări pedagogice în -Organizarea şi didactica desfăşurarea de specialităţii cercetări pedagogice în didactica specialităţii -Identificarea continuă şi folosirea ingenioasă de noi tehnici şi procedee pedagogice adecvate pentru predareaînvăţarea în domeniul de specialitate --Organizarea şi desfăşurarea de cercetări experimentale riguroase pedagogice în didactica specialităţii -Identificarea continuă şi folosirea ingenioasă de noi tehnici şi procedee pedagogice adecvate pentru predareaînvăţarea în domeniul de specialitate --Organizarea şi desfăşurarea de cercetări experimentale riguroase pedagogice în didactica specialităţii -Proces de conştiinţă şi autoevaluare profesională CREATIVITA . procedee şi materiale pentru eficientizarea instruirii şi educării I. I.Producţie de noi tehnici. Cercetări ştiinţifice în domeniul educaţiei de tip: -experimental -documentar -hermeneutic etc.

-Elaborare corectă de teste docimologice --Crearea de noi tehnici şi metode de evaluare a performanţelor şcolare.naţionale şi internaţionale naţionale şi internaţionale -Proces de conştiinţă şi autoevaluare profesională PERFECŢIO NA-REA CAPACITĂŢI -LOR DE EVALUARE -Asimilarea exigenţelor de teoria modernă a evaluării. -Promovarea procedeelor de autoevaluare continuă a elevului -Stăpânirea completă a tehnicilor şi exigenţelor docimologice moderne -Promovarea procedeelor de autoevaluare continuă a elevului -Stăpânirea completă a tehnicilor şi exigenţelor docimologice moderne -Promovarea procedeelor de autoevaluare continuă a elevului -Proces de conştiinţă şi autoevaluare profesională CAPITOLUL III Formarea şi optimizarea continuă a abilităţilor de diferenţiere şi individualizare a instruirii. În primele două capitole am analizat problematica teoretică a profesiei didactice şi a necesităţii de optimizare a competenţelor educatorului de-a lungul întregii cariere didactice. -Promovarea procedeelor de autoevaluare continuă a elevului -Stăpânirea completă a tehnicilor şi exigenţelor docimologice modern -Stăpânirea completă a tehnicilor şi exigenţelor docimologice moderne -Crearea de noi tehnici şi metode de evaluare a performanţelor şcolare. 39 .

cu rezultate cel mai adesea excepţionale. Este cazul învăţării limbilor streăine moderne în care individualizarea strictă comportă dezavantajul de a se trasforma în solilocviu şi în dialog restrâns la comunicarea dintre profesor şi elev. De aceea instruirea şi educarea trebuie să se desfăşoare cel puţin în mod diferenţiat. diferenţierea şi motivarea învăţării în condiţiile instruirii dirijate diferenţiate în clasă şi în cadrul unor programe compensatorii. un accident cromozomial non-iterabil. au mare aplicabilitate în predarea-învăţarea limbii materne şi a limbilor străine. Dar în genotipul individual ele variază considerabil:nu toţi elevii îşi folosesc aceste capacităţi într-un mod unic. Înlăuntrul speciei Homo Sapiens există o varietate halucinantă: nici un individ uman nu este identic cu altul. posedăm limbaj articulat. dimpotrivă. Toţi elevii care sau născut normal dispun de toate capacităţile psihice necesare învăţării şi supravieţuirii: ele fac parte din genofond. Suntem aşadar egali? Nu. reuşita tuturor elevilor la învăţătură ( mastery) în condiţiile actuale ale învăţământului românesc. realizată cu preceptor unic şi în condiţii cu totul originale. Dimensiunile şi semnificaţiile diferenţierii instruirii Venim pe lume cu un genofond unic care ne diferenţiază net de alte specii: suntem cu toţii bipezi. cea mai bună instruire este cea individualizată. Aşadar. În acest capitol am ales una dintre aceste componente: un set de abilităţi necesare pentru a determina eficacitatea instruirii. predarea diferenţiată a acestor limbi comportă numeroase facilităţi de organizare a strategiilor de învăţare bazată pe comunicare şi interînvăţare. 40 . Deseori instruirea difernţiată se dovedeşte mai avantajoasă de cât cea strict individualizată. Desigur. Dimpotrivă. Fiecare dintre noi este un unicat . avem două membre superioare cu deget opozabil et. Fiecare competenţă şi capacitate înscrisă în tablourile de mai sus trebuie abordată concret. Dar inainte de a trce direct la problematica practică sunt necesare câteva lămuriri teoretice. după cum se va vedea.să luăm în consideraţie această variabilitate şi în planul educaţiei. Instruirea individualizată nu este însă panaceu.1. nu a existat niciodată pa Terra un individ uman identic cu dumneta sau cu mine şi probabilitatea ca vreunul dintre noi să fie vreodată „repetat”este aproape imposibilă. dar această strategie optimă este costisitoare şi greu de organizat în condiţiile învăţământului de masă organizat pe clase şi lecţii.1. În capitolul IV vom arăta practic modalităţile pedagogice la care poate şi trebuie să recurgă în acest sens un educator creativ şi eficient.Dar aceasta nu se realizează „în general”. Importanţa optimizării capacităţilor şi abilităţilor de diferenţiere şi individualizare a instruirii 3. Este vorba de individualizarea. 3.1. Procedurile propuse. fiecare se exprimă în activitatea de învăţare foarte diferit. Ea s-a practicat în istoria educaţiei europene deseori.

Totuşi. nu este vorba de un proces simplu. este vorba de o problematică multidimensională care trebuie bine înţeleasă atât în plan practic cât şi în plan teoretic. Nr.8 Dimensiunile diferenţierii instruirii ( Schumm. Figura de mai jos surprinde numai parţial întreaga complexitate a acestui fenomen şi proces psihopedagogic. Fig. dimpotivă. 1994) 41 . Vaughn & Lazarell.

pe „clase şi lecţii”. exceplând copii speciali care s-au născut cu unele deficienţe psihice. Avem de a face cu un fenomen universal: Exprimarea variabilităţii intraspecifice a lui Homo Sapiens în cadrul concret al unei activităţi practice: instruirea şcolară. 70% elevi cu ritm de învăţare rapid – aprox. 15% 3. nu poate neglija întrebări precum cele de mai jos şi răspunsurile ele:    Ce vor învăţa doar mai puţini elevi? Ce vor învăţa câţiva elevi? Ce vor învăţa cei mai mulţi elevi? Este modalitatea cea mai simplă de a depista că în clasa de elevi exist cel puţin trei categorii de elevi:    elevi cu ritm lent de învăţare – aprox.Proiectarea instruirii diferenţiate implică luarea în considerare a cel puţin 5 categorii de variabile. 15% elevi cu ritm de învăţare mediu – aprox. Este una dintre marile erori ale pedagogiei tradiţionale şi ale practicilor instrucţionale cu rădăcini în Antichitatea elină şi mai ales în şcolile eclesiastice medievale. In realitate. Ca observatori obiectivi sau ca educatori noi percepem această realitate folosindu-ne de singura modalitate observaţională de care dispunem: cea behaviorist-comportamentistă.2. Ea ne determină să percepem în orice clasă şcolară că : unii elevi învaţă mai greu şi pierd „ritmul instruirii” impus de organizarea învăţământului.1. datorată tradiţiilor şcolare şi prejudecăţilor este aceea de a atribui aceste fenomene unor „cauze naturale” şi unor „factori endogeni” precum vestitul „coeficient de inteligenţă”. Educatorul creativ şi eficient care practică instruirea diferenţiată raportându-se strict la programa analitică oficială. în mod procustian. toţi copii consideraţi „normali” dispun de toate capacităţile psihice implicate în activitatea complexă pe care o numim „învăţare” sunt capabili să înveţe şi să obţină performanţe şcolare cel puţin la nivelul unor standarde acceptabile ( prestabilite sau nu prin curriculum şi precizate în programele analitice ale materiilor).Căror factori se datorează aceste diferenţe? Prima tentaţie. aceşti elevi sunt botezaţi şi  42 . Deşi dispun de toate capacităţile psihice implicate în învăţare copiii le folosesc foarte diferit.

43 . The dark vertical lines indicate the area under the curve from -1 to +1 .Exemple ilustre: Michel de Montaigne. depăşită demult de cercetări revelatoare care au desfiinţat „mitul inteligenţei generale” şi mitul „coeficientului de inteligenţă unic”. în termenii unei „psihologii” arhaice. 9„Curba în formă de clopot” lui Gauss4 4 Explicație: This equation is plotted below. Fig.a. împăratul Nero. Charles Darwin ş.etichetaţi în fel şi chip:„leneşi”. Exemple ilustre: elevii Georg Wilhelm Hegel. mai mulţi elevi constituie pe cei etichetaţi ca „mediocri”.  un număr restrâns de elevi care îşi folosesc foarte bine capacităţile psihice şi deci învaţă rapid. Pico della Mirandola. Lucian Blaga. citită repede şi greşit. ei sunt consideraţi „inteligenţi”..  Ce concluzii se pot trage pentru planul instruirii dacă luâm foarte în serios exemplele date? Desigur. „slabi”. Albert Einstein ş.a. Exemple ilustre: Diogene din Sinope Cinicul. nu unele foarte favorabile pentru educatorii predispuşi să eticheteze în grabă. În realitate avem de a face cu celebra „curbă în formă de clopot a lui Gauss”. „molâi” etc. „foarte deştepţi”. Aristotel. and the lighter lines indicate the area under the curve for ±2 ..Nr. Alexandru Macedon. „geniali”.

E uşor . Distincţii între individualizarea instruirii. Este legea după care caracteristicile unei populaţii se reparttizează simetric în jurul unei valori centrale de aşa natură încăt rezulă că în populaţie există 70% „membri mijlocii”. Nu se pune deci problema măsurării obiective a inteligenței umane ” ( 1945) 44 . care s-a impus şi în şcoala românească organizată pe clase şi lecţii a impus următoarele „remedii” ale acestei presupuse „boli”: INDIVIDUALIZAREA  DIFERENŢIEREA  DISCRIMINAREA  Învăţământ particular cu preceptor sau meditator individual Folosirea sarcinilor diferenţiate în microgrupuri eterogene în clasa de elevi Folosirea de sarcini diferenţiate în microgrupuri omogene în funcţie de performanţă Interînvăţarea în Grupuri omogene  Sisteme de învăţământ individualizate complet   Sarcini diferite şi obiective de nivel  Programe   Şcoli şi clase de elită 5 JEAN PIAGET: „ Nu cunoaștem natura nici unui proces psihic. nu.2. Imaginaţi-vă că în clasa de elvi îl întâlniţi pe „molâul gimnazist Albert Einstein” sau pe „tăntălăul Hegel”! Oare i-ţi eticheta pe aceşti elevi ca avănd „QI inferior”? În realitate. 13% „membri buni”.Curba lui Gauss exprimă grafic hazardul. 13% „membi mediocri”. Dar care sunt remediile? Tradiţia europeană. Nu cunoaștem nici în ce constă natura inteligenței. există „inteligenţe multiple” la mai toţi oamenii iar toţi copiii care s-au născut normal sunt apţi să înveţe. Dar această afirmaţie poate rămâne retorică dacă nu se caută soluţii pentru depăşirea numeroaselor dificultăţi pe care le ridică diferenţele individuale din clasa de elevi. Este totuşi o lege a naturii. diferenţierea instruirii şi discriminarea în instruire Constituie difereţele individuale o fatalitate şcolară? Desigur. 2% „membri inferiori” şi 2% „membri superiori”.să „traducem” într-un limbaj pseudo-psihologic5 termenul de „mediocru” cu „elev cu QI mediu” sau termenul de „elev foarte slab” cu „elev cu QI inferior” !Dar cu riscuri enorme.dar profund greşit . Prin urmare nu se pune problema de a măsura obiectiv ceva a cărui natură ne este necunoscută. 3.

3. pe bază de rasă. 3 dedicat individualizării şi diferenţierii instruirii Totuşi sunt necesare unele precizări importante privind...  Întrucât aceste aspecte sunt reluate cu detalii şi într-o manieră practică în capitolul următor nu insistăm cu mai multe explicaţii aici. INDIVIDUALIZAREA ŞI DIFERENŢIEREA INSTRUIRII  DISCRIMINAREA ÎN EDUCAŢIE ŞI ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT  Comportă modalităţi şi strategii cu fundamenare pedagogică pe deplin justificate din punct de vedere ştiinţific (detalii în capitolul următor) Comportă practici rasiste şi/sau discriminatorii care încalcă marile principii ale pedagogiei Presupun încălcări grave ale demnităţii umane Sunt contrare deontologiei profesiei de dascăl   45 .compensatorii  microgrupuri eterogene  Tratament pedagogic individual Programe compensatorii de ratrapare şi de îmbogăţire Interînvăţarea îm microgrupuri falsetrogene  Dicriminări pe bază de sex. Aspectele negative ale discriminării şi aspectele pozitive ale individualizării şi diferenţierii Citiţi cu maximă atenţie.3. pe bază de avere etc. reţineţi şi nu uitaţi niciodată informaţiile din tabelul de mai jos. Cititorul interesat de aspectele teoretice este invitat să consulte Documentarul Nr.

elaboraţi în scris 5 situaţii problematice care ar putea fi convertite în studii de caz.(detalii în capitolul următor ) APLICAŢII ( Titularul de seminar va decide momentul cel mai oportun în care vor fi folosire următoarelor aplicaţii de-a lungul desfăşurării cursului )  Aplicaţia Nr 3. Cei aleşi vor prezenta microproiectele preciând şi arumentând clar: a)-sarcinile de învăţarediferenţiate b) -situaţiile optime de învăţare c).prin ce procedee urmează să preveniţi fenomenul de push-down ?  Aplicaţia Nr. În seminar se vor trage la sorţi 5 dintre proiectele realizate. aşa cum vă pricepeţi acum. Elaboraţi în scris. 4 Pornind de la programa analitică. un microproiect de română/franceză/engleză pentru o clasă oarecare la care predaţi. elaboraţi 3 dramatizări şi/sau simulări care ar putea fi filmate şi folosite la lecţii cu ajutorul computerului  Aplicaţia Nr. incidente critice sau jocuri de rolşi folosite ulterior în lecţii de română/franceză/engleză 46 . 5 Pornind de la programa analitică.

..10. să vă formaţi şi să stăpâniţi două categorii de capacittăţi şi abilităţi: − de microproiectare a activităţilor de instruire diferenţiată şi 47 .. Ele sunt pe deplin realizabile din punct de vedere ştiinţific....10.. Citind cu atenţie textul de mai multe ori. Va trebui să învăţaţi. Scoulmeste aceala ca. cu elevi care trebuie să continue studiul acasă pentru că timpul de învăţare în şcoală este prea scurt iar tratamentul se restrânge la plicticoase şi obositoare „lecţii frontale” care se sfârşesc obsedant cu cerinţe imperioase precum „ Luaţi ca teme pntru acasă.Luaţi 20.50. Vă propunem în continuare un mod ştiinţific de determinare a eficacităţii instruirii din acestă perspectivă. Învăţaţi pe de rost..CAPITOLUL IV MANAGEMENTUL INSTRUIRII DIFERENŢIATE ÎN CLASĂ ( un ghid pragmatic pentru elaborarea micro-proiectelor şi scenariilor didactice pentru învăţarea diferenţiată în clasă ) A determina eficacitatea generală a instruirii! A determina reuşita la învăţătură a tuturor elevilor din clasele şcolilor noastre! Acestea nu mai sunt himere. cum se credea în urmă cu numai cinci decenii.. Am ales o manieră simplă şi pragmatică – dar neîndoielnic utilă – de redactare...... să căpătaţi abilităţi noi de diferenţierea icinstruieii la disciplina pe care o îndrăgiţi şi pe care o predaţi elevilor Dvs..30.. Soluţia practică? Instruirea diferenţiată în clasa de elevi ! Ea îşi valorifică virtuţile în modul cel mai eficient cu putinţă în condiţiile respectării exigenţelor de tehnologie educaţională (Gagne) şi ale paradigmei mastery learning.în urma acestor exerciţii.etc ”? Din punct de vedere ştiinţific se pot depăşi aceste practici bizare care se transformă uneori în coşmar ..5.. fragment cu fragment puteţi supune aserţiunile unor gedankenexperiment revelatoare. dar mai ales puteţi să probaţi în practica de la catedră îndemnurile.50 de probleme de matematică.probleme de fizică.5 ....20 strofe din Luceafărul. sugestiile şi exigenţele care vă sunt propuse. Dar cum s-ar putea realiza acst lucru în şcolile de azi cu clase încă aglomerate.

pragmatică cu scopul precis de a facilita o dimensiune esenţială a instruirii eficiente. care nu au găsit încă suficiente mijloace pentru a determina reuşita la învăţătură a tuturor elevilor pe care îi instruiesc sau a marii majorităţi( peste 90%). Uneori s-a adoptat chiar modul imperativ şi numeroase dintre judecăţile exprimate sunt apodictice. accesibil cercetătorilor in domeniul psihopedagogiei. cvasi-teoretică. Partea de curs care urmează se adresează practicienilor-educatori cu niveluri diferite de pregătire şi specializaţi în domenii. Este şi cazul profesorilor de limba maternăşi de limbi străine moderne. Revenim asupra lor acum dintr-o perspectivă nouă. de asemenea. De aceea. la aceasta. de limba engleză şi de limba franceză vor găsi în paginile care urmează un ghid pragmatic cu ajutorul căruia vor putea realiza activităţi didactice eficiente practicând individualizarea şi diferenţierea instruirii. să adauge şi o dragoste deosebită pentru domeniul specialităţii lor la fiecare dintre cei pe care îi educă. în această situaţie. determină reuşita la învăţătură a elevilor lor. dar ar dori ca.1. Sunt necesare însă cel puţin patru lămuriri prealabile. Totul este să nu vă grăbiţi să criticaţi.  CUI ESTE ADRESAT ACEST GHID ? Prezentul ghid este necesar numai acelor educatori-învăţători. adică să nu respingeţi nimic din ceea ce vi se spune dacă nu aţi probat mai întâi în practică. în clasa de elevi. ceea ce vi se spune în textul care urmează.PATRU PRECIZĂRI PRELIMINARE ŞI UN AUTOTEST PREDICTIV În cursul de abilitare curriculară am stăruit asupra acestor probleme dintr-o perspectivă generală. el se impune însă întotdeauna pe 48 .1. ( Vezi Documentarele şi explicaţiile ştiinţifice privind modelele istrucţionale de tip mastery learning în cursul Abilitare Curriculară ) Prezentul ghid poate fi folosit cu succes şi de către acei educatori care. foarte diferite. profesori. am căutat să redactăm ghidul în termenii acţiunii eficiente. Multe din sfaturile acestui ghid pot fi urmate şi pentru obţinerea unor performanţe excepţionale de către copiii cu dotare intelectuală superioară. Profesorii de limba română. Elaborarea micro-proiectelor şi scenariilor didactice 4. 4. foarte multe din propoziţiile care urmează vor fi sfaturi şi recomandări.  DE CE ESTE ASTFEL REDACTAT ACEST GHID ? În cursul Abilitare curriculară s-a folosit un limbaj specializat.1. specialişti. având o experienţă bogată în învăţământ.− de conducere efectivă a activităţilor de instruire diferenţiată în clasă Calea nu este nici uşoară dar nici grea. Inerent. Nu întotdeauna tonul categoric al acestor afirmaţii sau negaţii se bazează pe certitudini experimentale. singurul ‘limbaj’ comun pe care aceştia îl pot avea fiind acela al acţiunii educative concrete.

să conduceţi activitatea instructiv-educativă pe care o desfăşuraţi intr-o manieră care să permită tuturor elevilor dumneavoastră să atingă şi să depăşească standardele de performanţă presupuse de programele şcolare în vigoare. identificând lacunele şi erorile individuale de operare cu informaţii achiziţionate. In cazul în care se va dovedi că respectivele sugestii apodictice sunt injuste.  SCOPURILE ACESTUI GHID După studierea acestui ghid. 5. insucces şi nereuşită şcolară la fiecare dintre elevii dumneavoastră. vă veţi autoevalua progresul înregistrat folosind testele propuse. 2. veţi studia atent fiecare dintre informaţiile ce vă sunt puse la dispoziţie în continuare astfel încât să aveţi siguranţa că le-aţi înţeles perfect. la programe compensatorii şi studiul individual prin adecvarea corectă a mecanismului de învăţare la obiectivele urmărite şi prin folosirea tehnicilor de stimulare a intereselor pentru domeniul în care sunteţi specializat. să motivaţi învăţarea în clasă. recomandăm cititorului să-şi depăşească firescul orgoliu profesional şi să le accepte pe considerentul că sunt îndemnuri folositoare. ci numai după ce le-a verificat în practică neadevărul. 49 . autorii cer anticipat scuze rugând cititorul să găsească soluţii mai bune decât cele propuse-acesta fiind chiar obiectivul cel mai important urmărit de lucrarea de faţă. Autorii roagă cititorii să nu respingă însă cele propuse de aceste aserţiuni numai pe această bază. programe compensatorii de recuperare şi de îmbogăţire a cunoştinţelor şi programe de studiu individual eficient acasă pentru diferite categorii de elevi cu care lucraţi. 2. 4. In cazul în care se va dovedi că ele sunt juste. să diagnosticaţi precis starea motivaţională şi nivelul pregătirii fiecărui elev. corectitudinea soluţiilor pe care le-aţi propus. apelând la experienţa dumneavoastră şi luând în considerare şi informaţiile din prima parte a lucrării veţi fi capabili: 1. în funcţie de posibilităţile proprii de învăţare. să evaluaţi continuu progresul instruirii prevenind la timp tendinţele de eşec. dacă şi numai dacă: 1. deontologic sau praxiologic.considerente de ordin moral. de fiecare dată.  CUM TREBUIE FOLOSIT ACEST GHID? Capacităţile definite prin scopurile de mai sus vor adăuga competenţei dumneavoastră de specialitate mai multă competenţă psihopedagogică transformându-vă într-un educator deosebit de ingenios şi eficace. Ele pot fi puse sub semnul îndoielii ori de câte ori cititorul se va simţi jignit sau surprins de modul imperativ. 3. 3. să proiectaţi ştiinţific activităţi de învăţare eficientă în clasă. veţi rezolva conştiincios exerciţiile şi problemele şi veţi verifica.

veţi acorda aceeaşi importanţă şi ghidului propus în această lucrare elevului pentru a-i „învăţa cum să înveţe” dirijând înţelegerea şi folosirea acestuia către cei pe care îi dirijaţi. Pentru aceasta este suficient să puneţi semnul „+” lângă răspunsul pe care îl socotiţi adecvat în coloanele A-B-C: 50 .4. 4. Încercaţi rezolvarea tuturor celor 20 de probleme propuse in maximum de 30 de minute.2. următorului îndemn: ÎNAINTE DE A ÎNCEPE STUDIUL GHIDULUI AUTODIAGNOSTICAŢI-VĂ NIVELUL COMPETENŢEI PEDAGOGICE PE CARE L-AŢI ATINS PÂNĂ ÎN ACEASTĂ CLIPĂ. imediat.. în practică). 5.1. dar această ipoteză trebuie verificată. (acest „hibrid” ar putea fi mai bun. 7. 6. nu veţi nutri convingerea că amestecând elementele modelului de instruire propus aici cu elemente ale altor modele de instruire într-un „hibrid” veţi obţine instrument de acţiune mai eficient. IDENTIFICAŢI-VĂ PROPRIUL NIVEL DE COMPETENŢĂ PEDAGOGICĂ (autotest predictiv) Instrucţiuni Testul conţine probleme pe care trebuie să încercaţi să le rezolvaţi pentru a vă putea verifica nivelul competenţei pedagogice teoretice (itemii 1-10) şi nivelul competenţei pedagogice practice (itemii 11-20). dacă veţi da urmare. şi ea. veţi apela numai la dicţionarul pedagogic din anexe ori de câte ori termenii folosiţi de autori vă sunt neclari şi nu veţi căuta să le daţi accepţiunea pe care credeţi probabilă sau întâlnită în lucrări.

I.Bloom colaboratorii şi 2 Prin obiectiv operaţional se înţelege. 3 Prima taxonomie de obiective Pestalozzi pedagogice a fost elaborată de Comenius către… A evalua înseamnă… şi D’Hainaut 4 … a sancţiona elevii care nu s-au pregătit deloc sau nu s-au pregătit cum trebuie … a aprecia fie-care elev în parte în funcţie de ce poate el şi a nu-l nota decât atunci când s-a pregătit corespunzător … a îmbina măsurarea obiectivă şi aprecierea (subiectivă) a eforturilor celui care învaţă 51 . COMPETENŢA TEORETICĂ Nr crt 1 Itemul A B C Prin expresia „mastery learning” se înţelege… „măiestria pedagogică” a educatorului conţinutul fiecărei lecţii în parte „toţi elevii pot fi învăţaţi totul” rezultatul preconizat „stăpânirea completă a materiei de studiu” expresia verbală prin care se desemnează o capacitate mentală cu ajutorul căreia se poate opera asupra unui conţinut pentru a putea produce o performanţă şcolară.S.. B.

(1952) şi John B. obiectivul va fi atins dacă aparatul va recepţiona cel puţin două posturi emiţătoare pe unde lungi şi medii şi 6 Taxonomia de pedagogice este… obiective … o modalitate de instru-ire din categoria „metode-lor active” 7 Care dintre expresiile următoare constituie un obiectiv operaţional corect formulat? Prof.Y: „La sfârşitul activităţii didactice toţi elevii vor fi capabili să resimtă fiorul ne-firesc al poemului „Luceafărul” 8 9 Bazele instruirii programate le. E.P.5 Scopul evaluării formative sau … de a-l nota cât mai de progres este acela … des pe elev pentru a nu-i permite „să se lase pe tânjală” … a-l informa pe profesor în legătură cu „ce i-a rămas elevului in minte” dintr-o lecţie … o clasificare de finalităţi şi scopuri pedago-gice … de conexiune inversă pentru educator şi educat în legătură cu progresul şi corectitudinea învă-ţării … o clasificare ierarhică a capacităţilor şi competenţelor ce pot fi create prin influenţe educative Prof.C. alegând ei înşişi piesele din magazine.Ausubel şi F.Z: „La sfârşitul activităţii didactice toţi elevii vor fi capabili să construiască un aparat de radio cu tran-zistori.X: „Scopul meu este să stimulez creativitatea şi gândirea logică a elevilor” Prof.Carroll (1963.C.Thorndike B.Pressey Primul model de instruire de tip D.Watson şi R.J.1968) 52 .B. în anul ……. Keller „mastery learning” a fost creat Robinson (1977) Shermann de către……….L.Skinner au pus… Hooke şi E..Guthrie S.F.

COMPETENŢA PRACTICĂ Nr. ? ? TOTAL ? Totalizaţi pentru fiecare coloană semnele de „+” pe care le-aţi pus. ghidul de faţă vă va fi de mare sprijin în a vă clarifica multe neclarităţi pe care le aveţi din cauza unor lecturi pedagogice prea sporadice. Competenţa dumneavoastră teoretică în acest domeniu este de nivel mediu dar poate fi sporită în mod remarcabil prin lecturi mai atente şi mai bine ordonate. II. Dacă aţi pus mai mult de cinci semne pe coloana A . Ce faceţi în procedeu de continuare? captare a interesului şi atenţiei pentru o 53 . însoţită de o recompensă glu-mă a laudă. studiind încă o dată prima parte a lucrării de faţă veţi putea elimina complet unele lacune din cunoştinţele dumneavoastră de teoria educaţiei şi învăţământului. Cum procedaţi? Caut să confer expli-caţiilor un caracter mai interesant Mă prefac că Mă opresc şi le nu-i observ şi spun „Fiţi atenţi!” îmi conti-nui explicaţiile Deschid catalogul. NEAPĂRAT ŞI DE URGENŢĂ să studiaţi bibliografia selectivă precizată la sfârşitul acestei cărţi. Dacă aţi totalizat cele mai multe puncte pe coloana C.bucuraţi-vă. trebuie însă.10 Prin „sancţiune pozitivă” … o pedeapsă mai psihopedagogii înţeleg……. Dacă aţi totalizat cele mai multe semne de „+” în coloana B sunteţi pe un drum foarte bun. … o pedeapsă … o încurajare. fac prezenţa şi verific riguros moul in care şiau rezolvat Fac prezenţa şi examinez oral 5-6 elevi care nu au notă 12 Abia aţi intrat în clasă. crt. 11 Itemul A B C În timp ce expuneaţi aspectul cel mai interesant al noii lecţii obser-vaţi că trei elevi nu sunt atenţi. Aveţi lecturi pedagogice solide – totuşi nu priviţi „proba practicii” cu uşurinţă. elevii Verific prezenţa şi vă salută şi îi invitaţi să se încep să expun un aşeze. educatoru-lui pentru a nu-l speria prea tare pe elev.tot ce va urma vi se pare extrem de simplu. blândă dată elevilor pentru erori nesemnificative.

pe înţele-sul elevilor obiectivele prioritare pe care le vom urmări împreună Le dau sarcini Încep predarea de muncă şi îi noii lecţii las în pace să lucreze 14 În timpul rezolvării unei Îl ajut să o Îl îndemn să se Îi dau de înţeles că sarcini de lucru date. nu şi-a îndeplinit sarcina dată. pentru care nu-şi realizează teme- Îi atrag atenţia că este pentru ultima oară când îl mai iert şi la Este clar că am dea face cu un leneş. din cele cinci amintite ei nu pot realiza decât trei. un elev rezolvăm lucrând străduiască mai „nu toate muştele pe care îl cu-noaşteţi ca având împreună cu el mult fac miere” ritm lent de lucru renunţă la activitate declarându-vă deschis că nu o poate soluţiona. Corectez testul Ce faceţi imediat? astfel încât elevii să poată afla imediat rezultatele Strâng lucrările elevilor. Ce faceţi? Aţi aplicat un test formativ. elevii invocă în acest sens rezultatele obţinute la testul de progres. în funcţie de rezultate.nouă lecţie învăţare 13 Aţi reuşit în primele 5 minute să stârniţi interesul tuturor elevilor pentru învăţarea unui nou conţinut. Cum procedaţi? Cu prilejul verificării „temelor pentru acasă” descoperiţi că elevul A. le dau teme diferenţiate pentru acasă Insist asupra importanţei disciplinei şi atrag atenţia că voi corecta testul cu maximă severitate 15 16 La sfârşitul unei activităţi didactice doi elevi vă cer permisiunea să facă următoarea observaţie: deşi dumneavoastră i-aţi anunţat că vor deveni capabili să realizeze anumite sarcini de lucru. le examinez sumar şi. Ce faceţi imediat? de temele acasă pentru Enunţ clar. Îi solicit participe la program recuperare să Le dau teme şi un exerciţii pentru de a-casă care să-i ajute să depăşească obstacolele Le atrag atenţia că fără străduinţă din partea lor nu este posibil nici un progres profesional elevul fiind singurul responsabil de rezultatele actului de învăţare 17 Încerc să identific motivele.A. „Îi aplic” un 2(doi) în catalog şi 54 .

fascinante. de viitor ale domeniului încă nestudiate. n-a realizat tema pentru acasă nici la lecţia precedentă. Aveţi de realizat prima dumneavoastră lecţie la această clasă.a informez dirigintele clasei să ia legătura cu familia lui A. frumuseţea disciplinei pe care o predau sau ce m-a de-terminat să mă specializez în dome-niu şi-i anunţ că la ora următoare vor susţine un test de verificare a cunoştinţelor. să vină la orele de foarte amănunţit meditaţii Fac cunoştinţă cu cla-sa. cu profil mecanică. indic apoi obiectivele şi temele din care va fi construit testul Alcătuiesc două liste de probleme: -aplicaţii ale celor studiate în domeniile spre care se orientează. Ce recomandaţi elevilor în legătură cu disciplina pe care aţi predat-o? Atrag atenţia asu-pra importanţei domeniului şi recomand spre studiu o bibliografie.Vă amintiţi că A. Ce faceţi în această situaţie? 18 Sunteţi profesor la o clasă a IX-a într-un liceu industrial. Mă prezint. Ce trebuie să faceţi înainte de orice? le. probleme deosebite.A. Dacă nu lecţia viitoare îl reuşesc îl solicit verific primul. cât mai atractiv.A.A. Propun o bibliografie spre studiu individual Verific – oral sau scris – cât de bine au fost pregătiţi în gimnaziu şi apoi le expun exigenţele mele în legătură cu materia clasei a IX. le expun. lipseşte sistematic de la orele Încerc să aflu Îi scad nota la moti-vele pentru purtare care elevul nu absentează decât 55 . le expun exigenţele mele faţă de pregătirea lor şi le explic în special modul meu de a nota 19 Este ultima oră pe care o predaţi la clasa a XII-a. Insist asupra necesităţii de a nu ne-glija domeniul apoi închei mediile generale şi le urez tuturor succes în viaţă 20 Un profesor de la clasa la care sunteţi diriginte vă atrage atenţia că elevul A.

Începeţi imediat să studiaţi ghidul care urmează. Mai întâi. Deşi aruncaţi vina pe elevi în legătură cu nereuşitele. amânaţi-vă această atitudine până nu le-aţi verificat în practică. sunt atribuţii pe care.1. Nu uitaţi că aveţi o misiune nobilă şi practicaţi cea mai frumoasă profesie cu putinţă! Folosiţi această şansă procurându-vă satisfacţiile profesionale pe care nu le poate avea oricine. dovediţi o competenţă pedagogică practică bună. Ghidul care urmează vă va ajuta însă să-l corijaţi cu uşurinţă. de cele mai multe ori. Nu dispreţuiţi inovaţiile didactice. 3. dovediţi un comportament didactic nesigur. Este obligatoriu să vă revizuiţi întreaga concepţie metodico-didactică. TOTAL ? ? ? Procedaţi ca şi la proba anterioară. ADECVAŢI-VĂ COM-PORTAMENTUL DE AUTOPERFECŢIONARE ÎNSUŞINDU-VĂ ÎNDEMNURILE CARE URMEAZĂ. Dacă aveţi mai multe puncte totalizate în coloana B. orice educator consideră că le posedă.sale. Este posibil chiar să fiţi în posesia unor calităţi native de educator care vă vor permite să progresaţi foarte uşor în continuare. Ce faceţi în primul rând? la orele colegului meu. stăpânirea domeniului de specialitate.Câte ceva despre măiestria pedagogică Experienţa „la catedră”. cel mai general îndemn: INSTRUIŢI EFICIENT! 4. ea vă aparţine în întregime. EXERSÂNDU-LE ÎN TRĂSĂTURI ALE CONŞTIINŢEI ŞI CONDUITEI DUMNEAVOASTRĂ PEDAGOGICE. ÎN FUNCŢIE DE REZULTATELE AUTOTESTĂRII.a. Ele constituie o parte însemnată a însăşi fericirii dumneavoastră. priceperea de a „lucra cu copiii” ş. Dacă aveţi mai multe puncte cumulate în coloana C aveţi o conduită didactică magistrocentristă autoritară de natură să inhibe pe cei care învaţă şi să-i determine să vă ocolească sau chiar să vă deteste. 56 . Dacă aţi pus mai multe semne „+” pe coloana A decât în celelalte. Precaritatea metodelor pe care le folosiţi este cauza neîmplinirilor dumneavoastră profesionale. dar nu vă limitaţi la el.

jumătate sunt mediocri şi numai restul sunt buni sau foarte buni”. ”Cel care este foarte bun specialist n-are nevoie de nici 57 . de la început. 1: ”Nu toate muştele fac miere”. 95-98%) DIN POPULAŢII ŞCOLARE NESELECŢIONATE SUNT CAPABILI CEL PUŢIN DE PERFORMANŢE INSTRUCŢIONALE ACCEPTABILE ÎN RAPORT CU CERINŢELE PROGRAMELOR DE ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT OBIŞNUITE. ”A preda bine înseamnă a stăpâni bine disciplina pe care o predai”. ”O treime sunt slabi. dar ni se „slăbeşte” sau se „spulberă” când alţii dintre elevii noştri cad victimă insuccesului la învăţătură. economişti. medici. fie ca ridicol. Aşa să stea lucrurile? Dacă răspundem afirmativ la această întrebare. Autorul acestor rânduri mărturiseşte că ei însuşi trăieşte cu un astfel de sentiment. PREJUDECATA NR. ci elevul trebuie să se pregătească după lecţie!”. ”La elevi egali-tratament pedagogic egal”. maiştri etc. ”Elevii trebuie luaţi. cât mai tare”. Eşecurile lor ne apar ca rezultate fie ale incompetenţei lor fie a „lipsei de conştiinciozitate” sau a „insuficientei străduinţe”. Să examinăm însă lucrurile într-o manieră lucidă luând în considerare două adevăruri pe deplin dovedite de cercetarea ştiinţifică: a) ADEVĂRUL NUMĂRUL 1: CEI MAI MULŢI ELEVI (aprox.Există chiar un foarte mare număr de educatori-învăţători. ”Nu dascălul trebuie să se pregătească pentru lecţie. Iată cel puţin câteva dintre cele formulate adesea ca „aforisme”. b) ADEVĂRUL NUMĂRUL 2: APTITUDINILE PEDAGOGICE EXCEPŢIONALE CARE INTRĂ ÎN COMPONENŢA ”MĂIESTRIEI PEDAGOGICE” (sau ”HARULUI DIDACTIC”) SUNT EXTREM DE RARE (apar aproximativ o dată la un milion de educatori).întunecă judecata noastră cu privire la problema ”câţi pot să reuşească” în activitatea instructiv-educativă. ”Şcoala nu este pentru toţi”. Convingerea de a fi posesorii „măiestriei pedagogice” ni se întăreşte ori de câte ori unii dintre care îi instruim obţin performanţe deosebite sau excepţionale. Dacă astfel stau lucrurile înseamnă că un număr de iluzii şi prejudecăţi-determinate de factori diverşi . arhitecţi.-care nutresc convingerea că în munca lor dau dovadă de „măiestrie pedagogică”. ingineri. profesori. atunci îndemnul ce ţine loc de titlu acestui paragraf ne va apare fie ca jignitor. 2: ”Eu predau-ei trebuie să înveţe”. ”proverbe” şi ”zicători” ce alcătuiesc un etos pedagogic devenit anacronic în raport cu rezultatele cercetării ştiinţifice din ultimele decenii şi realităţile şcolii româneşti de astăzi: PREJUDECATA NR.

”Plăcerea de a învăţa nu vine” pe parcurs”. ORICE EDUCATOR CONŞTIENT DE ROLUL LOR ŞI DE IMPORTANŢA MISIUNII SALE DOREŞTE SĂ REALIZEZE O INSTRUIRE EFICIENTĂ 58 . PREJUDECATA NR. etc. Întrucât. ”Nota maximă nu o merită. 4 se instituie. etc. etc. izvorând din orgoliul celui care crede că poate acţiona ”cum îl taie capul”. ”Dascălul este singurul stăpân pe nota dată elevului”. PREJUDECATA NR. prejudecata nr. Ele pot fi însă cu uşurinţă depăşite dacă sunt conştientizate ca atare. dar m-a făcut om”. Etosul pedagogic pe care toate prejudecăţile îl evidenţiază nu se circumscrie mult teoretizatului” optimism pedagogic” dimpotrivă el este marcat de un profund scepticism pedagogic. ”Elevul nu învaţă decât de frică”. 6 contrazice flagrant adevărul nr. Adevărul nr. 5: ”La şcoală elevul ascultă şi este ascultat. cu siguranţă…. 4: ”Elevul nu trebuie să ştie ce urmăresc cu prioritate pentru simplu motiv că el trebuie să înveţe tot”. 3: ”Nuiaua şi certarea dau înţelepciunea”. OBSERVAŢII: În toate cele şase categorii de aforisme elevul apare ca un ”personaj negativ” al activităţii didactice. ”A educa înseamnă a pedepsi elevul-de atâtea ori de câte ori îl prinzi nepregătit”. de ex. avem de-a face cu un întreg eşafodaj de erori privind instruirea eficientă. nu va învăţa nici să înveţe”. ”Cei mai mulţi fie că nu ştiu. ”Bătaia e ruptă din rai”. ”A comunica elevului nota nu înseamnă decât a-l împinge spre dascăl!” PREJUDECATA NR. ”Oricât i-aş cere unui elev să înveţe cum să înveţe.cum l-am formulat mai sus. dar eu nu greşesc niciodată când apreciez un elev”. decât cel de la catedră”. Astfel încât. Or. 2 evidenţiază dispreţul pentru acţiunea metodică eficientă. ”Mi-a tras o palmă (dascălul). cu adevărat. ”Fiecare cu metoda şi cu modul său didactic!”. ”Rezultatele slabe ale multor elevi se datorează faptului că părinţii nu-i ajută să-şi facă temele”. Prejudecata nr.). în fine prejudecăţile 5 şi 6 se nasc în baza unor credinţe eronate în legătură cu studiul individual şi pregătirea independentă a elevului acasă.” Nu ştiu alţii cum notează. prejudecata nr. prejudecata nr. acasă trebuie să înveţe ceea ce a ascultat”. fie că nu vor să înveţe acasă”. Plăcerea e sădită de la început în unii şi lipseşte la alţii cu desăvârşire” etc. pe convingeri greşite în legătură cu rolul şi scopul evaluării în activitatea de învăţământ.o metodă”. această îndoială apare ca profund nefondată. 3 se înalţă pe ideea greşită că singura modalitate de determinare a eficacităţii instruirii este sancţiunea negativă a elevului. PREJUDECATA NR.1. după cum vedem. căci acestea lasă să se înţeleagă o serie de obiceiuri. generat de îndoiala că toţi sunt capabili să înveţe. 6: ”Nu există nici o <<ştiinţă a învăţării>>. în lumina rezultatelor cercetărilor ştiinţifice. de asemenea. urmărind selecţia ”aleşilor”. ”Metoda vine de la sine”. dacă el nu vrea să înveţe. sârguinţa este totul!”. ”Lucrul cel mai important într-o lecţie bună este inspiraţia de moment a dascălului” (etc. ”Cei care nu ştiu să înveţe sunt de fapt cei care nu pot să înveţe”. modalităţi de acţiune didactică absolut ineficace. precum alte soiuri de plăceri. ”Datoria educatorului este să aleagă grâul pentru hambar şi să azvârle neghina la gunoi”.2 este contrazis nemijlocit de numeroase aforisme şi proverbe care alcătuiesc prejudecăţile următoare.

De aceea.5. Asiguraţi continuarea de aprofundarea şi evaluare a 2. Capacitate. Prezentaţi sarcinile de învăţare şi 1. Actualizaţi ancorele învăţării! 1. PROIECTAŢI ŞI DESFĂŞURAŢI ACTIVITĂŢI DE ÎNVĂŢARE ÎN CLASĂ A CONŢINUTURILOR ESENŢIALE! 59 2. i Definiţi obiectivele învăţăla rii! ob performanţelor! 1.5. Stabiliînvăţarea ţi programe compensatorii! ţinerea dirijaţ până 2.1. Transpuneţi în practică în mod eficient proiectele didactice! 2. OBIECTIV TERMINAL etc.2.3.5. Alegeţi conţinuturile esenţiale! 2.7.5.2.3. Proiectaţi programul de recuperare! 2.3.2.3.6. ci valorificând cât mai mult rezultatele cercetării psihopedagogice intr-o manieră coerentă. De aceea.4.1. CAPACITATEA DE ÎNVĂŢARE ŞI MOTIVAŢIA ÎNVĂŢĂRII 2. Determinaţi OBIECTIVELE ţate! 2. expresiile ”bine gândit” şi „corect realizat” nu vă spun mai nimic. Vă rugăm să consultaţi cursul de Abilitare curriculară pentru eventuale dificultăţi sau nelămuriri.4. Dar această primă concretizare nu este suficientă pentru a face operaţional îndemnul de a instrui eficient.Aceasta nu se realizează însă cu metodica precară sugerată de prejudecăţile de mai sus.4.4. Am arătat că acestea sunt convertibile cu expresii precum Competenţă. bine gândită şi corect realizată. Captaţi atenţia celor care învaţă! 1.1.5.4. vă propunem mai jos o primă concretizare a lor: NOTĂ IMPORTANTĂ. Elaboraţi şi aplicaţi un test predictiv! 2. Enunţaţi obiectivele enun TERMINALE a ciclului de instruire anterior parcurs! 2. Proiectaţi programul de îmbogăţire! 2.5. Desigur. In acest ghid se vor folosi pentru simplitatea explicaţiilor expresii precum OBIECTIV. fiind generice şi neclare dacă le privim din unghiul practicii şi dacă avem în vedere complexitatea şi vastitatea cercetărilor psihopedagogice din ultimele decenii. Concepeţi strategii de învăţare 2.5.4. Asiguraţi conexiunea inversă! 1. Evalua diferenţiată! ţi progresul instruirii! 2. Abilitate pe care le găsim în programe mai recente. Proiectaţi ştiinţific activităţi didactice! 2. DIAGNOSTICAŢI STAREA INIŢIALĂ A INSTRUIRII. OBIECTIV OPERAŢIONAL.5. vă propunem o a doua concretizare: 1.2.3. Se va vedea pe parcurs că operaţionalizarea obiectivelor pedagogice reprezintă avantaje practice inestimabile şi că renunţarea la această tehnică ar fi doar o opţiune nefastă indusă de ceea ce vechii latini numeau periculosus et stultissimus error. Elaboraţi teste studiului! instruirii! progresului .1.5.4.

3.8. De aceea vă furnizăm în continuare informaţii. reuşita tuturor elevilor pe care îi pregătiţi. Aplicaţi şi valorificaţi teste formative de progres! 3.2. exerciţii şi probleme în legătură cu fiecare dintre categoriile de operaţii precizate anterior. Aplicaţi periodic teste sumative şi controlaţi modul în care se integrează achiziţiile în structuri de lungă durată! 4. Fig.6.nr. Propuneţi elevilor o ”artă de a învăţa” pentru a ajuta să-şi formeze un stil eficient de muncă intelectuală. DIAGNOSTICAŢI EXACT STAREA INIŢIALĂ A INSTRUIRII Modelul instrucţional pe care doriţi să vi-l însuşiţi studiindu-l în acest moment se bazează pe următorul postulat: CALITATEA UNEI ÎNVĂŢĂRI NOI DEPINDE DE CALITATEA ÎNVĂŢĂRILOR ANTERIOARE ŞI DE NIVELUL MOTIVAŢIONAL De aici se poate deduce un principiu elementar: 60 . Operaţiile instruirii eficiente Dar nici chiar acest tablou nu este suficient pentru a putea determina eficacitatea generală a instruirii. EVALUAŢI CONTINUU ŞI PERIODIC PROGRESUL INSTRUIRII! 3.11. ASIGURAŢI CONTINUITATEA ŞI EFICIENŢA STUDIULUI INDEPENDENT! 3. 4.7.

2.1. unsprezece reguli de acţiune: 1) Citiţi atent întreaga programă STUDIAŢI ATENT T TAXONOMIA 2) Consultaţi bibliografia (recomandăm. Cum se determină obiectivele ciclului de instruire anterior parcurs de elevi 4. să stabilească programe compensatorii. să elaboreze. mai ales. Educatorul care acceptă aceste adevăruri se va vedea obligat ca înainte de a declanşa un proces instructiv-educativ… SĂ EXAMINEZE MINUŢIOS STAREA INIŢIALĂ A PREGĂTIRII CELOR CARE ÎNVAŢĂ ŞI CAPACITĂŢILE LOR DE ÎNVĂŢARE. Astfel spus.1. VĂ RECOMANDĂM în legătură cu fiecare. DOUĂ INSTRUMENTE ŞI…”O MÂNĂ DE AJUTOR” Pentru realizarea corectă a acestor operaţii ne sunt necesare două instrumente: A. TAXONOMIA OBIECTIVELOR PEDAGOGICE (BLOOM ŞI COLAB. să aplice şi să examineze detaliat rezultatele unui test predictiv. precum şi capacităţi de a opera cu aceste informaţii. precum şi COLABORAREA CU CEILALŢI MEMBRI AI CATEDREI SAU COMISIEI METODICE DIN CARE FACEŢI PARTE.DACĂ LA UN MOMENT DAT VREM SĂ CONTINUĂM INSTRUIREA UNUI ELEV TREBUIE SĂ ŞTIM EXACT CE TREBUIE SĂ ŞTIE ŞI CE ŞTIE SĂ FACĂ ELEVUL PÂNĂ LA ACEL MOMENT. calitatea acestor achiziţii condiţionează calitatea şi eficienţa instruirii ce va urma.) B. în fiecare elev trebuie să vedeţi rezultatul unei istorii instrucţionale pe parcursul căreia el a achiziţionat mai multe sau mai puţine informaţii din domeniul disciplinei pe care o predaţi. Iată câteva sugestii în legătură cu fiecare dintre aceste operaţii: 4.2. Înainte de a încerca să aplicaţi cele ce urmează. PROGRAMA DE ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT A DISCIPLINEI PE CARE O PREDAŢI. de Landsheere Definirea 61 obiectivelor educaţiei) . lucrarea lui G.1. Aceasta presupune: să determine precis obiectivele materiei anterior parcurse de elev.

3) Aţi înţeles de ce taxonomia obiectivelor pedagogice poate fi definită ca un model de dezvoltare ştiinţifică a fiinţelor umane cu ajutorul educaţiei

PUTEŢI CONSIDERA STUDIUL EFICIENT DACĂ:

4) Aţi înţeles precis de ce taxonomia obiectivelor pedagogice este restrictivă

5) Puteţi identifica uşor avantajele utilizării taxonomiei în practica instruirii şi educaţiei

6) Reuşiţi să corelaţi clasele de comportament din taxonomie obiectivelor domeniului cognitiv cu conţinuturile materiei de studiu – profilând un ”model pedagogic” al însuşirii acesteia

1) Se impune convertiți competențele și capacitățile în obiective pedagogice?

REVEDEŢI INCĂ O DATĂ PREVEDERILE PROGRAMEI DE INSTRUIRE LA DISCIPLINA PE CARE O PREDAŢI P

2) Răspunde-ţi la întrebarea” Ce trebuie să ştie sau să ştie să facă un elev care a parcurs programa în întregime?” 3) Analizaţi materia prevăzută pentru ciclul de instruire anterior parcurs de elev, răspunzând la aceeaşi întrebare.

4) Realizaţi un tabel de specificaţie pentru ciclul respectiv ca în modelul de mai jos.

PUTEŢI CONSIDERA ÎNDEPLINITĂ DACĂ: Î

SARCINA

5) Puteţi realiza interferenţe de tipul celor exemplificate în tabelul de specificaţie de mai jos.

62

Fig.12. Cele 11 reguli ale “declanşării” instruirii eficiente

4.2.1.2. Tabelul de specificaţie pentru definirea obiectivelor terminale/capacităţilor/abilităţilor

Gramatică-clasa a III-a (Tabel de specificaţie a obiectivelor terminale ale capitolului ”Adjectivul”) La sfârşitul capitolului toţi elevii ar trebui să fie capabili:

Cerinţ SĂ e ale CUNOASC claselo Ă r de reuşind; compo rtament

SĂ ÎNŢELEA GĂ reuşind;

SĂ APLICE reuşind;

SĂ ANALIZEZ E reuşind;

SĂ SINTETIZE ZE reuşind;

SĂ EVALUEZE reuşind;

63

O B I E C T I V E

OT1 - să defi-nească adjec-tivul ca parte de vorbire ce exprimă însu-şiri ale fiinţe-lor, lucrurilor şi fenomenelo r naturii; OT2 - să recu-noască adjec-tivul în textele date. . .

OT1 - să demonstreze prin exemple rela-ţia adjectiv substantiv de terminat . . . . . .

OT1 - să utilizeze adjectivul în alcătuirea unor propoziţii date în limbajul o-ral, cât şi în cel scris. . . .

OT1 - să distingă particularităţile morfosintact ice ale substantivelor în texte date sau create de el însuşi ale adjectivelor care le însoţesc . . .

OT1 - să modi-fice modelele date prin folosiri ale antonimelor şi sinonimelor unor adjective. . . . . .

OT1 - să argumenteze necesitatea scrierii adjectivului înaintea substantivului determinat. . . . . .

T E R M I N A L E

OTn – să arOTn - să OTn - să-şi stabilească amintească funcţia sinregulile gratactică pe maticale care o poate orto-grafice avea şi de adjectivul în punctuaţie texte date specifice sau create adde el însuşi jectivului OTn - să folosească regulile gramatica le de scriere a adjectivul ui OTn - să descopere ad-jectivele adec-vate pentru completarea unui text lacu-nar dat OTn - să creeze texte gumenteze cu sens pe …………… baza unor liste de ……………. adjective date

Fig.nr.13. Determinarea obiectivelor terminale cu taxonomia Bloom (model)

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4.2.2.COLABORAŢI CU CEILALŢI MEMBRI AI CATEDREI SAU COMISIEI METODICE

Exerciţiile propuse anterior vă vor sugera concluzia că ”taxonomia de obiective pedagogice este un instrument orb care nu vă poate conduce ”de la sine” spre alcătuirea unui inventar rezonabil de obiective pedagogice terminale”. Mai întâi veţi constata că unele obiective par să se repete exasperant, iar altele sunt prea concrete. Sunt toate la fel de importante? Răspunsul la această întrebare nu este bine să-l daţi singuri. Consultaţi-i pe ceilalţi membri ai catedrei sau comisiei metodice. Atenţie însă!

NU CONSULTAŢI UN SINGUR COLEG, ORICÂT DE MULT I-AŢI APRECIA COMPETENŢA! APELAŢI LA CÂT MAI MULŢI ŞI NU LUAŢI ÎN CONSIDERARE DECÂT OPNIILE CELE MAI CONVERGENTE!

Numai în acest fel veţi putea evita subiectivismul specific al fiecăruia şi tentaţia unei soluţii cât mai comode. Experienţa colegilor trebuie considerată ca o resursă utilizabilă, dar nu uitaşi că ea conţine şi elemente care vă pot influenţa negativ. De aceea, iată cinci „sfaturi” care le veţi primi, dar pe care nu trebuie să le urmaţi:

Renunţă la aceste instrumente sofisticate şi procedează după cum îţi dictează conştiinţa! Fă ca mine, eu nu greşesc niciodată! Nu te complica inutil! Nu face prea mult zgomot pentru nimic! Nimeni nu te obligă la aşa ceva, n-are rost să-ţi pui probleme în plus!

• • • •

Cel mai indicat ar fi să provocaţi o şedinţă de lucru a catedrei sau a comisiei metodice în care să prezentaţi tabloul de specificaţie pe care l-aţi realizat. În timpul discuţiilor înregistraţi fără părtinire toate părerile apoi, în linişte examinaţi-le. Eliminaţi pe cele care vă îndeamnă să renunţaţi. Analizaţi atent argumentele celor care vă solicita să eliminaţi sau adăugaţi obiective terminale. Stabiliţi dacă cele propuse se circumscriu finalităţii generale şi scopurilor cu nivel de generalitate mediu ale disciplinei pe care o predaţi. NU IGNORAŢI PROGRAMA AMALITICĂ

65

CHIAR DACĂ VĂ DISPLACE! În acest fel veţi ajunge la un inventar complet de obiective terminale. 4.2.3 CUM SE ELABOREAZĂ, SE APLICĂ ŞI SE VALORIFICĂ UN TEST PREDICTIV 4.2.3.1 Elaborarea unui test predictiv În concepţia noastă „test predictiv” înseamnă „test iniţial” – aplicat la începutul unei noi etape de instruire pentru a identifica nivelul de realizare a obiectivelor studiului într-o etapă anterioară, riguros delimitată şi lacunele intervenite în pregătirea fiecărui elev al clasei pe parcursul instruirii sau ulterior (de ex. , în vacanţele dintre semestre). Lista de obiective terminale constituie baza derivării itemilor (problemelor) care alcătuiesc testul predictiv. Regula simplă de elaborare a unui test predictiv este următoarea: PENTRU FIECARE OBIECTIV TERMINAL TREBUIE ELABORAT CEL PUŢIN UN ITEM CARE VERIFICĂ REALIZAREA SAU NEREALIZAREA ACESTUIA LA UN NIVEL DE PERFORMANŢĂ SUFICIENT DE ÎNALT PENTRU CA ELEVUL SĂ POATĂ CONTINUA ADECVAT INSTRUIREA.

Schema derivării itemilor este următoarea: I O
1 1

O1 O2 . . .

O2 . . .

I2 . . .

On

In

On

Obiectivele ciclului de

Testul predictiv

Ciclul nou de instruire

instruire anterior parcurs Fig.nr.14. Schema elaborării unui test predictiv

66

4.2.3.2. Construirea testului predictiv Se observă că, deşi baza testului predictiv o constituie obiectivele instruirii deja desfăşurate, în elaborarea sa trebuie ţinut seama şi de ceea ce urmează să înveţe elevii. Numai în acest fel se pot stabili performanţe minimal acceptabile în raport cu care se va aprecia reuşita sau nereuşita elevilor şi în baza cărora se anticipează posibilitatea sau imposibilitatea continuării instruirii în ritmul impus de parcurgerea programei de învăţământ. Iată un exemplu, de corelare corectă itemilor cu obiectivele ciclului de instruire anterior parcurs într-un test predictiv de matematică aplicat unei clase a III-a aflată în primele zile ale semestrului al II-lea.

67

195 = ? 129 + 3 = ? O2 – să rezolve corect exerciţii specifice I2: . iar de restul până la 9900 lei s-au cumpărat linguriţe mici de 20 lei bucata.a) Cu cât este mai mare suma numerelor respectând limbajul matematic? Obiectivul va 137 şi 205 decât produsul numerelor fi considerat atins dacă fiecare elev va rezolva 23 şi 7? suma. In: Pentru o cantină şcolară s-au cumpărat 145 căni a 40 lei bucata. numerelor 318 şi 3? . 361 x 2 = ? 421 x 2 = ? 372 . numerelor 791 şi 314 decât câtul . câtul şi produsul unor numere . .OBIECTIVE Mai sunt toţi elevii care încep semestrul al IIlea capabili: ITEMI I1: Efectuează cel puţin prima coloană de O1 – să efectueze toate operaţiile aritmetice exerciţii: elementare? Obiectivul va fi considerat atins 205 + 502 = ? 68 : 3 = ? dacă toţi elevii vor rezolva cel puţin un exerciţiu dat fără nici un fel de eroare. diferenţa. On – să rezolve probleme specifice formulate de învăţător? Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă va fi rezolvată fără eroare cel puţin o problemă dată. . 68 . .194 = ? 364 : 3=? 285 .b) Cu cât este mai mare diferenţa date. Câte linguriţe s-au cumpărat? De ce? (Justificaţi).

3. asigurând un feed-back diferenţial. VALIDITATEA Un test este valid dacă şi numai dacă este astfel construit încât măsoară exact ceea ce trebuie să măsoare. Calităţile unui test predictiv Ce alte calităţi trebuie să întrunească un test predictiv pentru a putea fi considerat “bun” şi “folositor”? Iată inventarul celor mai importante: A. Gradul scăzut de discriminare al unui test iniţial reduce corespunzător capacitatea lui predictivă. aplicat în situaţii analoge sau identice. Un test docimologic nu este valid dacă itemii care îl compun nu acoperă întregul câmp de probleme care interesează măsurarea sau acoperă un câmp de probleme mai vast decât interesează. un test predictiv nu poate fi considerat reprezentativ dacă verifică doar părţi sau elemente ale materiei anterior studiate şi nu esenţialul întregii materii parcurse. PUTEREA DE DISCRIMINARE un test predictiv este eficient dacă identifică exact nuvelul de performanţă de care este capabil elevul şi toate lacunele care au intervenit în instruirea lui anterioară. Un test predictiv nu este fidel dacă aplicat la doi elevi cu aceleaşi lacune în instruire le evidenţiază numai la unul dintre ei. D. Validitatea predictivă a testului iniţial este asigurată dacă acesta este astfel construit încât poate indica în ce fel se poate continua în viitor instruirea fiecăruia dintre cei care au fost testaţi. APLICABILITATEA Un test predictiv este aplicabil dacă şi numai dacă oferă date utile atât elevului cât şi educatorului. 69 . prin definiţie. FIDELITATEA Un test docimologic este fidel dacă şi numai dacă. Fidelitatea unui test nu poate fi niciodată absolută (100%).5 – 3%.4. B. C. nevalid.3. conduce spre rezultate analoge sau identice. E. un test accentuat infidel este.2. dar infidelitatea unui test nu trebuie să depăşescă niciodată 2. Un test predictiv este inaplicabil dacă nu oferă datele necesare diagnosticului şi remediului. fiind admisibilă o anumită “abatere standard”. REPREZENTATIVITATEA Un test docimologic este reprezentativ dacă “acoperă” un câmp cât mai larg de cunoştinţe sau capacităţi din domeniul de instruire pentru care a fost elaborat.

in depăşirea dificultăţilor pe care le ridică testul însuşi. proiectele programelor compensatorii şi veţi urmări.3.4. dar apoi strângeţi testele completate şi examinaţi acasă cu maximum de atenţie fiecare test în parte.  Asiguraţi un climat de muncă ne-stressant.Şapte reguli pentru aplicarea unui test predictiv Revedeţi încă o dată subcapitolul anterior. oră de oră. dar nu-i sprijiniţi pe nici unul. că nu veţi nota în catalog rezultatele şi nici nu vă veţi forma o impresie definitivă asupra potenţialului lor de învăţare.  Stabiliţi o limită de timp pentru rezolvarea testului. Insistaţi asupra calităţilor pe care trebuie să le îndeplinească un test. preveniţi emoţia exagerată a elevilor care e manifestată. atunci procedaţi la aplicare.  Insistaţi. în acest sens. respectaţi-o cu stricteţe.4.2. ameliorările care se vor produce în comportamentul de învăţare al elevilor. în nici un fel. de următoarele reguli:  Înainte de a aplica un test predictiv unei clase aveţi obligaţia de a face elevilor cunoscute obiectivele pe care le urmaţi. dar notaţi numele elevilor care ar fi putut să rezolve testul într-un timp mai mare decât cel stabilit. precum şi pe acela al elevilor care rezolvă testul într-un timp mai scurt. Dacă aveţi convingerea că toate cerinţele au fost indeplinite.  Lăsaţi timp elevilor să-şi examineze erorile după confruntarea cu grila.  Corectaţi imediat testul predictiv împreună cu elevii folosind o grilă pregătită din timp sau un elev-proctor (elev care rezolvă perfect înaintea altora testul şi care poate fi transformat în grilă de corectare). confecţionându-vă şi dumneavoastră un asemenea caiet în care veţi consemna datele testului predictiv. Ţineţi seama. 70 . pe un ton adecvat.  Stabiliţi împreună cu elevii că vor avea nevoie de un caiet suplimentar pentru „exerciţii compensatorii” pe care îl vor purta zilnic la ei. că nu doriţi „să-i prindeţi pe elevi nepregătiţi”.

Iată două imagini sugestive. diagnosticului pedagogic în întregime. semnul clar al unei instruiri anterioare corespunzătoare.4. semnul ineficacităţii generale a instruirii. Este teribila „curbă în i”. Ea vă sugerează scopul IDENTIFICAREA CRITERIILOR DE DIFERENŢIERE A INSTRUIRII ÎN VEDEREA OPTIMIZĂRII CONTINUE A PERFORMANŢELOR DE ÎNVĂŢARE ALE FIECĂRUI ELEV. 71 . Prima dintre ele sugerează că un mare număr de elevi (ordonata ) obţin note mari şi foarte mari. Modelul de instruire pe care vi-l propunem vă solicită să practicaţi INSTRUIREA DIFERENŢIATĂ în trei forme: • • • în cadrul PROGRAMELOR COMPENSATORII în timpul ÎNVĂŢĂRII DIRIJATE ÎN CLASĂ în cadrul STUDIULUI INDIVIDUAL Deocamdată să vedem în ce mod se pot valorifica rezultatele testelor predictive pentru a practica instruirea diferenţiată în cadrul unor programe compensatorii. Este vestita „curbă în J”.2.4 PROIECTAŢI PROGRAME COMPENSATORII! Recitiţi atent ultima dintre regulile aplicării unui test predictiv. Cea de a doua se află în situaţi inversă: un număr mare de elevi au performanţe slabe şi foarte slabe.

nr.Fig.15.16. Rezultatele unui test predictiv. 72 .nr. ca efect al unei instruiri anterioare corespunzătoare (eficientă) Fig. ca efect al unei instruiri anterioare necorespunzătoare (ineficientă) În ambele situaţii figurate mai sus – dar cu precădere în cea de-a doua – se impune apelul la PROGRAME COMPENSATORII – de RECUPERARE şi de ÎMBOGĂŢIRE. Rezultatele unui test predictiv.

Să le definim pe scurt: PROGRAME COMPENSATORII Program de instruire suplimentar.1 Cinci reguli de urmat pentru proiectarea şi realizarea programelor de recuperare 73 .2. PROGRAM DE RECUPERARE Program suplimentar destinat elevilor cu lacune esenţiale în instruirea anterioară. desfăşurat sub formă de MEDITAŢII.17. Construirea programelor compensatorii Ce exigenţe solicită proiectarea şi realizare a fiecăruia dintre ele? 4. în vederea atingerii sau depă-şirii standardelor de performanţă solicitate de programele şcolare. desfă-şurat simultan cu procesul de învăţământ. organizat în vederea atingerii performanţelor minimal acceptabile. desfăşurat sub formă de CONSULTAŢII menite să îi îndrume pregătirea pentru concursurile şcolare.4. nr. PROGRAM DE “ÎMBOGĂŢIRE” Program suplimentar destinat elevilor capabili de performanţe superioare standardelor prevăzute în programele şcolare. Fig.

Regula nr. blând chiar! Comportaţi-vă cu elevii pe care îi chemaţi la recuperare ca şi când ar fi proprii dumneavoastră copii! Lăudaţi (exagerat chiar!) pe cei care reuşesc. b) privesc înlăturarea dificultăţilor.5 Ajutaţi-i pe toţi să reuşească! Daţi dovadă de înţelegere! Motivaţi învăţarea! Sugeraţi-le tuturor căi viabile de rezolvare! Treziţi tuturor participanţilor încrederea în ei înşişi! Nu admonestaţi niciodată! Fiţi cât mai politicos. organizării şi desfăşurării programelor de recuperare de la fiecare clasă la care predaţi: a) trecând cât mai rapid cu putinţă la desfăşurarea lor.2 Scopul principal în care organizaţi programe de recuperare este acela de a anula lacunele intervenite în pregătirea elevilor derivat din scopul general care constă în ”autodesfiinţarea” programului prin eliminarea motivelor care l-au impus în legătură cu fiecare elev participant în parte. b) afectând întregul timp de care dispuneţi dumneavoastră şi elevii respectivi.3 Nu menţineţi la programul de recuperare un elev care a recuperat în întregime materia şi este capabil să înainteze adecvat în instruirea pe care o parcurge în clasă.1 Acordaţi prioritate proiectării. Regula nr. Regula nr. achiziţiilor nesigure. Regula nr. inconsecvenţelor. Folosiţi orice alte stimulente pozitive! 74 .4 Solicitaţi elevii la programul de recuperare să realizeze numai obiective pedagogice şi sarcini care: a) “acoperă” lacunele identificate cu prilejul evaluării predictive şi al evaluării formative de progres. Regula nr. c) considerându-l obligaţia dumneavoastră elementară şi o stringenţă pentru elevi.

Dacă manifestă conduite ce vi se par aberante. nu le admiteţi atitudini şi gesturi de “superioritate” faţă de ceilalţi şi sugeraţi-le că au obligaţia morală să-i sprijine pe cei care întâmpină dificultăţi la învăţătură. că este capabil de performanţe extraordinare dacă va depune eforturi mai mari şi se va concentra mai mult! Nu permiteţi nici un fel de discuţii ironice între ei în legătură cu nereuşitele temporare ale unora dintre participanţi! Oferiţi celor capabili de performanţe superioare cât mai multă libertate de gândire şi de acţiune. în mod discret. 22 • • • • • • • • Exerciţii şi probleme 75 . egali cu colegii lor.2. Permiteţi-le să aibă idei “proprii” şi “păreri personale” dar sugeraţi-le să le susţină numai după ce le-au verificat.4. ba chiar şi pe cei ale căror idei le studiază! Obligaţi-i pe toţi să nu se lase învinşi de dificultăţile sarcinilor! Furnizaţi întotdeauna sarcinile de învăţare gândindu-le după dificultate! Nu vă speriaţi că vă pierdeţi autoritatea şi recunoaşteţi cu sinceritate când elevii găsesc soluţii mai ingenioase decât dumneavoastră. nu-i admonestaţi imediat.2. fiecăruia în parte. Alte zece reguli de urmat pentru organizarea şi • desfăşurarea programelor de îmbogăţire participanţi ar putea depăşi propria Postulaţi că oricare dintre dumneavoastră competenţă! • Faceţi-i pe toţi să creadă că pot depăşi propriile lor performanţe. Renunţaţi la “dădăceală”. puneţi-i în faţa consecinţelor pe care ieşirile lor le iscă. Raportaţi –vă la copiii capabili de performanţe superioare ca şi când ei ar fi copii obişnuiţi în restul activităţii instructiv-educative. Sugeraţi-le să persevereze în a vă depăşi! Învăţaţi-i să colaboreze dar şi să se întreacă unul pe altul! Nu folosiţi alt stimulent decât dorinţa de a progresa mai rapid şi de a obţine performanţe excepţionale! Sugeraţi.4.

aţi putut şti în mod anticipat: a) care elevi se vor dovedi capabili de performanţe superioare. b) care elevi au lacune în instruire şi în ce ritm ei vor recupera cunoştinţele pierdute?. Ce veţi face în această situaţie? Nr.3 Aţi pregătit deja un test predictiv. Ce trebuie să faceţi înainte de a-l aplica? Şi cum? Nr. un elev vă prezintă deja testul rezolvat perfect. Ce determină această situaţie surprinzătoare? Nr.1. elevul A. însă este dezaprobat de către colegi în unanimitate. Ori de câte ori răspunsurile şi soluţiile oferite de autori nu vor coincide cu cele găsite de dumneavoastră. Cum veţi proceda în această situaţie neaşteptată? Nr. Ce veţi face Nr. Cărui fapt se datorează diferenţa netă dintre rezultatele obţinute în urma aplicării? Nr.2 Aţi elaborat un test predictiv pentru două clase paralele.APLICAŢIE SPECIALĂ Dacă vreţi să stăpâniţi corespunzător tehnica elaborării si folosirii textelor predictive precum şi exigenţele organizării programelor compensatorii.7 În timpul unui program de îmbogăţire observaţi că un elev se plictiseşte.6 În timpul programului de recuperare. Prezentându-l directorului şcolii acesta vă felicită şi vă roagă să îl prezentaţi ca „model” în şedinţa de catedră.5 Aţi realizat un test predictiv realizat după toate exigenţele prezentate în acest capitol. timpul stabilit pentru soluţionare s-a epuizat. c) căror cauze s-a datorat rămânerea în urmă la învăţătură a anumitor elevi? Nr. Verificaţi corectitudinea soluţiilor pe care le propuneţi prin răspunsurile ce vă sunt oferite la sfârşitul acestei lucrări. considerând că nu are aptitudini pentru disciplina pe care o predaţi. Răspundeţi cu da sau nu la întrebarea: A fost testul astfel construit încât dvs. Vă sugerăm în acest sens să revedeţi informaţiile oferite în cursul de Abilitare curriculară.6 Aţi aplicat deja un test predictiv.4 Aţi aplicat deja un test predictiv. Cum veţi proceda? 76 . Totuşi. reluaţi exerciţiul sau problema încercând să descoperiţi unde aţi greşit. Elaboraţi un test predictiv pentru materia parcursă cu elevii unei clase care „învaţă bine” în ultimul trimestru încheiat. străduiţi-vă să rezolvaţi exerciţiile propuse în continuare. doi elevi cu rezultate slabe la un test predictiv rezolvă succesiv două sarcini dificile foarte rapid şi fără erori.8 În timp ce încerca cu dificultate să rezolve a doua sarcină de lucru furnizată la programul de recuperare.A se ridică nervos şi vă declară că renunţă. Instrumentul dvs. Verificaţi validitatea testului. la jumătatea trimestrului descoperiţi că unii elevi au lacune neidentificate de test. Cărui fapt se poate datora acest lucru? Nr. iar un elev vă solicită să mai lucreze în continuare. Nr. Cum procedaţi Nr.9 Înainte de consumarea timpului afectat unui test predictiv.

deosebirile sunt mai importante decât asemănările. De asemenea: 77 . Noi îl vom folosi în continuare în mai multe sensuri sensuri:  Sensul nr.1 Cum se proiectează riguros activităţile de invăţare în clasă 4.1 CÂTEVA LĂMURIRI TERMINOLOGICE ŞI PATRU EXIGENŢE PENTRU PLANIFICAREA MATERIEI Termenul de „proiectare pedagogică” (sau „design instrucţional”) are mai multe accepţiuni. în practica instruirii. CEEA CE DEOSEBEŞTE PROIECTAREA INSTRUIRII DE PLANIFICAREA MATERIEI ŞI PLANUL DE LECŢIE ESTE RIGOAREA CU CARE DEMERSURILE SUNT SUBORDONATE REALIZĂRII UNOR OBIECTIVE PEDAGOGICE MĂSURABILE.3: PROIECTAREA ACTIVITĂŢILOR DIDACTICE sau micro-proiectarea (= conceperea activităţilor ce trebuie desfăşurate pentru a determina într-o lecţie sau grup de lecţii – realizarea anumitor obiective operaţionale derivate ale ciclului de instruire în curs). MICRO-PROIECTAREA INSTRUIRII prezintă similitudini cu „planul de lecţie”.3. CURRICULUM   În primele sensuri.  În cel de-al treilea sens.2: PROIECTAREA CICLULUI (sau ETAPEI) DE ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT sau mezo-proiectarea (= conceperea succesiunii de activităţi didactice şi a programelor compensatorii necesare realizării unor obiective terminale ale unui ciclu de instruire delimitat temporal) Sensul nr.1.3. PROIECTAŢI RIGUROS ŞI DESFĂŞURAŢI ŞTIINŢIFIC ACTIVITĂŢI DE ÎNVĂŢARE ÎN CLASĂ 4. 1: PROIECTAREA SISTEMELOR EDUCAŢIONALE CURRICULUM DESIGN sau macro-proiectarea ( = curriculum design ) Sensul nr.4.3. proiectarea instruirii prezintă similitudini cu DESIGN şi cu „PLANIFICAREA SEMESTRIALĂ A MATERIEI”.3. Dar.

SĂ 3. mijloacele de realizare. 4. obiectivele terminale al materiei ce va fi parcursă atât pentru fiecare capitol în parte. pentru a facilita proiectarea activităţilor didactice şi a realiza controlul riguros al progresului instruirii: 1. CE ESTE UN MICRO-PROIECT PEDAGOGIC BINE GÂNDIT ŞI CUM SE REALIZEAZĂ Urmăriţi. succesiunea temporală a activităţilor didactice ce vor fi proiectate. ORICE LUCRU BINE FĂCUT ESTE REZULTATUL UNUI PROIECT BINE GÂNDIT.PLANIFICAREA CALENDARISTICĂ (SEMESTRIALĂ SAU ANUALĂ) ŞI PROIECTAREA FIECĂREI ACTIVITĂŢI DIDACTICE TREBUIE CONSIDERATE FORME DE CONTINUARE ŞI CONCRETIZARE A DESIGNULUI CURRICULAR PRIN CARE S-AU ELABORAT PLANUL DE ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT ŞI PROGRAMELE ANALITICE. stabilit de praxiologie – ştiinţa care studiază eficienţa acţiunii. 3.3. Cu alte cuvinte. cât şi pentru întregul conţinut. conţinutul testului predictiv şi al testelor sumative ce A vor fi aplicate de-a lungul trimestrului. apoi. tipul activităţilor. Principiul care animă inferenţele teoretizate şi exemplificate în locurile arătate este derivat dintr-un adevăr incontestabil. 78 . PLANIFICATEA TRIMESTRIALĂ MATERIEI TREBUIE PRECIZEZE: 2. datele.prezentate parţial în cursul Abilitare curriculară şi pot fi adăugate planificării semestriale a materiei cu foarte bune rezultate. Exigenţele mezoproiectării – ale PROIECTĂRII CICLULUI (sau ETAPEI) DE ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT . unul dintre proiectele cuprinse în partea a IV-a a lucrării pe care o aveţi în faţă.

Posibilitatea de a-şi anticipa pe plan mental acţiunile. 3. este redactat într-o formă clară care permite urmărirea modului în care fiecare obiectiv poate fi Pentru a putea fi apreciat ca ”bine gândit” un proiect pedagogic trebuie să întrunească o transformat într-un rezultat serie de calităţi privind conţinutul specificaţiilor sale ăsurabil. are o dimensiune rezonabilă. forma în care aceste specificaţii m şi privind Fig. 1. Reţineţi schema următoare: 3. conţine numai specificaţiile care privesc demersul de la obiective la rezultate. Dacă „a gândi înainte de a face” constituie o regulă universală a acţiunii eficiente. STRATEGII permite diferenţierea instruirii în funcţie de pregătirea şi de ritmul celor care învaţă. 5. EVALUARE precizează sarcini de lucru pentru 6. 4. precizează obiectivele instruirii în manieră operaţională. 18. oferă posibilitatea de a face economie de scris fără a fi în dauna 79 efortului de gândire.nr. conţinutului unui set de obiective operaţionale: 2. înainte de a le executa. OBIECTIVE precizează obiective operaţionale ale materiei de studiu. în timp. precizează atâtea obiective câte pot fi atinse în timpul afectat activităţii didactice respective. UN PROIECT PEDAGOGIC ESTE BINE GÂNDIT dacă: 2. 5. ale materiei de studiu. ea se impune şi domeniului sensibil al acţiunii instructiv-educative. renunţarea la scrierea unor specificaţii şi . Corelarea componentelor într-un proiect pedagogic sub raportul formei sunt făcute. pentru a preveni erorile conferă omului întreaga superioritate. OPERAŢIONALE RESURSE acoperă conţinuturile esenţiale 4. permite. realizarea fiecarui obiectiv. 1. Prin urmare suntem siliţi să admitem ca pe un adevăr incontestabil şi afirmaţia următoare: ORICE LUCRU DIDACTIC BINE FĂCUT ESTE REZULTATUL UNUI PROIECT DIDACTIC BINE GÂNDIT. în termeni de sub raportul Un „proiect didactic bine gândit” descrie anticipat modul cel mai simplu de realizare şi de testări a comportament observabil şi testabil.

19. acum câteva exigenţe şi reguli pentru parcurgerea fiecărei etape a proiectării unei activităţi didactice în vederea asimilării cunoştinţelor esenţiale în clasă de către toţi elevii. 80 . prin dirijarea mecanismelor de învăţare implicate în instruire. Condiţiile micro-proiectării Iată. nr.Fig.

nu există. dar nu putem etapiza anticipat pentru fiecare zi.. Dar pentru a putea declanşa. Întrucât: OBIECTIVELE PEDAGOGICE SUNT REZULTATE SCONTATE ALE INSTRUIRII. PERMANENTĂ ŞI PERIODICĂ. MĂSURAREA PRECISĂ A PROGRESULUI INSTRUIRII ESTE POSIBILĂ DACĂ ŞI NUMAI DACĂ OBIECTIVELE EI AU FOST DEFINITE ÎN TERMENI OPERAŢIONALI. De aceea viitorologii nu ezită în a spune că problema esenţială pe care o avem în legătură cu el nu este de „a-l aştepta”.4. Acestea din urmă provin din faptul că noi putem enunţa uşor scopurile generale şi finalităţi îndepărtate. putem anticipa că până în anul 2020 omenirea va progresa pe toate planurile. dar ea implică serioase dificultăţi. DEFINIŢI CORECT OBIECTIVELE OPERAŢIONALE ALE ACTIVITĂŢII DIDACTICE! Încă din subcapitolul anterior aţi descoperit că definirea obiectivelor pedagogice în formă operaţională este o operaţie fundamentală a conceperii actului didactic. De exemplu. Acest mod de a gândi prezintă analogii cu proiectarea instruirii. dar nu putem anticipa precis rezultatele şi efectele concrete ale acţiunilor noastre. Cauza este simplă: viitorul ridică în faţa posibilităţilor noastre de cunoaştere cele mai mari obstacole pentru că de fapt. ci de „a-l construi”.4. săptămână sau lună ce efecte se vor produce. Când putem spune că un obiectiv pedagogic a fost corect şi complet operaţionalizat? Reţineţi! 81 .. controla şi dirija într-o manieră sigură PROCESUL INSTRUIRII prin realizarea unei succesiuni de obiective pedagogice acestea trebuie să fie astfel definite încât să permită MĂSURAREA PRECISĂ. ETAPELE MICRO-PROIECTĂRII PEDAGOGICE ETAPA I.

Operaţionalizarea corectă a obiectivelor pedagogice Nivelul de performanţă de învăţare care va permite continuarea acesteia cel puţin în acelaşi ritm fără riscul de a cumula lacune în învăţare. caracteristici ale performanţei care o fac acceptabilă şi în funcţie de care se va aprecia reuşita în realizarea obiectivului Cele 5 precizări se constituie.STANDARDUL PERFORMANȚEI așteptate Fig.SITUAŢIA DE ÎNVĂŢARE Condiţiile concrete în care se va realiza noua capacitate de învăţare şi în care eventual ar putea fi testată fără echivoc producerea ei 3. Nr. 82 . 21. de fapt.1. SUBIECTUL Cine sunt cei care vor fi afectaţi ameliorativ sau optimal prin influenţa pedagogică 2.PERFORMAN ŢA exersarea capacităţii mentale asupra unui conţinut de învăţare 5. elaborată de noi pa baza celor propuse de către Gilbert de Landsheere (1979). într-o „procedură standard de operaţionalizare a obiectivelor pedagogice”.CAPACITATE A de învățare Acţiunea mentală sau operaţia de care vor deveni capabili cei care învaţă datorită influenţei educative UN OBIECTIV PEDA-OGIC ESTE CORECT ŞI COMPLET OPERAŢIONALIZAT DACĂ ÎN ENUNŢUL SĂU SUNT CUPRINSE: 5 PRECIZĂRI 4.

83 . Nr.Ea prezintă numeroase avantaje practice întrucât presupune fundamentarea întregului demers pe care îl implică transformarea obiectivului pedagogic într-un rezultat măsurabil al instruirii. CI CHIAR ŞI DIN EFORTUL DE REALIZARE A ACESTEIA. fără nici un ajutor din partea educatorului (SITUAŢIA) Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă vor fi analizate corect 7 din cele 10 verbe existente în text (PERFORMANŢA STANDARD) Situaţia de învăţare Item în testul de evaluare a progresului instruirii Fig. Predeteminările obiectivului operaţional Prin urmare. el va sugera şi modul în care se va transforma într-un rezultat al învăţării testabil la toţi cei care învaţă. se poate aprecia că: OPERAŢIONALIZAREA OBIECTIVELOR REPREZINTĂ 90 % NU NUMAI DIN EFORTUL DE PROIECTARE A INSTRUIRII. exclusiv în baza cunoştinţelor dobândite. De aceea. Urmăriţi aceste avantaje pe baza unui exemplu concret: OBIECTIV OPERAŢIONAL La sfârşitul activităţii didactice toţi elevii vor fi capabili (SUBIECTUL) să analizeze (CAPACITATEA) verbele (PERFORMANŢA) SPECIFICAŢII ÎN PROIECTUL PEDAGOGIC Indicatorul eficacităţii generale a instruirii Sarcini de lucru într-un text dat. 22. dacă obiectivul pedagogic este corect şi complet operaţionalizat.

. Trebuie să exersaţi vreme îndelungată tehnica pe care v-o propunem. însă! Trebuie să vă însuşiţi tehnica de operaţionalizare a obiectivelor pedagogice cu dorinţa de a o transforma în: DEPRINDERE DE A „VEDEA” ÎNTOTDEAUNA ACTIVITATEA DIDACTICĂ PRIN PRISMA UNOR REZULTATE MĂSURABILE.. dar. Vă va fi din ce în ce mai uşor în timp. EFORTURILE DE ÎNCEPUT SUNT EXTREM DE MARI. Dar nu este uşor. De ce? Pentru că fiecare din cele „5 precizări” – cu excepţia celei dintâi – vă solicită să ţineţi seama de numeroase exigenţe. Iată în acest sens câteva sugestii care vă vor ajuta să depăşiţi atari dificultăţi: 84 .Atenţie.

.. Evitaţi expresiile metaforice 8.” (pentru că pierd din vedere necesitatea de a determina eficacitatea generală a instruirii – prima. Feriţi-vă de expresiile: „La sfârşitul activităţii didactice elevii vor fi capabili” şi „elevii vor sti. Folosiţi-vă competenţa de specialitate în a oferi elevilor spre învăţare ceea ce este fundamental în domeniul dvs.. Nu-l uitaţi niciodată pe „toţi” 3. a înţelege) 7. Apelaţi la inventarul lui Metfessel.Precizarea SUBIECTUL Sfaturi utile 1. a resimţi. Evitaţi expresiile generale (a cunoaşte.” 2.. a şti.. nu numai cele excepţionale) 11. Nu confundaţi „performanţa” nici cu „capacitatea” şi nici cu „conţinutul”: ea reprezintă aplicarea primei asupra celui de-al doilea 10. Evitaţi expresiile care trimit la comportament inobservebile (a simţi. a dori) PERFORMANŢA 9.Folosiţi întotdeauna expresia „La sfârşitul activităţii didactice TOŢI elevii vor fi capabili. nu spunându-le tot ce ştiţi în legătură cu fiecare subiect pe care îl trataţi 85 . Nu acordaţi termenului de performanţă accepţiunea pe care i-o dau sportivii (orice achiziţie de învăţare este o performanţă.şi cantonează instruirea la nivelul memorării – ce-a de-a doua) CAPACITATEA DE ÎNVĂŢARE 4. Michael şi Kirshner (vezi anexa) 5. Utilizaţi numai conţinuturi esenţiale în formularea performanţelor (expresia capacităţilor pe mai multe conţinuturi determină dezvoltarea capacităţilor. dar numărul conţinuturilor neesenţiale este atât de mare încât riscaţi să produceţi o puzderie de obiective mărunte şi să nu mai terminaţi niciodată instruirea) 12. Nu uitaţi că nu aveţi obligaţia să-i învăţaţi pe „toţi totul”. Evitaţi expresiile care se referă la conduita dvs. a iubi. „voi îmbogăţi”) 6. („voi stimula”. 13. ci doar pe toţi lucrurile pe care nu le-ar putea învăţa singuri. Nu folosiţi decât verbe ce indică acţiuni mentale ce se manifestă sub formă de comportamente observabile.

Evitaţi să definiţi „performanţe maximale” şi „performanţe optimale” pentru întreaga clasă. Nu folosiţi aceleaşi „criterii de reuşită” la clasele cu potenţial diferit de învăţare 19.”Proliferarea” unui număr prea mare de obiective operaţionale 2. Combinaţi metode materiale şi mijloace cunoscute sau inventaţi altele pentru a construi condiţii externe apte să declanşeze condiţii interne al învăţării. Apreciaţi drept „nivelul acceptabil de performanţă de învăţare” numai pe acela care va permite continuarea instruirii fără diminuarea ritmului impus de programa şcolară 16. Există însă şi dificultăţi obiective pentru care sfaturile anterioare nu vă vor fi de nici un folos: DIFICULTĂŢI OBIECTIVE 1. Dacă informaţiile sunt esenţiale ele trebuie să fie ÎNŢELESE – dacă la cele 5 obiective de „cunoaştere” se vor adăuga alte 5 obiective de „comprehensiune”. Evitaţi „din start” criteriile de reuşită ce definesc performanţe sub limita acceptabilă 20. 18. cât mai uşor. Numiţi suficienta caracteristici ale performanţei standard pentru a putea aprecia fără echivoc reuşita sau nereuşita elevilor 17. STANDARDUL PERFORMANŢEI ACCEPTABILE Cele 20 de sfaturi utile vă vor ajuta să depăşiţi dificultăţi ce ţin de subiectivitatea dvs. singuri. 15. Exemplu Să presupunem că într-o lecţie oarecare sunt 5 informaţii esenţiale care trebuie asimilate în memoria elevului pe baza unor obiective operaţionale derivate din clasa CUNOAŞTERII a taxonomiei lui BLOOM (Trebuie să recunoaştem că numărul de informaţii este modest). cât mai plăcut. neajutaţi de dvs. 86 . Repetarea „exasperantă” a obiectivelor la diverse clase de comportament. Raportaţi-vă la potenţialul de învăţare al claselor luând în considerare pe cel al elevului cu ritmul cel mai lent.SITUAŢIA DE ÎNVĂŢARE 14. şi eventual. astfel încât elevii să poată atinge obiectivul cât mai repede.

pentru unii. ŞI NU PENTRU A VĂ LĂSA STĂPÂNIŢI DE EL! În al doilea rând. înfăţişată în tabloul de mai jos (Sanders. 1966): Cuno aşter e Comprehensiune Aplicare Analiză Sinteză Evaluare 87 . Dar până şi autoritatea tabloului lui Mendeleev este zguduită de transmutarea elementelor prin reacţiile de fuziune şi de fisiune nucleară! Aşadar: NU UITAŢI CĂ TAXONOMIA DE OBIECTIVE ESTE UN INSTRUMENT PE CARE TREBUIE SĂ-L STĂPÂNIŢI DVS. în modă. dincolo de avantajele evidente. operaţionalizarea obiectivelor s-a transformat. informaţiile trebuind să fie APLICATE. SINTETIZATE şi. iată o regulă sigură: PROPUNEŢI-VĂ ŞI REALIZAŢI ÎN ACTIVITĂŢILE DIDACTICE NUMAI ŞI NUMAI OBIECTIVE OPERAŢIONALE PRIORITARE. înglobându-le în „situaţiile de învăţare” adecvate pentru a realiza obiective operaţionale importante. EVALUATE. trebuie observat că. în fine. ANALIZATE. Ce se înţelege însă prin obiectiv pedagogic prioritar? Urmăriţi cu atenţie organizarea ierarhică a claselor de comportament în taxonomia lui Bloom. nu! Din exemplul de mai sus trebuie să derivăm o înţelepciune specifică. menţionate anterior.Dar tot astfel se va pune problema şi cu celelalte clase din taxonomie. Rezultatul? 5 informaţii x 6 clase = 30 obiective operaţionale! Pot fi ele realizate în răstimpul scurt al unei lecţii de 40-50 de minute? Evident. Pentru depăşirea dificultăţilor obiective. Mai întâi trebuie să observăm că succesul taxonomiei a determinat un „complex al luării deciziei” în rândul multor educatori care au început să se raporteze la aceasta ca la un „tablou absolut” – precum cel mendeleevian de chimie. fără a fi necesară altă operaţionalizare. Foarte multe informaţii neesenţiale – sau chiar esenţiale – se pot transmite eficient elevilor.

Examinaţi fiecare obiectiv în parte. orice educator ştie însă că elevii pot fi ajutaţi să înţeleagă o definiţie sau să aplice o regulă. Organizarea ierarhică a claselor de obiective (Sanders. răspunzând la întrebarea „Oare ar putea fi realizat acest obiectiv fără să fi fost realizat în prealabil cel situat pe coloana din stânga în dreptul său?” • Dacă răspunsul este afirmativ. 1966) Ierarhia sugerează că anumite obiective ar putea fi abordate „direct”. înţelegerea unei definiţii presupune memorarea sa mai înainte. începând cu obiectivul înscris pe treapta cea mai de sus a ultimei coloane. Vă propunem. Aceasta ar putea constitui un criteriu de alegere preferenţială a obiectivelor operaţionale ale unei activităţi didactice. De exemplu. atunci se vor elimina toate obiectivele 88 . fără parcurgerea scărilor anterioare. in acest sens. un ghid complet de alegere a obiectivelor operaţionale prioritare. Verificaţi tabelul identificând corespondenţele dintre obiective (folosind ca grilă tabloul lui Sanders). Pe de altă parte. Pasul I Pasul II Pasul III Pasul IV Trasaţi un tabel cu şapte coloane (luând ca model tabloul lui Sanders reprezentat mai sus) Completaţi tabelul în ordinea „de la simplu la complex” începând cu coloana cu toate obiectivele operaţionale pe care le puteţi defini pentru activitatea dvs. fără să le fi memorat în prealabil. ci si de la „inferior la superior”.30. ierarhia claselor de obiective se structurează nu numai „de la simplu la complex”. dacă urmăm dogmatic ierarhia. Este evident că o capacitate de analiză a unui conţinut este superioară memorării aceluiaşi conţinut.Evaluare Sinteză Analiză Aplicare Aplicare Analiză Aplicare Sinteză Analiză Aplicare Interpolare Traducere Memorare Interpolare Interpolare Interpolare Interpolare Traducere Memorare Memorare Traducere Memorare Traducere Memorare Traducere Memorare Traducere Memorare Fig. a VII-a. Se poate spune că ultimele trei clase ale taxonomiei sunt superioare primelor trei.

adică ceea ce se află „în mintea” celui care instruieşte şi este specificat în PLANUL.). C. etc. A. • Dacă răspunsul este negativ. diapozitive. în condiţiile instruirii desfăşurate în sistemul bazat pe clase şi lecţii. capacitate. de la inferior la superior. aptitudini. diafilme. care se exprimă în planul instruirii sub forma unui anumit RITM DE ÎNVĂŢARE. CÂTEVA ADEVĂRURI ŞI ŞAPTE REGULI DE FOLOSIRE INGENIOASĂ A POTENŢIALULUI DE INVĂŢARE 89 . Asupra felului în care trebuie folosită această resursă esenţială vom reveni în următorul capitol dedicat realizării activităţilor didactice. planşe. ANALIZAŢI RESURSELE NECESARE REALIZĂRII OBIECTIVELOR! Principalele categorii de resurse disponibile pentru realizarea obiectivelor pedagogice sunt: A. PROGRAMA DE ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT şi în MANUALUL ŞCOLAR). etc. laborator sau atelier. grafice. D. atunci continuaţi examinarea obiectivelor în acelaşi mod. cărţi. ETAPA A II-A. simulatore. scheme. Acestor resurse ar trebui să le adăugăm pe cea mai importantă dintre cele câte pot afecta învăţarea: TIMPUL. RESURSELE MATARIALE (condiţiile de instruire din clasă. aceasta va fi lista obiectivelor prioritare aranjate în ordinea de la simplu la complex. hărţi. machete. trebuie să observăm însă că timpul este o resursă limitată – deci este o restricţie. operaţii cu informaţiile. B.înscrise pe toate celelalte coloane din partea stângă. CONŢINUTUL PROCESULUI DE ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT (informaţii. Pasul V Copiaţi toate obiectivele neeliminate începând din partea stângă.). auxiliare precum filme. POTENŢIALUL DE ÎNVĂŢARE (aflat în mintea celui care învaţă: mecanisme de învăţare.

teste de aptitudini.) SĂ CUNOAŞTEŢI CÂT MAI PROFUND INDIVIDUALITATEA CELOR CARE ÎNVAŢĂ. PRIN ORICE MIJLOACE. De aici rezultă un avantaj enorm. În ce fel putem proceda în acest sens? EXACT ÎN MODUL PE CARE VI-L PROPUNE MODELUL INSTRUCŢIONAL PE CARE TOCMAI VI-L ÎNSUŞIŢI ACUM 90 . În schimb. Nu uitaţi însă: TOATE PARTICULARITĂŢILE INDIVIDUALE ALE ELEVILOR INTERESEAZĂ INSTRUIREA DOAR ÎN MĂSURA ÎN CARE AFECTEAZĂ RITMUL (VITEZA) CU CARE ÎNVAŢĂ FIECARE. Nu ştim deocamdată cum s-ar putea spori gradul de dezvoltare al unor capacităţi intelectuale (precum inteligenţa. Dimpotrivă: ÎNCERCAŢI PERMANENT.Modelul de instruire pe care vi-l propunem vă solicită să renunţaţi la pretenţia de a cunoaşte în mod obiectiv şi exact cauzele care determină diferenţele individuale dintre copii şi care afectează bineînţeles şi conduita lor în învăţare. etc. ŞTIM ÎN CE FEL PUTEM PROCEDA PENTRU A ACCELERA PERMANENT RITMUL ÎNVĂŢĂRII ORICĂRUI ELEV. INCLUSIV PRIN CELE DESPRE CARE SE PRETINDE CĂ VĂ OFERĂ O CUNOAŞTERE OBIECTIVĂ (teste de inteligenţă. posibilitatea de a culege intuitiv numeroase informaţii despre elevi. chestionare. Contactul nemijlocit cu elevii vă oferă de fapt. de exemplu) decât foarte vag pentru că nu cunoaştem natura lor endogenă. Aceasta nu înseamnă că modelul vă interzice orice preocupare în această direcţie. probe standardizate.

Învață din ce în ce mai rapid . 4 Adevărul nr. 5 Adevărul nr.Învață din ce în ce mai ușor .Învață din ce în ce cu mai multă plăcere . 6 Viteza învăţării este condiţionată de corectitudinea adecvării mecanismelor învăţării la obiectivele urmărite. 1 Adevărul nr. Viteza învăţării este dependentă de „economia de efort” cu care obiectivele sale sunt realizate de către elev. După ce vi-l veţi fi însuşit şi îl veţi fi aplicat mai multă vreme.Învață din ce în ce mai temeinic Aceste efecte benefice nu se vor produce decât dacă veţi lua în considerare cel puţin şase adevăruri: Adevărul nr. 3 Adevărul nr. Viteza învăţării este dependentă de gradul de satisfacţie pe care învăţarea o produce la cel care învaţă. Viteza învăţării este direct proporţională cu gradul de motivaţie intrinsecă a învăţării. Viteza învăţării este dependentă de conştientizarea prealabilă a scopurilor acesteia de către elev. VEŢI OBSERVA CĂ ELEVII DUMNEAVOASTRĂ: .Într-adevăr. Viteza învăţării este dependentă de „economia de timp” cu care obiectivele sale sunt realizate de către elev. 2 Adevărul nr. 91 . modelul este conceput ca o tehnică de sporire generală a ritmurilor de învăţare.

dar nu dincolo de limita în care ei resimt consumul de efort sub formă de stres sau oboseală. capitolul al II-lea din lucrarea pe care o aveţi în faţă. Nu obligaţi elevii să consume mai mult timp decât ei socotesc necesar pentru a realiza obiectivele şi nu le furnizaţi sarcini de lucru care le consumă inutil timpul. Regula nr. ori de câte ori vă aflaţi în altă situaţie trebuie să subliniaţi învăţarea cu elemente motivaţionale. de exemplu. Deocamdată însă câteva precizări în legătură cu primele 5. Solicitaţi elevii la eforturi oricât de intense. în întregime. Nu putem solicita însă elevul să aibă un coeficient de inteligenţă mai mare decât cel pe care îl are pentru a-şi spori viteza învăţării. 4 Regula nr. sau volumul memoriei. Identificaţi mecanismul (tipul) de învăţare adecvat realizării fiecărui obiectiv pe care vi l-aţi propus şi gândiţi-vă cum veţi ajuta fiecare grup sau elev să-l folosească mai bine în realizarea obiectivului. Desigur. 2 Regula nr. 92 . DE TIMP ŞI CU CÂŞTIGURI MAXIME ÎN PLANUL SATISFACŢIEI ÎNVĂŢĂRII. Nu apelaţi la sancţiuni negative pentru motivarea învăţării decât după ce le-aţi Regula nr. 3 Ori de câte ori proiectaţi instruirea revedeţi rezultatele testului predictiv şi ale ultimelor teste de progres pe care le-aţi aplicat şi folosiţi-le pentru a grupa elevii în funcţie de ritmul cu care ei învaţă. În schimb.Despre adevărul nr. 6 Regula nr. motivaţia intrinsecă „vine de la sine”(Gagné) şi puteţi neglija motivarea învăţării. 1 Regula nr. PUTEM MOTIVA ELEVUL. Orice sarcină de învăţare aţi furniza elevilor asiguraţi-vă din vreme că realizarea ei se va finaliza cu o stare de satisfacţie. coeficientul de inteligenţă. 6 vom discuta mai pe larg în subcapitolul următor al acestei lucrări. capacitatea de concentrare a atenţiei sunt de natură să o influenţeze pozitiv sau negativ. ÎL PUTEM PUNE ÎN SITUAŢII OPTIME PENTRU A-ŞI FOLOSI MECANISMELE DE ÎNVĂŢARE CU ECONOMIE DE EFORT. Cum? Vă propunem în continuare câteva sugestii pe care le puteţi considera ca un adevărat ÎNDREPTAR DE FOLOSIRE RAŢIONALĂ A RESURSELOR DE ÎNVĂŢARE DE CARE DISPUN TOŢI ELEVII Nu treceţi însă la însuşirea lor decât după ce aţi recitit încă o dată. Ori de câte ori urmăriţi un obiectiv aflat pe o clasă taxonomică superioară trebuie să-i anexaţi un mecanism de învăţare aflat pe o scară ierarhică superioară. 5 Regula nr. viteza învăţării este afectată şi de către aptitudinile generale şi speciale.

4”? Nr. ÎNTR-UN DOMENIU DAT. Psihopedagogii oferă educatorilor sofisticate instrumente şi tehnici de analiză a conţinutului în vederea alegerii conţinuturilor esenţiale în procesul de proiectare a instruirii. COMPETENŢA DE SPECIALITATE PRESUPUNE MAI ALES CAPACITATEA DE A DISCRIMINA INFORMAŢIILE ESENŢIALE DE AMĂNUNTE. trigonometrie.Robinson (ed. în ultimă instanţă. Dar este vorba. Pe ce fapte ştiinţifice se întemeiază „regula nr. Prima îl ajută pe competent să sesizeze exact logica ştiinţifică a disciplinei în timp ce celălalt îl determină pe specialist „să nu vadă pădurea din cauza copacilor”.P.4. teoria 93 . Un profesor de matematică care ştie foarte bine algebră. PENTRU PRACTICAREA INSTRUIRII. Numiţi câteva tehnici de motivare a învăţării pe care le cunoaşteţi din experienţă. APLICAŢIE SPECIALĂ (EXERCIŢII ŞI PROBLEME) Nr. Aprofundaţi-vă cunoştinţele studiind capitolul 12 din cartea Învăţarea în şcoală de D. logică matematică. de o chestiune de.3. competenţa de specialitate poate avea diverse grade.1.P.E. 1981) ( Dacă aveţi dificultăţi în rezolvarea acestor exerciţii. Ce lege psihologică s-ar încălca prin nerespectarea „regulii nr..Ausubel şi F. consultaţi titularii de curs şi de seminar ) B. Grijă extremă! Sensul expresiei subliniate anterior este altul în pedagogie decât cel folosit în vorbirea obişnuită. Gradul ridicat de competenţă de specialitate este dat de profunzimea stăpânirii problemelor dintr-un anumit domeniu şi nu de mulţimea cunoştinţelor într-un subdomeniu limitat al acestuia. SELECŢIONAŢI CONŢINUTUL ESENŢIAL NECESAR ÎNVĂŢĂRII ÎN CLASĂ Această operaţie dificilă solicită din competenţa dumneavoastră de specialitate.2.D.G. 3”? Comentaţi-le! Nr.7 epuizat pe toate cele pozitive şi v-aţi convins pe deplin de ineficacitatea lor.mândrie profesională! Într-adevăr. dar prea puţină geometrie. Le puteţi studia în Anexe şi în diverse lucrări. teoria mulţimilor... Ce s-ar întâmpla dacă educatorul nu ar lua în considerare „regula nr.5”? Nr.

de fapt.numerelor etc. cât şi pentru educatori. orice conţinut care condiţionează achiziţia altor conţinuturi mai complexe în domeniul respectiv (LOGICA ŞTIINŢIFICĂ) CONŢINUT ESENŢIAL este orice conţinut care nu poate fi asimilat de elev prin efort propriu pe baza altor achiziţii realizate. în acest sens. şi pentru reelaborarea manualelor alternative. Criteriile de alegere a conţinuturilor esenţiale sunt. ci numai sub îndrumarea profesorului (LOGICA PEDAGOGICĂ). gândit infailibil. atât pentru elevi. Fig. ANALIZAŢI RESURSELE MATERIALE 94 . factorii responsabili ar trebui să ia în considerare posibilitatea optimizării autentice a programelor şi manualelor şcolare de la multe discipline de învăţământ. logicii pedagogice a învăţării. algebra. orice educator specialist va putea decide cu uşurinţă în legătură cu fiecare obiectiv operaţional pe care şi-l propune. mult dintr-un domeniu. ci. Extragerea esenţialului dintr-un capitol. altul impus de logica pedagogică (didactică). C. două: unul impus de logica ştiinţifică. E drept că. lecţie. nu va putea să-i înveţe pe elevii săi esenţialul din aceste domenii care reprezintă marea construcţie care este matematica. să favorizeze construirea modelelor pedagogice ale disciplinelor – ca fundament solid pentru un Curriculum nou.. nr. câte informaţii să furnizeze elevului astfel încât aceasta să poată atinge cel puţin un nivel acceptabil de performanţă şcolară în clasă şi să continue instruirea în mod independent prin aprofundare şi detaliere. grup de lecţii este doar prima operaţie dintr-un lanţ întreg de activităţi care conduc subordonarea logicii ştiinţifice a disciplinei. Aşadar. 23 Logica selecţiei conţinuturilor esenţiale Considerând această definiţie ca un instrument de discriminare în cadrul prevederilor programelor de învăţământ.

fără a o mai comenta stăruitor. Majoritatea şcolilor le au în dotare.) Apreciem că avem de-a face cu o obligaţie elementară. folii transparente. Unele obiective pot solicita educatorul să confecţioneze el însuşi materiale de instruire (fişe. impusă de profesia de dascăl prin definiţie. ETAPA A III-A. CE TREBUIESĂ ÎNŢELEGEM PRIN „STRATEGIA DIDACTICĂ” Multitudinea sensurilor cu care expresia „strategie” este folosită de către psihopedagogi ne obligă să precizăm sensul pe care i-l acordăm aici: PRIN STRATEGIE DIDACTICĂ ÎNŢELEGEM CUPLUL DINTRE SARCINA DE ÎNVĂŢARE ŞI SITUAŢIA DE ÎNVĂŢARE ELABORATE PENTRU A-I OFERI ELEVULUI OCAZIA SĂ REALIZEZE UN ANUMIT OBIECTIV OPERAŢIONAL.Proiectarea instruirii nu pretinde resurse materiale costisitoare. cât mai uşor. Esenţial este ca fiecărui obiectiv să-i fie asigurate toate condiţiile necesare pentru a putea fi realizat de către toţi elevii cât mai repede. Reţineţi schema care urmează: 95 . cât mai temeinic. teste etc. cât mai plăcut. ELABORAŢI STRATEGII DIDACTICE „FOCALIZATE” ASUPRA OBIECTIVELOR URMĂRITe! A.

câteva caracteristici ale fiecărei componente ale unei strategii didactice: 96 .Expresii care desemnează NATURA SARCINII SARCINA DE LUCRU Enunţ imperativ adresat elevilor în mod diferenţiat pentru a realiza prin acţiune obiectivul SITUAŢIA DE ÎNVĂŢARE Cumul de condiţii asigurate elevului pentru a putea realiza sarcina conexă în minimum de timp şi cu maximum de satisfacţie a învăţării. Expresii care desemnează NIVELUL DE PERFORMANŢĂ scontat CONDIŢII INTERNE mecanisme de învăţare. materiale. instrucţiuni. CONDIŢII EXTERNE metode. mijloace. 24. sprijin direct. Structura strategiei didactice „focalizate” pe un obiectiv operaţional B. CUM SE DERIVĂ SARCINILE DE ÎNVĂŢARE ÎN CLASĂ Nu uitaţi.nr. aptitudini. STRATEGIA DIDACTICĂ Fig. îndrumări astfel organizate încât să declanşeze şi să întreţină condiţiile interne ale învăţării eficiente. motivaţie etc. de asemenea.

G2 = elevi cu ritm mediu. dar nu-i opreşte să-l depăşească SARCINA DE ÎNVĂŢARE 2. dar niciodată mai puţin decât poate fiecare”. Regula „ţintirii” obiectivului operaţional: „Solicitaţi elevii să facă exact acţiunea care defineşte capacitatea (comportamentul) specificat în obiectivul operaţional urmărit” Regula diferenţierii: „Cereţi tuturor să facă în acelaşi timp acelaşi lucru. Fig.cel puţin 9 adjective La sfârşitul activităţii didactice toţi elevii vor fi capabili să identifice adjectivele într-un text dat: obiectivul va fi atins dacă vor fi subliniate cel puţin 5 din cele 10 adjective existente şi nu va fi subliniat vre-un cuvânt care nu este adjectiv. Exemplu: OBIECTIV OPERAŢIONAL SARCINA DE ÎNVĂŢARE Citiţi cu atenţie textul. 4.1. Prin natura sa este identică cu obiectivul urmărit şi aceeaşi pentru toţi elevii din clasă. G3 = elevi cu ritm rapid. Se construieşte prin derivare directă din obiectivul operaţional urmărit. identificaţi adjectivele şi subliniaţi cu o linie: G1. În construirea sarcinilor de învăţare aplicaţi consecvent aceste două reguli: 4. Obligă elevii să realizeze un „minimum” de performanţă de învăţare.nr 25. 97 . în funcţie de capacităţile lor. Recitiţi încă o dată exemplul.2.cel puţin 7 adjective G3.cel puţin 5 adjective G2. 4. 3. Diferenţiază instruirea solicitând elevii să realizeze niveluri de performanţă diferită. G1 = grupul de elevi cu ritm lent de învăţare. Analizaţi sugestiile generate de sintagma „cel puţin” în formularea unei sarcini de învăţare. Corelaţia dintre obiectiv şi sarcina de învăţare în clasă În exemplu.1.

NU UITAŢI NICIODATĂ SĂ FOLOSIŢI EXPRESIA „CEL PUŢIN” CARE LIMITEAZĂ NIVELUL DE PERFORMANŢĂ „ÎN JOS” ŞI SUGEREAZĂ TUTUROR ELEVILOR SĂ SE DEPĂŞEASCĂ PE EI ÎNŞIŞI! D.26. Se construieşte prin raportarea strictă la NATURA sarcinii de lucru. Structura şi exigenţele situaţiei optime de învăţare Domeniul Sinteza şi Comprehensiu Cunoaşter Aplicarea Analiza psihomot nea evaluare ea Analizaţi atent schema din figura 32. SE CONSTRUIEŞTE CU PRECĂDERE PENTRU A ADECVA OBIECTIVELE URMĂRITE LA MECANISMELE ŞI POSIBILITĂŢILE DE ÎNVĂŢARE NECESARE PRODUCERII ÎNVĂŢĂRII ÎN CONDIŢIILE LEGILOR ECONOMIEI DE EFORT ŞI DE TIMP ŞI ALE LEGII EFECTULUI. se ia în considerare NIVELUL DE PERFORMANŢĂ MINIM pe care trebuie să-l realizeze fiecare elev sau grup de elevi în parte. 3. CUM SE CONSTRUIESC SITUAŢII OPTIME DE ÎNVĂŢARE SITUAŢIA DE INVĂŢARE 1. Ea cuprinde “marele secret” al învăţării eficiente ( or a Învăţar e de semnal Legături e S-R Rezolva Învăţare prin Învăţarea re de descoperi de reguli problem re Discrimin Învăţare Lanţuri şi e de ări motorii Asociaţii principii multiple concepte verbale 98 INSATISFACŢIE MAXIMĂ SATISFACŢIE NULĂ SATISFACŢIE MAXIMĂ . 2. Obligă la luarea în considerare a efectelor motivaţionale ale diverselor tipuri de învăţare ca schema de mai jos: Fig nr.

Dar condiţiile externe trebuie să le fie asigurate de oamenii numiţi educatori. În schema anterioară “se simte” intervenţia divină în natura umană.-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Fig.nr. Trebuie înţeles că: NU ESTE POSIBILĂ INSTRUIREA EFICIENTĂ DACĂ SE IGNORĂ FAPTUL CĂ EA SE PRODUCE PE BAZA UNOR MECANISME NATURALE DE ÎNVĂŢARE. Se confirmă viziunea comeniană: Dumnezeu a vrut ca Homo Sapiens să poată învăţa totul – ca o condiţie a mântuirii şi desăvârşirii sale. 99 . Obiectivul prioritar al creării unui complex de condiţii externe instruirii îl constituie „declanşarea” şi „funcţiona-rea” eficientă a mecanismelor de învăţare. Toţi copiii normali dispun de toate condiţiile interne pentru aceasta.27 „Fluctuaţiile” efectelor îndeplinirii sarcinilor de învăţare derivate din obiective operaţionale Poate părea “gongorică” afirmaţia următoare.

chiar dacă funcţionarea lor este diferită de la un individ la altul. IAR DIRIJAREA ACESTORA ESTE POSIBILĂ. EFICACITATEA GENERALĂ A INSTRUIRII POATE FI DETERMINATĂ ÎNTRUCÂT TOŢI CEI CARE ÎNVAŢĂ DISPUN DE CONDIŢIILE INTERNE NECESARE PRODUCERII ÎNVĂŢĂRII. în sensul că toate fiinţele normale posedă. ori de câte ori acestea sunt iminenete. regăsindu-şi înclinarea firească spre cunoaştere. atunci studiaţi-le consecvent în practică: Regula nr. A INSTRUI EFICIENT ÎNSEAMNĂ A DIRIJA MECANISMELE INTERNE ALE ÎNVĂŢĂRII ÎN DIRECŢIA OBIECTIVELOR PEDAGOGICE STABILITE. SINTEZĂ SAU EVALUARE constituie o ocazie pentru dumneavoastră de a-i face pe elevi conştienţi de faptul că posedă şi pot folosi mecanismele ÎNVĂŢĂRII PRIN DESCOPERIRE ajutându-i să-şi formeze un stil propriu de studiu eficient. Mecanismele de învăţare sunt universale. învăţaţi-i să DISCRIMINEZE şi/sau să GENERALIZEZE prevenind eşecurile. ANALIZĂ. aveţi obligaţia să motivaţi intens instruirea prin sancţiuni pozitive puternice. ci o serie de reguli de acţiune.3 Orice obiectiv de APLICARE.De fapt. Dar figura anterioară sugerează nu numai adevărurile de mai sus. 100 . pe care elevul le va resimţi ca „ocazii de a învăţa”. Dacă vreţi să realizaţi situaţii optime de învăţare.1 Ori de câte ori obiectivul pe care îl urmăriţi face parte din clasa CUNOAŞTERII elevul va fi determinat să apeleze la mecanismul învăţării prin ASOCIAŢII VERBALE care îi vor procura doar o satisfacţie scăzută sau nici una.2 Ori de câte ori veţi solicita elevii să realizeze obiective de COMPREHENSIUNE. procedaţi ca la regula nr. Regula nr. Regula nr.1.

EVALUAREA FORMATIVĂ CONTINUĂ . la aceeaşi clasă. ELABORAŢI TESTE PENTRU EVALUAREA PROGRESULUI INSTRUIRII Dacă dorim să avem permanent ”sub control” modul în care se desfăşoară instruirea pentru a preveni la timp dereglările procesului sau pentru a le corecta oportun atunci când s-au produs.1.. ( Dacă aveţi dificultăţi în rezolvarea acestor exerciţii.APLICAŢIE SPECIALĂ ( Exerciţii şi probleme) Nr. titularul de curs ) ETAPA A IV-A. Nr. Păstraţi cu grijă acest material. trebuie să practicăm două tipuri de evaluare: . Recitiţi-l după ce veţi fi realizat succesiv. studiaţio atent şi redactaţi un referat. Elaboraţi situaţii de învăţare pentru zece dintre sarcinile pe care le-aţi derivat anterior. Gagné (E. trei lecţii proiectate în conformitate cu cele expuse în această lucrare. precizând condiţiile interne pentru fiecare. Elaboraţi un material în care să contraziceţi cu argumente de care dispuneţi afirmaţia ”eficacitatea generală a instruirii poate fi determinată”. Nr. Imaginaţi-vă cum ar reacţiona elevii clasei în aceste condiţii.2. Alegeţi un capitol oarecare din programa de învăţământ la o clasă pe care o cunoaşteţi bine şi la care veţi preda disciplina dvs.EVALUAREA SUMATIVĂ PERIODICĂ 101 . 1975). Nr. consultaţi colegii sau. Specificaţi obiectivele terminale şi apoi obiectivele operaţionale pentru întregul capitol. în trimestrul următor. în ultimă instanţă.D. Elaboraţi sarcini de învăţare diferenţială corespunzătoare fiecărui obiectiv.4. Prezentaţi referatul într-o şedinţă a comisiei metodice sau a catedrei.P. Procuraţi-vă lucrarea Condiţiile învăţării de R.M. dar nu daţi nici o contrareplică. Notaţi-vă opiniile colegilor pe marginea referatului dvs.3.

A. Reţineţi câteva dintre caracteristicile lor: MSD Funcţionează MLD Funcţionează un timp îndelungat . De la ”MSD” la “MLD” Învăţarea umană se “consumă” la nivelul a două tipuri de memorie: memoria de scurtă durată (MSD) şi memoria de lungă durată (MLD). Înregistrează numai parţial informaţiile şi nu permite subiectului să le actualizeze cu fidelitate. Este puţin şi numai în timp îndelungat afectată de uitare.nr. un timp foarte scurt. limitat la câteva secunde sau minute. Înregistrează complet (sau aproape complet) informaţiile dând posibilitatea subiectului să le actualizeze cu maximum de fidelitate. Funcţionează pe baza unei părţi din achiziţiile MSD. Este puternic şi rapid afectată de uitare. Condiţionează achiziţiile în MLD Fig. 29 Raporturile dintre MSD şi MLD Observaţi cu atenţie figura de mai jos: 102 .

nr. Înregistrarea informaţiilor în MSD şi MLD în procesul învăţării Fără îndoială. nu uitaţi că: este aşadar imperios necesar ca: Acest proces trebuie să fie permanent controlat. observăm însă că aceasta nu se poate obţine decât în baza retenţiei imediate. 30. MLD este cea care asigură temeinicia învăţării. AŞADAR. ORICE CUNOŞTINŢĂ ESENŢIALĂ SĂ FIE ACHIZIŢIONATĂ MAI ÎNTÂI ÎN MSD REGULA DE AUR: EVALUAREA FORMATIVĂ TREBUIE SĂ FIE CONTINUĂ IAR  EVALUAREA SUMATIVĂ SĂ NU FIE IGNORATĂ NICIODATĂ !  103 .Fig. ÎN MDL NU EXISTĂ NIMIC CARE SĂ NU FI FOST ANTERIOR ÎN MSD.

în acest sens se impune practicarea evaluării sumative sau cumulative. Se realizează în raport cu puterea de păstrare şi integrare a cunoştinţelor în MLD fiind diferenţiatoare. atât dvs. Se realizează imediat încheierea învăţării. dar nu trebuie să excludă APRECIEREA PERSONALĂ. Se raportează la obiectivele terminale ale unităţii de instruire. 104 . Îndeplineşte rol de conexiune inversă imediată. nivelatoare. periodic trebuie să verificaţi modul în care se realizează transferul cunoştinţelor din msd în mld. fiind deci. nuanţată. Se realizează la perioade şi date de timp care marchează încheierea unor unităţi (capitole. Se realizează în baza unor standarde de performanţă unitare.. Se raportează strict la obiectivele operaţionale ale activităţii didactice. reţineţi câteva deosebiri între cele două tipuri de evaluare: EVALUAREA FORMATIVĂ Verifică achiziţia cunoştinţelor în MSD. după EVALUAREA SUMATIVĂ Verifică reintegrarea cunoştinţelor în MLD şi temeinicia învăţăturii.. cât şi elevilor să. Depistează erorile şi lacunele instrucţionale care nu vor permite continuarea instruirii. etc. Este de dorit ca evaluarea formativă şi evaluarea sumativă să se bazeze pe MĂSURAREA OBIECTIVĂ a cunoştinţelor şi capacităţilor de a opera cu ele. PREVENIŢI LA TIMP ŞI SĂ CORECTAŢI IMEDIAT APARIŢIA UNOR LACUNE ESENŢIALE ÎN CUNOŞTINŢELE ELEVILOR.. Depistează pierderile de cunoştinţe şi dificultăţile provocate de uitare. ÎN plus. a performanţelor elevilor. grup de lecţii.A ceasta înseamnă că trebuie să. PRACTICAŢI DUPĂ ORICE ÎNVĂŢARE ÎN CLASĂ EVALUAREA FORMATIVĂ A PROGRESULUI INSTRUIRII Evaluarea continuă a progreselor instruirii vă va permite..) de instruire.

Diagnosticaţi starea iniţială a instruirii. itemii săi conţin NOI SARCINI DE LUCRU DERIVATE DIN OBIECTIVELE OPERAŢONALE URMĂRITE DIFERIT SUB RAPORTUL CONŢINUTULUI DAR DE ACEEAŞI NATURĂ CU SARCINILE DE ÎNVĂŢARE ÎN CLASĂ. rezolvând un set de probleme date. Cum se pot realiza acestea? Înainte de a studia cele ce urmează. Rezolvaţi cel puţin primele 3 probleme din cele date mai jos: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 105 . CUM SE ELABOREAZĂ TESTELE FORMATIVE PENTRU EVALUAREA CONTINUĂ? Reţineţi! PRINCIPIUL FUNDAMENTAL AL ELABORĂRII TESTELOR ESTE URMĂTORUL: PUNE-L PE ELEV ÎN SITUAŢIA DE A MAI REALIZA ÎNCĂ O DATĂ OBIECTIVELE URMĂRITE CEL PUŢIN LA UN NIVEL ACCEPTABIL. stăruiţi asupra paragrafelor dedicate problemei elaborării testelor predictive. OBIECTIV OPERAŢIONAL SARCINA DE ÎNVĂŢARE ITEM ÎN TESTUL FORMATIV La sfârşitul activităţii didactice toţi elevii vor fi capabili să aplice regula de 3 simplă. testul formativ face parte integrantă din proiectul pedagogic. obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă vor fi rezolvate 3 din cele 7 probleme date Aplicaţi regula de 3 simplă şi rezolvaţi: G1 – cel puţin 3 probleme date G2 – cel puţin 5 probleme date G3 – cel puţin 6 probleme date 10. mai recitiţi încă o dată cap. Prin urmare. C.În vederea asigurării OBIECTIVIŢĂŢII MĂSURĂRII educatorii trebuie să facă apel la TESTE DOCIMOLOGICE elaborate de ei înşişi în chiar procesul planificării şi proiectării instruirii.

Fig.31. Corelaţiile “obiective – sarcini – evaluare”

Reţineţi:

Regula nr.1 Itemii testului formativ trebuie astfel formulat încât să vizeze EXACT natura obiectivului urmărit. Regula nr.2 Itemii testului formativ trebuie să ofere posibilitatea de a depăşi standardul minimal de performanţă şcolară, dar reuşita sau nereuşita se vor judeca în funcţie de acest standard. Regula nr.3 Nu formulaţi niciodată itemii diferiţi: toţi elevii trebuie puşi în faţa aceloraşi sarcini. Regula nr. 4 Nu ajutaţi niciodată elevii în timpul rezolvării unui test formativ şi nici nu-i lăsaţi să se ajute între ei.

D. CUM SE ELABOREAZĂ TESTELE SUMATIVE? Revedeţi exemplu anterior. Înlocuiţi expresia “obiectiv operaţional” cu expresia “obiectiv terminal”(sau „competenţă/capacitate”) şi eliminaţi “sarcina de învăţare” şi veţi obţine formula de derivare a itemilor testului sumativ. De fapt, ea prezintă analogii cu cea de elaborare a testelor predictive. Deosebirea dintre testele sumative şi cele predicative constă în faptul că primele vizează un ciclu de instruire aflat în curs de desfăşurare şi nu unul încheiat anterior.

Reţineţi:
Este

de dorit ca testele sumative să fie aplicate de cel puţin 3-4 ori într-un semestru; ultimul test sumativ trebuie să conţină itemi care verifică întreaga

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materie parcursă într-un trimestru.
Este

firesc ca teza semestrială să se constituie după principiile evaluării sumative.

4.5..ELABORAREA SCENARIILOR DIDACTICE

4.5.1. Ce sunt şi ce nu sunt evenimentele instrucţionale
Înainte de a studia cele ce urmează mai citiţi cu atenţie teoria şi modelul celor „nine events” propuse de către Robert Mainard Gagne. ( Folosiţi Documentarul ataşat la această lucrare). Străduiţi-vă să înţelegeţi cât mai exact conceptul de “eveniment instrucţional”. Veţi constata că următoarele:

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-„momente” sau „trepte formale” ale lecției; - zece pă rți distincte ale timului de învăț are în clasă ;

-conduite ale educatorului NU SUNT

EVENIMENTELE INSTRUCTIONALE

-acțiuni al educatorului menite să declașeze categrii diferite de motivație și motivare a învăță rii - fenomene psihologice menite să întrețină activ învățarea pânăla sfârșitul activităț ii didactice; - o succesiune de procedee menite să focalizeze efortul de învăț are asupra obiectivelor și sarcinilor de lucru; - efectul cumulat al mai multor procedee de motivare menit să accelereze ritmurile individuale de învăț are; - asigurarea continuităț ii în învăț are după ce dirijarea ei în clasă a încetat

SUNT

Figura Nr. 32 Deosebirile dintre „evenimentele instrucţionale” şi „treptele/momentele lecţiei”

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Din cele de mai sus se pot deduce câteva reguli de declanşare şi realizare a evenimentelor instrucţionale. Nu le uitaţi:

Regula nr.1 “Produceţi” evenimente instrucţionale pe cât posibil în succesiunea arătată. Regula nr.2 Evitaţi “procedura” formală a evenimentelor instrucţionale. Regula nr.3 Parcurgeţi fiecare eveniment în ritmul cel mai rapid cu putinţă. Regula nr.4 Asiguraţi legături “organice” între evenimentele instruirii, conferind ansamblului lor funcţia de feed-back permanent. Regula nr.5 Acordaţi importanţă tuturor evenimentelor dar rezervaţi maximum de importanţă evaluării progresului învăţării.

În fine, nu uitaţi sugestiile pe care vi le propunem în legătură cu fiecare dintre evenimentele instruirii.

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4.5.2.CUM SE CAPTEAZĂ ATENŢIA TUTUROR ELEVILOR PÂNĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL ACTIVITĂŢII?

Nu vă lăsaţi induşi în eroare de expresia de mai sus. Expresia “captarea atenţiei” este formulată în termenii specifici psihologiei behavioriste. Dincolo de “atenţie” ca proces de focalizare a energiei trebuie avute în vedere celelalte procese psihice care furnizează această energie. Folosiţi-vă de această sugestie care pare bizară.

DACĂ DORIŢI SĂ CAPTAŢI ŞI SĂ MENŢINEŢI ATENŢIA ELEVILOR CEL PUŢIN PÂNĂ L A SFÂRŞITUL ACTIVITĂŢII, PUNEŢI-I “SĂ CÂNTE”…”AIDA”!

Adică:

A I D A

- stârnindu-le ATENŢIA şi - INTERESUL pentru învăţare - declanşându-le DORINŢA de a învăţa - în mod ACTIV, prin efort propriu

Captarea atenţiei elevilor vă solicită să daţi dovadă de…întreaga dvs. măiestrie pedagogică. Acesta încât… NUMAI DACĂ PROCEDEUL DE CAPTARE A ATENŢIEI ESTE EFICACE. ATUNCI SE POATE SCONTA CĂ OBIECTIVELE ACTIVITĂŢII VOR FI REALIZATE. Din păcate, nu vă putem recomanda procedee universal valabile. Puteţi apela, desigur, la:

-tehnicile de condiţionare a comportamentului;

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  

-la procedeul “sarcinilor întrerupte”; -implicarea în sarcină; -simulări didactice; etc.

Dar…

VĂ SUNT PERMISE ORICE PROCEDEE CARE STRÂRNESC ATENŢIA ŞI INTERESUL ELEVILOR PENTRU ACTIVITATEA DIDACTICĂ ŞI GENEREAZĂ DORINŢA DE A ÎNVĂŢA ACTIV.

Imaginaţia pedagogică şi creativitatea didactică vă sunt solicitate la maximum. Dacă nu vă puteţi transpune prin EMPATIE în personalitatea şi mentalitatea celui care învaţă, veţi putea susţine doar cu mare dificultate că sunteţi un educator autentic…

4.5.3. DE CE ŞI CUM SE ENUNŢĂ OBIECTIVELE URMĂRITE?
Acestor două întrebări li se poate oferi un singur răspuns: OBIECTIVELE PEDAGOGICE SE ENUNŢĂ ÎNTOTDEAUNA PE ÎNŢELESUL ELEVULUI. Aşa cum am mai spus, activitatea de instruire trebuie să fie şi…educativă. Or, EDUCAŢIA ESTE, PRIN DEFINIŢIE, UN PROCES CONŞTIENT.

Orice instruire rămâne doar… dresaj câtă vreme cel “instruit” nu cunoaşte scopurile pentru care este instruit. Urmaţi schema de mai jos:

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Educatorul raţional şi pasionat îi va răspunde întotdeauna negativ. de regulă. pe la jumătatea secolului XX Eduard Claparede evoluţia psihologică a activităţii umane în condiţiile şcolii tradiţionale. în chip natural.Fig. Sunteţi obligat – nu numai de raţiuni pedagogice. 112 . CONŞTIENTIZAREA REZULTATELOR SCONTATE ALE NVĂŢĂRII DE CĂTRE ELEV CONSTITUIE ŞI UN FACTOR DE MOTIVARE PUTERNICĂ A ACESTUIA. „Scurt -circuitul şcolar” În acest mod încerca să reprezinte. Nr. Se poate ignora faptul că fiecare fiinţă omenească doreşte. fără sens pentru elev. 33. să-şi îmbunătăţească în mod permanent capacităţile? Această ultimă întrebare este retorică. dar şi etice – să evitaţi manifestările didactice de tipul celor criticate de Claparede. Renumitul pedagog deplângea faptul că în şcoala tradiţională sarcinile de instruire formulate de educatorul magistral erau. În plus. să se perfecţioneze.

Atenţie însă: 113 .5. Orice obiectiv operaţional se “leagă” de alte obiective realizate anterior. Modelul pe care vi-l propunem vă solicită… modificarea atitudinii faţă de această obligaţie.4. Aceste “legături” trebuie să vă fie dumneavoastră înşivă foarte clare şi le actualizaţi solicitând elevii. Chiar dacă nu toţi elevii vor reuşi acest lucru. SĂ DEMONSTREZE CĂ MAI PĂSTREAZĂ ÎN MEMORIE CUNOŞTINŢELE NECESARE PENTRU A PUTEA REALIZA NOILE OBICTIVE. CUM SE ACTUALIZEAZĂ “ANCORELE ÎNVĂŢĂRII” O dată enunţate clar obiectivele instruirii. ÎN LOCUL VERIFICĂRII DETALIATE A LECŢIEI PRECEDENTE ESTE NECESAR SĂ VERIFICAŢI PERMANENT ÎNTREAGA MATERIE PARCURSĂ DE ELEV ÎN “CHEI ESENŢIALE”.4. educatorul este dator să verifice dacă acestea… pot fi realizate! Reţineţi: ORICE ÎNVĂŢARE NOUĂ ESTE CONDIŢIONATĂ DE ALTA ANTERIOARĂ Problema este însă de a VERIFICA CEEA CE TREBUIE! Ce înseamnă “a verifica ceea ce trebuie?” În şcoala noastră tradiţia verificării lecţiei anterioare are o lungime considerabilă. este suficient ca unul (unii) să realizeze acest lucru: actualizarea va antrena reamintirea cunoştinţelor respective de către elevi. citind considerabil continuarea instruirii.

dar nu mereu pe aceiaşi elevi. acest eveniment instrucţional constituie un “moment delicat” pentru elevi.   114 . dar …nu pedepsiţi pe cei care au pierdut informaţii sau capacităţi anterior câştigate. Raţiunea ultimă a actualizării ancorelor o constituie… DIMINUAREA PIERDERILOR LA NIVELUL MEMORIEI DE LUNGĂ DURATĂ Prin urmare. dar nu trebuie să insistaţi când unii dintre ei întâmpină dificultăţi.      Nu vă străduiţi să verificaţi altceva decât ceea ce se referă la obiectivele pe care le urmaţi! Nu intraţi în amănunte nesemnificative! Nu pierdeţi cu “actualizarea ancorelor” mai mult de 5-6 minute într-o lecţie! Nu transformaţi “actualizarea ancorelor” într-un eveniment de verificare severă! Evitaţi stresul şi demotivarea! Acordaţi note în timpul “actualizării ancorelor”. în special pentru elevii la care fenomenele de uitare se manifestă mai intens. Este preferabil să desfăşuraţi acest eveniment adresând elevilor întrebări frontale şi să-i solicitaţi să răspundă. Este recomandabil să transformaţi evenimentul într-un moment de încurajare a tuturor elevilor în vederea noii învăţări. De aceea:  Este de dorit ca în actualizarea ancorelor să fie antrenaţi cât mai mulţi elevi.

4. ba chiar îndemnaţi-i pe elevi să colaboreze în grupuri mici. Ajutaţi-i cu precădere pe elevii cu ritm lent să se încadreze în acest timp. dar evitaţi cât mai mult “predarea” cunoştinţelor.5. Răspundeţi însă oricăror solicitări de sprijin şi preveniţi dificultăţile unor elevi. poate realiza sarcina cu ECONOMIE DE EFORT. Stabiliţi un timp limită pentru realizarea fiecărei sarcini. PREZENTAREA SARCINILOR DE LUCRU. apoi oferiţi condiţii pentru a o realiza. DIRIJAREA ÎNVĂŢĂRII. Transmiteţi mai întâi sarcina de lucru. Lăsaţi-i. Îndată ce v-aţi asigurat că elevii pot continua învăţarea. Nu uitaţi că din situaţia de învăţare fac parte şi informaţiile de care elevii au nevoie pentru a realiza sarcina de învăţare. Procedaţi astfel încât ELEVII SĂ “ÎNVEŢE FĂCÂND” ACŢIUNILE MENTALE SPECIFICATE ÎN OBIECTIVELE OPERAŢIONALE ALE ACTIVITĂŢII. Concentraţi-vă atenţia în dirijarea învăţării acestui aspect: ELEVII NU TREBUIE LĂSAŢI CU NICI UN PREŢ SĂ ÎNCERCE SĂ REZOLVE SARCINILE DE ÎNVĂŢARE ÎNTR-UN MOD INADECVAT OBIECTIVULUI URMĂRIT. 115 . OBŢINEREA PERFORMANŢELOR ŞI ASIGURAREA CONEXIUNII INVERSE. încurajai-i să se autodepăşească. Fiţi permanent în alertă faţă de grupul elevilor cu viteză de lucru scăzută. obiectivele pe rând. “atacaţi”. precizaţi-l elevilor şi nu permiteţi depăşirea lui. nu pierdeţi din vedere că acestea din urmă trebuie să fie suficiente pentru ca elevii să:    trăiască sentimentul că au OCAZIA DE A ÎNVĂŢA. DE TIMP şi cu SATISFACŢIA REUŞITEI.5.

Explicaţi-le că nu fac economie de efort şi de timp abordând cu metode simple probleme care li se par dificile. Evaluarea formativă a învăţării este de fapt. Încurajaţi-i prin orice alte mijloace. tot învăţare. ci una demonstrată ştiinţific. Faceţi-i pe elevi conştienţi de acest lucru. 6. Preveniţi permanent acest efect de “împingere în jos” a comportamentului de învăţare. Explicaţi-le că aceasta nu este o afirmaţie gratuită. manifestă tendinţa de a realiza sarcinile de lucru cu mecanisme de învăţare aflate pe trepte inferioare ale ierarhiei prezentate în subcapitolele anterioare. Nu uitaţi că toţi elevii. Ajutaţi-i să-şi conştientizeze exact resursele interne de învăţare şi ajutaţi-i să le adecveze precis la natura fiecărei sarcini de lucru. Informaţi-i că fiecare dintre ei poate să înveţe ceea ce trebuie învăţat. ABORDAŢI EVALUAREA FORMATIVĂ CA PE   UN PRILEJ ACORDAT ELEVULUI SĂ-ŞI FIXEZE TEMEINIC CUNOŞTINŢELE şi de 116 . Informaţi-i. inclusiv cei cu ritmuri şi potenţial mare de învăţare. Este „învăţarea de consolidare” adică de asigurarea a retenţiei mnemonice şi de asigurare anticipată a TRANSFERULUI PROACTIV.. în legătură cu corectitudinea utilizării de către ei a condiţiilor interne de învăţare. Încurajaţi-i să persevereze în depăşirea dificultăţilor. EVALUAREA PROGRESULUI INSTRUIRII Acesta constituie momentul cel mai important al instruirii. Prin urmare.5.       4. după fiecare sarcină..

Raţiunea care întemeiază aceste două reguli este uşor de dedus: cunoaşterea rezultatelor este momentul de maximă intensitate a învăţării. Reţineţi DOUĂ INTERDICŢII: • • Nu-i sprijiniţi pe elevi în nici un fel în timpul testului de progres! Nu permiteţi elevilor în timpul rezolvării testelor de progres să se ajute între ei! Pentru evaluarea formativă trebuie rezervat. Aceasta atrage atenţia asupra importanţei autocorectării este net mai avantajoasă decât corectarea testelor de către educator prin efectul formativ imediat pe care îl 117 . Acesta trebuie subîmpărţit în două părţi: • timp destinat REZOLVĂRII testului • timp destinat AUTOCORECTĂRII testului Educatorul înţelept va căuta să desfăşoare întreaga activitate didactică făcând economie de timp. de la început. Regula nr. reprezentând producerea conexiunii inverse.1 PENTRU REZOLVAREA TESTULUI STABILIŢI UN TIMP LIMITĂ ŞI NU PERMITEŢI DEPĂŞIREA LUI DE CĂTRE ELEVI. Reţineţi DOUĂ NOI REGULI: Regula nr. probabilitatea ca ei să greşească a doua oară în acelaşi fel scade vertiginos. Orice astfel de “economie” trebuie făcută în beneficiul evaluării progresului şcolar.2 “PIERDEŢI CÂT MAI MULT TIMP POSIBIL CU AUTOCORECTAREA TESTELOR DE PROGRES DE CĂTRE ELEVI.A-ŞI IDENTIFICA ÎN TIMP DIFICULTĂŢILE ÎN PREGĂTIRE. Chiar şi elevii care îşi descoperă greşeli învaţă.  OPORTUN LACUNELE ŞI Instruirea prin evaluare formativă trebuie să fie exclusive una independentă. un cuantum de timp rezonabil din timpul disponibil.

INTENSIFICAŢI TRANSFERUL ŞI… PREGĂTIŢI ÎNVĂŢAREA ACASĂ Rezultatele testului de progres trebuie folosit în tot ceea ce interesează asigurarea continuităţii învăţării.ASIGURAŢI RETENŢIA. întărirea capacităţilor formate. 118 .5. 4. intensificând retenţia la nivelul memoriei de scurtă durată şi asigurând condiţii de “ trecere” masivă a cunoştinţelor în memoria de lungă durată. adăugarea de detalii la conţinuturile esenţiale deja însuşite.  TRANSFERUL ORIZONTAL presupune lărgirea cunoştinţelor.  Ambele se pot soluţiona furnizând elevilor noi sarcini de învăţare ca “teme pentru acasă” şi asigurând condiţii interne şi externe de realizare.7.produce asupra oricărui elev. adâncirea cunoştinţelor esenţiale. Încă din timpul autocorectării puteţi stabili SARCINI DIFERENŢIATE DE LUCRU PENTRU ACASĂ pentru a “acoperi” lacunele descoperite la unii elevi. a intensifica RETENŢIA cunoştinţelor de către toţi elevii şi a sprijini TRANSFERUL acestora:   PE VERTICALĂ PE ORIZONTALĂ TRANSFERUL VERTICAL presupune aprofundarea.

* APLICAŢII ( titularii de seminar au libertatea de a folosi aceste aplicaţii îmn momentele cele mai adecvate pentru desfăşurarea cursului )  Aplicaţia Nr. cu asistenţă tehnică avizată ).7 Elaboraţi scenariile didactice de implementare la 5 proiecte de română/franceză/engleză realizate pe parcurs/anterior respectând exigenţele de tehnologie educaţională şi în conformitate strictă cu cele „nine instructional events” ( Gagne).8 Continuaţi aplicaţia nr. 9 Dacă aplicaţiile nr.  Aplicaţia Nr. NEMIJLOCIT.TEMELE PENTRU ACASĂ VOR FI REZOLVATE ÎN AFARA CONTROLULUI DVS. şi plasaţi-l pe site-ul ISJ-Braila pentru a recomanda experienţa şi opera dvs. didactică tuturor colegilor din alte regiuni ale României şi chiar în străinătate *** 119 . 7 şi nr.8 au fost realizate cu succes atunci scrieţi un text explicativ.7 transformând cel puţin unul dintre scenariile didactice întrun scenariu care ar putea fi transpus pe film şifolosit ca material didacic modern ( lucru în echipe de 7-6 cursanţi. redactat corespunzător.  Aplicaţia Nr.

II. Ce modificări veţi aduce? VI. numai unele dintre micro-proiecte ele sunt corecte. numerotate de la 1 la 5. Corectaţi proiectele eronate. accesibile oricărui profesor. Deduceţi pentru fiecare eroare identificată consecinţele negative care s-ar produce în practică dacă proiectul(ele) ar fi aplicat(e). Identificaţi şi numiţi cel puţin 5 erori în fiecare proiect incorect pe care l-aţi găsit. V. Atenţie. V. S-au ales intenţionat teme simple şi diferite de specialitatea dvs. Citiţi-le cu atenţie şi spuneţi câte dintre ele conţin erori grave. III. Numiţi proiectele incorecte. IV. Alăturat sunt reproduse micro-proiecte foarte simple din învăţământul primar.AUTOTESTAŢI-VĂ CUNOŞTINŢELE! I. pentru a putea sesiza în mod obiectiv aspectele pozitive şi erorile. * 120 . Argumentaţi pe scurt ameliorările propuse la pct.

Vântul bate puternic. subiectele într-un text Bunicul stă pe prispă. Adie vântul. S3-Introduceţi în 121 . Pletele dat. Pe ogoare subiectele muncesc cu spor existente ………. subiecte IO Introduceţi cel 3- G2 – cel puţin 8 puţin 3 subiecte în textul de mai jos: subiecte în G3 – toate ………lucrează fabrici. învăţare ……… au creioane rezolvate de roşii. Animalele se 11 elevi pregătesc pentru iernat. O2 – Să Se scutură din salcâm o ploaie identifice de miresme. A textul de mai început ploaia. La şcoală Sit. copiii merg la şcoală. Pădurea vuieşte.OBIECTUL: GRAMATICA TEMA: SUBIECTUL clasa a III-a PROIECT DIDACTIC NR. ……… iubesc probleme copiii (părinţi. lui albe şi creţe sublinindu-le flutură în vânt. Cucul îşi cântă numele. Cu greu G1 – cel puţin 6 se pot zări trecătorii. Pe sus norii aleargă S2-Subliniaţi în ameninţători. elevi. S1-Scrieţi puţin: G1 + definiţia subiectului cel IO1-Scrieţi definiţia subiectului G2: IO2-Identificaţi cel puţin 6 subiecte în textul de mai jos: G3: definiţia subiectului + întrebările acestuia Fluieră mierlele. toţi apţi Partea de pentru învăţătura propoziţie care fiind de niveluri: arată despre cine se vorbeşte în RITM LENT 5 propoziţie se elevi numeşte subiect. Se apropie iarna. Clasa are un efectiv de 34 de elevi. RITM MEDIU CO2-Toamna 18 elevi natura RITM RAPID amorţeşte. muncitorii. 1 OBIECTIVE OPERATION ALE La sfârşitul activităţii didactice elevii vor fi capabili: CONŢINUT ADECVAT CO1-Definiţia subiectului: CAPACITĂŢI DE ÎNVĂŢARE STRATEGII DIDACTICE ITEMII TESTULUI DE EVALUARE O1 – Să se scrie definiţia subiectului rezolvând exerciţiul 1 pag. Pe drum. Ceaţa jos: este deasă. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă vor scrie că subiectul este partea de propoziţie care arată despre cine se vorbeşte în propoziţie. Soarele încălzeşte tot mai puţin. tip de ……… învaţă bine. 14.

fi considerat atins dacă vor completa cu altă parte de propoziţie. ţăranii) CO3-Elevii merg la şcoală. Pe bănci cărţile stau deschise. Le-a explicat o lecţie nouă învăţătoarea. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă vor scrie cel puţin 3 propoziţii G1 – cel puţin 4 IO4--Scrieţi cel puţin subiecte 3 propoziţii utilizând cuvintele de mai jos G2 – toate ca subiecte: Decebal. libere. Stilourile sunt O3 – Să pline cu cerneală introducă într. ocupaţii (o singură dată) învăţare discriminări multiple S4-Creaţi propoziţii utilizând cuvintele date (o singură dată) ca subiect G1 – cel puţin 3 subiecte G2 – cel puţin 4 subiecte G3 – 5 propoziţii 122 . zăpadă. strămoşii. ger. textul următor: profesorii. gheţuş. zăpadă. locul spaţiilor iarnă. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă vor sublinia cel puţin 6 din cele 10 subiecte şi nu vor sublinia alt cuvânt care nu este subiect. tip de viteaz. Sit.albastră. un text dat CO4-Propoziţii lacunar cuvintele: subiectele în cu ger. animale. gheţuş. ca subiecte (o singură dată). Obiectivul va animale. O4 – Să creeze propoziţii utilizând cuvintele: iarnă. Ei deschid caietele. Ochii bunicului au rămas ca odinioară.cu o linie. subiectele date Traian.

123 . cuvintele date fiind subiecte şi nu altă parte de propoziţie.din 5 propoziţii posibile.

. B..OBIECTUL: MATEMATICA TEMA: ADUNAREA CU 3 CONSOLIDAREA ADUNĂRII ŞI A SCĂDERII CU 0. Obiectivul va di considerat atins dacă elevii vor rezolva cel puţin 5 exerciţii din cele 8 şi nu vor confunda adunarea cu scăderea Clasa are un efectiv de 38 de 4+3= elevi...M... C.A. D.R. 7+3= Nivelurile: de RITM G1 SO1 Scrieţi I(O1)(rezolvaţi): 2+3= 3+4= 6+3= 3+6= 0+3= 3+5= 7+3= 3+3= G1 – cel puţin 5 din cele 8 LENT: exerciţii G2 – cel puţin 6 S.2 PROIECT DIDACTIC NR.I. D. G3 – toate cele 8 fişa de RITM MEDIU: + îmbogăţire G2 L. 3+ =6 rezolvând 5+ =8 două coloane de exerciţii + 7=10 din caietul tip. D. Sit.. tip M.C. D..T.A.O..L. S.G.S....F. B.1.. L..O. toţi apţi 5+3= pentru 6+3= învăţătură.S.N. C..A.M.A. F.I.A.... T. P..C.A. Z. învăţare B. M. N. de – de 124 . rezolvate RITM RAPID : probleme G3 U.A.I. G. B. P...G.M. 2 OBIECTIVE OPERAŢION ALE La sfârşitul activităţii didactice elevii vor fi capabili: CONŢINUT ADECVAT CO1 – 1+3= 2+3= 3+0= 3+3= CAPACITĂŢI DE ÎNVĂŢARE STRATEGII DIDACTICE ITEMII TESTULUI DE EVALUARE O1 – Să aplice tehnica în Fişă cazul adunării îmbogăţire cu 3.. S. din 8 D.. D..C..

A.E..=10 7….M..G. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă elevii vor reuşi să recunoască cel puţin 3 rezultate corecte din cele 5 egalităţi existente.. T. ei 125 . dându-se 5 egalităţii. M.= SO2 Puneţi +sau I(O2) – în: G1 – cel puţin 4 operaţii din 6 G2 – 5 din 6 G3 – 6 din 6 + fişa de îmbogăţire de + Sit.. P. tip de învăţare – 6-1= rezolvare de probleme 7-1= O4 – Să creeze CO4 Creaţi probleme problemele după dându-se 3 operaţiile SO4 I(O4) Punându-se în faţa elevilor 3 G1 – cel puţin o probleme ilustrate. S.V.C..A..C.2=4 5….A.=6 7…. S.0=0 3…...1=4 0…. C.1=9 7 9….=5 8….4=7 5….3=10 fi atins dacă 6….M. O2 – Să completeze spaţiile punctate cu semnul corespunzător operaţiei + sau – CO2 3….M.1=5 vor pune cel Fişă puţin 4 semne îmbogăţire din 6 7= 9= O3 – Să distingă rezultatele greşite şi cele corecte.=10 Obiectivul va 7…. I. + CO3 Tăiaţi cu o linie rezultatele greşite: 3+3= 5+2= 6+3= 8+2= I(O3) G1 – cel puţin 3 4+3= din 5 1+1= G2 – 4 din 5 3+5= G3 – 5 din 5 4+2= Sit. tip învăţare discriminări multiple SO3 de – 2…...1=6 8….F. P.I. M.

=8 I(O5) G1 – cel puţin 5 6+ =8 operaţii din 8 2 +2 =5 G2 – cel puţin 6 3+ =4 din 8 G3 – 8 din 8 Sit. tip de învăţare – învăţare prin descoperire SO5 să scrie operaţia.operaţii.2 =2 10. O5 – Să completeze pătrăţelele libere cu cifrele corespunzătoa re. 3+6=9 Obiectivul va fi considerat 5-1=4 atins dacă vor 3+3=6 compune cel puţin o problemă probleme G2 – cel puţin două probleme G3 – 3 din 3 Sit. fără a confunda cifrele. CO5 6+ =9 5+ =8 7+ =10 4+ =6 2 +2 =4 3+ =5 2 .=8 – 2 .=6 3+ =6 126 .=2 de 8 . tip învăţare rezolvare probleme 4 . Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă elevii vor rezolva corect cel puţin 5 exerciţii din 8 existente. dându-se două coloane de exerciţii din manual.0 =0 de 7 .

din literele alfabetului..5 din RITM RAPID: G3 5+încercuire tuturor S...D. O2 .cel Alina puţin 3 din Alo 127 .O.D.. dându-se fişele pe care sunt scrise cuvinte.M.M. toţi apţi SCRIEŢI pentru învăţământ.M.G.C învăţate . Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă cel puţin 3 litere din cele existente şi nu le vor confunda cu alte litere.N.C..D.. G3 ..L” orar Cornelia G1 . Ova fi CO2: ele lalele Alina Lina SO2 I(O2) G1 . (rezolvaţi): Nivelele: RITM LENT:G1 C... L”.F..L...S.cel puţin 3 din lalea 5 alune G2 .OBIECTUL: CITIRE SUBIECTUL:SUNETUL ŞI LITERELE “I.I.V.. lalele Alina ele Elena CAPACITĂŢI ÎNVĂŢARE DE STRATEGI I DIDACTIC E ITEMII TESTULUI DE EVALUARE Clasa are un efectiv SO1 de 38 elevi.V.P.B..cel B.R.N. I.P.P..C. puţin 4 din B.G.. literelor A..D a .I.F.G.G.N..N.A.G.. 4 cuvinte care să conţină litera nou învăţată.N.V.I.G.F.D.A..C..A.F.L.G.C.B..să creeze independent.. 5 D..R.I..Tăiaţi o linie literele “I. RITM MEDIU:G2 I(O1) ..V.. 3 OBIECTIVELE CONŢINUT OPERAŢIONA ADECVAT LE La sfârşitul CO1: activităţii didactice elevii Încercuiţi literele “I.A.A.B. L” PROIECT DIDACTIC NR..L” vor fi capabili: O1 să recunoască literele “I.I.A.R. B..I.M....cel Scrieţi după dictare: puţin 2 din lalea 4 G2 .M.M.I.

6 din 6 Sit. Alin are mere. 4 G3 . Elena alune. CO4 a_na e_ la_le _ca SO4.cel I(O4) puţin 3 din Li_ 6 G2 .cel Ma_ puţin 4 din _re 6 _na G3 .considerat atins dacă vor crea cel puţin 2 cuvinte din cele 4.cele 4 cuvinte propoziţia “Lina e mare” Alina mere. dânduse o fişă pe care sunt scrise 4 propoziţii (!. 4 Rica e mică. G3 .?). Corina e puţin 3 din mare..să cuvintele cu silaba care lipseşte. dânduse fişa cu 6 cuvinte.cel Ea are alune.4 din 4 Lina are un anumit. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă elevii vor pune corect cel puţin 2 semne de punctuaţie din 4. Ea e mare.G1 .cel I(O3) -Puneţi semnele puţin 2 din de punctuaţie potrivite 4 (pe fişă): G2 . Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă elevii vor pune cel SO3 -G1 . ţin de învăţare-în 128 . O4 . are are ale O1 să completeze propoziţiile cu semnele de punctuaţie învăţate..

să face. I(O2) 129 . text alcătuit din cel puţin 4 propoziţii. O2 – să CO2 Învăţarea de I(O1) concepte. fără ajutor din afară. un copil neascultător.recapitulare - OBIECTIV E OPERAŢI ONALE La sfârşitul activităţii didactice elevii vor fi capabili : CONŢINUT ADECVAT CAPACITĂ STRATEGII SITUIAŢII ŢI DE DIDACTIC DE ÎNVĂŢARE E ÎNVĂŢARE G1 SO1 ITEMII TESTULUI DE EVALUARE CO1: a stat. lucrurilor. nu a venit acasă G1 SO2 exerciţiul. Sandu. utilizeze mulţumeşte cuvinte care arată acţiunea. fenomenelo r naturii. i-a căutat.4 Pentru desfăşurarea activităţii didactice cu tema “VERBUL” . G2 Continuaţi Subliniază şi exerciţii povestirea grupează cel puţin G3 începută mai câte 3 verbe găsite în textul alcătuit de cu ritmuri de jos. alcătuind cel tine. existenţa fiinţelor. se gândeşte. învăţare puţin 4 diferite propoziţii folosind acţiuni.GRAMATICA CLASA A III-A PROIECT DIDACTIC NR. este. era. în alcătuirea unui text scurt. stări din cele date: “A sosit noaptea. starea. nu va O1 .

a râde. timpul. G2 Compunerea G3 gramaticală alcătuită la punctual 1. din textul Şi grauri mari alcătuit. vor fi analizate complet cel puţin 5 verbe. a vorbi. explicaţia. pe baza cunoştinţelo r dobândite. a scădea.7 verbe plete. şi fete. rolul în propoziţie. timpul. Miei albi fugeau către izvor. a coborî SO3 . zburau în cete” (G. rolul în propoziţie.5 verbe o doină-n cor. Şi ei cântau G1 . discriminări multiple I(O3): Alcătuiţi cel puţin 5 propoziţii cu verbe care arată acţiuni opuse celor găsite anterior (la IO2) 130 . a dezlega. învăţarea de Analizaţi în Analizând cel puţin concepte şi scris cel 5 verbe din poezia: învăţarea de puţin: “În lan erau feciori reguli.6 verbe vântul le juca în G3 . specificând Coşbuc-Vara) numărul. a răsări.să utilizeze verbe cu înţeles opus celor exprimate. a veni. CO2 a merge.analizeze verbele din textul alcătuit.Găsiţi cuvinte care arată acţiuni opuse celor exprimate de cel puţin 5 dintre verbele date. a se culca. a vrea. O3 . obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă fiecare elev va reuşi să utilizeze cel puţin 5 verbe. explicaţia. muncă independent ă. obiectivul va fi considerat atins dacă vor fi precizate numărul. Şi G2 . a pleca. Juca viaţa-n ochii lor.

….Cu ajutorul simbolurilor gramaticale alcătuiţi cel puţin o schemă completă I. s …. Obiectivul va fi atins dacă fiecare elev va reuşi să schematizez e o propoziţie.”După sălcii urmau pâlcuri de salcâmi înfloriţi” (M. adj p s. s p ….p. ….p. ….să alcătuiască schema unor propoziţii date.O4 .. exerciţiul. rezolvarea de probleme. folosind simbolurile. s. s. Învăţarea de principii.Plopul G2 mlădios îşi G3 tremură frunzele foşnitoare.S.Pereţii stâncoşi ai palatului sunt înalţi şi vopsiţi SO4 Alcătuieşte în scris cel puţin o schemă a uneia dintre cele 5 propoziţii date. CO4 G1 1. …. s.p. I(O3).Sadovea nu) 3. V s (model) 131 .p. 2.

A N D 10. 9. la cel puţin 5 verbe.Programul scolarului 12. P A R 8.Parte de vorbire care se numara. U L 8. 6.Parte de vorbire care arata actiunea. cu 3 exemple. T I A 5. stări din cele scrise pe tablă.Alcătuiţi în scris cel puţin o schemă a unei propoziţii din cele date. V E 2. Ziua cand incepe saptamana. V U L 10. 4. O C A R T A R E C A P I T U L A R E B B U L E L O V E M U N A Z I U L A R N I T I R 1."Cine are…are patru ochi" Enunţul obiectivelor Reactualizarea celor învăţate anterior – ideile ancoră Prezentarea sarcinilor de învăţare şi dirijarea învăţării: obţinerea performanţelor Obiectivele sunt trecute în prima parte a proiectului didactic 2’ Verificăm cantitativ – frontal tema dată acasă: de analizat în 5’ scris cel puţin primele 10 verbe din lecţia de citire “Delta Dunării”. N 9.Analizaţi în scris cel puţin 5 verbe din cele descoperite în compunerea creată de tine la punctual 1. S 12. P R O J E C T 7.Alta intrebare a subiectului. ……. C I N 3.Arata o fiinta sau mai multe.de vorbire si de propozitie. SO2 .Continuaţi povestirea începută cu cel puţin patru 25’ propoziţii. 7. U B S T 11. folosind acţiuni.Arata insusiri.O comunicare cu un singur predicat. 1.O intrebare a subiectului. 6. SO4 .SCENARIUL DESFĂŞURĂRII ACTIVITĂŢII EVENIMENTUL INSTRUCŢIONA L Captarea atenţiei ACTIVITATEA DE ÎNVĂŢARE DURATA Vom desfăşura un rebus de unde va reieşi tipul lecţiei: 3’ RECAPITULARE (pe coloana A-B) 4. 11. Evaluarea Prezentarea şi rezolvarea testului formative: 10’ 132 .Găsiţi acţiuni opuse celor date de mine. SO1 . SO3 . 3. existenta.. ocazie cu care repetăm definiţia verbului.Parte de vorbire care arata un numar. starea. 2. U M E R 5.

Asigurarea retenţiei Asigurarea transferului Comentăm eventualele erori apărute la testele formative 4’ Tema pentru acasă: Exerciţiul 19 pag.performanţei a) Subliniază şi grupează cel puţin 3 acţiuni la fiecare din timpurile verbului. Coşbuc . d) Cu ajutorul simbolurilor gramaticale. c) Alcătuieşte cel puţin 3 propoziţii cu verbele care arată acţiuni opuse celor date mai sus. b) Analizează în scris cel puţin 5 verbe din poezia “Vara” de G. BIBLIOGRAFIE 133 .83 (să se alcătuiască 1’ propoziţii după scheme date). alcătuieşte cel puţin o schemă completă pentru propoziţiile date.

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ANEXE CUPRINS 1. Guilford Tipologia transdisciplinară a demersurilor intelectuale Lista de verbe şi complemente directe pentru domeniul afectiv 1. Bloom Taxonomia lui Krathwohl Taxonomia lui Harrow Studiile lui J. Tehnici de analiză a conţinutului 1. Procedurile de definire şi operaţionalizare a obiectivelor pedagogice   Schema generală a definirii obiectivelor pedagogice Procedura lui G.3.1. STRUCTURI GRAFICE DE PROIECTE PEDAGOGICE 140 . ALTE MODALITĂŢI DE PROIECTARE PEDAGOGICĂ 3.3.1. Taxonomiile de obiective pedagogice       Studiile lui Benjamin S. P. de Landsheere 1. Analiza conţinutului instruirii     “Arborii logici” Sistemul mathetic şi “analiza sarcinilor” “Grafuri şi reţele de cunoştinţe” “Băncile de conţinuturi” 2.2. INSTRUMENTE ŞI TEHNICI NECESARE PENTRU A REALIZA UN PROIECT BINE GÂNDIT 1.

1993. considerăm strict necesar să revenim asupra lor cu unele informaţii şi detalii strict necesare pentru a realiza proiecte pedagogice bine gândite. Bloom. INSTRUMENTE ŞI TEHNICI NECESARE PENTRU A REALIZA UN PROIECT PEDAGOGIC BINE GÂNDIT Am prezentat în cursurile Abilitaare curriculară şi Diferenţierea instruirii – aspecte teoretice şi practice referitoare la proiectarea pedagogică şi exigenţele generale ale acestei activităţi educative fundamentale insistând asupra unui model de instuire eficientă (mastery learning) elaborat pentru condiţiile specifice ale învăţământului românesc şi experimentat între anii 1982 –1988 (Jinga şi Negreţ. Studiile lui Benjamin S. logic şi obiectiv. psihologic. 2005). Ulterior. Taxonomiile lui Bloom servesc drept surse de inspiraţie dar şi ca modele pentru cele următoare.1. în acest capitol-anexă vom prezenta şi alte modele cu eficienţă la fel de ridicată. 1. câteva teorii ale învăţării care descriu mecanisme psihice solicitate întotdeauna în instruirea şi învăţarea şcolară. Dar acesta nu este singurul model de proiectare pedagogică. depăşind “faza alchimică” odată cu B. La apariţie s-a apreciat că taxonomia de obiective pedagogice are pentru ştiinţele educaţiei importanţa pe care a avut-o în chimie tabloul realizat de Mendeleev. Bloom. aprecieri exagerate. Din păcate condiţiile impuse de învăţământul românesc nu ne permite să o folosim pe cea mai bună dintre ele. TAXONOMIILE DE OBIECTIVE PEDAGOGICE Iniţiatorul acestora a fost Benjamin S.1. aducând o clarificare. S. o punere în ordine relativ uşoară într-o activitate eminamente complexă. procedurile de operaţionalizare a obiectivelor educaţionale. 1. Bloom1 Prima taxonomie este şi cea care s-a răspândit mai mult: cea a lui Bloom. Sunt stabilite pe temeiul a patru principii: didactic. Deşi unele dintre ele au mai fost amintite. Sunt. S. ea pare să răspundă necesităţii de a raţionaliza. Bloom. s-au construit taxonomii de obiective şi finalităţi pedagogice superioare celei a lui B. Considerăm că este posibilă o varietate de forme grafice de redactare a proiectelor pedagogice. desigur.1. sistematiza şi evalua. Acestea sunt: taxonomiile de obiective pedagogice.1. 141 . Esenţialul este ca educatorii să stăpânească câteva “instrumente “ şi tehnici care sunt invocate de către toţi specialiştii domeniului care le consideră condiţii sine-qua-non pentru orice redactare a oricărui tip de proiect pedagogic. S-a susţinut chiar că pedagogia a devenit ştiinţă autentică. tehnicile de selecţie a conţinuturilor esenţiale pentru instruire şi educare.

Or.Se ştie că în taxonomia lui Bloom sunt articulate trei planuri: domeniul cognitiv. Aceste trei aspecte ne vor ajuta să structurăm o prezentare şi un studiu metodic al principalelor taxonomii existente. scrie: ”În analiză. Similitudinea este izbitoare. Bloom. limpezeşte situaţia. c) A pregăti programele şcolare. Pe măsură ce înaintăm în ierarhia taxonomiei. domeniul afectiv şi domeniul psihomotor. b) A clasifica scopurile învăţământului. “cu ocazia unei simple întruniri a examinatorilor din învăţământul superior care participau la un congres al Asociaţiei americane de psihologie”. (Madaus şi colaboratorii lui. i-a apărut la Boston. A elabora o taxonomie a obiectivelor pedagogice înseamnă: a) A evalua problema educaţiei. în 1948. ceea ce se scoate în relief este faptul de a descompune materialul în părţile sale componente şi de sesiza raporturile existente dintre aceste părţi şi modul în care ele sunt organizate”. d) A pregăti exerciţiile de învăţare. Aşa cum aminteşte Bloom în prefaţa “Taxonomiei” sale. Introducerea factorului g ca agent explicativ. de a descoperi în elementul particular un exemplu al generalului. ierarhia propusă: Analiză – Evaluare Sinteză Aplicare Comprehensiune Cunoaştere 142 . Pentru Spearman g este capacitatea de a desprinde relaţii şi corelaţii.2 Iată în schemă. ideea elaborării studiului. apropie definiţia dată de Spearman factorului g de definiţia propusă de Bloom pentru analiză. importanţa legăturilor dintre nivelurile adiacente scade şi apar numeroase legături la nivelurile neadiacente.

21. simboluri. date.11. care. 143 . Ierarhia claselor în taxonomia lui Bloom Taxonomia lui Bloom este formulată în plan abstract. Matfessell. Cunoaşterea mijloacelor care permit utilizarea datelor particulare A aminti. a recunoaşte. reprezentări. va fi unul dintre cele de mai jos: 3 a a a a Verbul se va “lega”în obiectiv cu un compliment din categoria celog de mai jos: 4 Vocabular. identifica. dobândi a a a Forme. N. dobândi. Spre exemplificare. Cunoaşterea A aminti. Cunoaşterea datelor particulare CUNOAŞTEREA(n ivelul elementar al clasificării obiectivelor în taxonomia lui Bloom. distinge . Pentru a ajuta pe practicieni să treacă la un nivel mai concret. exprimă toate obiectivele de simplă achiziţie a informaţiilor de către elev. W. reguli. definiţii. stiluri. elemente Fapte. vom lua nivelurile taxonomiei lui Bloom din domeniul cognitiv. 1. locuri. convenţiilor recunoaşte. acela al obiectivelor operaţionale. identifica a a - - 1. după Metfessell. informaţii faptice (nume. Kirshner propun un tablou unde se găseşte o listă de verbe şi o listă de obiective. oferă scheletul unui obiectiv operaţional. persoane. referinţe.1. recunoaşte 1.) 1. aminti. Negreţ-Dobridor. semnificaţii. combinate în mod adecvat. convenţii. Lista verbelor care definesc comportamente observabile şi a complementelor necesare operaţionalizării obiectivelor (Jinga şi Negreţ. Michael şi Kirshner) Ori de câte ori Finalitatea generală Obiectivul de generalitate medie este: fiind 1 2 1.Cunoaşterea faptelor particulare 1. modalităţi. etc. Cunoaşterea A identifica. 1983.Fig. uzanţe. proprietăţi etc. exemple. Michael şi D.2. terminologie.10. terminologiei defini. 2005.20. în special prin memorare) Verbul potrivit a defini obiectivul operaţional al activităţii dv.1.12. evenimente.

relaţii. a ilustra. legi.25. a redefini. tratamente. exemple. părţi esenţiale. Cunoaşterea tendinţelor şi secvenţelor A aminti. a pregăti. a citi. identifica 1. abstracţii 144 . a identifica.00 COMPRENHENSI UNEA (al doilea nivel în taxonomia lui Bloom. ansambluri Criterii. recunoaşte. clasificărilor şi recunoaşte. a demonstra 2. clasificări. metodelor dobândi. formulări Semnificaţii. definiţii. Cunoaşterea A aminti. diviziuni. a stabili. a reorganiza. secvenţe. Teorii. recunoaşte. generalizări. baze. intercalităţi. structuri organizate. dezvoltări. a face. a transforma. clase. a-şi da 2. abordări. caracterizări.22. elemente. fapte esenţiale.1. mişcări. baze. identifica 1. a dobândi. a recunoaşte. 30 Cunoaşterea reprezentărilor abstracte şi a legilor 1. metodelor dobândi. a dobândi. a a Metode. fraze A aminti. este nivelul elementar al înţelegerii – care permit celui care învaţă să cunoască ceea ce a studiat fără a stabili cu necesitate o legătură între acest material şi un altul. puncte de vedere. Transpunere 3 - a a a a a a a a a Acţiuni. a distinge. 20. Cunoaşterea principiilor şi legilor 1.31. relaţii. a schimba. dobândi. A interpreta. forţe. identifica 1 2 1.23. tipuri. procese. concluzii. a exprima în cuvinte proprii. Cunoaşterea A aminti. abstracţii.32. tendinţe. identifica 1. procedee. caracteristici. a scrie. cauze. Interpretare Pertinenţe. Cunoaşterea teoriilor 2. 4 Principii. Cunoaşterea A aminti. categorii. teorii. a diferenţia. a reprezenta. ansambluri. metode. cuvinte. influenţe Arii.24. a identifica A aminti.10. a recunoaşte. elemente fundamentale. categoriilor dobândi. A traduce. a recunoaşte. tehnici. aspecte.

părţi. modele. a organiza. a compara. a recunoaşte. contrasta. a completa. a restructura. a identifica. 00. metode. argumente. CĂUTAREA ELEMENTELOR Principii. a discrimina. metode. mijloace. procese. abstracţii. organizări Structuri. concluzii. efecte.10. ORGANIZARE a detecta. a extinde. a deduce A analiza. a categorisi. a UNEI OPERE relata. a extrapola. Extrapolare A estima. indirecte. a utiliza. comunicări. 30. CĂUTAREA A analiza. erori. a produce. a crea. teorii. de intenţii. teme. probabilităţi 3. a interpela. evidenţe. a clasifica 3 A distinge. a stabili A aplica. procedee 4 Elemente. a transmite. a dezvolta. scopuri.00. generalizări. concluzii. a PERSONALE constitui. ipoteze.20. corelare. a introduce. a stabili legături. idei. a se servi de. a generaliza. enunţuri. puncte de vedere. fenomene.1. efecte. PRINCIPIILOR DE a distinge. lucrări. a deduce a Consecinţe. situaţii. APLICARE(elevul învaţă să utilizeze la cazuri particulare şi concrete reprezentările abstracte) 1 4. efecte. a conchide. aranjamente. produse. a detesta. particularităţi 4. a povesti. a documenta Forme. cauze. semnificaţii. tehnici. structuri. performanţe. a transfera. a modifica. a diferenţia. a culege.00 SINTEZA (obiectivele prin care elevul este învăţat să îmbine elementele şi 4. a distinge. concluzii.seama de însemnătatea a ceea ce studiază 2. implicaţii. a determina. a deduce 5. căi indirecte 5. factori. interrelaţii. consistenţe. supoziţii. teme. argumente. legi. a prevedea. CREAREA A scrie. ANALIZA (obiectivelor din al 4-lea nivel al taxonomiei lui Bloom presupune a-l învăţa pe elev să separe părţi constitutive ale unei comunicări în aşa fel încât să lămurească ierarhia relativă a raporturilor ideilor exprimate) 2 4. proiecte. CĂUTAREA RELAŢIILOR Relaţii.30. fapte originale 145 .

a clarifica. mijloace. a standardiza. eficienţă. teorii. 1. standarde. modalităţi. a ABSTRACTE organiza. planuri de acţiune. utilitate. a modifica 6. a combina. obiective.20. abstracţii. Care este esenţa acestei taxonomii? * 146 . a argumenta. a planifica. modifica.30. mijloace a a Fenomene. operaţii. specializări scheme. a compara. DERIVAREA A produce. a evalua.5. a deduce. scheme.10. în domeniul afectiv s-a impus una singură până astăzi: taxonomia lui Krathwohl (1974). modalităţi. precizia. taxonomii. descoperiri Pertinenţe. alternative. a sintetiza. 5. soluţii. a evalua A propune. În timp ce în domeniul cognitiv se propun numeroase taxonomii. formarea a decide capacităţilor de a formula judecăţi de valoare) 1 2 3 6.00 EVALUAREA 6. concepte. CRITICA EXTERNĂ A judeca. relaţii. a proiecta. a produce. lacune. generalizări. TAXONOMIA LUI KRATHWOHL3 Câtă vreme în domeniul cognitiv se examinează dacă un elev poate îndeplini sau nu o sarcină. sofisme.20. care se urmăreşte a valida. percepţii. Se pune întrebarea: “Este el în stare să facă un anumit lucru?” iar în celălalt caz “Îl face afectiv?”. teorii. CRITICA A judeca. întregi UNOR RELAŢII a deriva. ipoteze. economicitate. grade de precizie 4 Scopuri. a formula. ELABORAREA UNUI PLAN DE ACŢIUNE părţile pentru a forma ansambluri. a dezvolta. (obiectivele prin INTERNĂ a argumenta. a considera. specifica Planuri. generalizări. în domeniul afectiv trebuie să vedem dacă elevul se comportă cum se cuvine în momentul respectiv.

2. de o situaţie. Krathwohl şi la B.0. Bloom. să-şi dea seama de un fapt.3. pentru a încerca să le descopere şi să simtă plăcere apofundându-le . 1. 1. să judece. 2. 3. 1. Descoperă în măsură satisfăcătoare sensul valorilor pentru a adopta o filozofie anumită.1. RECEPTAREA: A-l incita pe elev să recepţioneze sau să dea atenţie unor stimuli. El încearcă spontan să înţeleagă. Receptează şi reacţionează acceptând sau refuzând. un fenomen. INDIVIDUL RĂSPUNDE LA UN STIMUL EXTERN 1. de un fenomen sau o stare de lucruri. dar nu acceptă deplin necesitatea de a face acest lucru. ASENTIMENTUL: Elevul dă un răspuns. ATENŢIA DIRIJATĂ: Diferenţierea aspectelor unui stimul perceput clar ca foarte diferit de impresiile învecinate. II. Este stadiul adult din punct de vedere psihologic. I. Receptează şi reacţionează.CONŞTIINŢA: Elevul trebuie să fie conştient. RĂSPUNSUL: Elevul să fie suficient de atras de un subiect. Este numai receptiv. Osterrieth. cinci etape care merg de la comportamentul cel mai pasiv la comportamentul cel mai activ.1. Gilbert De Landsheere distinge cinci trepte.0. 147 . aşa cum l-a definit P. 2. 5. 2. să simtă. VOINŢA: Individul acceptă un stimul dat şi nu se eschivează. Acţionează potrivit cu opţiunile sale. * Iată clasele de „comportamente”şi de „trăiri” descrise de Krathwohl: 1.În adaptarea si interpretarea taxonomiei obiectivelor aşa cum apare ea la D. S. INDIVIDUL IA INIŢIATIVA 4.

2 PREFERINŢA PENTRU O VALOARE: Individul caută.0. 3. “viziunea lumii”. CARACTERIZAREA: Concepţia despre univers. VALORIZAREA: Elevul manifestă acest comportament cu destulă coerenţă. 2. de bucurie.0.1. 5.3. 3. 3.1. fiind organizate într-un fel de sistem intrinsec coerent. loialitate faţă de un punct de vedere. 4. (concepţie despre lume) 148 . ACCEPTAREA UNEI VALORI: Atribuirea unor valori unui fenomen. 4. DISPOZIŢIE GENERALIZATĂ: Individul îşi revizuieşte opiniile şi îşi schimbă comportamentul. ANGAJAREA: Convingerea implică un grad înalt de certitudine fără umbre de îndoială. sinceritate.2. 5. în împrejurări corespunzătoare. 3. pentru că apreciază că el are o valoare.2. ORGANIZAREA UNUI SISTEM DE VALORI: Elevul adună un ansamblu de valori.1.2. CARACTERIZAREA PRINTR-O VALOARE A UNUI SISTEM DE VALORI : Fiecare valoare are un loc în ierarhia valorilor. CONCEPTUALIZAREA UNEI VALORI: Permite individului să vadă cum se leagă o valoare de cele pe care le posedă deja sau cele pe care le va poseda. 5.0. doreşte o angajare destul de profundă faţă de valoare. un grup sau o cauză.2.3. ORGANIZAREA: Stabilirea valorilor dominante şi mai profunde. VOINŢA DE A RĂSPUNDE: Elevul îşi afirmă comportamentul din plină adeziune. stabileşte o ordine între ele. Weltanschaung. filosofia vieţii. 4. SATISFACŢIA DE A RĂSPUNDE: Răspunde emoţional din plăcere.

1. Caracteristici şi posibilitate de optimizare Nu se învaţă.a Combinaţiile existente vor fi totuşi utilizate în mişcările voluntare. Definit din punct de vedere operaţional de către Harrow. Taxonomia lui Harrow Taxonomia lui Harrow4 este astăzi cea mai dezvoltată şi mai riguroasă. la prima vedere. 149 . 2. Concentrăm într-un tablou cele şase niveluri taxonomice stabilite de Harrow şi arătăm cum se articulează ele ierarhic. destul de vag: “Un continuum care merge de la nivelul inferior al mişcărilor observabile la nivelul superior”. Sunt reacţii naturale la stimuli. ci caută o ordine critică: achiziţia nivelurilor inferioare este absolut necesară pentru a atinge nivelul imediat superior în ierarhia mişcărilor. În fapt. Niveluri 1. 1 şi 2 nu constituie obiective pentru educaţie. A. Harrow nu-şi construieşte edificiul după un criteriu general (de exemplu: coordonarea).00 Mişcările naturale sau fundamentale Combinaţii de mişcări reflexe.1. Ea ar trebui considerată drept corespunzătoare.00 Mişcările reflexe Clase de comportament Baza tuturor mişcărilor. prin importanţă. Principiul ierarhic adoptat de autor pare. termenul “psihomotor” include “orice mişcare umană voluntară observabilă care ţine de domeniul învăţării”. cel puţin în cazurile normale.3. taxonomiei lui Bloom (în domeniul cognitiv) şi celei a lui Krathwohl (domeniul afectiv).B. N.

face ca percepţiile să devină mai acute. de asemenea. (Nota trad. mersul poate deveni un obiect educativ. .de controlul mişcărilor fundamentale.00 Aptitudinile perceptive Acesta este nivelul la care începe în mod normal învăţarea şcolară.00 Comunicarea neverbală La acest nivel există un continuum de expresivitate 6. el este pregătit pentru crearea mişcărilor estetice. mimul* etc. Etapa 6.1 Mimica spontană: nu constituie o perspectivă pentru obiectiveb 6.2 reprezintă apogeul ierarhiei: exprimarea prin dans.de nivelul dezvoltării aptitudinilor 6. .00 Îndemânările motorii La acest nivel exista un continuum de îndemânări. experienţa învăţării: . Totuşi. PREZENTAREA ANALITICĂ 1. a Exemplu: mersul.2 Interpretarea voluntară. fizice Când subiectul dispune de un repertoriu de îndemânări motorii.de eficacitatea percepţiilor.3. Originile spectacolului pot fi găsite în antichitatea greco-romană. Depind: .00 Aptitudinile fizice 5. putem ajunge să dorim transformarea mimicilor instalate spontan. . b Anumite mimici pot fi totuşi învăţate voluntar. când subiectul este handicapat sau supus reeducării. Se dezvoltă prin maturizare şi învăţare.) 150 . Într-adevăr.dezvoltă aptitudinile fizice 4.00 Mişcările reflexe * Amintim că mimul este un gen de comedie în care actorul se exprimă prin gesturi şi mimică.

332 Reacţii de deplasare. 2.14 Reflex de extensiune încrucişată. Scheme motorii înnăscute.32 Reacţii plastice. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1.23 Inducţie succesivă. 151 .22 Reflex antagonic. 1.11 Reflex de flexiune. 1.Răspunsuri la un stimul independent de voinţa conştientă a learner-ului. Fac să intervină un segment spinal.00 Mişcările fundamentale de bază.13 Reflex de extensiune.334 Reacţii de redresare. 1.24 Figură reflexă. Cer participarea creierului. 1. 1.333 Reflexe de atitudine tonică.21 Reflex cooperativ. 1. 1.33 Reflexe posturale.336 Reacţii de aşezare în poziţie de executare a salturilor.335 Reflexe de prehensiune.10 Reflexe segmentare (medulare).30 Reflexe suprasegmentare. mişcările reflexe se dezvoltă prin maturizare. 1.331 Reacţii de sprijinire. 1. Funcţionale la naştere. 1. 1. Fac să intervină un segment spinal.12 Reflex miotatic*.20 Reflexe intersegmentare. 1. 1. 1. 1.31 Rigiditatea muşchilor extensori.

30 Mişcări de manipulare. 2.(Nota trad.2.20 Mişcări specifice în cazul muncii care cere îndemânare (a duce. 2. a scrie. a lupta a arunca etc.) 152 . Exemple: a mânca. 2. 3. Aptitudinea subiectului de a-şi recunoaşte şi controla corpul.114 Echilibrul. 3.32 Dexteritate.113 Dominanta stânga-dreapta. de poziţia sa în spaţiu şi de relaţiile dintre corpul său şi mediu. 3. a juca tenis.00 Aptitudinile perceptive.12 Imaginea corporală. 3.112 Lateralitatea. Exemplu: a prinde o minge cu ambele mâini.11 Conştiinţa corpului.). Subiectul este conştient de corpul său şi de modul în care se mişcă. 3. Referinţă la conceptele de direcţie ale subiectului. Sentimentele copilului faţă de structura propriului corp .31 Prehensiune. 3. 3. Exemplu: a juca şotron.111 Bilateralitatea.10 Mişcări locomotorii. 3. * Reflex de întindere musculară. 3.* 2. Exemplu: a face mingea să salte de mai multe ori bătând-o cu o singură mână. Ajută learner-ul să interpreteze stimuli şi îi permit deci să se adapteze la mediu.13 Relaţiile dintre corp şi obiectele care-l înconjură în spaţiu. la conştiinţa propriului corp şi la o figură pe care el o creează în spaţiu.10 Discriminare chinestezică.

Exemple: a face să salte de mai multe ori o minge. Aptitudinea subiectului de a recepta şi de a diferenţia diverse obiecte. a juca tenis de masă.20 Discriminarea vizuală. Aptitudinea subiectului de a urmări simboluri sau obiecte prin mişcări oculare coordonate. Exemplu: deşi au mărimi diferite. 3. 153 .21 Acuitatea vizuală. a distinge un b de un d. evenimente şi medii observate. Aptitudinea subiectului de a recepta şi diferenţia sunete.22 A putea urmări cu ochii (tracking).3. 3.23 Memoria vizuală. Este legată mai mult de comportamentele cognitive. Exemple: a distinge un cerc de un pătrat. 3. o secvenţă de paşi dintr-un dans clasic. Exemple: a urmări zborul unui avion sau traiectoria unei mingi de tenis de masă. a alege un obiect mic dintr-un grup de obiecte de mărime variabilă. de a descrie intensitatea şi înălţimea corespunzătoare. toate monedele sunt rotunde.31 Acuitatea auditivă. a scrie alfabetul.24 Diferenţierea figură-fond. 3. 3. a urmări mişcările unei pendule.30 Discriminarea auditivă. a silabisi un cuvânt. a reproduce mişcări observate în trecut. Aptitudinea subiectului de a fi constant în interpretarea sa când vede obiecte de acelaşi tip. Exemple: a desena din memorie simboluri geometrice. 3.25 Persistenţa perceptivă (consistancy). a juca tenis. 3.

00 Calităţi fizice. a prezenta trei persoane care ne-au fost prezentate cu puţin timp mai înainte. a face să salte o minge mare. Aptitudinea de a recunoaşte şi reproduce experienţe postauditive. 3. Exemple: a prinde o minge.50 Aptitudinile coordonate. 4. Aptitudinea de a alege un obiect din mediul său ambiant. a repeta alfabetul.32 Orientarea auditivă (tracking). 3.20 Forţa. a identifica sunetele emise de animale domestice. Exemple: un desen. 3. Aptitudinea de a coordona o percepţie vizuală cu o mişcare a membrelor inferioare.40 Discriminarea tactilă. auzind un cuvânt. 3.Exemple: a diferenţia sunetele emise de diferite instrumente.33 Memoria auditivă. o copie. a identifica.51 Coordonarea oculo-manuală. 4. Caracteristicile funcţionale de vigoare organică. 3. 3. vocalele şi consoanele care îl compun. 4. 4. de a coordona o percepţie vizuală cu o mişcare de manipulare.11 Rezistenţa musculară. 4. Aptitudinea subiectului de a diferenţia diverse ţesături folosind numai pipăitul.12 Rezistenţa cardio-vasculară. Aptitudinea subiectului de a distinge direcţia sunetului şi de a urmări acest sunet.52 Coordonarea ochi-picioare. Exemple: a cânta din memorie o melodie la pian. 154 .10 Rezistenţa.

40 Agilitatea. Este legată foarte strâns de timpul de răspuns. adapta la situaţii activitatea. 4. ceea ce implică dexteritatea şi rapiditatea mişcării. a cânta la pian. portarul unei echipe de hochei pe gheaţă trebuie să aibă un timp de reacţie foarte scurt. 155 .44 Dexteritatea. 5. Aptitudinea de a se mişca repede.30 Supleţea. Aptitudinea de a schimba direcţia unei mişcări fără a încheia complet 4. Implică dezvoltarea la un anumit grad de competenţă sau măiestrie. Exemple: a bate la maşina de scris. 5.12 Intermediar. Priveşte îndemânările motorii fine care implică mişcări precise ale mâinii şi degetelor.13 Avansat.20 Skill adaptativ compus. Mişcările de bază (nivelul 2) sunt schimbate sau modificate pentru a se a sau circumstanţe noi. Aptitudinea de a începe şi de a termina o mişcare cu un minimum de ezitare. 4.00 Mişcările de dexteritate (skilled movements). Timpul dintre apariţia unui stimul şi apariţia răspunsului.10 Skill adaptativ simplu. 5. un copil mic trebuie să dovedească un anumit grad de agilitate pentru a evita o minge. Exemple: un violonist trebuie să aibă dexteritate pentru a cânta un pizzicato. 5.41 Schimbarea de direcţie. 5. 4.14 Foarte avansat. 5.43 Timpul de reacţie.4.42 Opriri şi porniri. Implică mânuirea unui instrument sau a unei unelte.11 Nivel iniţial. 4. 5.

6.00 Comunicarea neverbală.22 Mişcare creatoare destinată să transmită un mesaj sau expresie. Dansul.20 Mişcarea interpretativă. 1.34 Foarte avansat. 6. 5. Toate skills-urile dintr-un sport în care subiectul ajunge în alt nivel de performanţă şi obţine graţia şi fluiditatea mişcării. Aplicarea legilor fizice ale corpului uman în repaus sau în mişcare. mimul. 6. Exemple: acrobaţii la gimnastică. hocheiul şi golful. badminton. 6.33 Avansat. 6.TEHNICI DE ANALIZĂ A CONŢINUTULUI9 156 .3.11 Poziţia corpului şi mersul.13 Expresia feţei.12 Gesturile.30 Skill adaptativ complex. Mijloc de care dispune subiectul pentru a traduce printr-un simţ obiectiv (figura pe care corpul său o execută în spaţiu prin mişcare) evenimente subiective (sentimente sau emoţii). tenis de masă).10 Mişcarea expresivă. 5. 5.23 Avansat.24 Foarte avansat. 6. 5. 6.22 Intermediar.Exemple: toate skills-urile care intervin în jocurile cu racheta (tenis. 5. 5.21 Mişcările estetice.21 Nivel iniţial. 5. 6. sărituri la trambulină. dans.32 Intermediar.31 Nivel iniţial. 5. 5.

Încă din 1972. Acest model de organizare presupune o “structură în arbore” şi permite o “analiză în arbore”.Analiza conţinutului instruirii Analiza conţinutului instruirii – care putea fi ignorată în şcoala clasică – a devenit astăzi o stringenţă. în care educatorul trebuie să adapteze o serie imensă de cunoştinţe. reprezintă o tentativă de fundamentare a cerinţei pe care acest principiu o formulează.Jacques Rousseau: respectarea particularităţilor de vârstă şi individuale. Ori de câte ori obiectivele activităţii didactice sunt definite în termeni operaţionali. Definirea operaţională a obiectivelor activităţii didactice permite alegerea raţională a conţinuturilor de învăţare. tehnica grafurilor de cunoştinţe şi tehnica băncilor de conţinuturi. Integrarea propusă de către Strauss (1972).J. Cel mai cunoscut exemplu de “analiză în arbore” este cel propus de către Le Xuan ( 1965 ).Gagné şi L.Am anticipat şi analizat necesitatea de a nu porni în proiectarea lecţiei sau a unui sistem de lecţii de la conţinuturi. asociaţii verbale. discriminări) şi mai ales la ultima treaptă (rezolvarea de probleme). Este vorba de … alegerea informaţiilor esenţiale pentru învăţarea eficientă. Ea este valabilă în sine. A stârnit critici absenţa din modul lui Gagné a învăţăturii creative. elaborate de către Jean Piaget.3. R. ea poate fi realizată mult mai riguros în condiţiile proiectării activităţii didactice pentru determinarea eficacităţii generale a învăţării ( “mastery learning” ). o serie de limite importante. a resurselor psihopedagogice disponibile şi a obiectivelor urmărite. Analiza începe cu enunţul unui obiectiv terminal al unui capitol din materia de învăţământ.Briggs (1964) au încercat să arate că prin rezolvarea de probleme se pot înţelege şi comportamente ale învăţării creative.“Arborii logici” Structura logică a unei materii de învăţământ poate fi reprezentată ca o reţea de componente ce cresc progresiv la fiecare nivel. 1. apoi pe o coloană în stânga se 157 . Este un exemplu tipic de analiză a conţinutului bazată pe comportamente bine definite şi pe ordonarea materiei în funcţie de aceste comportamente.M. precum ramurile unui arbore. 1. cadrul didactic şi elevii se află în situaţia de a cunoaşte cu precizie “ce trebuie să ştie” sau “ce trebuie sa ştie să facă” elevii. Odată cu revoluţia ştiinţifică şi “explozia informaţională” s-a pomenit în faţa unui obstacol mult mai grav. unde învăţarea şcolară se derulează într-un cadru spaţio-temporal limitat. Această sarcină prezintă o serie de dificultăţi mai ales în cadrul sistemului de învăţământ organizat pe clase şi lecţii. Au fost elaborate o serie de tehnici de analiză a conţinutului care pot fi utilizate de către educatori în funcţie de specificul disciplinelor pe care le predau. Acestea se referă la prea stricta delimitare a primelor două trepte ale modelului (legături S-R. El a reuşit să pună în acord la data aceea ierarhia lui Gagné cu teoria stadială a dezvoltării intelectuale. Sidney Ştrauss a încercat să găsească o legătură între modelul ierarhic al învăţării şi un model consistent al dezvoltării.1. dar nu poate fi urmată dacă nu sunt cunoscute ştiinţific aceste “particularităţi”. Ierarhiei lui Gagné i s-au găsit însă.2. “Arborele de conţinut”. Se propun trei asemenea tehnici : tehnica arborilor logici.3. Este cunoscut educatorilor pricipiul didactic formulat de Comenius şi susţinut de Jean . ci de la obiectivele ( “ rezultatele aşteptate “ ) ale înstruirii. Aceasta este o evidenţă clară.

R2 şi în fine S0--. asociaţii verbale. discriminări multiple. fiecare unitate de analiză comportă o legătură S-R proprie. legături S-R.R3 apoi cu S1--. Cunoscând un comportament terminal A. 1’. Ordinea învăţării acestor legături se va face de la S0 către R3. dar analiza conţinutului acestei învăţări se va face regresiv : se va începe cu legătura S2--. unde S. Modelul utilizat de către cei doi autori. Se produce astfel o translare a logicii ştiinţifică în logică a învăţării care respectă şi principiul simplificării controlate (sau al “înaintării de la simplu la complex. atunci legăturile sale vor fi : S0--.2. S2--. se notează fiecare unitate în subunităţi. Regnier şi Montmollin (1969) observaseră că orice materie de învăţământ poate fi caracterizată. 2. Dacă presupunem un comportament terminal oarecare.R3.). Prin urmare. O altă tehnică analogă cu “analiza în arbore” este cea propusă de către Annett şi Duncan (1967) : “analiza sarcinilor”. se sprijină pe analogia reţelei de sarcini de învăţare cu circuitele electronice: în orice materie de învăţământ ar exista “blocuri” ale grupurilor de operaţii cognitive şi “legături” corespunzând rezultatelor (produselor) acestor operaţii.. Conform acestei tehnici.3. înlănţuiri motrice. învăţare de principii. cu ajutorul ierarhiei învăţării.Sistemul mathetic şi “analiza sarcinilor” Un alt exemplu de analiză regresivă este aşa-numitul “sistem mathetic” al lui Gilbert (1962). Fiecare “unitate de conţinut” va putea fi definită în termeni de performanţă observabilă şi măsurabilă. Regăsirea legăturilor unei “unităţi de conţinut” este o relaţie binară cu alte unităţi. se pot “calcula” produsele (rezultatele) învăţării şi regăsi operaţiile care fac posibile aceste produse. de asemenea numerotate ( 1.4. 3. o analiză regresivă. cu ajutorul unei proceduri oarecare de operaţionalizare a obiectivelor. de la uşor la greu”. “Grafuri şi reţele de cunoştinţe” În principiu. a conţinuturilor de învăţământ ar presupune următoarea ordine : rezolvarea de probleme. orice materie de învăţământ comportă două elemente fundamentale: unităţi de conţinut şi reţele de conexiuni între aceste unităţi. S1--.) Unii autori au regăsit la “sistemul mathetic” o analogie cu ierarhia tipurilor a lui Gagné (1965).R1 . Orice “unitate de conţinut” care trebuie studiată. este un mijloc de reacţie: constituie Răspuns faţă de o “unitate de conţinut” achiziţionată anterior şi Stimul faţă de o “unitate de conţinut” ce va fi învăţată ulterior. Pe această bază se pot formula sarcinile de învăţare care conduc prin îndeplinire la comportamentul terminal dorit. 1. învăţare de concepte.notează acest enunţ : pe coloana din dreapta se scriu unităţile de conţinut în care poate fi descompus acest obiectiv.3. Pentru Gagne “logica internă” a materiei de învăţământ trebuie să urmeze logica internă a învăţării. 158 .R1.3. După terminarea acestei operaţii se revine la coloana din stânga şi se descompune ficare unitate de conţinut cu cifre arabe : 1.1. 1. învăţare de semnale.R2 . reprezintă situaţiile de învăţare şi R rezultatele acestora. Orice ansamblu de învăţare va putea fi reprezentat ca un graf de “unităţi de conţinut”.

reprezentând un grup de conţinuturi interdependente. cei drept. 1976. “Băncile de conţinuturi” ar putea devenii un fel de “rezervoare educaţionale” (naţionale sau internaţionale) care ar facilita în mod apreciabil. O “reţea” este un ansamblu de “noduri” (conţinuturi). 1975. 2. legate între ele prin vectori. notată “a”. modelul de proiectare pedagogică prezentat în această carte aparţine lui Ion Negreţ-Dobridor.5. cea mai bună utilizare pedagogică a calculatorului în educaţie. o aplicare a lui A. sub forma unor aşa numite “bănci de conţinuturi”. Conform aprecierilor actuale. 1. se consideră că viitorul instruirii eficiente este legat în mare măsură de elaborarea “băncilor de conţinuturi” pentru una sau mai multe discipline de învăţământ. reţele de arcuri orientale (săgeţi) reprezentând relaţiile între componentele unui program instrucţional dat. care a colaborat mulţi ani cu prof. un sistem de relaţii în interiorul lui A. constituie un modul ce poate fi considerat ca unitate de bază în care va putea fi organizată o “bancă de conţinuturi”. “Băncile de conţinuturi” Quere (1975) a propus organizarea ansamblului informaţiilor dintr-un anumit domeniu. Ar fi însă greşit să se creadă că aceasta este singura modalitate de proiectare pedagogică. notat cu “R”. activitatea cadrelor didactice.Ioan Jinga. DONNAY şi DE BAL. LAVALLEE. Aceste săgeţi indică grafic caracteristicile generale ale vectorilor.R. Este un model ingenios care are în vedere locul proiectării în ansamblul activităţii pedagogice: 159 . este “analiza reţelelor” propusă de către Wyant (1971). orice materie de învăţământ va putea fi reprezentată ca. Conform teoriei grafurilor. şi multe năzbâtii care s-au scris pe această temă de către autori insuficient avizaţi şi iresponsabili în raport cu eigenţele şi dificultăţile aplicării acestor "producţii" în practică.O altă tehnică de analiză a conţinutului din perspectiva grafurilor.3. Trimitem însă la lucrările respective cu scurte caracterizări: Modelul lui Lazăr Vlăsceanu. dar există şi alte modalităţi valoroase de proiectare pedagogică propuse de către autori români. de construirea “modulelor” instrucţionale ( DE LANDSHEERE. O “bancă de conţinuturi” ar fi alcătuită din cel puţin trei elemente: un ansamblu “A”. reprezentând utilizarea operaţională a lui A în raport cu alte subansambluri de informaţii. Ar fi. 1977). Spaţiul tipografic alocat acestui capitol nu permite descrierea lor detaliată. ALTE MODALITĂŢI DE PROIECTARE PEDAGOGIC Ă Aşa cum am mai menţionat. probabil. Există. în vederea învăţării lor. Corelaţia A.a.

Vlăsceanu). 1984. C. Bucureşti. acest model este ipotetic şi nu a fost experimentat (sau cel puţin rezultatele experimentelor nu au fost publicate până în prezent). Modelul lui Ioan Cerghit. Acest model pledează pentru “învăţarea în clasă” bazându-se pe o practică structurată eclectic din teorii destul de diferite (Skinner...D.). 1983) coordonată de autorul în discuţie.Timpul Acţiunile Din păcate. D. Modelul lui I. Bucureşti. coordonaţi de Eugen P. P. Modelul a fost descris în Cap. pentru o “proiectare creativă”.225-250) din Curs de pedagogie (coordonatori Ioan Cerghit şi L. Roman. Este un model care insistă asupra “învăţării formative” fiind un produs tipic al “pedagogiei prin obiective”. Acest model are meritul de a fi încercat să evite riscurile “algoritmizării forţate” pe care le implică “didactica prin obiective”.) Modelul lui Eugen Noveanu. Modelul este descris in Perfecţionarea lecţiei în şcoala modernă (E. Bucureşti. Galperin. P. Prezentarea sa a fost însoţită de proiecte pedagogice pentru predarea-învăţarea matematicii (Dan Mihalea). Noveanu. fizicii (Andrei Ionescu Zanetti) şi chimiei (Demetra Preoteasa). 1983) care are ca autori pe toţi cei numiţi mai sus. Profesorul Cerghit este adeptul a ceea ce se cheamă “management by men” în educaţie şi pledează. Tipografia Univ. cu argumente greu de contrazis. Se pare însă că 160 . Modelul este descris în lucrarea Modele de instruire formativă la disciplinele fundamentale de învăţământ (E. Okon etc.13 (p.

Carrol căruia i-a adus corective menite să îl facă aplicabil la sistemul de învăţământ bazat pe clase şi lecţii. T. Educatorul interesat poate însă ignora aceste “scăpări” ale ilustrului psihopedagog clujean. 1980). în viziunea profesorului I. 1982) se află idei valoroase privind rolul comunicării non-verbale în eficientizarea lecţiilor. B. Modelul lui I. Modelul lui Miron Ionescu. O recomandăm şi pe cea propusa de catre Lazăr Vlăsceanu: 161 . Radu nu trebuie să se bazeze pe o “didactică prin obiective”. după o expresie a lui Katims (1977) “scenariul didactic” al activităţii care este figurat în paragraful “Câteva sugestii practice privind utilizarea eficientă a timpului de învăţare în clasă”. Radu proiectarea începe cu consultarea programei analitice . Profesorul Vasile Bunescu a organizat şi prezentat în “Revista de pedagogie” în anii 1982-1985 o serie de experimente de aplicare a modelului mastery learning al lui John B. Bucureşti.D.P. Bucureşti.. autorul a pledat adesea pentru alternative de proiectare contrare acesteia. Radu a adus contribuţii fundamentale la teoria “evaluării prin obiective pedagogice”.D. Din nefericire. Roman a fost însă şi criticat. 1961) rezolvă în chip magistral întreaga problematică a “proiectării pedagogice prin obiective” chiar dacă. T. În lucrarea sa Lecţia între proiect şi realizare (Ed. I. STRUCTURI GRAFICE DE PROIECTE PEDAGOGICE A. coerenţa. După I. profesorul I. C. Acestui proiect i se poate ataşa şi ceea ce am numit. Proiectarea pedagogică. Dar proiectarea pedagogică nu are legături cu calistica sau estetica – ci cu rigoarea. Radu. ci pe o bizară “pedagogie a conţinuturilor”.fie bună. Dacia. în chip surprinzător. Lucrarea sa Teorie şi practică în evaluarea eficienţei învăţământului (E. referitoare la estetica produselor şi “designul industrial” pe care le consideră ca având legătură cu “lecţiile frumoase”.. unii autori acuzându-l chiar că ar fi adeptul eliminării “studiului independent” al elevilor. fie rea. dar aprobată de Ministerul Educaţiei – şi se sfârşeşte cu evaluarea conţinuturilor însuşite de elevi. T. T. Cluj. modelul lui Miron Ionescu este însoţit de comentarii uimitoare. În capitolele anterioare am figurat structura grafică pe care o socotim cea mai potrivită pentru realizarea în scris a unui proiect pedagogic.P. 3. Modelul lui Vasile Bunescu. eficienţa şi instruirea.demonstraţiile experimentale organizate în şcoli ieşene au condus spre rezultate bune. lucrare realizată împreună cu Pelaghia Popescu. Modelul este descris în Lecţii în spiritul metodelor active (E. În ciuda acestui neajuns. Sunt posibile însă şi alte “scheme grafice”.

Exersând vreme mai îndelungată proiecte precum exemplul care urmează. are puţină importanţă forma grafică în care este redactat un proiect pedagogic. . “proiectând doar mintal” activităţi mastery learning. A perseverat mai mulţi ani. forma recomandată de noi permite unele avantaje.Sn SP1 . .SPn C.Tn O1 . . având capacitatea de a “vedea” activităţile didactice prin prisma unor rezultate măsurabile şi abilitatea de a deriva uşor celelalte componente ale “drumului” de la obiective la rezultate. . . . . Proiectul care urmează a fost redactat de o învăţătoare de elită . ilustra dăscăliţă reuşeşte să îi inveţe pe toţi totul. Totuşi.On S1 . 162 . . În ultima fază. educatorul ajunge să redacteze în scris numai lista de obiective operaţionale. educatorii ajung la simplificări succesive. la începutul procesului de iniţiere a sa în tainele designului instrucţional. Astăzi. Evident.sub coordonarea mea.Eşalonarea in timp Obiective operaţional e Unităţi de conţinut (sarcini de învăţare) Tipuri de standarde pentru evaluare Observaţii T1 .

Thus. and skills. compare cursus honorum. values and skills. The field is vast and includes career placement. Career counseling provides one-on-one or group professional assistance in exploration and decision making tasks related to choosing a major/occupation. Career Assessments can help individuals identify and better articulate their unique interests. learning strategies and student development. The etymology of the term comes from the Latin word carrera. transitioning into the world of work or further professional training. values. It is usually considered to pertain to remunerative work (and sometimes also formal education). Supporting careers Career Assessments are tests that come in a variety of forms and rely on both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. which means race (as in "rat race".1. and also help them explore career options and research graduate and professional schools. executive coaches. personality. Economist Richard Florida notes this trend generally and more specifically among the "creative class". 163 . Career counselors.DOCUMENTARE Documentarul Nr. CE ESTE CARIERA Career is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person's "course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life)".1 MANAGEMENTUL CARIEREI 1. professional identities have become hyphenated or hybridized to reflect this shift in work ethic. Career counseling advisors assess people's interests. For a pre-modernist notion of "career". see Careerism). and outplacement companies often administer career assessments to help individuals focus their search on careers that closely match their unique personal profile. either sequentially or concurrently. career planning. a wide range of choices (especially in the range of potential professions) and more widespread education had allowed it to become possible to plan (or design) a career: in this respect the careers of the career counselor and of the career advisor have grown up. Historical changes By the late 20th century. It is also not uncommon for adults in the late 20th/early 21st centuries to have dual or multiple careers. career development centers.

however. There are many definitions by management scholars of the stages in the managerial process. Goals or objectives development The career management process begins with setting goals/objectives. work/life balance. and 4. This task may be quite difficult when the individual lacks knowledge of career opportunities and/or is not fully aware of their talents and abilities. you will need to evaluate them. goal achievement and financial assurity. 2.will have a major influence on their formulation. procedures and activities) to implement the strategy. Regardless of the ones you use. and semi professional to professional.short term. A relatively specific goal/objective must be formulated. Career assessments can range from quick and informal like those on CareerBuilder or may be more indepth like those such as Myers-Briggs and CareerLeader supported assessments found on MyPath. 164 . The following classification system with minor variations is widely used: 1. Make sure they are achievable and relate to your longer term career goals. if necessary. Systematic evaluation of the progress toward the achievement of the selected goals/objectives to modify the strategy. Short term goals (one or two years) are usually specific and limited in scope. Development of overall goals and objectives. Most assessments found today for free (although good) do not offer an in-depth evaluation. career now refers to changes or modifications in employment during the foreseeable future. 1. The time horizon for the achievement of the selected goals or objectives . Development of a strategy (a general means to accomplish the selected goals/objectives). The outcome of successful career management should include personal fulfilment. medium term or long term . The term careers has often been restricted to suggest an employment commitment to a single trade skill. However.2. rules. Development of the specific means (policies. profession or business firm for the entire working life of a person. 3. Short term goals are easier to formulate. MANAGEMENTUL CARIEREI Career Management is the combination of structured planning and the active management choice of one's own professional career. Utilizing career assessments may be a critical step in identifying opportunities and career paths that most resonate with someone. In recent years. Introduction The word career covers all types of employment ranging from semi-skilled through skilled.1. the entire career management process is based on the establishment of defined goals/objectives whether specific or general in nature.

economic. physical.3.. how organizations structure the career progress of their members. educational. 3. Career planning applies the concepts of Strategic planning and Marketing to taking charge of one's professional future. 6. CAREER DEVELOPMENT In organizational development (or OD). such as decision-making. the study of career development looks at: • • how individuals manage their careers within and between organizations and. are the most fluid of all. career development is: • " . life-stage transitions. the total constellation of psychological. Managing the organizational career – concerns the career management tasks of individuals within the workplace. In personal development.. 7." [1] The evolution or development of a career . Intermediate goals (3 to 5 years) tend to be less specific and more open ended than short term goals. The changed nature of work means that individuals may now have to revisit this process more frequently now and in the future. • 165 . Lack of life experience and knowledge about potential opportunities and pitfalls make the formulation of long term goals/objectives very difficult. Other elements include: • Career change (Ibarra 2003) (Strenger 2008) 1.and (3). of course. employees need to take control of their own development in order to maintain and enhance their employability. sociological. more than in the past. dealing with stress etc. Taking control of one's personal development – as employers take less responsibility. Both intermediate and long term goals are more difficult to formulate than short term goals because there are so many unknowns about the future. Making career choices and decisions – the traditional focus of careers interventions. educational attainment. Long term goals (more than 5 years). may be easily modified as additional information is received without a great loss of career efforts because of experience/knowledge transfer from one career to another.2. Career Planning Career planning is a subset of career management. artists and designers. however. Long range goals/objectives. 5. a workstyle common among.informed by (1) Experience within a specific field of interest (2) Success at each stage of development . it can also be tied into succession planning within some organizations. and chance factors that combine to influence the nature and significance of work in the total lifespan of any given individual. for example. 4. Managing 'boundaryless' careers – refers to skills needed by workers whose employment is beyond the boundaries of a single organisation.

S. As such. from the University of Minnesota.[2] Holland's theory does not assume that a person is just one type or that there are "only six types of people in the world. values expression." [2] Figures in career development • • • • • JESSE B.[1] Holland's theory argued that "the choice of a vocation is an expression of personality" and that the six factor typology he articulated could be used to describe both persons and work environments.• ".. Holland. career development involves the person’s creation of a career pattern. and life-role self concepts. He received his B.[1] His typology provides an interpretative structure for a number of different vocational interest surveys. Holland Codes From Wikipedia. integration of life roles. decision-making style. the lifelong psychological and behavioral processes as well as contextual influences shaping one’s career over the life span.S." [1] Instead. Department of Labor for categorizing jobs relative to interests. HOLLAND FRANK PARSONS EDGAR SCHEIN RINO SCHREUDER JOHN L. Holland is the creator of the RIASEC career development model often referred to as the Holland Codes. This 166 . DAVIS[3] JOHN L. he assumed that any person could be described as having interests associated with each of the six types in a descending order of preference.D. HOLLAND John L. from the University of Omaha and Ph. including the two measures he developed: The Vocational Preference Inventory and the Self Directed Search. Holland is an American psychologist who spent much of his career at Johns Hopkins University.. His model has been adopted by the U. the free encyclopedia The Holland hexagon The Holland Codes represents a set of personality types described in a theory of careers and vocational choice formulated by psychologist John L.

supporting. and physical: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Archaeologist Architect Astronaut Baseball player Carpenter Chef Computer scientist Driver Engineer: Chemical. Mechanical. the Holland Codes are usually referred to by their first letters: RIASEC. with tools. Holland graphically represented the six types as arrayed on a hexagon. Electrical. The six personality and work environment types described by Holland are as follows: • • • • • • Realistic . original. mechanically inclined. healing/nurturing Enterprising . intellectual. organizing. independent. tool-oriented Investigative . persuading Conventional . scientific. chaotic Social . explorative Artistic .analytical. etc. clerical DOER (REALISTIC) Working with one's hands. machines.practical. Civil. Farmer Firefighter Gardener/Horticulturist Information technologist Instructional technologist Laborer Martial arts specialist Mechanic/Automobiles Paramedic Pharmacist Physical therapist Pilot Police Officer Soldier 167 . it is usually only the two or three most dominant codes that are used for vocational guidance. practical. Taken together.detail-oriented.competitive environments. the more closely they are related. leadership. helping. hands-on.assumption allows the Holland Codes to be used to describe 720 (6!) different personality patterns. physical. and things. As the theory is applied in interest inventories and job classifications.[1] This graphic representation serves to describe the empirically determined correlations between the types.cooperative. The shorter the distance between their corners on the hexagon.creative. In presenting his theory.

supporting. helping. scientific: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Actuary Computer science Economist Engineer Finance Lawyer Mathematics Pharmacy Physician/Medical school Professor (all fields) Psychologist Psychiatrist Science Statistics Surgeon CREATOR (ARTISTIC) Non-conforming. intellectual. original. analytical.• Veterinarian THINKER (INVESTIGATIVE) Working with theory and information. independent. creative: • • • • • • Actor Writer/Poet Dancer Painter/Graphic designer Musician Cosmetology HELPER (SOCIAL) Cooperative environments. chaotic. healing/nurturing: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Therapist Audiologist Babysitter Caretaker Mental Health Counselor Education Instructional technology Martial arts Nurse Nutritionist Physician Professor Psychologist 168 .

persuading. orderly. promoting. status: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Accountant Actuary Administration Banking/Investment bank Business/MBA Clerk Copy Editing Instructional technology Lexicographer Librarian Payroll Proofreader Secretary Technical writer 169 . dominating. leading. organizing. perfect attention to detail. status: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Administration Academic administration Business/MBA Communications Insurance Investment Banker Journalism Law / Politics Marketing / Advertising Management Management Consultant Public Health Publishing Public relations Public policy Real Estate Retail Stockbroker Salesmen ORGANIZER (CONVENTIONAL) Precise. selling.• • • • • • Receptionist Social Worker Teacher Theology Trainer (business) Speech-language pathologist PERSUADER (ENTERPRISING) Competitive environments.

"The techniques are childlike they're so simple. enterprising and conventional. PAR also publishes several varieties of evaluations titled Self-Directed Searches. The artistic types rarely seem to move. (These are the basis for his RIASEC theory. "In science there is often a sales mission. he recently finished revisions on the third edition of "Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments." he writes in the preface. 77. published by Psychological Assessment Resources. "I never seem to get it quite right. which is widely used by career counseling professionals. In fact." Holland says. investigative. professional choices and levels of achievement may be predicted.HOPKINS PROFESSOR MAKES CAREER CHOICES HIS JOB Retired Johns Hopkins University professor John Holland enjoys his career of examining the occupational options of others. Holland is convinced that students can be better prepared for professional lives if they evaluate their strengths and weaknesses. "Some scientists think that because this is so easy to understand. but he has hardly stopped working. he says. it can't amount to anything. Holland says inevitably most people remain where they excel. social. include statements such "I understand the 'Big Bang' theory of the universe" and "I can refinish furniture or woodwork." he said. "Some engineers frequently become entrepreneurs who are using their background. first made its debut in 1959 with another publisher." "You and Your Career" and "A Guide to Educational and Career Planning" that may accompany the book." Holland believes the simplicity of his tests and theories is what makes them effective. which have also been adapted for those with reading and learning difficulties." While some may balk at being pigeonholed into one of six areas. anybody can get this message if they want it. including "The Occupations Finder." he says. "Certain changes are hard to make." The work." 170 . And the science types tend to stay there. Since then. "Personality and interest inventories are kind of an interview about life histories. Holland.) He applies the same six characteristics to work and home environments and says some outcomes can be determined by examining the combinations of personality types and environments. retired from what is now the Sociology Department in 1980. His Self-Directed Search forms." Holland's theory states that all people fit into one or more personality types: realistic. "This book is my sixth attempt to create a more satisfying theory of careers. it has been updated several times. though people don't like to admit that." Participants then total the number of statements with which they agree and interpret the findings on their own. artistic. For example.

" A graduate of the University of Omaha who received his master's degree and Ph. A few years later. the superintendent of Boston schools designated 100 elementary and secondary teachers to become vocational counselors. His university occupations included teaching at Boston University School of Law and at Kansas State Agricultural College (See Kansas State University). 2002). Parsons is best known for his interests in helping individuals make occupational and career choices (Zunker. Parsons organized the Bureau of Vocational Guidance. Parsons became director of one of the Civic Service House programs called the Breadwinner's Institute (Zunker. advantages and disadvantages. Additionally. in psychology from the University of Minnesota. Missouri. Shortly later." he says. he wrote several books on social reform movements and articles related to women's suffrage. interests. and other qualities 2. Parsons used the Bureau to train young men to be counselors and managers for YMCA's schools. and businesses. school systems across the country followed suit. a clear understanding of yourself. 2002). the School Committee of Boston created the first counselor certification program. Parsons developed a framework to help individuals decide on a career. by presenting a report that described systematic guidance procedures used to counsel 80 men and women who used the bureau for help. 1908. 1908.Holland's own makeup includes artistic. compensations. Also. Accomplishments In 1901. However. On May 1. a philanthropist. Second. Although he was educated as an engineer at Cornell University. established the Civic Service House in Boston as an effort to provide educational opportunities for immigrants and young persons seeking work. This framework contained a three part formulation. social and investigative components. Choosing a Vocation.D. and French in public schools. colleges. worked as a railroad engineer. a knowledge of the requirements and conditions of success. aptitudes. and his major work. actually. and eventually the program was adopted by Harvard University as the first college-based counselor education program (Schmidt 2003). math. 1. and passed the state bar examination for lawyers in Massachusetts in 1881. opportunities. Parsons presented a lecture that had tremendous impact on the career guidance movement. he died on September 26. and education for all. Later in 1905. abilities. Quincy Agassiz Shaw. "That makes you more versatile. taxation. Nine months later. First. "I've got a relatively flat profile. He served as a professor and director of the Center for Social Organization of Schools before his "quasi-retirement. resources. Holland arrived at Hopkins in 1969. he taught history. this became known as the Boston Plan. complex and quite a bit confused. limitations. was published in May 1909. and prospects in different lines of work 171 . Afterwards. Mrs. and serving as dean of the extension division of Ruskin College in Trenton." FRANK PARSONS Frank Parsons (1854-1908) is known as the Father of Vocational Guidance. Within a few years.

ideal career choices are based on matching personal traits (aptitude. espoused values 3. etc) to produce the best conditions of vocational success. 9 362/2". Parson's framework later became the basis of the contemporary trait/factor theory of career development. (The Oxford English Dictionary traces the phrase "corporate culture" as far back as "1966 Acad. has made a notable mark on the field of organizational development in many areas. a former professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management. 2002) According to Parsons. Jrnl. resources. 5. Managem.) Illustration of Schein's model of organizational culture Schein's model of organizational culture originated in the 1980s. and organizational culture. Values are the organization's stated or desired cultural elements. 1909. personality) with job factors (wages. Third. as cited in Zunker. assumptions The three levels refer to the layers of corporate culture. furniture. Schein (2004) identifies three distinct levels in organizational cultures: 1. and history all exemplify organizational artifacts. This is most often a written or stated tone that the CEO or President hope to exude throughout the office • 172 . EDGAR HENRY SCHEIN Edgar Henry Schein (born 1928). Architecture. group process consultation. p.3. • Artifacts include any tangible or verbally identifiable elements in an organization. environment. dress code. true reasoning of the relations of these two groups of facts (Parsons. office jokes. He is generally credited with inventing the term "corporate culture". artifacts and behaviours 2. including career development. abilities.

W. 173 . Young people answer a set of 50 questions. a Loughborough University company. • Assumptions are the actual values that the culture represents. Examples of this would be employee professionalism. comparing and contrasting brainwashing as a use for "goals that we deplore and goals that we accept. such as the Raz update of Schein's organizational culture model (2006).environment. The Kudos software is available in both CD and online formats.[1] The model has undergone various modifications. Programul KUDOS pentru alegerea carierei de c[tre tineri Kudos is a program used mostly in schools for young people deciding on their career choices and what qualifications they may need to get reach careers. not necessarily correlated to the values. It is one of a range of career resources produced by CASCAiD. These assumptions are typically so well integrated in the office dynamic that they are hard to recognize from within. or a "family first" mantra. followed by a further 67 questions should the user wish to do so. does not matter. W. that match their preferences from the questions. and others. This will then give the young person a list of careers. and is used by public and government-operated schools and school systems. Coercive persuasion Schein has written on the issues surrounding coercive persuasion.4. It is aimed at students ages 13–20 years. It is designed primarily for use in the United Kingdom."[2] Publications • • • • • Brainwashing and Totalitarianization in Modern Society (1959) Coercive Persuasion: A socio-psychological analysis of the "brainwashing" of American civilian prisoners by the Chinese Communists (1961). like and like very much. The responses for each question could be one of five answers: dislike very much. Norton (publishers) Organizational Psychology (1980) ISBN 0-13-641332-3 Organizational Culture and Leadership (1985) ISBN 1-55542-487-2 Process Consultation Revisited (1999) ISBN 0-201-34596-X 1. dislike. They can then click on these careers and it will enable them to look at the aspects of the career and the qualifications needed for it.

or firm.Other areas Cascaid also produces the Careerscape program accessible from the link below. During this process. Kudos and Careerscape are produced by cascaid. Once all candidates have been interviewed. Interview Constructs In light of its popularity.[1] An interview also allows the candidate to assess the corporate culture and demands of the job. the employer typically selects the most desirable candidate and begins the negotiation of a job offer. qualifications. Role A job interview typically precedes the hiring decision. a stream of research has attempted to identify the constructs (ideas or concepts) that are measured during the interview to understand why interviews might help us pick the right people for the job. This is especially common when the candidates do not live near the employer and has the advantage of keeping costs low for both sides.[1] It also demands significant resources from the employer.5. organization. and is used to evaluate the candidate. and potentially job-irrelevant interviewer biases 174 . interviewee performance (applicant behaviors unrelated to the applicant characteristics the interview questions are designed to assess but nevertheless influence interviewer evaluations of interviewee responses). Several reviews of the research on interview constructs revealed that the interview captures a wide variety of applicant attributes. the free encyclopedia) A job interview is a process in which a potential employee is evaluated by an employer for prospective employment in their company. The job interview is considered one of the most useful tools for evaluating potential employees.[2][3][4] These constructs can be classified into three categories: job-relevant interview content (constructs interview questions are designed to assess). then selecting a small number of candidates for interviews. 1. JOB INTERVIEW (From Wikipedia. The interview is usually preceded by the evaluation of submitted résumés from interested candidates. yet has been demonstrated to be notoriously unreliable in identifying the optimal person for the job. the employer hopes to determine whether or not the applicant is suitable for the job. A common initial interview form is the phone interview. a job interview conducted over the telephone. Multiple rounds of job interviews may be used where there are many candidates or the job is particularly challenging or desirable. Earlier rounds may involve fewer staff from the employers and will typically be much shorter and less in-depth. subjects and lifestyle issues. Potential job interview opportunities also include networking events and career fairs. This is an information program that gives advice on careers.

The third category refers to the knowledge. openness to new experiences[6][7][8] Interest. agreeableness. skills. goals.(personal and demographic characteristics of applicants that may influence interviewer evaluations of interviewee responses in an illegal. goals. extroversion. The applicant may have acquired these behaviors during training or from previous interview experience. These behaviors may not be directly related to the constructs the interview questions were designed to assess. The job-relevant constructs that have been assessed in the interview can be classified into three categories: general traits. Job-relevant interview content Interview questions are generally designed to tap applicant attributes that are specifically relevant to the job for which the person is applying. The job-relevant applicant attributes the questions purportedly assess are thought to be necessary for one to successfully perform on the job. These interviewee performance constructs can also be classified into three categories: social effectiveness skills. and personal/contextual factors. but can be related to aspects of the job for which they are applying. and person-organization fit[9] Experiential Factors: • • • Experience: Job-relevant knowledge derived from prior experience[10][11] Education: Job-relevant knowledge derived from prior education Training: Job-relevant knowledge derived from prior training Core Job Elements: • • • Declarative knowledge: Applicants’ learned knowledge[12] Procedural skills and abilities: Applicants’ ability to complete the tasks required to do the job[13] Motivation: Applicants’ willingness to exert the effort required to do the job[14] Interviewee Performance Interviewer evaluations of applicant responses also tend to be colored by how an applicant behaves in the interview. and core job elements. Applicants without realizing it may engage in a number of behaviors that influence ratings of their performance. and values: Applicant motives. and abilities associated with the job. interpersonal presentation. Social Effectiveness Skills: 175 . General Traits: • • • Mental ability: Applicants’ capacity to learn and process information[5] Personality: Conscientiousness. The first category refers to relatively stable applicant traits. discriminatory way). emotional stability. The second category refers to job knowledge that the applicant has acquired over time. experiential factors.

hand movement. gender similarity does not seem to influence interview ratings[32] Similarities in background and attitudes: Interviewers perceived interpersonal attraction was found to influence interview ratings[33] Culture: Applicants with an ethnic name and a foreign accent were viewed less favorably than applicants with just an ethnic name and no accent or an applicant with a traditional name with or without an accent[34] The extent to which ratings of interviewee performance reflect certain constructs varies widely depending on the level of structure of the interview. rate. 176 . has not been found to influence interview ratings[29][30] Gender: Females tend to receive slightly higher interview scores than their male counterparts[31]. Using structured interviews with multiple interviewers coupled with training may help reduce the effect of the following characteristics on interview ratings.• • • • Impression management: Applicants’ attempt to make sure the interviewer forms a positive impression of them[15][16] Social skills: Applicants’ ability to adapt his/her behavior according to the demands of the situation to positively influence the interviewer[17] Self-monitoring: Applicants’ regulation of behaviors to control the image presented to the interviewer[18] Relational control: Applicants’ attempt to control the flow of the conversation[19] Interpersonal Presentation: • • Verbal expression: Pitch. not related to job performance). body orientation[21] Personal/Contextual Factors: • • • • Interview training: Coaching. thus. racial similarity between interviewer and applicant. their influence on interview ratings should be minimized or excluded. mock interviews with feedback[22] Interview experience: Number of prior interviews[23] Interview self-efficacy: Applicants’ perceived ability to do well in the interview[24] Interview motivation: Applicants’ motivation to succeed in an interview[25] Job-irrelevant interviewer biases The following are personal and demographic characteristics that can potentially influence interviewer evaluations of interviewee responses. pauses[20] Nonverbal behavior: Gaze. In fact. smile. interviewer or applicant biases. applicant professional dress or nonverbal behavior. the kind of questions asked. • • • • • Attractiveness: Applicant physical attractiveness can influence interviewer’s evaluation of one’s interview performance[27] Race: Whites tend to score higher than Blacks and Hispanics[28]. and a host of other factors. These factors are typically not relevant to whether the individual can do the job (that is. For example. on the other hand.[26] The list of job-irrelevant interviewer biases is presented below. there are laws in many countries that prohibit consideration of many of these protected classes of people when making selection decisions. some research suggests that applicant’s cognitive ability. education.

For instance. the potential supervisor of the employee is usually involved in the interview process. the following is recommended: Interviews should be developed to assess the job relevant constructs identified in the job analysis. and psychometric testing. making it extremely difficult to tease out the specific constructs measured during the interview. with a suit (called an interview suit) being appropriate for a white-collar job interview. 177 . organizational fit. Candidates generally dress slightly better than they would for work. whereas applicant’s job knowledge. These questions are strongly encouraged since they allow the interviewee to acquire more information about the job and the company. Indeed. work style and other factors relevant to the job. Candidates for lower paid and lower skilled positions tend to have much simpler job interviews than do candidates for more senior positions. some professions have specific types of job interviews.[35] Further. interpersonal skills. Moreover. job interviews usually last less than two hours. and work experiences may be better captured in unstructured interviews. particularly for graduate positions. whereas personality-related constructs seem to be better measured during the interview in comparison to paper and pencil tests of the same personality constructs.[36] Reducing the number of constructs the interview is intended to assess may help mitigate this issue. group activities. assessment days are increasingly being used. for performing artists. Additionally. interviews are typically designed to assess a number of constructs. For instance. this is an audition in which the emphasis is placed on the performance ability of the candidate. [37] In sum. experience) may be better measured with paper and pencil tests than during the interview. The bulk of the job interview will entail the interviewers asking the candidate questions about his or her job history. of practical importance is whether the interview is a better measure of some constructs in comparison to paper and pencil tests of the same constructs. A larger interview panel will often have a specialized human resources worker. presentation exercises. Most job interviews are formal. certain constructs (mental ability and skills. but they can also demonstrate the candidate's strong interest in them. personality. While the meeting can be over in as little as 15 minutes.[38][39] Process A typical job interview has a single candidate meeting with between one and three persons representing the employer. and applied knowledge may be better captured in a structured interview. In many companies. which may include analysis tasks.training. Given the social nature of the interview. the larger the firm. a lawyer's job interview will be much more demanding than that of a retail cashier. applicant responses to interview questions and interviewer evaluations of those responses are sometimes influenced by constructs beyond those the questions were intended to assess. a common interview question is "What are your strengths and weaknesses?" The candidate will usually be given a chance to ask any questions at the end of the interview. the more formal and structured the interview will tend to be.

In recent years it has become increasingly common for employers to request job applicants who are successfully shortlisted to deliver one or more presentations at their interview. Interviewers also have information about the applicant usually in the form of a resume. or what they do in their spare time. test scores. as well as a brief discussion of each stage. and even social networks (e. impact on morale. resumes. Nowadays with recent technological advancements.g. Preinterview Phase: The preinterview phase encompasses the information available to the interviewer beforehand (e. loss of productivity. we must be aware that interviewers have an even larger amount of information available on some candidates.2 times the individual's salary). and (3) the postinterview phase where the interviewer forms judgments of candidate qualifications and makes final decisions[41]. Following is a model depicting these phases. training costs. test scores. In this phase. phases: (1) the preinterview phase which occurs before the interviewer and candidate meet. Studies indicate that 40% of new executives fail in their first 18 months in a new job. And. It is common for the applicant to be notified of the request for them to deliver a presentation along with their invitation to attend the interview. what they are like.[40] This has led to organizations investing in onboarding for their new employees to reduce these failure rates. interviewers typically have an impression of you even before the actual face-to-face interview interaction. etc. Although separate. this may influence how you act towards them compared to a stranger you had never heard about.g. The purpose of the presentation in this setting may be to either demonstrate candidates' skills and abilities in presenting. or prior contacts with the applicant[41]. Yahoo). In this way. Usually applicants are only provided with a title for the presentation and a time limit which the presentation should not exceed. impressions interviewers form early on may affect how they view the person in a later phase. (Gallup international places the cost of a bad hire as being 3. Google.g. Such a similar situation can occur during the process of an interview. Bing. or to highlight their knowledge of a given subject likely to relate closely to the job role for which they have applied. interviewers are likely to already have ideas about the characteristics that would make a person ideal or qualified for the position[42]. why is all this important? It is important 178 . Facebook. While some of this information may be job-related. For instance. albeit related. cost of re-hiring. interviewers can obtain information from search engines (e. blogs. A bad hiring decision nowadays can be immensely expensive for an organization—cost of the hire. Linkedin. For example. these three phases are related. severance pay. Interviewers then often integrate information that they have on an applicant with their ideas about the ideal employee to form a preinterview evaluation of the candidate. If you heard the person was not friendly or nice. (2) the interview phase where the interview is conducted. social networking site information) and the perceptions interviewers form about applicants from this information prior to the actual face-to-face interaction between the two individuals. Process Model One way to think about the interview process is as three separate.. consider the first time you met someone you had heard about (maybe from a mutual friend). Twitter). That is. Despite the relevance of the information. perhaps you may choose not to even talk to them. If the mutual friend had mentioned where this new person is from. some of it may not be. any information interviewers obtain about the applicant before the interview is likely to influence their preinterview impression of the candidate.

For interviewees: Although the description of the interview process above focuses on the perspective of the interviewer. Alternatively. and the interviewer’s postinterview evaluations[44]. In the final stage of the interview process. Essentially. 179 . fulfilling the original thoughts of the interviewer.g. however. Initial interviewer impressions about the applicant before the interview may influence the amount of time an interviewer spends in the interview with the applicant. the interviewer uses his/her evaluation of the candidate (i. Preinterview impressions also can affect what the interviewer notices about the interviewee. researchers have found that what interviewers think about the applicant before the interview (preinterview phase) is related to how they evaluate the candidate after the interview. the interaction between the behaviors and thoughts of both parties is a continuous process whereby information is processed and informs subsequent behavior.. job applicants also gather information on the job and/or organization and form impressions prior to the interview[42]. even from the preinterview phase. It should be noted again. or through video conferencing[46] (e.g. work samples. Sometimes other selection tools (e. but rather a complex process that begins with two parties forming judgments and gathering information. cognitive ability tests. the interviewer’s behavior and questioning of the applicant[45]. For example. Such anxiety may hamper how well they actually perform and present themselves during the interview. recalls from the interview. the process model illustrates that the interview is not an isolated interaction. that because of the dynamic nature of the interview. thoughts. interviewees who perceive an interviewer believes they are qualified for the job may feel more at ease and comfortable during the exchange. the interviewer must form an evaluation of the interviewee’s qualifications for the position. and how an interviewer interprets what the applicant says and does in the interview[43]. and evaluations. resulting in a self-fulfilling prophecy effect[45][47]. they are a social interaction between at least two individuals. can have an effect on how they might treat you in the interview and what they remember about you[41][43]. the behavior of the interviewer during the interview likely “leaks” information to the interviewee. The interviewer most likely takes into consideration all the information. Skype). and integrates it to form a postinterview evaluation of the applicant. in the form of interview ratings or judgment) to make a final decision. Interview Phase: The interview phase entails the actual conduct of the interview.because what interviewers think about you before they meet you. Postinterview Phase: After the interview is conducted. The interview is a two-way exchange and applicants are also making decisions about whether the company is a good fit for them. That is. despite how the candidate may have performed during the interview[44]. As interviews are typically conducted face-toface. Knowing this information can actually affect how the applicant behaves. interviews remain the most commonly used selection device in North America[48]. and consequently actually perform better in the interview. personality tests) are used in combination with the interview to make final hiring decisions. you can sometimes tell during the interview whether the interviewer thinks positively or negatively about you[41]. and ends with a final interviewer decision. over the phone. Thus.e. Furthermore. interviewees who feel the interviewer does not think they are qualified may be more anxious and feel they need to prove they are qualified. the interaction between the interviewer and the applicant..

Give me an example of a time when you had to conform to a policy with which you did not agree.[58] In actual interview settings it is not likely that the sole use of just one type of interview question (situational or behavioral) is asked. By asking questions about how job applicants have handled situations in the past that are similar to those they will face on the job. Critical incidents are relevant tasks that are required for the job and can be collected through interviews or surveys with current employees. One way individuals can prepare for behavioral type questions is to practice the STAR method. The question posed to veterans was “Describe the officer’s actions. employers can gauge how they might perform in future situations. What did he do?” Their responses were compiled to create a factual definition or “critical requirements” of what an effective combat leader is. whether behavioral or situational based. or subject matter experts [52] [53] One of the first critical incidents techniques ever used in the United States Army asked combat veterans to report specific incidents of effective or ineffective behavior of a leader. is essential to make sure that candidates provide meaningful responses that lead to insight into their capability to perform on the job. • • • • Describe a situation in which you were able to use persuasion to successfully convince someone to see things your way.[60] Behavioral Questions Behavioral (experience-based or patterned behavioral) interviews are past-oriented in that they ask respondents to relate what they did in past jobs or life situations that are relevant to the particular job relevant knowledge. A range of questions can add variety for both the interviewer and applicant.” there are typically two types of questions interviewers ask applicants: situational questions [49] and behavioral questions (also known as patterned behavioral description interviews)[50]. skills.[54] Previous meta-analyses have found mixed results for which type of question will best predict future job performance of an applicant. and abilities required for success[61] [62] The idea is that past behavior is the best predictor of future performance in similar situations. The STAR method is a structured manner of responding to a behavioral-based interview 180 . Give me an example of a time when you set a goal and were able to meet or achieve it. other researchers have found that behavioral type questions are better at predicting future job performance of applicants. the use of high-quality questions. managers. some studies have shown that situational type questions have better predictability for job performance in interviews [55] [56] [57]. while.[63] Behavioral Interview Question Examples:. For example. Tell me about a time when you had to use your presentation skills to influence someone's opinion. Both types of questions are based on “critical incidents” that are required to perform the job [51] but they differ in their focus (see below for descriptions).[59] In addition.Types of Questions History of Interview Questions In interviews that are considered “structured interviews.

question by discussing the specific situation. task. You feel that your reputation may be affected by this critique. if anything. Although you think you have a good publication record. hence. You have been told that it will require 2. Situational Interview Questions Situational interview questions[64] ask job applicants to imagine a set of circumstances and then indicate how they would respond in that situation. in front of all your peers and managers from other divisions. What would you do? [67] You are in a meeting. [65] Two core aspects of the SI are the development of situational dilemmas that employees encounter on the job. It is well known that you have the necessary skill and expertise to improve the chances that the Faculty will receive budget increases for future operations. This should describe specifics rather than general descriptions of past behavior. and a scoring guide to evaluate responses to each dilemma. You are concerned because you have already fallen behind on an important research project that you are pursuing with a colleague at another university. Your salary and bonus are affected 181 . You feel you are being treated unfairly in front of your peers. and result of the situation you are describing. You believe that your manager is wrong in his critique. to the point of disrupting the entire group. What would you do in this situation? [68]. Task: What goal were you working toward? Action: Describe the actions you took to address the situation with detail and focus on yourself. would you do?[69] You are in charge of truck drivers in Toronto. Both of you report to the same person. Your colleague is in charge of truck drivers in Montreal. The objective of the committee is to design the budgeting allocation for the Faculty for the next fiscal year. action. What. One advantage of situational questions is that all interviewees respond to the same hypothetical situation rather than describe experiences unique to them from their past. What specific steps did you take and what was your contribution? Result: Describe the outcome of your actions. Your manager blames you for not doing well on a task. Your tenure review is one year away. What happened? How did the event end? What did you accomplish? What did you learn? Make sure your answer contains multiple positive results. and that he might have come to this conclusion hastily without knowing all the information. A general request has been issued by the Dean for someone to serve on a new joint government/industry/university committee on business education. the questions are future oriented. Situation: Describe the situation that you were in or the task that you needed to accomplish.3 days per month of your time for the next 9 months.[66] Situational Examples • • • • You are managing a work group and notice that one of your employees has become angry and hostile in recent weeks. you have no guarantee of tenure at this point. Another advantage is that situational questions allow respondents who have had no direct job experience relevant to a particular question to provide a hypothetical response.

information regarding race. If you say yes.100% by your costs. and handicaps.[73] Illegal Questions Current EEOC guidelines state “the information obtained and requested through the preemployment process should be limited to those essential for determining if a person is qualified for the job.and organizations report that they frequently ask questions about arrest record and convictions. Despite the legal implications. sex. an interviewer may ask “What experience have you had with direct sales phone calls?” Job experience questions may ask candidates to describe or demonstrate job knowledge. your costs will remain low and your group will probably win the Golden Flyer award for the quarter. Case A case interview is an interview form used mostly by management consulting firms and investment banks in which the job applicant is given a question. problem or challenge 182 . as well as co-operation with one's peers. costs. and is now used in other organizations. age. disability status. A brief explanation of each follows. he or she rewards winners. sex. and religion are irrelevant in such determinations” (EEOC website. and puzzle type questions. 2011). age. the Montreal group will probably win this prestigious award because they will make a significant profit for the company. color or ancestry. [71] For instance. • • • Background questions include a focus on work experience. For more information about illegal questions please visit the EEOC. interviewers have been found to request information from job applicants regarding their membership in a protected group. For example. education. national origin. and language abilities[75] [76]. religion. You are just as competitive. age.gov website. Your colleague is in desperate need of one of your trucks. a business magazine sampling of small business respondents indicated most of those employers would ask at least one of following five illegal interview questions: Have you ever filed a workers' compensation claim? Do you have any physical problems or injuries? How many days were you sick last year? Are you currently taking any medications? Have you ever been treated for drug abuse?[74] Other interviewees report being asked questions concerning their age. Your boss has no control over accounting who are the score keepers. and other qualifications. should be avoided. costs. Your boss is preaching costs.g.. marital status. job experience questions. situation. national origin. whereas. “Why are manhole covers round?”) or to solve unusual problems (e.g. any questions. “How would you weigh an airplane without a scale?”). These are typically highly specific questions. which may indicate the applicant's race. one question may be “What steps would you take to conduct a manager training session on safety?” The puzzle interview was popularized by Microsoft in the 1990s.. The most common types of questions either ask the applicant to solve puzzles or brainteasers (e.[77] All of these questions could put the company and interviewer at legal risk.[72] For example. Your boss is highly competitive. If you say no. In general. you are a real winner! What would you do in this situation?[70] Other types of questions Other possible types of questions that may be asked in an interview include: background questions.

and "apples to apples" comparison because each stake holder/interviewer/panelist gets to hear the answers to the same questions. Example stress interview questions: • • Sticky situation: "If you caught a colleague cheating on his expenses. Questions about handling work overload. deliberately and calculatedly trying to "rattle the cage". • • • Presentation format .The candidate is given questions from a series of panelists in rapid succession to test his or her ability to handle stress filled situations. Stress interviews might involve testing an applicant's behavior in a busy environment. another may ask customer service related questions etc.[78] Stress Stress interviews are still in common use. The ostensible purpose of this interview: to find out how the candidate handles stress. another may ask management questions. The benefits of the panel approach to interviewing include: time savings over serial interviewing. interrupt. In this type of interview the candidate is interviewed by a group of panelists representing the various stakeholders in the hiring process.The candidate is given a generic topic and asked to make a presentation to the panel. Often used in academic or sales-related interviews. The key to success for the candidate is to de-personalize the process. Example formats include. it is easier to handle the questions with aplomb. This technique was also used in research protocols studying stress and type A (coronary-prone) behavior because it would evoke hostility and even changes in blood pressure and heart rate in study subjects. take phone calls during the interview. more focused interviews as there is often less time spend building rapport with small talk. Once the candidate realizes that there is nothing personal behind the interviewer's approach. Panel Another type of job interview found throughout the professional and academic ranks is the panel interview. the interviewer may not make eye contact. and handling conflict are typical.and asked to resolve the situation. The case problem is often a business situation or a business case that the interviewer has worked on in real life. dealing with multiple projects.[79] Another type of stress interview may involve only a single interviewer who behaves in an uninterested or hostile manner. turn his back. For example one panelist may ask technical questions. The interviewer is acting a role. or ask questions in a demeaning or challenging style.Each panelist is tasked with asking questions related to a specific role of the position. The goal is to assess how the interviewee handles pressure or to purposely evoke emotional responses. Within this format there are several approaches to conducting the interview. For example. One type of stress interview is where the employer uses a succession of interviewers (one at a time or en masse) whose mission is to intimidate the candidate and keep him/her off-balance. what would you do?" Putting you on the spot: "How do you feel this interview is going?" 183 . Skeet shoot format . may roll his eyes or sigh at the candidate's answers. Role format .

airline.g. body orientation and lean. trustworthy. qualified. but also how you say it (e. what about this one ." Candidates may also be asked to deliver a presentation as part of the selection process. successful.). training.[88] warmer.. such as abroad or in another state or province. For instance.. Start again .g. Interviewee Strategies and Behaviors Nonverbal Behaviors It may not only be what you say in an interview that matters. especially when considered with applicant qualifications presented in résumés. Telephone Telephone interviews take place if a recruiter wishes to reduce the number of prospective candidates before deciding on a shortlist for face-to-face interviews.[82] Oftentimes physical attractiveness is included as part of nonverbal behavior as well.[84] while others have found that they have a relatively small impact on interview outcomes.... although applicants’ responses to interview questions influence interview ratings.tell me what really makes you tick.g.. In other words. Sometimes these interviews will be on a computer module with multiple-choice questions. etc.) and visual cues (e.[89] and 184 .[83] There is some debate about how large a role nonverbal behaviors may play in the interview. speed. This is obviously highly stressful and is therefore useful as a predictor of how the candidate will perform under similar circumstances on the job. Some researchers maintain that nonverbal behaviors affect interview ratings a great deal. posture.[80] their nonverbal behaviors may also affect interviewer judgments. eye contact. " (shakes head) "Okay. hand movement. The questions aim at your problem-solving skills and likely show your ability and creativity..[81] Nonverbal behaviors can be divided into two main categories: vocal cues (e. motivated.• • • Popping the balloon: (deep sigh) "Well. legal and teaching circles frequently involve presentations of this sort. frequency of pauses. Selection processes in academic.[87] Applicants’ nonverbal behaviors may influence interview ratings through the inferences interviewers make about the applicant based on their behavior. fluency. pitch. etc. credible. Technical This kind of interview focuses on problem solving and creativity. competent. smiling. eye contact).?" Oddball question: "What would you change about the design of the hockey stick?" Doubting your veracity: "I don't feel like we're getting to the heart of the matter here.[85] The relationship between nonverbal behavior and interview outcomes is also stronger in structured interviews than unstructured. They also take place if a job applicant is a significant distance away from the premises of the hiring company. how fast you speak) and how you behave during the interview (e.g. applicants who engage in positive nonverbal behaviors such as smiling and leaning forward are perceived as more likable. articulation. hand gestures.. if that's the best answer you can give . The "Platform Test" method involves having the candidate make a presentation to both the selection panel and other candidates for the same job.[86] and stronger when interviewees’ answers are of high quality.

hiring recommendations. loudness. and final decisions of interviewers. people who think another is physically attractive tend to have positive initial impressions of that person (even before formally meeting them).[93] As a result.[92] However. defined as an appealing mix of speech rate. Once individuals are categorized as attractive or unattractive. yet has been found to influence interviewer evaluations and judgments about how suitable an applicant is for the job.[99][100] In addition.[90] These applicants are also predicted to be better accepted and more satisfied with the organization if hired. physical attractiveness is usually not necessarily related to how well one can do the job. attractiveness may not be the most influential determinant of personnel decisions. vocal attractiveness is an auditory cue and can lead to differing interviewer evaluations in the interview as well. behaviors. and thus it is essential that applicants and interviewers alike are aware of their impact. interviewers may have expectations about physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals and then judge applicants based on how well they fit those expectations. but are not limited to. interviewers form judgments.socially skilled. That is. perceived job qualifications. socially competent. You may want to be careful of what you may be communicating through the nonverbal behaviors you display. Physical Attractiveness To hire the best applicants for the job.[97] In addition. People generally agree on who is and who is not attractive and attractive individuals are judged and treated more positively than unattractive individuals.[94] For example. has been found to be favorably related to interview ratings and job performance. pitch. Conducting an interview with elements of structure is a one possible way to decrease bias. perceive the person to be smart. Vocal attractiveness.[102] 185 . that include. but may be a deciding factor when applicants possess similar levels of qualifications. and have good social skills and general mental health. but it does provide an advantage in increased hiring rates and more positive job-related outcomes for attractive individuals when applicant quality is low and average. the personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness predict performance more strongly for people with more attractive voices compared to those with less attractive voices. despite any shared information between content and nonverbal behavior. it typically turns out that interviewers will judge attractive individuals more favorably on job-related factors than they judge unattractive individuals. and variability. predicted job success.[98] Just as physical attractiveness is a visual cue.[91] Applicants’ verbal responses and their nonverbal behavior may convey some of the same information about the applicant. attractiveness does not provide an advantage if the applicants in the pool are of high quality. physically attractive individuals have been shown to have an advantage over unattractive individuals in numerous ways.[101] As important as it is to understand how physical attractiveness can influence the judgments. it is equally important to find ways to decrease potential bias in the job interview.[95] Within the business domain. it is clear that nonverbal behaviors do predict interview ratings to an extent beyond the content of what was said. and compensation levels.[96] As noted by several researchers. sometimes using applicants’ physical attractiveness.

Coaching An abundance of information is available to instruct interviewees on strategies for improving their performance in a job interview. eye contact). Faking Interviewers should be aware that applicants can intentionally distort their responses or fake during the interview and such applicant faking has the potential to influence interview outcomes if present. and responding with relevant experience that demonstrates these skills. Another type of coaching is designed to focus interviewees on the content specifically relevant to describing one’s qualifications for the job. verbal cues (how fast to speak. smiling. research has shown that interviewees tend to have positive reactions to coaching.[111] Additionally. increase reliability and validity of the structured interview).e.g. articulation. therefore. the interviewer’s goal is to obtain job-relevant information. in order to help improve their answers to interview questions.e.[106][107][108][109] The effectiveness of coaching is due. in order to get hired. sometimes even provided by the hiring organization. such as the types of questions that will be asked. The interviewee’s goal is typically to perform well (i. which is often an underlying goal of an interview. speech volume.[103] For example. administration of interview.. One type of coaching is designed to teach interviewees how to perform better in the interview by focusing on how to behave and present oneself. An example coaching program might include several sections focusing on various aspects of the interview.[110] Research has also shown that coaching can increase the likelihood that interviewers using a structured interview will accurately choose those individuals who will ultimately be most successful on the job (i. and the content that the interviewer is attempting to assess. and impression management tactics. This type of coaching could include how to dress. the effects of coaching tend to be positive for both interviewees and interviewers. Two concepts that relate to faking include social desirability (the tendency for people to 186 . in part. obtain high interview ratings). this type of coaching might teach an interviewee to use the STAR approach for answering behavioral interview questions. there are two general types of coaching. An additional section providing general interview tips about how to behave and present oneself could also be included. and traits the interviewer is attempting to assess. as well as a section involving practice answering example interview questions. It could also include a section designed to provide feedback to help the interviewee to improve their performance in the interview. different types of interviews. abilities. Interviewee knowledge refers to knowledge about the interview. and traits believed by the organization to be indicators of successful job performance.[112] Based on research thus far. interview day logistics. abilities. and explain how this process works (e. This type of coaching is focused on improving aspects of the interview that are not necessarily related to the specific elements of performing the job tasks. Within the more formal coaching programs. advantages of structured interviews). to increasing the interviewee’s knowledge.. It could include a section designed to introduce interviewees to the interview process. [104] It is useful to consider coaching in the context of the competing goals of the interviewer and interviewee. in order to determine whether the applicant has the skills. pitch). which in turn results in better interview performance.[105] Research has shown that how well an applicant does in the interview can be enhanced with coaching. Information used by interviewees comes from a variety of sources ranging from popular how-to books to formal coaching programs. This coaching. how to display nonverbal behaviors (head nods. On the other hand. focuses on improving the interviewee’s understanding of the skills.

For example. The fourth and final component of faking involves ingratiating oneself to the interviewer by conforming personal opinions to align with those of the organization. deceptive. for instance. concealing negatively perceived aspects of the applicant’s background. although follow-up questions increased faking behaviors in both types of interviews. and aimed at improving perceptions of performance. Most importantly. inventing untrue experiences or skills. and impression management (conscious or unconscious attempts to influence one’s image during interactions [114]). presumably to compensate for a lack of job-required skills/traits and further their chances for employment. and attitudes are similar to those of the organization. Different interview characteristics also seem to impact the likelihood of faking.    Of all of the various faking behaviors listed. Faking behavior is less prevalent. fabricating true skills appears to be at least somewhat prevalent in employment interviews. and by separating oneself from negative experiences. values. and portraying others’ experiences or accomplishments as ones’ own. in past behavioral interviews than in situational interviews. The second aspect of faking is inventing or completely fabricating one’s image by piecing distinct work experiences together to create better answers. ingratiation tactics were found to be the most prevalent in the employment interview. Faking in the employment interview. and/or creating the impression that personal beliefs. Faking in the employment interview can be broken down into four elements [116]. past behavioral interviews and avoid the use of probes or follow-up questions [120]. if practitioners are interested in decreasing faking behaviors among job candidates in employment interview settings. 187 . However. Therefore. faking behaviors have been shown to affect outcomes of employment interviews. while flat out making up answers or claiming others’ experiences as one’s own is the least common [117]. One study found that over 80% of participants lied about job-related skills in the interview [118]. This can be accomplished through omitting certain negative experiences. Thus. can be defined as “deceptive impression management or the conscious distortion of answers to the interview questions in order to obtain a better score on the interview and/or otherwise create favorable perceptions” [115]. tailoring answers to better fit the job. faking might also be aimed at protecting the applicant’s image. they should utilize structured.present themselves in a favorable light [113]). then. as well as insincerely praising or complimenting the interviewer or organization.  The first involves the interviewee portraying him or herself as an ideal job candidate by exaggerating true skills. the probability of getting another interview or job offer increases when interviewees make up answers [119]. Thirdly. faking in the employment interview is intentional.

there are typically two broad categories of standardization: 1) content structure. Interview structure is defined as “the reduction in procedural variance across applicants. structured interviews have yielded much better results and are considered a best practice [122]. as indicated by a job analysis Ask the same questions of all interviewees Limit prompting.75 or above). that interviewers may ask Ask better questions. such as behavioral description questions Have a longer interview Control ancillary information available to the interviewees. Structure in an interview can be compared to a typical paper and pencil test: we would not think it was fair if every test taker was given different questions and a different number of questions on an exam. a structured interview attempts to standardize this popular selection tool. While unstructured interviews are commonly used. In terms of reliability. or how well the interview predicts later job performance criterion validity. Yet this is exactly what occurs in an unstructured interview. that is. when a structured panel interview is used [127]. Content structure includes elements that refer to the actual content of the interview: • • • • • • • Base questions on attributes that are representative of the job. . or consistent ratings across interviewers interrater reliability (i. Furthermore.Validity and predictive power There is extant data[121] which puts into question the value of job interviews as a tool for selecting employees. In terms of criterionrelated validity. such as resumes Don’t allow questions from applicants during interview Evaluation structure includes aspects that refer to the actual rating of the interviewee: • • • • • • • • Rate each answer rather than making an overall evaluation at the end of the interview Use anchored rating scales (for an example.e. given the unstructured approach of most interviews they often have almost no useful predictive power of employee success. other methods of selection provide greater predictive power and often lower costs. structured interviews 188 . Where the aim of a job interview is ostensibly to choose a candidate who will perform well in the job role. meta-analytic results provided evidence that interviews can have acceptable levels of interrater reliability. the degree of structure present in an interview can vary along these various elements listed above [126]. which can translate into the degree of discretion that an interviewer is allowed in conducting the interview” [123]. have panel interviews) Have the same interviewers rate each applicant Don’t allow any discussion about the applicants between interviewers Train the interviewers Use statistical procedures to create an overall interview score It is important to note that structure should be thought of as a continuum. and 2) evaluation structure [125]. or if their answers were each graded differently.e. While there is debate surrounding what is meant specifically by a structured interview [124]. metaanalytic results have shown that when compared to unstructured interviews. see BARS ) Have the interviewer take detailed notes Have more than one interviewer view each applicant (i. or follow up questions. thus.

A qualified individual is “an individual with a disability who. is regarded by others as being disabled. can perform the essential functions of the employment position that such individual holds or desires. Although some states (e. segregate.[132] In the United States. sex (including pregnancy). color. an accommodation is any change in the work environment or in   189 . That is. the individual must be qualified for the job. showed validity levels comparable to cognitive ability tests (traditionally one of the best predictors of job performance) for entry level jobs [131]. Honesty and integrity are attributes that can be very hard to determine using a formal job interview process: the competitive environment of the job interview may in fact promote dishonesty. or privilege of employment” or “to limit. with values ranging from . it is unlawful for private employers with 15 or more employees along with state and local government employers to discriminate against applicants based on the following: race.[135] The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 prohibits discriminatory practice directed against individuals who are 40 years of age and older. as the degree of structure in an interview increases.”[137] Unless the disability poses an “undue hardship. Some experts on job interviews express a degree of cynicism towards the process. age (40 or over). or classify his employees or applicants for employment in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee. “In general. or otherwise discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation. with validity coefficients increasing with higher degrees of structure [128] [129] [130]. no federal law exists. the more likely interviewers can successfully predict how well the person will do on the job.[136] The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 protects qualified individuals who currently have or in the past have had a physical or mental disability (current users of illegal drugs are not covered under this Act). color. has a history of a disability. sex.have higher validities. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act was added as an amendment and protects women if they are pregnant or have a pregnancy-related condition. religion. especially when compared to unstructured interviews. More specifically.g. conditions. In fact.[who?] Legal Issues In many countries laws are put into place to prevent organizations from engaging in discriminatory practices against protected classes when selecting individuals for jobs. or has a physical or mental impairment that is not transitory (lasting or expected to last six months or less) and minor. terms. one structured interview that included a) a predetermined set of questions that interviewers were able to choose from. In order to be covered under this Act.”[133][134]  The Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1991 (Title VII) were passed into law to prevent the discrimination of individuals due to race.20-. and b) interviewer scoring of applicant answers after each individual question using previously created benchmark answers. or national origin. national origin.57 (on a scale from 0 to 1). disability. or genetic information (note: additional classes may be protected depending on state or local law). New York) do have laws preventing the discrimination of individuals younger than 40. with or without reasonable accommodation. A person may be disabled if he or she has a disability that substantially limits a major life activity.” reasonable accommodations must be made by the organization. an employer cannot legally “fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual.

however.”[138] Examples of reasonable accommodations are changing the workspace of an individual in a wheelchair to make it more wheelchair accessible. that is. this law prohibits the discrimination of employees or applicants due to an individual’s genetic information and family medical history information. applicants will receive a score based on their performance during the interview. they are still not recommended for employment [149] [150]. organizations are limited in the types of questions they legally are allowed to ask applicants in a job interview. That is.[139] Employees are responsible for asking for accommodations to be made by their employer. modifying work schedules. and/or modifying equipment. in the majority of situations it is illegal to ask the following questions in an interview as a condition of employment: • • • • • • What is your date of birth?[141] Have you ever been arrested for a crime?[142] Do you have any future plans for marriage and children?[143] What are your spiritual beliefs?[144] How many days were you sick last year? Have you ever been treated for mental health problems?[145] What prescription drugs are you currently taking?[146] Applicants with Disabilities Applicants with disabilities may be concerned with the effect that their disability has on both interview and employment outcomes.[140] Given these laws. 190 .the way things are customarily done that enables an individual with a disability to enjoy equal employment opportunities. unless the information is considered a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification. In essence. and the perceptions different kinds of applicant disabilities may have on interviewer ratings. The job interview is a tool used to measure constructs or overall characteristics that are relevant for the job. the reactions of applicants with disabilities to the interview. Research has found different findings based on interviewers’ perceptions of the disability. Oftentimes.” For example. it is lawful for employers to base hiring decisions on protected class information if it is considered a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification. applicants with disabilities receive higher ratings than equally qualified non-disabled applicants) in ratings of applicants with disabilities [147] [148] Other research.e. some research has found a leniency effect (i. if it is a “qualification reasonably necessary to the normal operation of the particular business. The difference between ratings and hiring could be detrimental to a company because they may be missing an opportunity to hire a qualified applicant. the effects of disclosing a disability during the interview. For example. even though applicants with disabilities may have received a high interview score. In rare circumstances..[135]  The most recent law to be passed is Title II of the [[Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act] of 2008. Research has concentrated on four key issues: how interviewers rate applicants with disabilities. has found there is a disconnect between the interview score and the hiring recommendation for applicants with disabilities. For example. Asking these questions may cause discrimination against protected classes. a movie studio may base a hiring decision on age if the actor they are hiring will play a youthful character in a film.

. there are differences between the effects of disclosing disabilities that are visible (e. if the interviewer perceives the applicant as uncomfortable or anxious discussing the disability. inform potential employer of disability) or discuss their disability because they want to demonstrate their abilities.g. That is. If the disability is visible. however. Some practical implications for job interviews for applicants with disabilities include research findings that show there are no differences in interviewer responses to a brief. as these results may not apply to other types of disabilities. however. there can be positive interviewer effects. longer discussion about the disability during the interview[153]. applicants who were aware that the recruiting employer already had employed people with disabilities felt they had a more positive interview experience. when the interviewer perceives the applicant is psychologically well and/or comfortable with his or her disability.[151] Many applicants with disabilities feel they cannot disclose (i.g.[154] Interviewers tend to be impressed by the honesty of the disclosure.. so the applicant can decide if they want to discuss their disability. If an applicant has a non-visible disability. If applicants want to disclose their disability during the interview. In addition.A second issue in interview research deals with the applicants’ with disabilities reactions to the interview and applicant perceptions of the interviewers.[153][148] In addition. HIV-Positive.. A physical disability often results in higher interviewer ratings than psychological (e. Caution must again be taken when 191 . physical birth defect)[152]. are preceded by the interviewers perception of the applicants’ psychological well-being. Epilepsy) during the interview. Therefore it is possible that interviewers feel individuals who delay disclosure may do so out of shame or embarrassment.g. if the disability is disclosed after being hired. then that applicant has more of a choice in disclosing and discussing. The positive effects. they were liked more than the applicants who did not disclose their disability and were presumed not disabled.[153] Strong caution needs to be taken with applying results from studies about specific disabilities. In contrast. mental illness) or sensory conditions (e. however. which leads such applicants to experience anxiety and tension themselves.g.g. Disabilities with a negative stigma and that are perceived as resulting from the actions of the person (e. Applicants with disabilities and ablebodied applicants report similar feelings of anxiety towards an interview.. then disclosure will inevitably occur when the applicant meets the interviewer.. substance abuse) result in lower interview scores than disabilities for which the causes are perceived to be out of the individual’s control (e. shorter discussion or a detailed. this may either fail to garner positive effect or result in more negative interview ratings for the candidate.. should note that when a non-visible disability is disclosed near the end of the interview.[151] Applicants should consider if they are comfortable with talking about and answering questions about their disability before deciding how to approach the interview. research shows that a disclosure and/or discussion earlier in the interview approach may afford them some positive interview effects[156].g. Tourette Syndrome). applicants were rated more negatively than early disclosing and non-disclosing applicants. In addition. Not all disabilities are the same and more research is needed to find whether these results are relevant for other types of disabilities. Applicants. The interview is felt to be the part of the selection process where covert discrimination against applicants with disabilities can occur. When applicants had a non-visible disability and disclosed their disability early in the interview they were not rated more negatively than applicants who did not disclose.. In fact.[151] Applicants with disabilities often report that interviewers react nervously and insecurely. wheelchair bound) and non-visible (e. employers may feel deceived by the new hire and reactions could be less positive than would have been in the interview[155].e. Research has also demonstrated that different types of disabilities have different effects on interview outcomes.

However. lazy. Discrimination against pregnant applicants is illegal under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978. Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. such as whether the disability is physical or psychological. underweight individuals may be negatively treated partly due to their lack of physical attractiveness [162]. Conway. unmotivated. unmotivated. ^ Huffcutt. 192 . 62-81. ^ Huffcutt.us 2. Organizations who wish to reduce potential discrimination against pregnant applicants should consider implementing structured interviews. discrimination against pregnant applicants continues both in the United States and internationally [166][167]. (2011). References 1. The negative treatment of overweight and obese individuals may stem from the beliefs that weight is controllable and those who fail to control their weight are lazy. While these sites may be useful to verify resume information.. Alternatively. some individuals who are morbidly obese and whose obesity is due to a physiological disorder may be protected against discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act [165]. Job applicants who are underweight (to the point of emaciation). M. profiles with pictures also may reveal much more information about the applicant. & Stone. although some theoretical work suggests interviewers may still show biases even in these types of interviews [168][170]. An empirical review of the employment interview construct literature. Pregnant job applicants are a group that may face discrimination because of their “disability”. P. 897-913. Other Applicant Discrimination: Weight and Pregnancy Employers are using social networking sites like Facebook and LinkedIn to obtain additional information about job applicants [157][158][159]. Research shows that pregnant applicants compared to non-pregnant applicants are less likely to be recommended for hire [168][169]. These characteristics. including issues pertaining to applicant weight and pregnancy [160]. overweight and obese applicants are not protected from discrimination by any current United States laws [161].applying these research findings to other types of disabilities not investigated in the studies discussed above.. lacks self-discipline. Roth. I. visible or non-visible. (2001). L. or whether the applicant is perceived as responsible for the disability or not. overweight or obese may face discrimination in the interview [161] [162]. N. There are many factors that can influence the interview of an applicant with a disability. and lack self-discipline [163]. I. J. A. overweight or obese. Interviewers appear concerned that pregnant applicants are more likely than non-pregnant applicants to miss work and even quit [169]. 86. Therefore applicants should make their own conclusions about how to proceed in the interview after comparing their situations with those examined in the research discussed here. could hinder their chances of getting hired. In short. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. men and women should be aware that their weight. 19(1). Journal of Applied Psychcology. which views pregnancy as a temporary disability and requires employers to treat pregnant applicants the same as all other applicants [166].. Yet. 3. whether underweight.ne. A. Underweight. physically unattractive are not ideal for a future employee [164]. J. ^ a b State.

A. M. (1999). 9. 86. 2. M.. 897-913. Measuring faking in the employment interview: Development and validation of an interview faking behavior scale. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. (2011). 8. (2001). M. 16. J. 10. 1638-1656. & Moscoso. L. Comprehensive meta-analysis of the construct validity of the employment interview. 11.. 299-324. Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. Roth. M. Conway. Journal of Applied Psychcology. ^ Huffcutt. ^ Huffcutt. A. NOTA : Se renunţă la celelalte referinţe şi trimiteri bibliografice din lipsă de spaţiu Documentarul Nr. 51. T. 963-983. 13. & Moscoso.4. J. 86. P. Comprehensive meta-analysis of the construct validity of the employment interview. J. Journal of Applied Psychcology. N. T.. N. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. I. ^ Salgado. J. eGroot. & Motowidlo.. Roth. skills and attitudes appropriate to each context are fundamental for each individual in a knowledge-based society. ^ Salgado. S. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. Personnel Psychology. (2001).. Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. I. J. 299-324. Comprehensive meta-analysis of the construct validity of the employment interview. (2002). 86. Comprehensive meta-analysis of the construct validity of the employment interview. COMPETENŢELE CADRULUI DIDACTIC 2. (1998). Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. J. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology... 299-324. ^ Huffcutt. 897-913. 19(1). ^ Burnett. 62-81... A. A.. 92. F. M. J. S. J. J. 12. 15. ^ Salgado. 84. (2002). (2008). & Moscoso. Roth. ^ Huffcutt. & Stone. Conway. & Stone. J. They provide added value for the 193 . J.. 986993. (2001). Roth. Conway. 299-324. ^ Salgado. L.. J. Journal of Applied Psychology. Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews.... Key competences for lifelong learning Key competences in the shape of knowledge. & Motowidlo. How does coaching interviewees affect the validity of a structured interview? Journal of Organizational Behavior. & Lippstreu. 11. Journal of Applied Psychcology.. A. & Stone. J. L. Journal of Applied Psychcology. I. J. L. 29.. 11. (2007). Relations between different sources of information in the structured interview.1. ^ Huffcutt. 14. J.. S.. Solamon. 355-371. 6. ^ Maurer. I. R. F. 11. (2002). S. 7.. S.^ Levashina. 897-913. P. N. F. A. & Stone. P. I. J. P. 11. 5. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. 86. (2001). F. M. & Moscoso. Why visual and vocal interview cues can affect interviewers' judgments and predict job performance. S. (2002). Journal of Applied Psychology.. N. & Campion. 897-913. J. J. Conway. M. An empirical review of the employment interview construct literature.

labour market. migrants. and they contribute to the motivation and satisfaction of workers and the quality of work. early school leavers. social inclusion.12. This reference framework also applies in particular to disadvantaged groups whose educational potential requires support.2006]. active citizenship and employment. through a process of developing and updating skills. These key competences are: 194 . adults throughout their lives. Eight key competences This framework defines eight key competences and describes the essential knowledge. Because they should be acquired by everyone. productivity and competitiveness. ACT Recommendation 2006/962/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning [Official Journal L 394 of 30. etc. this recommendation proposes a reference tool for European Union (EU) countries to ensure that these key competences are fully integrated into their strategies and infrastructures. people with disabilities. SUMMARY Key competences for lifelong learning are a combination of knowledge. particularly in the context of lifelong learning. social cohesion and active citizenship by offering flexibility and adaptability. Key competences should be acquired by: • • young people at the end of their compulsory education and training. particularly for working life. skills and attitudes appropriate to the context. skills and attitudes related to each of these. the long-term unemployed. They are particularly necessary for personal fulfilment and development. The acquisition of key competences fits in with the principles of equality and access for all. They are also a major factor in innovation. Examples of such groups include people with low basic skills. equipping them for adult life. allowing it to adapt more quickly to constant changes in an increasingly interconnected world. Key competences are essential in a knowledge society and guarantee more flexibility in the labour force. satisfaction and motivation. whilst forming a basis for further learning.

This should include awareness of ethical values and promote good governance. An understanding of codes of conduct and customs in the different environments in which individuals operate is essential. social and civic competences. Civic competence. It is the foundation for acquiring more specific skills and knowledge needed by those establishing or contributing to social or commercial activity. learning to learn is related to learning. in addition to the main skill dimensions of communication in the mother tongue. equips individuals to engage in active and democratic participation. Mathematical competence is the ability to develop and apply mathematical thinking in order to solve a range of problems in everyday situations. activity and knowledge. the ability to pursue and organise one's own learning. It involves creativity. which is the ability to express and interpret concepts. reading and writing. Social competence refers to personal. which involves. communication in foreign languages. feelings. reading and writing) and to interact linguistically in an appropriate and creative way in a full range of societal and cultural contexts. It is linked to personal and social well-being. with the emphasis being placed on process. These involve an understanding of the changes caused by human activity and the responsibility of each individual as a citizen. digital competence involves the confident and critical use of information society technology (IST) and thus basic skills in information and communication technology (ICT). The individual is aware of the context of his/her work and is able to seize opportunities that arise. justice. Basic competences in science and technology refer to the mastery. and particularly knowledge of social and political concepts and structures (democracy. mediation and intercultural understanding. use and application of knowledge and methodologies that explain the natural world. equality. The level of proficiency depends on several factors and the capacity for listening. and awareness of methods and opportunities. innovation and risk-taking. speaking. mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology. thoughts. in accordance with one's own needs. sense of initiative and entrepreneurship is the ability to turn ideas into action. speaking. citizenship and civil rights). interpersonal and intercultural competence and all forms of behaviour that equip individuals to participate in an effective and constructive way in social and working life. either individually or in groups. • • • • 195 .• • • communication in the mother tongue. as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives. facts and opinions in both oral and written form (listening.

problem solving. apply the reference framework so as to facilitate peer learning and the exchange of good practices and follow up developments and report on progress through the progress reports on the Education and Training 2010 work programme. EU countries should try to ensure: that initial education and training offer all young people the means to develop the key competences to a level that equips them for adult and working life. 196 . risk assessment. education and training providers. creativity. and the emphasis in each case is on critical thinking. employers and learners. that there are measures to ensure access to education and training and the labour market and that there is support for learners depending on their specific needs and competences. A European reference framework for European Union (EU) countries and the Commission These key competences provide a reference framework to support national and European efforts to achieve the objectives they define. These key competences are all interdependent. more generally. • • • • • It forms the basis for action at Community level. thus also providing a basis for future learning.• cultural awareness and expression. which involves appreciation of the importance of the creative expression of ideas. that adults can develop and update key competences throughout their lives. experiences and emotions in a range of media (music. within the Community education and training programmes. that appropriate infrastructure is in place for continuing education and training of adults. It is a reference tool for EU countries and their education and training policies. the coherence of adult education and training provision through close links between the policies concerned. performing arts. the Commission should make a special effort to: • help EU countries to develop their education and training systems. This framework is mainly intended for policy makers. that appropriate provision is made for young people who are disadvantaged in their training so that they can fulfil their educational potential. literature and the visual arts). In this respect. initiative. particularly within the Education and Training 2010 work programme and. particularly priority target groups such as persons who need to update their competences. decision taking and constructive management of feelings.

use the reference framework to implement related Community policies (employment. assess.Teacher Education Competencies (North Carolina University. USA. For its part. which were repeated in the revised Lisbon strategy in 2005. youth. 2005 1. Departament of Education site . which explains the importance of lifelong learning in terms of adapting to change and integration.03. the impact of the reference framework within the context of the Education and Training 2010 work programme as well as the experience gained and the implications for the future. by December 2010. The reference criteria. They provide added value for employment. In response to the concerns expressed at the Lisbon European Council on 23 and 24 March 2000.• • • use the reference framework for the implementation of the Community education and training programmes whilst ensuring that these programmes promote the acquisition of key competences. which make it possible to judge improvements in European performances. Background The transversal nature of key competences makes them essential. cultural and social policies) and to strengthen links with social partners and other organisations active in those fields.Davidson College. the 2004 joint interim report on the progress of the Education and Training 2010 work programme made the case for drawing up common European references and principles. social cohesion or young people (European Youth Pact). Last updated: 03.2011 2. These last two put forward specific proposals on making key competences a priority for all age groups.2. the key competences form part of the objectives of the Education and Training 2010 work programme. the Commission communication of 2001 on making a European area of lifelong learning a reality and the subsequent Council resolution adopted in 2002.0 Content Knowledge 197 . featured in a 2005 report with contrasting results.

1.3. 1.2 Understand that students' physical. can identify levels of readiness in learning.1 Understand how learning occurs-how students construct knowledge.1.4. mathematics. and they know the appropriate levels of intellectual.2 Know and appreciate the great creative works of world cultures. physical. geography. and understand how development in any one domain may affect performance in others.4. and emotional development of the students they teach. moral and cognitive development influence learning.1.1 Know the links between the grade or subject they teach and what comes before and after their course or grade.2. social.4 Understand how social groups function and influence people. 1. social.2. 1. 1. political systems. and know how professionals in their field think and analyze the world. 1. Teachers understand the ways in which their teaching area connects to the broad curriculum. 1. 1. and sciences.4. emotional.2 Have a strong background in the subjects related to their specialty area.2 Subject-area Content. social.2 Can relate disciplinary knowledge to other subject areas. Teachers have broad knowledge of the liberal arts.2. philosophies. religions. 1.2. and ways of knowing that are central to the discipline they teach. moral and cognitive). acquire skills. and economic systems by which people organize their lives. 1.1 Liberal Arts. humanities. and have a broad understanding of the major cultures.1 Have background in basic subject areas: the arts. 1. 1. assumptions. 1.4.4 Know how to apply information from their discipline to real-world situations. 1.4 Developmental Theory. Teachers know the ways in which learning takes place. Teachers know the content appropriate to their teaching specialty and the relevant applications of this content. and how people influence groups. and develop habits of mind. emotional.1. 1. 198 . debates.3 Are aware of expected developmental progressions and ranges of individual variation within each domain (physical.3 Understand major concepts.3.1 Know their subjects considerably beyond the content they are expected to teach.3 Curriculum Theory. processes of inquiry.

2. 1.1. space. 1. and 199 .1. 2. 1. support.0 Pedagogical Skills 2.1 Exercise leadership by taking personal responsibility for the progress of all students.5 Diverse Cultural Environments. 2. allocate.5.2 Organize and motivate students to act in ways that meet the needs of both the individual student and the class as a whole.1 Effective Classroom Management. promote teamwork. Teachers recognize the impact of cultural. and make constant adjustments.6. communicate. Teachers practice effective classroom management. 2.1. political. academic discussions. and social environments upon their discipline. 2.7 Engage students in individual and cooperative learning activities that help them develop the motivation to achieve.6 Use a range of strategies to promote positive relationships. 2. 2.1.1.1. 2.1 Understand how technological advances affect their discipline.5 Recognize factors and situations that are likely to promote or diminish intrinsic motivation. maintain discipline and morale.2 Know where to find technological resources specific to their discipline.1. Teachers know the specific uses of technology in their discipline.1.4.1 Know the history of their discipline.5 Are skilled at facilitating consensus and mediating conflict.1.5. and individual and group responsibility that create a positive classroom climate of openness. economic. 1. 2.1.9 Help the group to develop shared values and expectations for student interactions.8 Organize. 2. evaluate progress. and purposeful learning in the classroom. focus on results.4 Work to minimize disruptions in student learning and take advantage of unexpected events to teach students.3 Maximize efficiency. plan. activities. and attention to provide active and equitable engagement of students in productive tasks.6 Subject-Specific Technology. cooperation.2 Know the contributions that diverse cultural groups have made to their discipline. mutual respect.6. 1. 1. and manage the resources of time.

and other colleagues. 2.5 Use multiple teaching and learning strategies to engage students in active learning opportunities that promote the development of critical thinking. 2. and methods of inquiry from several subject areas. student performances and projects. and problem-solving skills.5 Maintain useful records of student work and performance and communicate student progress knowledgeably and responsibly. Teachers use a variety of methods to assess what students have learned. and performance capabilities and that help students assume responsibility for identifying and using learning resources. 2.3. Teachers use a variety of methods to teach students. such as the questions asked in class and the level of student enthusiasm. responses to quizzes. 2.2.3 Use assessment strategies to involve learners in self-assessment activities.1 Use formal tests.3 Effective Assessment. 2. 2.6 Constantly monitor and adjust strategies in response to learner feedback. evaluation of class assignments. problem solving. 2.2. to help them become aware of their strengths and needs.3.2.7 Engage students in individual and cooperative learning activities that help them develop the motivation to achieve.2 Evaluate informal measures of student understanding. 2. theories. 2.2.2 Effective Teaching Practices. to students. 2.1 Teach students how to live and work together productively and in a positive manner. and to encourage them to set personal goals for learning. parents.2. critical thinking. including cooperative learning techniques.2. 2.3.4 Integrate interdisciplinary learning experiences that allow students to integrate knowledge. and standardized achievement tests to understand what students know.2 Effectively use multiple representations and explanations of disciplinary concepts that capture key ideas and link them to students' prior understandings.inquiry. based on appropriate indicators. 2. 2.2.2.2.3. 200 . modifying plans and instructional approaches accordingly.8 Model effective communication strategies in conveying ideas and information and in asking questions. "ways of knowing" and methods of inquiry in the teaching of subject matter concepts. skills. 2.3 Represent and use differing viewpoints.4 Modify teaching strategies and behavior in relation to student success. to promote content knowledge.3.

2.4 Curriculum Alignment. Teachers align their instruction with the required curriculum. 2.4.1 Develop and apply strategies to make the North Carolina Standard Course of Study, local curriculum framework, and content standards developed by professional organizations in their specialty area significant to the students they teach. 2.4.2 Meet the requirements of the entire curriculum, while recognizing and focusing on those concepts in the curriculum which are fundamental to student understanding.

2.5 Diversified Instruction. Teachers plan instruction that is appropriate for a diverse student population, including students with special needs. 2.5.1 Develop short- and long-range plans for instruction, which reflect understanding of how students learn, and allow for students who learn at a faster or slower pace than others to be successful and engaged in learning. 2.5.2 Understand that plans are general guidelines and must be constantly monitored and modified to enhance the learning that is occurring in the classroom. 2.5.3 Make inclusion of special needs students in the regular classroom a positive experience for each student in the class and collaborate with the range of support specialists to help them meet the needs of all students. 2.5.4 Identify and design instruction appropriate to students' stages of development, learning styles, strengths, and needs.2.5.5 Bring multiple perspectives to the discussion of subject matter, including attention to students' personal, family, and community experiences and cultural norms. 2.5.6 Know how to take contextual considerations (instructional materials, individual student interests, needs and aptitudes, and community resources) into curriculum goals and students' experiences. 2.5.7 Know when and how to adjust plans based on student responses and other contingencies.

2.6 Technology Skills. Teachers have strong and current technology skills. 2.6.1 Know when and how to use current educational technology. 2.6.2 Understand the most appropriate type and level of technology to use to maximize student learning. 3.0 Professional Dispositions

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3.1 Belief That All Students Can Learn. Teachers believe that all students can learn. 3.1.1 Instill a love of learning and self-confidence based on achievement. 3.1.2 Treat students as individuals. 3.1.3 Enjoy spending time in the company of children and young adults learn all they can about each of their students; maintain the dignity of each student; express pride in their students' accomplishments. 3.1.4 Believe that all children can learn at high levels and persist in helping all children achieve success.

3.2 Respect for Diversity. Teachers know and respect the influence of race, ethnicity, gender, religion and other aspects of culture on a child's development and personality. 3.2.1 Demonstrate the belief that diversity in the classroom, in the school, and in society is a strength and show this commitment by daily conduct. 3.2.2 Do not allow subtle or overt intolerance to bigotry in classrooms or schools, and actively select materials and develop lessons that counteract stereotypes. 3.2.3 Strive to understand how an individual child's culture and background influence his or her school performance. 3.2.4 In schools and communities where population diversity is limited, find ways to acquaint children with a wide variety of people who make up our society and world.

3.3 Professional Development and Ethics. Teachers meet high ethical standards of practice and engage in professional development activities, including development in the area of technology. 3.3.1 Keep the needs of students at the center of professional thoughts and actions. 3.3.2 Live up to universal ethical principles of honesty, truthfulness, integrity, fair treatment, and respect for others. 3.3.3 Maintain a clear distinction between personal values and professional ethics. 3.3.4 Advocate for teacher professionalism, for school conditions that encourage teaching and learning, and for decision-making structures that take advantage of the expertise of teachers. 3.3.5 Recognize that life-long learning is an integral part of the profession. 3.3.6 Recognize the professional responsibility for engaging in and supporting appropriate professional practices for self and colleagues. 3.4 Reflective Practice. Teachers are reflective about their practice. 3.4.1 Think systematically about what happens in the classroom and school, why it

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happens, and what can be done to improve student achievement. 3.4.2 Study educational literature and interpret research and apply it to classroom and school. 3.4.3 Value critical thinking and self-directed learning as habits of mind.

3.5 Community & School Collaboration. Teachers work collaboratively with colleagues, families, and the community to support the learning environment. 3.5.1 Reach out beyond the school to promote trust and understanding, to build partnerships with all segments of the school community, and to overcome obstacles that stand in the way of effective family and community involvement in the education of children. 3.5.2 Are informed about policy issues and initiate or assist in implementing initiatives to improve the education of children. 3.5.3 Are respected members of the community who play key roles in helping improve communication and collaboration between the members of the community and educators in the school and school system. 3.5.4 Realize that everything that happens in the community, between individual students, with families, or with colleagues has an impact in the classroom, and work to minimize disruptions in student learning and take advantage of unexpected events to teach students. 3.5.5 Value and learn from the expertise of other educators.

2.3.Proiectul european DICE

DICE (“Drama Improves Lisbon Key Competences in Education”) was an international EU-supported project. In addition to other educational aims, this two-year project was a crosscultural research study investigating the effects of educational theatre and drama on five of the eight Lisbon Key Competences. The research was conducted by twelve partners (leader: Hungary, partners: Czech Republic, Netherlands, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Sweden and United Kingdom). All members are highly regarded nationally and internationally and represent a wide variety of formal and non-formal sectors of education. Educational theatre and drama practitioners have believed in the efficacy of their work for a long time, but until now it has rarely been measured with scientific tools. In the DICE project, several dozen educational theatre and drama practitioners from twelve countries, with the widest theoretical and professional background, have allied forces with academics (psychologists and

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sociologists), to measure the impact of educational theatre and drama. The objectives of the project were:

• •

• •

To demonstrate with cross-cultural quantitative and qualitative research that educational theatre and drama is a powerful tool to improve the Lisbon Key Competences. The research was conducted with almost five thousand young people aged 13-16 years. To publish a Policy Paper based on the research, and disseminate it among educational and cultural stakeholders at the European, national, and local levels worldwide. To create an Education Resource - a publication for schools, educators and arts practitioners about the different practices of educational theatre and drama. To disseminate this pack at the European, national, and local levels worldwide. To compare theatre and drama activities in education in different countries and help the transfer of know-how between experts. To hold conferences in the partner countries in order to disseminate the results of the project, as well as a conference in Brussels to disseminate the first main results to key EU leaders in the relevant areas of arts, culture, education and youth.

Our hypothesis was that educational theatre and drama has an impact on five of the eight “Lisbon Key Competences.” We examined the following five out of the eight Key Competences: 1.Communication in the mother tongue 2. Learning to learn 3.Interpersonal, intercultural and social competences, civic competence 4. Entrepreneurship 5. Cultural expression

Furthermore, we believe that there is a competence not mentioned among the Key Competences, which is the universal competence of what it is to be human. We have called this competence “All this and more”, and included it in the discussion of the research results. These six are life-long learning skills and competences necessary for the personal development of young people, their future employment, and active European citizenship. The key outcomes of the project are the Education Resource and the Policy Paper, and hopefully also a long series of publications of the detailed research results in future years, beyond the scope of the project. The innovative aspect of the project is that this is the first research to demonstrate connections between theatre and drama activities in education and the Lisbon Key Competences, with the added value that the research results will be widely shared with the relevant communities and stakeholders. As many of the competences have rarely or never been examined before in crosscultural studies, we also had to invent and develop new measurement tools that might be useful in

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the future for other educational areas. Besides some newly developed questionnaires for children, teachers, theatre and drama practitioners and external assessors, we devised a toolkit for the independent objective observation of educational theatre and drama classes. All materials used were identical in all twelve countries, and therefore are applicable in any culture. The ethos underpinning the DICE project has been developed by the practice of the research project itself. It reflects our own learning, the spirit of our collaboration and the ongoing process we are engaged in through educational theatre and drama. We do not claim to be an absolute authority on the theory and practice of educational drama and theatre. We are a group of artist educators and arts education pedagogues who came together because we hold some fundamental values in common that underpin the work that we do. Principal among them is a commitment to nurture and develop the young; as drama educators and practitioners we work with young people and train others to do so. We proceed from the premise that children and young people are not undeveloped adults but human beings who have rights, should be treated justly and given equality of opportunity. DICE is not only a two-year-long project, but rather a journey and an enterprise that has just started with this research. In the past two years several hundred people have been working with us, from peer volunteers to members of National Academies of Science. For some of us, this project has been one of the most challenging, if not the most challenging, task of our professional career, something from which we could learn significantly.
142455-LLP-1-2008-1-HU-COMENIUS-CMP "This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflect

2.4.Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students
Developed by the American Federation of Teachers National Council on Measurement in Education National Education Association, 1990

The professional education associations began working in 1987 to develop standards for teacher competence in student assessment out of concern that the potential educational benefits of student assessments be fully realized. The Committee[1] appointed to this project completed its work in 1990 following reviews of earlier drafts by members of the measurement, teaching, and teacher preparation and certification communities. Parallel committees of affected associations are encouraged to develop similar statements of qualifications for school administrators, counselors,

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testing directors, supervisors, and other educators in the near future. These statements are intended to guide the preservice and inservice preparation of educators, the accreditation of preparation programs, and the future certification of all educators. A standard is defined here as a principle generally accepted by the professional associations responsible for this document. Assessment is defined as the process of obtaining information that is used to make educational decisions about students, to give feedback to the student about his or her progress, strengths, and weaknesses, to judge instructional effectiveness and curricular adequacy, and to inform policy. The various assessment techniques include, but are not limited to, formal and informal observation, qualitative analysis of pupil performance and products, paperand-pencil tests, oral questioning, and analysis of student records. The assessment competencies included here are the knowledge and skills critical to a teacher's role as educator. It is understood that there are many competencies beyond assessment competencies which teachers must possess. By establishing standards for teacher competence in student assessment, the associations subscribe to the view that student assessment is an essential part of teaching and that good teaching cannot exist without good student assessment. Training to develop the competencies covered in the standards should be an integral part of preservice preparation. Further, such assessment training should be widely available to practicing teachers through staff development programs at the district and building levels. The standards are intended for use as: • • • • a guide for teacher educators as they design and approve programs for teacher preparation a self-assessment guide for teachers in identifying their needs for professional development in student assessment a guide for workshop instructors as they design professional development experiences for in-service teachers an impetus for educational measurement specialists and teacher trainers to conceptualize student assessment and teacher training in student assessment more broadly than has been the case in the past.

The standards should be incorporated into future teacher training and certification programs. Teachers who have not had the preparation these standards imply should have the opportunity and support to develop these competencies before the standards enter into the evaluation of these teachers. The Approach Used To Develop The Standards The members of the associations that supported this work are professional educators involved in teaching, teacher education, and student assessment. Members of these associations are concerned about the inadequacy with which teachers are prepared for assessing the educational progress of

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Because of teachers' growing roles in education and policy decisions beyond the classroom. and o (f) judging the extent of pupil attainment of instructional outcomes. areas of teacher activities requiring competence in using assessments. class. other standards address assessment competencies underlying teacher participation in decisions related to assessment at the school.and long-term instructional goals. In recognizing the critical need to revitalize classroom assessment. and abilities as they apply across a range of learning domains and/or subject areas. grade) o (a) Describing the extent to which each pupil has attained both short. district. and credible praise and feedback. and thus sought to address this concern effectively. These activities imply that teachers need competence in student assessment and sufficient time and resources to complete them in a professional manner. Comments by reviewers from each of the associations were then used to prepare a final statement. lesson. state. skills. semester. • • • Activities Occurring Prior to Instruction o (a) Understanding students' cultural backgrounds. and parents or guardians. 207 . o (c) adjusting instruction.g. some standards focus on classroom-based competencies. and national levels.their students. The committee then undertook a review of the research literature to identify needs in student assessment. The scope of a teacher's professional role and responsibilities for student assessment may be described in terms of the following activities. o (b) understanding students' motivations and their interests in specific class content. o (e) motivating students to learn. The members of the committee used their collective experience and expertise to formulate and then revise statements of important assessment competencies. Activities Occurring After The Appropriate Instructional Segment (e. The Scope of a Teacher's Professional Role and Responsibilities for Student Assessment There are seven standards in this document. o (b) communicating strengths and weaknesses based on assessment results to students. o (d) giving contingent. current levels of teacher training in student assessment. Drafts of these competencies went through several revisions by the Committee before the standards were released for public review. A committee named by the associations first met in September 1987 and affirmed its commitment to defining standards for teacher preparation in student assessment. and current levels of teacher competence in student assessment. and o (d) planning instruction for individuals or groups of students. o (b) identifying gains and difficulties pupils are experiencing in learning and performing. o (c) clarifying and articulating the performance outcomes expected of pupils. interests. Activities Occurring During Instruction o (a) Monitoring pupil progress toward instructional goals. specific.

and o (f) evaluating the effectiveness of the curriculum and materials in use. the standards call on teachers to demonstrate skill at selecting. Teachers should be skilled in choosing assessment methods appropriate for instructional decisions. o (e) evaluating the effectiveness of instruction. Activities Associated With a Teacher's Involvement in School Building and School District Decision-Making o (a) Serving on a school or district committee examining the school's and district's strengths and weaknesses in the development of its students. or national student goals and associated assessment methods. Skills in choosing appropriate. state. As a set. and decision-making. o (d) analyzing assessment information gathered before and during instruction to understand each students' progress to date and to inform future instructional planning. The standards represent a conceptual framework or scaffolding from which specific skills can be derived. applying. communicating. and fair assessment methods are prerequisite to good use of information to support instructional decisions. It is also expected that experience in the application of these standards should lead to their improvement and further development. evaluation. technically adequate. useful. A brief rationale and illustrative behaviors follow each standard. o Each standard that follows is an expectation for assessment knowledge or skill that a teacher should possess in order to perform well in the five areas just described. and o (c) interpreting the results of state and national student assessment programs. administratively convenient. o (c) evaluating school district curriculum. using. o (b) working on the development or selection of assessment methods for school building or school district use. Teachers need to be well-acquainted with the kinds of information provided by a broad range of 208 . o (b) participating in reviews of the appropriateness of district. developing. and evaluating student assessment information and student assessment practices. Activities Associated With a Teacher's Involvement in a Wider Community of Educators o (a) Serving on a state committee asked to develop learning goals and associated assessment methods. Work to make these standards operational will be needed even after they have been published. Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students 1. and o (d) other related activities.• • (c) recording and reporting assessment results for school-level analysis.

questionnaires. standardized criterion-referenced and normreferenced tests. Teachers meeting this standard will also be skilled in using student data to analyze the quality of each assessment technique they use. seatwork and homework. They will be aware that different assessment approaches can be incompatible with certain instructional goals and may impact quite differently on their teaching. While teachers often use published or other external assessment tools. and language backgrounds of students.and self-assessments. economic. Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. writing samples. Moreover. for each assessment approach they use. the bulk of the assessment information they use for decision-making comes from approaches they create and implement. Teachers will be skilled in planning the collection of information that facilitates the decisions they will make. The teacher will select the techniques which are appropriate to the intent of the teacher's instruction. the cultural. They will understand how valid assessment data can support instructional activities such as providing appropriate feedback to students. considering among other things. rating scales. diagnosing group and individual learning needs. They will be able to use the concepts of assessment error and validity when developing or selecting their approaches to classroom assessment of students. Indeed. 2. they must be prepared to do these analyses themselves. demonstrations. student records. Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. interviews. 209 . Since most teachers do not have access to assessment specialists. peer. They will understand how invalid information can affect instructional decisions about students. projects. products. and others' opinions. exhibitions. social. Teachers will know.assessment alternatives and their strengths and weaknesses. observations. they should be familiar with criteria for evaluating and selecting assessment methods in light of instructional plans. They will also be able to use and evaluate assessment options available to them. the assessment demands of the classroom go well beyond readily available instruments. Such techniques may include several of the options listed at the end of the first standard. teachers will know of where to find information about and/or reviews of various assessment methods. They will know and follow appropriate principles for developing and using assessment methods in their teaching. avoiding common pitfalls in student assessment. planning for individualized educational programs. paper-and-pencil tests. oral questioning. Assessment options are diverse and include textand curriculum-embedded questions and tests. portfolios. spontaneous and structured performance assessments. motivating students. Teachers should be skilled in developing assessment methods appropriate for instructional decisions. In particular. its appropriateness for making decisions about their pupils. and evaluating instructional procedures.

teachers will interpret the results correctly and avoid common misinterpretations. and in society. They will be able to use assessment methods in ways that encourage students' educational development and that do not inappropriately increase students' anxiety levels. They will be informed about the results of local. and interpreting results from diverse assessment methods. Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. district. percentile band scores. They will be skilled in interpreting informal and formal teacher-produced assessment results. planning teaching. Teachers will be able to use guides for scoring essay questions and projects. Teachers will be able to administer standardized achievement tests and be able to interpret the commonly reported scores: percentile ranks. 210 . standard scores. school.3. Teachers will be able to apply these concepts of score and summary indices in ways that enhance their use of the assessments that they develop. Assessment results are used to make educational decisions at several levels: in the classroom about students. scoring. They will be able to use accumulated assessment information to organize a sound instructional plan for facilitating students' educational development. Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. in the community about a school and a school district. They will have a conceptual understanding of the summary indexes commonly reported with assessment results: measures of central tendency. and national educational improvement. they must also be able to apply them properly. state. Teachers should be skilled in using assessment results when making decisions about individual students. They will be able to analyze assessment results to identify pupils' strengths and errors. It is not enough that teachers are able to select and develop good assessment methods. dispersion. stencils for scoring response-choice questions. They will be able to use these in ways that produce consistent results. such as basing decisions on scores that lack curriculum validity. classroom. and scales for rating performance assessments. The teacher should be skilled in administering. developing curriculum. about the purposes and outcomes of the educational enterprise. and grade equivalents. and errors of measurement. and national assessments and about their appropriate use for pupil. including pupils' performances in class and on homework assignments. reliability. regional. and school improvement. Teachers play a vital role when participating in decision-making at each of these levels and must be able to use assessment results effectively. generally. relationships. state. they will seek other explanations for the discrepancy or other data to attempt to resolve the uncertainty before arriving at a decision. Teachers should be skilled in administering. When using assessment results to plan and/or evaluate instruction and curriculum. scoring and interpreting the results of both externally-produced and teacher-produced assessment methods. 4. If they get inconsistent results.

Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. Teachers should be skilled in communicating assessment results to students. other lay audiences. they may be misused or not used. 211 . inclass activities. and implications of assessment results. and fair. language. teachers may need to help the public to interpret assessment results appropriately. teachers must be able to use assessment terminology appropriately and must be able to articulate the meaning. state. school district. In addition. Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. Teachers will be able to explain the limitations of different informal and formal assessment methods. cultural. They will be able to evaluate and to modify their grading procedures in order to improve the validity of the interpretations made from them about students' attainments. and other background factors. acknowledging that such grades reflect their preferences and judgments. 6. Teachers will understand and be able to articulate why the grades they assign are rational. limitations. Furthermore. and national levels. and explain a procedure for developing grades composed of marks from various assignments. implement. teachers will sometimes be in a position that will require them to defend their own assessment procedures and their interpretations of them.5. and other educators. tests. If the results are not communicated effectively. To communicate effectively with others on matters of student assessment. They will be able to devise. They will be able to explain printed reports of the results of pupil assessments at the classroom. Teachers will understand and be able to explain the importance of taking measurement errors into account when using assessments to make decisions about individual students. Teachers will be able to recognize and to avoid faulty grading procedures such as using grades as punishment. justified. The principles for using assessments to obtain valid grades are known and teachers should employ them. projects. They will be able to communicate to students and to their parents or guardians how they may assess the student's educational progress. Teachers must routinely report assessment results to students and to parents or guardians. they are frequently asked to report or to discuss assessment results with other educators and with diverse lay audiences. Grading students is an important part of professional practice for teachers. parents. quizzes. At other times. Teachers will be able to explain that assessment results do not imply that such background factors limit a student's ultimate educational development. Teachers should be skilled in developing valid pupil grading procedures which use pupil assessments. Teachers will understand and be able to give appropriate explanations of how the interpretation of student assessments must be moderated by the student's socio-economic. Grading is defined as indicating both a student's level of performance and a teacher's valuing of that performance. and/or other assessments that they may use.

Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow.5. DC Goals and Techniques for Teaching Grammar The goal of grammar instruction is to enable students to carry out their communication purposes. They will know those laws and case decisions which affect their classroom. Teachers should also participate with the wider educational community in defining the limits of appropriate professional behavior in assessment. Teachers will be aware that various assessment procedures can be misused or overused resulting in harmful consequences such as embarrassing students. and professional ethical behavior must undergird all student assessment activities. Washington. Error correction is not always the instructor's first responsibility. from the initial planning for and gathering of information to the interpretation. 2004 The National Capital Language Resource Center. and otherwise inappropriate assessment methods and uses of assessment information. Hills (Florida State University) and Anthony J.7. use. school district. Nitko (University of Pittsburgh). Merwin (University of Minnesota) represented the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. they should also attempt to have the inappropriate assessment practices of others discontinued whenever they are encountered. Sanders (Western Michigan University) chaired the Committee and represented NCME along with John R. violating a student's right to confidentiality. [1] The Committee that developed this statement was appointed by the collaborating professional associations: James R. Students do not need to master every aspect of each grammar point. and inappropriately using students' standardized achievement test scores to measure teaching effectiveness. and Marcella Dianda and Jeffrey Schneider represented the National Education Association. Jack C. In addition. Carolyn Trice represented the American Federation of Teachers. Teaching Grammar ©2003. Teachers should be skilled in recognizing unethical. the rights of all concerned. only those that are relevant to the immediate communication task. Teachers must be well-versed in their own ethical and legal responsibilities in assessment. and state assessment practices. and communication of the results. This goal has three implications: • • • Students need overt instruction that connects grammar points with larger communication contexts. illegal. Fairness. 212 . 2.

An important part of grammar instruction is providing examples.Overt Grammar Instruction Adult students appreciate and benefit from direct instruction that allows them to apply critical thinking skills to language learning. the purpose of learning grammar is to learn the language of which the grammar is a part. Students read the narratives. and be to the point of the lesson. using verbs that occur in the texts as examples. ask questions about points they don't understand. Teach the pronunciation and doubling rules if those forms occur in the texts. • • • Teach the grammar point in the target language or the students' first language or both. Instructors can take advantage of this by providing explanations that give students a descriptive understanding (declarative knowledge) of each point of grammar. Limit the time you devote to grammar explanations to 10 minutes. Instructors therefore teach grammar forms and structures in relation to meaning and use for the specific communication tasks that students need to complete. Teach the irregular verbs that occur in the texts. Use the examples as teaching tools. especially for lower level students whose ability to sustain attention can be limited. 213 . each one to half of the class Teach the regular -ed form. Focus examples on a particular theme or topic so that students have more contact with specific information and vocabulary. be culturally appropriate for the setting in which they are used. They must present the language appropriately. The goal is to facilitate understanding. Compare the traditional model and the communicative competence model for teaching the English past tense: Traditional: grammar for grammar's sake • • • • • Teach the regular -ed form with its two pronunciation variants Teach the doubling rule for verbs that end in d (for example. Teachers need to plan their examples carefully around two basic principles: • • Be sure the examples are accurate and appropriate. wed-wedded) Hand out a list of irregular verbs that students must memorize Do pattern practice drills for -ed Do substitution drills for irregular verbs Communicative competence: grammar for communication's sake • • • • Distribute two short narratives about recent experiences or events. Present grammar points in written and oral ways to address the needs of students with different learning styles. Relevance of Grammar Instruction In the communicative competence model.

correct errors only if they interfere with comprehensibility. Individually Prescribed 214 . using the information from the interview. Teacher: You bought a new car yesterday. Example: Student (in class): I buy a new car yesterday.• Students work in pairs in which one member has read Story A and the other Story B. and was revived in the 1960s. O sinteză a cercetărilor Individualized Approaches to Instruction Similar to programmed learning and teaching machines individualized instruction began in the early 1900s. Teachers can use error correction to support language acquisition. In responding to student communication. The Keller Plan. Respond using correct forms. but without stressing them. Teachers also need to build students' confidence in their ability to use the language by focusing on the content of their communication rather than the grammatical form. by taking cues from context. learners produce language that is not exactly the language used by native speakers. and avoid using it in ways that undermine students' desire to communicate in the language. Students interview one another.1. use error correction to guide them. teachers need to be careful not to focus on error correction to the detriment of communication and confidence building. Error Correction At all proficiency levels. the past tense of buy is bought. they then write up or orally repeat the story they have not read. 3 DIFERENŢIEREA ŞI INDIVIDUALIZAREA INSTRUIRII 3. Example: Student (greeting teacher) : I buy a new car yesterday! Teacher: You bought a new car? That's exciting! What kind? Documentarul Nr. • When students are doing structured output activities that focus on development of new language skills. while others involve vocabulary selection and mistakes in the selection of language appropriate for different contexts. Some of the differences are grammatical. • When students are engaged in communicative activities. Remember. Teachers need to let students know when they are making errors so that they can work on improving.

 behavioral objectives. Keller Plan (1963) Developed by F.  lectures and demonstrations motivational rather than critical information. In every published report.     Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) (1964)  Developed by Learning Research and Development Center of the University of Pitsburgh. performance in lecture sessions. The conditions that influence withdrawal and procrastination in Keller courses have been studied. immediate scoring. 215 .  (Saettler. and also nearly always report putting more time and effort into the Keller courses. and Individually Guided Education are all examples of individualized instruction in the U.Instruction.  Main features of Keller Plan  individually paced.  Lasted into the 1970s when it lost funding and its use dwindled  Main features of IPI:  prepared units. 2) Self-pacing and interaction with tutors seem to be the features of the Keller courses most favored by students. the Keller plan was used for university college classes. 1990) A review of evaluative research on the Keller plan establishes the following points:  1) The Keller plan is an attractive teaching method to most students. personalsocial aspect of educational process. (Saettler.S. 1990). 3) Several investigators report higher-than-average withdrawal rates for their Keller sections.S. final examination performance in Keller sections always equals. In the published studies. and usually exceeds.  mastery learning. 5) Students almost invariably report that they learn more in PSI than in lecture courses.  use of proctors which permitted testing. 4) Content learning (as measured by final examinations) is adequate in Keller courses. students rate the Keller plan much more favorably than teaching by lecture. Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs. and it seems possible to control procrastination and withdrawal through course design. a colleague of Skinner. Keller. tutoring.

materials continually evaluated and upgraded to meet behavioral objectives. included pretest and posttest for each unit. there have been many advocates of alternative approaches. five objectives.  remedial le arning plus retesting. (Saettler. and evaluating performance.  mastery learning. Among the alternative approaches there is a focus on a more individualized approach to instruction. used for reading.com » Education Encyclopedia ) The improvement of instruction has been a goal of educators as far back as the teachings of the Greek philosopher Socrates. teaching content based on these objectives. Studii semnificative Individualized Instruction (Education Encyclopedia .2.  each instructional module took about two weeks instruction and were made up of approximately. Westinghouse Learning Corporation and fourteen U. (Saettler.S. math and science.000 behavioral objectives. This formula is indeed the most common. Each approach to individualizing instruction is different. however. School districts. 1990) 3. in most cases instruction can be characterized by the following tasks: setting objectives.StateUniversity. but they all seek to manipulate the three following fundamental variables: • • • Pace: the amount of time given to a student to learn the content Method: the way that the instruction is structured and managed Content: the material to be learned 216 .    planned instructional sequences. Although there are a wide variety of approaches. where the traits of the individual learner are given more consideration. PLAN was developed under sponsorship of American Institutes for Research (AIR).  Abandoned in late 1970s because of upgrading costs  Main features of PLAN  schools selected items from about 6. 1990) Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN) (1967)  Headed by Jon C. Flanagan.

However. The range of activities available to the learner is an indicator of how individualized the content is in an instructional setting. In all of these examples. and the instructional method is tailored to each group. a specific instructional method is used for each individual. however. this opportunity is limited to high-achieving students. one instructional method is used for everyone. In this case specific due dates are defined before instruction begins. The first is when someone other than student. it is possible to vary the content taught to different learners or groups of learners. the instruction is usually designed to account for specific learner characteristics. In most cases. and is customized ad-hoc by the teacher or instructor as needed once instruction begins. This can influence whether instruction is designed for one homogenous group. It has become possible to find examples of instructional settings in which students define their own content. This is currently the predominant model in most educational systems. Terms like inclusion and mainstreaming have been used to describe this first case. but only within a predefined range. although it does give some consideration to individual differences among learners during instruction. the goal was to improve the instructional experience for the 217 . in anticipation of individual differences among learners. by the teacher and learner. In the second extreme. does not fall into the typically accepted definition of individualized instruction. content can be uniform for everyone. A renewed movement toward learner-centered principles in education has given this component more consideration in the 1990s. Content Perhaps the least frequently modified component is the actual learning content. For instruction to be considered individualized. This type of instruction. or unique to each individual. In the first extreme. the instructional method used can be considered in terms of extremes. Between these extremes lie situations where students are arranged into groups according to the their characteristics. Between these two extremes are situations where control of the pace of instruction is shared or negotiated. and pursue learning based on their own interests. or is flexible. This could include alternative instructional methods for students with different backgrounds and learning styles. instructors may apply a combination of theories and principles in preparing instruction. The opposite extreme would be if the learner had exclusive control over the pace of instruction. In terms of extremes. These groups can vary in size. Between these extremes lie cases where the content can be varied. without a time limit.Pace There are two basic extremes when the pace of instruction is considered. more and more consideration is given to the way in which learning occurs. Examples of Individualized Instruction There are many examples of instructional approaches that have modified some or all of these three components. In the majority of cases. Both "tracking" and "enrichment" are examples of customizing instructional content. controls the amount of time spent learning the material. To help clarify this point. usually a teacher or instructor. not necessarily equally. In an attempt to account for the way that students learn. Method As theories of learning and instruction develop and mature. instruction is designed for the average learner.

as they all can be easily found in other more traditional educational settings. 4): • • • • • • • • • • Active responding Positive conditions and consequences Specification of objectives Organization of material Mastery before advancement Evaluation/objectives congruence Frequent evaluation Immediate feedback Self-pacing Personalization None of these ten principles should be considered unique. Personalized System of Instruction. These state exactly what a student must know to pass a unit quiz. p. Although all students learn from written material and student tutors. the course 218 . with its advantages and disadvantages. unit mastery. 2) The last three components indicate that the method of instruction does vary slightly from individual to individual. The debate over the effectiveness of Keller's Personalized System of Instruction. dividing the material intounits one to two weeks long…. high dropout rates. Within each example both the benefits and criticisms of each approach are discussed. self-pacing. including better retention and increased motivation for further learning. This would apply especially to cases where enrollment is high. Proponents of the Keller Plan cite many benefits. Rather. or the class size is not large. There are indeed opportunities for designing instruction that lend themselves to the Personalized System of Instruction approach. the Personalized System of Instruction. Some of the most historically notable approaches are discussed below. it can be seen that the content does not vary. or the Keller Plan. and decreased human interaction. unit mastery. [and] aseach unit of material is covered. specific learning objectives are given to the students. self-paced learning. It is the first component. On the other hand.individual learner. and faculty resources are scarce. Introduced in 1964 by Fred Keller. course material is standardized and stable. Making these lectures optional does constitute some flexibility in terms of instructional method. there are others with criticisms of the Keller Plan such as the following: limited instructional methods. optional motivational lectures. the motivational lectures are optional. it is the self-pacing that more or less stands alone as the individualized component of this instructional system. and learning from written material. At the same time. as the unit content is fixed. that is the most obvious attempt at individualizing the instruction. (p. when there is not a shortage of faculty. Fundamentally. From the second component. Keller based his system on ten accepted educational principles (McGaw. it is the components of the Keller plan–based on these ten principles–that makes the Keller Plan somewhat different: self-pacing. Mike Naumes describes the basic design of a course using Keller's personalized system of instruction: breaking the material of the course into several units…. raises fundamental questions about the nature of self-contained. is perhaps one of the first comprehensive systems of individualized instruction. albeit extremely limited. To illustrate the static nature of the content. student tutors.

Audio-Tutorial. The criticism is that this is a severe form of teacher control Like the Keller Plan. With the advent of the computer came the potential to deliver individualized instruction in a more powerful 219 . and more students can be accommodated in less laboratory space and with less staff. (4) unit steps. and should be based on the context in which the instruction is to take place. His goal was to find an improved method of teaching botany to a larger number of college students and to effectively assist the students who possessed only limited backgrounds in the subject. Unlike the Keller Plan. the choice of either a structured approach or an individualized approach should always remain open" (p. 6). Some of the major criticisms that are common to Audio-Tutorial courses were illustrated by Robert K. students can also accelerate the pace of their learning. It seems that some students respond to the responsibility placed upon them. The development of an Audio-Tutorial program requires a significant amount of planning and time by the instructor. p.would be better taught with more conventional methods. however. There was a problem with the initial dropout rate. The primary criticism concerns the claim of responsibility. Audio-Tutorial allows the individual student to determine his or her own pace. and Murray. and (7) use of an integrated experience approach" (Couch. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI). The major benefits of Audio-Tutorial are that "students can adopt the study pace to their ability to assimilate the information. Exposure to difficult subjects is repeated as often as necessary for any particular student" (Postlethwait. which seemed to be explained by the lack of willingness of some students to take on the amount of responsibility that was required in order to complete the course. while others do not. the general principles remain the same. It would be inappropriate to claim that one of the extremes is completely right.(6) use of multiplicity of approaches. (3) association. 8). Snortland advised that "since many freshmen students are not ready for additional self-discipline required of them in the A-T format. Yet the locus of control remains with the instructor in the Audio-Tutorial as well. In addition to taking more time if they wish. (5) use of the communication vehicle appropriate to the objective. The instructor dictates all of the material including the learning and feedback procedures. Snortland upon evaluating a course in graphics design. and the other wrong. (2) concentration. given the vast number of studies and evaluations that support either side. Although there is some room for modification for each specific program. Students have access to a taped presentation of a specifically designed program that directs their activities one at a time. Most proponents of individualized instruction saw the computer as a way to further improve the design and delivery of individualized instruction–now in an electronic environment. 5). Audio-Tutorial is a method of individualized instruction developed by Samuel N. Many other criticisms of Audio-Tutorial courses are concerned with teacher control. Novak. yet still based on sound educational principles. p. The basic principles of Audio-Tutorial are "(1) repetition. and the content is fixed. there are more instructional delivery methods available when designing the course. Other benefits are that students feel more responsible for their learning. Where the line is drawn on the continuum between these two extremes is a matter of opinion. Postlethwait in 1961 at Purdue University.

In learning from the computer. These are nicely articulated by Henry F. one must suspend creative insights. To learn one must suspend all normal forms of interaction and engage only in those called for by the program. branching programs) is a linear. combined with the technological potential of the Internet. Olds: Learning is in control of some unknown source that determines almost all aspects of the interactive process. the computer. in practice. CAI has been heavily criticized for its hidden side-effects. The changes that the computer environment helped to make were predominantly a change in the delivery mechanism of individualized instruction. and other nonlinear mental phenomena.way. cognitive leaps. James DiPerna and Robert Volpe found that only one article directly addressed the impact of the technology on learning. online education became increasingly popular and eventually began to supplant CAI as the predominant form of individualized instruction. Normal inter-human dialogue is to be suspended while learning with the computer. (p. 9) Olds even offered some solutions to these problems. 9). 4)." Although there were many anticipated benefits to using the computer to deliver instruction. When reviewing more than 200 articles on online instruction over the 1990s. Learning is an isolated activity to be carried on primarily in a oneto-one interaction with the computer. Learning involves understanding (psyching out) how the program expects one to behave and adapting one's behavior accordingly. Distance education. indicating that "time on-line needs to be mixed with plenty of opportunities for human interaction" and that computer should allow people to "jump around within the program structure" (p. has caused a renewed effort to deliver instruction in a nontraditional fashion. as the home computer became more powerful and less expensive. Partnerships between 220 . Starting as an extension of computer-based instruction. CAI became the forerunner in individualized instruction during the 1980s and early 1990s. 5): • • • "It has a very large memory capacity that can be used to store instructional content material or…to generate such material. intuitions. especially the home computer. rather than a fundamental change in purpose or method. John E. This convenience was accelerated with the proliferation of the Internet in late 1990s. A surge in the number of nontraditional students attending college in the 1990s. step-by-step process." "The computer can make decisions based on the assessments of student performance. In a sense. Learning (even in highly sophisticated. Coulson wrote in 1970: "A modern computer has characteristics that closely parallel those needed in any educational system that wishes to provide highly individualized instruction"(p. matching resources to individual student needs. This potential was anticipated long before the proliferation of the home computer. Accessibility and convenience–not research–are the primary driving forces in this movement toward instruction in the form on online education. One must suspend idiosyncratic behavior. offered a convenience that other delivery mechanisms lacked." "The computer can perform complex analyses of student responses. He also noted the specific benefits that the computer could offer (p.

There is no concern for what really is the problem. the instructional method. Whether it is more effective or less effective than traditional education seems less a concern. it is usually the pace of instruction that most often varies. In summary. Hyman. major improvements are certain to come. what was established initially due to necessity has now expanded as students choose this route because of its convenience. As can be seen in the examples above. individualized instruction has the potential to improve instruction by varying the pace of instruction. and each has been heavily criticized–yet that is to be expected. BIBLIOGRAPHY 221 . He claims that individualized instruction typically does not alter the subject matter based on the needs of the student. and will remain under scrutiny until several criticisms are accounted for. He was concerned with the latent functions of individualization generally. Final Issues Individualized instruction comes in many forms. The content is usually consistent with traditional instruction. In terms of pace. individualized instruction in its various forms is still a relatively recent innovation. 414). but not the content itself. and the content. but Hyman warns that "Segmented Junk Is Still Junk" (p. there are no indications that this trend will change in the immediate future. as is the method (predominantly via the Internet). and content. The rate of expansion of online education has accelerated to a point where the general feeling among institutions of higher learning is of willing participation. and when it does occur. and they have limited access to traditional education. there is a compromise of individualized instruction. although it may be segmented differently. In many cases. As of the early twenty-first century. Each approach has its own set of prescriptions. Perhaps the most profound criticism comes in the article "Individualization: The Hidden Agenda. there is a large variety of competing approaches to distance education. the most common approach is to divide the subject matter up into segments and teach it at a self-taught level. although as the research base in this area increases. all of which seek to improve instruction in some way." by Ronald T. but not as consistent among approaches. Most approaches allow for selfpacing. Without doing this. and no dominant model has emerged. yet variation in method and content is rare. Like previous iterations of individualized instruction. Additionally. In other words. many students who could otherwise attend brick-and-mortar institutions are choosing online education for the convenience. The content is still fixed in most cases. alternative instructional approaches most often vary the pace and method of instruction. Even now. is usually very limited. and that is the subject matter itself. method. the audience addressed is nontraditional.businesses and institutions of higher learning have arisen to address the increased need for continuing education. Other benefits are also significant. In the push for individualization.

FRED S.2 A 1972 study by the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory of 38 existing individualized instruction programs found not only a 25 to 44 percent reduction in training time but also a significant improvement in graduate performance. POSTLETHWAIT. KELLER. JOSEPH D. HALLARD THOMAS. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association. ROBERT K." College Teaching Monograph. September-October 1975) Failure to provide for individual differences among students is perhaps the greatest single source of inefficiency in education. ERIC Document ED 226656. Minneapolis.. 1968. Washington. HENRY F. 1985. "Individualized Instruction: A Review of Audio-Tutorial Instruction. DC." Elementary School Journal 73:412–423." Perspectives 1977:1–7. Snyder (Document created: 4 September 03 Air University Review. which provides for the differences among students.COUCH. KS: T. Un exemplu foarte sugestiv An Introduction to Individualized Instruction By Master Sergeant Frederick K. 1977. 1982.R. and Individualized Lectures Classes. HYMAN. "Individualization: The Hidden Agenda. "An Individualized Teaching Approach: Audio-Tutorial. 3 These are motivations to change to individualized instruction. OLDS.. the Personalized System of Instruction. 1975. 2000. NOVAK.3. FRED S. JAMES C. MCGAW. "The Keller Plan: A Method for Putting the Responsibility of Learning Upon the Student." Paper written for partial fulfillment of doctor of philosophy degree..”1 With the advent of new communication technology in the 1960s. SAMUEL N.I. "Personalized Systems of Instruction. "Good-Bye Teacher…. 222 . Guided Design. MN: Burgess. University of Kansas. 3. 1983. the long-desired goal of individualized instruction. ERIC Document ED 252178. DIPERNA. RONALD T. MIKE. "The Microcomputer and the Hidden Curriculum. SNORTLAND. RICHARD W. DICKINSON. Lawrence. San Francisco. The Audio-Tutorial Approach to Learning. KELLER. Pedagogue's Progress. Evaluating Web-Based Instruction in Psychology." Computers in Schools 2 (1):3–14. " Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1:78–89. NAUMES. ROBERT J. and MURRAY. 1982. 1972. 1973. is capable of being reached. Bismarck: University of North Dakota." Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association. and VOLPE.

individually different in their abilities and interests. there is no time for that in a conventional class. he asks for a repeat explanation. If the instructor uses the chalkboard or other teaching aids. The most important attitude is that of the instructors who will do the work involved and then present the new training methods to the students. This routine is interrupted only infrequently with a test to measure student progress formally. The definition can be restated to read: student aptitude is the time required to learn a subject to a given level. A typical class is a group of students. it helps to have before us a picture of current conventional training procedures. the variable part is the level of learning. In 1965. Aptitude test scores are used to predict which students should succeed or fail in training. The attitude of the instructors’ supervisors also matters because each instructor responds to what he feels his supervisor really wants. The students take whatever notes they desire. Little effort is made to reteach identified weak areas.5 AFM 50-2. A major permanent change in Air Force training procedures requires an attitude change at the very top of the Air Force. The result is that only a few students get high grades. The fixed part of the definition of student aptitude is in a given period of time. one of the first things that needs to be changed is attitude. 223 . he uses them rather sparingly. When he directs attention to a displayed item. The whole class stops its progress while one student gets his needed facts. For the Air Force. implements this policy. and training quality can be improved. Instructional System Development. (6) infrequent testing. most students have gaps in their understanding of the subject with less than desirable retention. (3) great reliance on one sense—hearing. A student’s aptitude score for a particular subject predicts the level to which he could learn the subject in a given period of time. his hand stays there only a short time. Students with low aptitude scores are usually denied certain training.4 In 1970 the Air Force Chief of Staff established this policy for all commands: new training will be organized according to the Instructional System Development (ISD) method and existing training will he selectively converted to the ISD concept.As with most changes. who sit listening to an instructor lecture about a subject. Secretary of Defense McNamara asked the services to recommend ways to improve military training. (4) a student’s need for repeat explanations. The students are relying mostly on their sense of hearing to take in new information. At this level the Air Force has responded to the leadership of its managers. With knowledge of today’s training behavior. we can interpose new learning theory. My analysis of this picture puts importance on these factors: (1) differences in student abilities. The intent of this article is to explore the major facets of individualized instruction. and some students fail. 7 Fixing the level of achievement and letting time vary implies that practically every student can succeed when given enough time. To explore individualized instruction. Redefining student aptitude Aptitude tests are often considered to be measurements of prior achievements. (2) sparse use of training aids. ATC conducts several courses on ISD. Presidents Kennedy and Johnson asked and received from Congress support for educational technology research. (8) less than desirable results. and the Air Force loses when needed jobs go unfulfilled for lack of qualified people. When a student realizes he missed a key point. (7) little reteaching. Air Training Command (ATC) experimented with and evaluated individualized instruction. (5) a student’s needs holding the class back.

Clearly stated objectives must be written. If he has met any of the objectives stated in block I. and evaluation until the student has mastered all stated objectives. Training for this reduced set of objectives is prescribed in block III. up to 95 percent. Instructional system development Before this instructional model can be employed. instructional procedures that help the individual student must be developed. In block IV the student is involved in frequent performance testing. diagnostic tests must be formulated. In block I the objectives are clearly stated. Glaser’s instructional model with feedback system12 An individualized instructional model The cycle of individualized instruction may be illustrated by the accompanying instructional model. (2) the quality of his instructional materials. Objectives minus entering behavior equal the training requirements for the individual student. (3) give each student sufficient time to learn. Individualized instruction is a continuous cycle of diagnosis. the results of which feed back to block I objectives. then a majority of students. can achieve the required level of performance. There are eight steps for developing an instructional system: 14 (1) Write a set of Task Analyses (2) Write a set of Objectives based on the Task Analyses 224 . It may take as much as 250 hours to produce a 15-minute lesson. and (3) his ability to understand the instructions and materials. showing what objectives have been mastered and what objectives remain for further learning. much preliminary work must he done. 13 This expenditure of effort has produced a more proficient group of graduates in less time compared to conventional training systems. the training for these objectives is eliminated from his schedule. is determined by: (1) the quality of his instruction. (2) help each student when and where he has learning difficulties. 10 Proficiency in applying modern instructional technology to implement these actions requires increased instructor training equivalent to at least a college course of three semester hours. and performance evaluations must be prepared. In block II each student’s entering behavior (current ability) is determined by diagnostic testing.8 When time is allowed to vary and the quality of instruction is improved.The time needed.11 Therefore this article is limited to an overview of individualized instruction. The work involved is more than one instructor should be expected to handle. prescription. where the student interacts with the instructional system in ways that help him reach his objectives. 9 Three key actions make up individualized instruction: (1) clearly state what each student is expected to learn and to what level. which is predicted by the student’s learning rate (aptitude).

and knowledges in a logical sequence that makes up the task. appropriate objectives (criterion and teaching step appraisals) can be written without any objective being overlooked. make necessary improvements (8) Implement this individualized instructional program for all students and continue to improve as necessary. This task objective is called a criterion objective with its associated criterion test. but they have been too general and vague to provide the direction thought necessary. This precision starts with the task analysis. The student masters each teaching step by learning the accompanying skills and knowledges and by performing the teaching step appraisal. 225 . which is student activity that constitutes the feedback mechanism. The task analysis states the behaviors. Tests to measure objective achievement can be written with the same confidence that nothing important is left out. Behavioral objectives Behavioral objectives clearly state what each student is expected to learn and to what level.16 is prepared in a two-column format for easy visual reference (refer to Appendix A). the detailed task analysis serves as the outline for those instructors who select and prepare appropriate instructional media. Task analysis The instructional system development process indicates that a training system must he more precisely organized. Right column entries are the skills and knowledges that must be learned in order to perform the student activity. Schools have long had objectives. 15 These steps require diligent and skillful preparation by the instructor staff. skills. Each left column entry becomes a teaching step with a teaching step appraisal. The task analysis. the student is prepared for the overall objective of the task. With individualized instruction. 17 Objectives must he stated specifically and in such a way that a student’s attainment of each objective is measurable. The traditional role of the teacher has been to find ways to explain subjects to his students. again insuring that nothing is omitted. the instructor will find this role an even greater challenge.(3) Write tests that fully measure each Objective (4) Decide what available instructional media will best help the students reach the objectives (5) Use the Task Analyses to develop the information it contains into the format required by the chosen media (6) Edit for obvious shortcomings (7) Validate this developed instructional system by trying it on a small group of students. a detailed outline of behavior that comprises a task. Finally. With mastery of the teaching steps. When each task is broken down into such detail.

This diagnostic test differs from the usual connotation of tests (formal grading) because the purpose is solely to identify the student’s needs. Learning should be the business of acquiring skills and knowledges that are necessary for later use. 19 Once these needs are known. A better objective is: the student will read 250 words per minute with 80 percent comprehension. he can more easily focus his energy on achieving these goals. A criterion objective and its performance test state and measure the student’s acceptable achievement of a task. The task analysis breaks down each criterion objective into smaller units called teaching steps. This objective states a performance. a second is measured with a chapter of John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. 20 From the instructor’s point of view. both the student and the instructor realize what the student must learn to achieve the objectives. there will be honest misinterpretations of what goals must he reached and how to train to reach the goals. If we decide that the student must learn to read at a common adult level. 226 . condition. yes.” he has met the stated objective. In any instructional system where there are many students and instructors. 21 Opportunities to use new skills and knowledge immediately tend to increase retention. This is especially true when the training has a direct job relation and when costs are involved. When the student can succeed on the diagnostic test. Performance testing confirms student progress or points to the need for correction. must be written in such a way as to measure completely the established explicit objective. From the student’s view. and standards. The degree of difference has been expanded to show that some condition must be stated. Concrete objectives not only control the thrust of the instructional system but also direct each student’s activity. Performance testing To help students when and where they have learning difficulties. Clearly we must add some standard of acceptable performance.18 Let’s examine a simple objective: The student will be able to read. Should the student be made aware of his objectives before he begins his training? Definitely. while the third student is given a copy of a third grade reader. The test. we must have some way to identify their needs. these tests are activity through which he is able to increase and internalize his learning by doing something with the training just received. Compare three students: one is tested for achievement using a college chemistry text. but it is too general and vague. Tests are developed for each teaching step. These teaching step appraisals and criterion tests are perhaps the single most important component in individualized instruction. When a student has clear objectives before him. This objective fails when more than one instructor is responsible for different students’ achieving the objective. If the student is 16 and can read the word “cat. of course. the tests measure student progress and identify student problems. This is a behavioral objective because it states a specific performance with certain conditions to a measurable standard. We can identify each student’s needs by examining his performance with a test.A measurable objective consists of a statement of performance. Explicitly stated objectives will minimize these honest errors that cause either student failures or a waste of time. there is no need for training in that subject. An individualized instructional system rests on a set of clearly defined objectives. we could so state our objective: the student will read a chapter of Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath at 250 words per minute with 80 percent comprehension.

Neither Jim nor Mel has slowed the other down while overcoming his particular problems. Without such training. Overtraining is avoided because training in an area stops once the criterion objective is met. While slides and tape recordings appear most often. instructors who develop the software will do so without sufficient knowledge of the techniques for effective production. and it is efficient because each student has received only that training necessary for him to achieve the objectives. knowing how to use them effectively is something that requires additional instructor training. To make intelligent decisions concerning the use of media. Media are the means of communication. Undertraining is avoided because each student must reach all objectives. Instructional media Explicit behavioral objectives focus the entire training effort. During the past ten years. Jim masters steps one and two but has difficulty with step three. In conventional training. Mel may be ready for the criterion test in thirty minutes while it takes Jim an hour. 22 Instructional systems that use behavioral objectives and performance tests to diagnose progress and allow for immediate correction of problems are said to be efficient and effective. The teaching step appraisals have been used to find these problems and allow for individual correction.For example. “media” actually refers to anything that presents information to the student (see Appendix B). The important point is that both Mel and Jim have mastered the criterion objective by overcoming their individual learning difficulties. The use of multimedia affords the instructor time to help each student whenever that student experiences a problem. In individualized instruction. Cost-effective media should be chosen objectively rather than on the basis of personal preference. Each student is neither undertrained nor overtrained. Frequent diagnostic testing shows when and where students are experiencing learning difficulties. Having the media and accepting their value is one thing. receives the help he needs and finds step three within his ability because he mastered the first steps. Mel. The instructional system is effective because each student can actually perform to explicit objectives. the instructor and the textbook are the predominant media. instructors must have sufficient knowledge of existing media and the principles of media utilization. both Mel and Jim must reach the same criterion objective which has three teaching steps. who had problems on steps one and two. He needs some kind of assistance to overcome his difficulty. The most effective way discovered so far to find each individual’s strengths and weaknesses is through the use of performance tests. But how does one instructor have time to help each student and give each student sufficient time to learn? The answer is through the use of instructional multimedia. most instructors have only personal bias on which to recommend the purchase of expensive hardware. Supervisors of training systems should have their instructors complete one or more courses in media and audiovisual instruction. Instructional media are expensive. media technology and techniques have been expanded so rapidly that few instructors are aware of the impact on their efforts to train their students.23 Without such training. the cost must be measured against media effectiveness in teaching. Some of the advantages of using instructional media for the teacher include the following: 227 . the information to be learned is presented by a much wider variety of media.

his ability to learn is improved. Instructors can suffer from boredom. use of instructional media has certain advantages. 24 The teacher has time for communicating with each student in ways that establish rapport and a spirit of cooperation. from the student’s point of view. (b) With the various teaching media. and it is understandable that there are days when the instructor just does not put forth his best effort. and he has the explanation as many times as he needs without slowing the progress of the rest of the class. the need for repeat explanations still remains. Students who can explain what they are learning actually learn that subject better. he has confidence in it. The student simply resets the media to the appropriate place. 25 (c) Besides motivating the student. In conventional training. the higher the learning retention is likely to be. When the student sees himself as really belonging. For the student. How many of us feel we learn our best through the use of one sense only—hearing? With instructional media. the student depends greatly on his sense of hearing to absorb lecture materials. There will he media presentations that. also: (a) The student acquires instruction through the multiple sensory approach. the teacher is no longer the sole source of information in the class. The greater the number of senses taking data in. Better and faster learning occurs when a combination of senses is employed. If the student can explain his new knowledge. Increased cooperation and communication between the teacher and the individual student can create a learning environment in which the student feels he is important and has a stake in the system. the student is receiving information through several of his senses at the same time or at closely timed intervals. The training is more intense. are difficult to understand. not every student has the chance to explain what he is getting out of his learning. 228 . If the instructor remains aloof from the student. the instructor works with each individual.(a) Using instructional media to present the teaching segment of the teachinglearning activity (TLA) frees the instructor from lecturing on the same subject class after class.26 (b) While the instructional media intensify student involvement. too. A good instructional system will have alternate presentations available for students who develop a mental block with certain media. searching for student understanding. if the student finds he is confused. and the student is more involved. Perhaps the student can suggest what he feels is a better way to present the material. (d) The instructor should determine the student’s reaction to instructional media. Once the media have been developed into top-quality tools’ the instructor can be confident that all the material is well presented every time. There is little time to do this in conventional training because the teacher is occupied presenting the lesson. his chances of finding out what to improve will be reduced. he realizes he needs to recycle his learning effort to get a better grasp of the subject. In conventional systems.

Rather. and academic training programs. the teacher finds his role even more demanding. and evaluation. There are some problems in interpreting the results of the past seven years of experience. Success and enjoyment of learning instill confidence in their ability to learn. The number of failures with individualized instruction also has been reduced. Reductions of 25 to 44 percent have been reported in military. The teacher becomes more professional and assumes the role of learning guide and consultant. the teacher’s role has not become outmoded. 28 (b) Although time is a flexible factor. The student is 229 . It is student-centered because it focuses all activity on the needs of each student in his efforts to achieve predetermined specific objectives. which can carry over to other endeavors. (c) Students really enjoy individualized instruction because they no longer are passive participants. has been used worldwide at all levels of education and in a variety of subjects. It responds to individual student abilities in three ways: (1) multiple sensory approach to teaching. The individual teacher manages the learning process of diagnosis. and his activity is intensified by responding to frequent teaching step appraisals and criterion tests.27 The major burden for presenting the material in class is delegated to a system of instructional media. based on the principles described in this article. The individual student’s training is intensified by the multisensory approach. Although the emphasis is on the student. it seems reasonable to state the following: (a) Two to three times as many students using individualized instruction have achieved A and B grades as compared to students studying the same subjects in conventional ways.Within one decade the role of the media has changed from that of a supplement to a primary source of instruction. which helps him internalize his training. Expected results Individualized instruction. and (3) sufficient time to overcome his weaknesses.30 If these student benefits are important to the reader. Their active involvement in doing things with newly acquired skills and knowledge during the learning process has caused them to express greater interest and more positive attitudes toward their training. industrial. however. 29 This time savings translates into a financial savings that compensates for the initial investment in expensive media and increased instructor training. Individualized instruction is student-centered and not teacher-centered as in conventional systems. he has a good portion of the attitude necessary to be a part of an individualized instructional system. The student interacts with this selected variety of media with the personal guidance and help from the instructor that he could not get in conventional classes. The teaching staff is responsible for the creative development and effective use of the instructional media. Individual learning activity must be prescribed for each student according to his recent progress and remaining goals. (2) increased student activity. the total time in training has been reduced. prescription.

pp. 9. an audiovisual production. F. No. Instructional Technology. Skinner. ISD has been spreading throughout the major air commands. Introduction to Individualized Training.. Theory and Practice (San Francisco: Holt. The Technology of Teaching (Appleton-Century-Crofts. p. 8. 4. Murphy’s “Behaviorally Oriented Instruction in ATC” (p 21) describe ATC’s pioneering work in ISD.” In that issue. Block. 1971). Carroll. F. 6. Experience is the best teacher. 10. The Winnetka Plan (1922) by Carleton Washburne and another approach by Henry C. Ibid. pp. Using Webster’s New Word Dictionary. Teaching. Col.” Educational Horizons. 3 (1970). i. Air University Review (September-October 1968) featured the “Air Training Command: Providing for the Future. 723-33. Media and Methods (San Francisco: McGraw-Hill. Lt. Morrison (1926) at the University of Chicago’s Laboratory School fell into disuse primarily because of lack of technology to sustain a successful strategy. Now. 1968). Elslager’s “Toward Individualized Instruction” (p. 1973). James H.e. we describe the process: “To cause to become better” (develop) “the orderly way” (system) of “giving the facts of the matter” (instruction). Two college texts are Brown. Instructional System Materials Development. B. Instructional System Development has replaced the term Systems Approach to Training (SAT). More simply stated. Miller. John B.” Teachers College Record. 5. 242. Hq MAC/DOTO. 1973) and Wittich and Schuller. AV Instruction. USAF ISDQ-4-003 (1974). “Problem of Measurement Related to the Concept of learning for Mastery.” Today’s Education. California Notes 1. and Harcleroad. Rinehart and Winston. John B. “Teachers. 48. “It is a better way to teach. seven years later. 2. Lewis. Mastery Learning. 11. (NovemberDecember 1913). 3. L. p. 230 . Since 1970. One Air Force course equal to at least three semester hours is ATC Course 3AZR75100. subject: USAF Policy on the Systems Approach to Training (SAT). Its Nature and Use (San Francisco: Harper and Row. 71-80. 4. Hq USAF letter. Vernon J. “A Model of School Learning. Ibid. 64 (May 1963). James H. 10) and John P.” Citrus Heights. Carroll. and student activity is the experience by which he learns. Individualized instruction is attained through the Instructional System Development process. Major General. and Mastery Learning. pp. Technology.doing more than he did in conventional systems. 7. Block. dated 13 November 1970. the major principles of ISD are intact web only a few changes in terminology. 30-36 (hereafter cited as “Teachers”).

p. 21. 25. 19. Block.” p. 34. USAF ATC Course 3AZR75100. 17. “Teachers. 29. “Teachers. 5-21. Practical Approaches to Individualizing Instruction (West Nyack. 62. November 1972. p. 22. (December 1970). 99. pp. 23. Hq MAC/DOTO. 36. N. pencil. 26. and Weems plotter The plot must be within 3NM of actual EC-121 position.S herman Frey. Wittich and Schuller. 16. 202. p. USAF-ISD-Q-4-003. Instructional System Development.” p. 402. “Teachers. “Beyond Behavioral Objectives: Individualizing Learning. AFM 50-2.: Parker.” Elementary School Journal..Y. Block. Ibid. Rita and Kenneth Dunn.” p. CA: Fearon. p. 6-3.” The Clearing House. 24. 28. 27. 1962). 15. p. Local Area Navigation Charts and Log. 48 (April 1974). Block. Mager. “Behavioral Objectives: Attitudes of Teachers. xiv. 63. USAF ATC Course 3AZR75100. dividers. AFM 50-2. 18. Robert F. 13. 1-1. validate and plot a time difference reading from the EC-121 LORAN C System AN/ARN-92(v)-2. Ibid. Instructional System Materials Development (1973).. Richard Hersh and Stuart Cohen. p. 34. 20. See also note 11. AFM 50-2. 14. 30. USAF ATC Course 3AZR75100. p.” pp. Preparing Instructional Objectives. USAF ISD-Q-4-003. Skills and Knowledges 231 . APPENDIX A A Sample Task Analysis Performance: Conditions: Standards: Teaching Steps Obtain. “Teachers. 102. p. 31-33. (Palo Alto. Hq MAC/DOTO. 1972). Block.12.

Obtain. 2. Data: USAF ADC Course ADC12100T. only two or three examples come to mind. and we tend to think that that is all there is to media. or the instructors lack knowledge in how to blend the media into the student’s learning activity. and certainly time. Theory of Operation Analysis. Identify the purpose. The quality of training can suffer. a) The distance of the Master and Slaves determines the rate. and effort can be wasted when media are overlooked. for each Teaching Step. A Teaching Step is measurable student 2) Converts an analog system to a digital system. and continues to update it with more knowledges and supporting teaching points current time difference data. Each Teaching Step will have a Teaching Step Appraisal. APPENDIX B Instructional Media Individualized instruction was not possible until technological advances made possible a wide variety of media. money. 1) Micro-miniature receiver indicator 3.1. The lists in this appendix may convince the reader of the magnitude of choices and combinations confronting the teaching staff as they select and develop their instructional system. theory of operation and location of components and controls of the LORAN C. Right column entries are skills. Too often when we think of media. Students do not see or use the Task 1b. PCS statement controls the Criterion Objective and Test. We also forget the many experiences and learning options that should be considered when individualizing instruction. Navigator. La Purpose of the LORAN C 2. 5. 3) Inserts time difference into a memory mode. Rate (GRR). holds it there. Notes: 1. b) The rates are: Source: Format from USAF ATC Course 3AZR75100 (July 1973). 159. The instructor who selects the media and writes the subject explanation 1) Operates on the principle of Group Repetition uses the Task Analysis as his outline. or a burst of eight pulses. or the wrong media are purchased. validate and plot a time 2) Five basic rates are used. p. activity. 232 . difference reading for the LORAN C. 4.

mapping Demonstrating. charting. dancing Imagining. viewers Teaching machines Computer terminals and print image producers Electronic laboratories: Audio/ video/access and interaction devices Telephones with or without other media accessories Microimage systems—microfilm. exhibiting Videotaping Dramatizing Singing. lettering Photographing Displaying. globes Graphs. researching Problem solving Collecting Observing.I recommend that instructors pursue their personal training in the field of audiovisual Instruction. speaking. Experiences leading to learning Thinking Discussing. players. charts. visualizing Organizing. microcards Stereographs Maps. summarizing Computing Judging. specimens Flannel-board materials Magnetic-board materials Chalkboard materials Construction materials Drawing materials Display materials Multimedia materials Source: AV Instructional Technology Media and Methods. conferring. microcard. radios Slide and filmstrip projectors and viewers Overhead projectors Motion picture projectors and viewers Television receivers Videotape recorders. reporting Reading (words. encyclopedias Magazines. 233 . symbols) Writing. watching Traveling Exchanging Recording Interviewing Outlining. newspapers Documents. creating Drawing. editing Listening Graphing. clippings Duplicated materials Programmed materials Motion picture films Television programs Radio programs Recordings (tape and disc) Flat pictures Drawings and paintings Slides and transparencies Filmstrips Microfilms. tape recorders. Chapter I. mockups Collections. pictures. still and motion Media for learning Textbooks Supplementary hooks Reference books. Training supervisors should consider taking steps to have their instructors attend audiovisual courses at organizational expense. painting. microfiche Copying equipment and duplicators Cameras. taking notes Constructing. diagrams Posters Cartoons Puppets Models. showing Experimenting. evaluating Working Individualized learning options Read textbooks Read nonfiction books Read pamphlets View transparencies Listen to records View filmstrips Study periodicals Watch instructional television programs Work on self-instructional kits Give oral reports Study charts Study maps Take self-administered tests Interview resource personnel Participate in small group discussions Use the amplified telephone Study reference books Refer to fiction books Listen to tape recordings Study pictures Study programmed instructional materials Study models or objectives View 35mm slides View microscopic slides Write reports Produce learning materials View graphs View films Participate in student teaching conferences Conduct experiments Play educational games Facilities for learning Lecture halls Classrooms Divisible Undivided Independent study areas Discussion rooms Laboratories Shops Theaters Studios Libraries Resource centers Electronic learning centers Playing fields Community resources Home study centers Equipment for learning Record players. This financial investment will pay off in the development of an efficient and effective training program.

and how the student demonstrates what he/she has learned is a match for that student’s readiness level. regardless of differences in ability. is the process of “ensuring that what a student learns."[2] Differentiation in education can also include how a student shows that they have mastery of a concept. and preferred mode of learning”.[1] 234 . Greg. role play. group.Contributor Master Sergeant Frederick K. p. and output. Differentiation stems from beliefs about differences among learners. 32). or making sense of ideas. and to developing teaching materials so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively. 2008. processing. 2007). This could be through a research paper. Snyder is an Instructor Radar Supervisor. interests. About In differentiated instruction students are placed at the center of teaching and learning[1]. He has more than 3800 hours in the EC-121. and individual instruction. DIFERENŢIEREA INSTRUIRII 3. as opposed to quantitatively. how they learn. McClellan AFB. according to Carol Ann Tomlinson (as cited by Ellis. B. the free encyclopedia) Differentiated instruction (sometimes referred to as differentiated learning) involves providing students with different avenues to acquiring content. The key is finding how your students learn and displays their learning that meets their specific needs. and communal contexts[4] and varying degrees of academic skill development. examples of which include differing educational. "Research indicates that many of the emotional or social difficulties gifted students experience disappear when their educational climates are adapted to their level and pace of learning.[1] Differentiated instruction. diagram. Kathy Bigo defines differentiation as "the right of each pupil to be taught in a way specifically tailored to their individual learning needs. learning preferences and individual interests (Anderson. match learners' abilities with appropriate material. to processing. constructing."[3] Because each learner comes to school with a different set of learning needs. where he applies Instructional System Development (ISD) principles to training EC-121 radar operators. podcast. use numerous approaches to facilitating input. include a blend of whole-class. & Rock. how he/she learns it.4. Gable. poster.[5] differentiated instruction advocates that the educator proactively plans a variety of instruction methods so as to best facilitate effective learning experiences which are suited to the various learning needs within the classroom. including 130 combat missions in Southeast Asia.[1] In its pursuit of this foundational goal. etc. California. personal. 552d Airborne Early Warning and Control Group (ADC). and tours at ground radar sites in Iceland and the Philippines. and constantly adapt to learners' needs based upon the teacher's constant assessment of all students. O sinteză a cercetărilor Differentiated instruction (From Wikipedia. Sergeant Snyder is a distinguished graduate of ADC’s NCO Academy. differentiated instructional methods attempt to qualitatively.

learning is more likely to be rewarding and the student becomes a more autonomous learner. 2008). According to Tomlinson (as cited by Rebora. By using differentiated instruction. 2007). The readiness of the individual should match what a student learns. and academic growth within schools (Anderson. supports the second key element of differentiated instruction. when interest is tapped. differentiated instruction is viewed as a proactive approach to instruction and an idea that has as many faces as practitioners. 2000). According to Jerome Bruner (as cited by Allan & Tomlinson. An American psychologist. Howard Gardner. educators can meet all individual student needs and help every student meet and exceed established standards (Levy. 2008). engagement. The philosophical idea that interest based options seize on intrinsic motivation. Gardner supports the third key element of differentiated instruction. meaning-making approach to teaching and learning. a Russian psychologist. differentiated instruction became an essential part of US educator's repertoire as the make-up of the general classroom moved from homogeneous groupings of students prior to the 1970s to the ever increasing variety of learners seen in the heterogeneous classroom make-up in the last 40 years[9] (Nunley. Teachers who are committed to this approach believe that who they teach shapes how they teach because who the students are shapes how they learn. and brain development with research on influencing factors of learner readiness. 2008). having curriculum tailored to a child’s intelligence preference (Allan & Tomlinson. or expecting some students to do better than others and calling it 'differentiation by outcome'. The model of differentiated instruction requires teachers to tailor their instruction and adjust the curriculum to students’ needs rather than expecting students to modify themselves to fit the curriculum. proved that individuals learn best in accordance with their readiness to do so (Allan & Tomlinson. interest. This theoretical influence provides a concrete foundation for differentiated instruction. learning styles. 2000).Often referred to as an educational philosophy. 2006). PLUS the ability to plan and deliver suitable lessons effectively. Differentiated instruction requires the teacher to have "sufficient appropriate knowledge of the pupils. the perceived need for differentiated instruction lies in the fact that 235 . The theoretical and philosophical influences embedded in differentiated instruction support the three key elements of differentiated instruction itself: readiness. developed the theory of multiple intelligences. how they learn it and how the student demonstrates what they learned when using differentiated instruction.[8] The perfect model of differentiated instruction rests upon an active. student interest.[7] Bigio also cautions that differentiation is not 'Humiliating the slow learners by drawing attention to their limitations". Differentiated instruction integrates constructivist learning theories. whatever their individual situation". allowing pupils and groups work through tasks at their own pace. so as to help all pupils individually to maximise their learning. and learning profile (Allan & Tomlinson. Essentially. student centered. which accounts for different student learning profiles. 2000). Gardner’s theory suggests that schools should offer individual-centered education. According to educational psychologist Kathie Nunley. His theory states that people have different intelligences and learn in many different ways.[6] Differentiation is not teaching at a slow pace so that everyone can keep up. Lev Vygotsky. interest and intelligence preferences toward students’ motivation.

students who are unfamiliar with the concepts may be required to complete tasks on the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy: knowledge. This instructional approach and choice of content are driven by the data from students’ assessment results and from the outcomes of other screening tools. Students with partial mastery may be asked to complete tasks in the application.or display mistaken ideas about the content. discussion. Content The content of lessons may be differentiated based on what students already know.[10] so the teacher will be able to determine how students within the class prefer to learn. such as in Layered Curriculum. Some students in a class may be completely unfamiliar with the concepts in a lesson. some students may have partial mastery of the content . 2007). Educators are not varying student objectives or lowering performance standards for students. The most basic content of a lesson should cover the standards of learning set by the district or state. the first and most important step in differentiated instruction is determining what students already know so as not to cover material students have mastered. They use different texts. or other activity that asks students to answer some of the questions that would be used to evaluate their performance at the end of an upcoming unit or lesson. but rather have students selfassess daily through oral defense. groups or individually. For example. novels or short stories at a reading level appropriate for each individual student. comprehension. game. such as a Multiple Intelligences inventory (still regarded with skepticism by many researchers). but all students are working towards the same standards and objectives. 2004. Teachers can use flexible groups and have students assigned to alike groups listening to books on tape or specific internet sources. and students who have high levels of mastery may be asked to complete tasks in evaluation and synthesis. analysis and evaluation areas. Pre-assessment For some teachers. or use methods that would be ineffective for students. understanding and skills (Anderson. It may also be in the form of a learning inventory. and some students may show mastery of the content before the lesson begins.and post-assessment leads to successful differentiation by producing the results that communicate the students’ needs. When a teacher differentiates content they may adapt what they want the students to learn or how the students will gain access to the knowledge. process and product. ([11] Nunley. Chances are pretty good that the trend of diverse student populations will continue throughout our lifetimes. 2006) The goals of differentiated instruction are to develop challenging and engaging tasks for each learner (from low-end learner to high-end learner). and application. Students could have a choice to work in pairs. 236 . The teacher may differentiate the content by designing activities for groups of students that cover different areas of Bloom's Taxonomy. Instructional activities are flexible and based and evaluated on content.students vary in so many ways and student populations are becoming more academically diverse. Some models of differentiation do not require a pre-assessment. Meaningful pre. A preassessment can be a quiz.

as the preparation of the assessments will primarily determine both the ‘what’ and ‘how’ instruction will be delivered. Information may be presented in multiple ways by the teacher. the dynamic flow of grouping and regrouping is one of the foundations of differentiated instruction. teachers may assign students to complete activities that demonstrate mastery of an educational concept (writing a report). evaluations. so a teacher can’t teach them all the same way. reports. or other activities. and levels of prior knowledge. taking into account what standards of performance are required for the age level. or building a 3-dimensional object that explains mastery of concepts in the lesson or unit). 2004). Layered Curriculum. Many teachers use areas of Multiple Intelligences to provide learning opportunities. 2004) Differentiating by process refers to how a student comes to understand and assimilate facts. interests. or what may challenge them most: some students may prefer to read about a topic (or may require practice in reading). such as in high school. projects. or in a method the student prefers (composing an original song about the content. a teacher might break students into small “ability” groups based on their readiness.Process The process of how the material in a lesson is learned may be differentiated for students based on their learning styles. concepts and skills (Anderson. Regardless of whether the differentiation of instruction is based upon student readiness. learning styles. and others may prefer to listen (or require practice in listening). Commonalities in the assessment results lead to grouping practices that are planned designed to meet the students’ needs. if this is their best modality for a particular task. interests. as groups will change with regard to the need that will be addressed. based on each group's appropriate level of readiness-skills. It is important for a differentiated classroom to allow some students to work alone. The grouping practices must be flexible. After teaching a lesson. The main idea behind this is that students are at different levels and learn in different ways. (Nunley. 2007). or needs. (Nunley. and may be based on any available methods or materials. Another model of differentiation. This stage of differentiation allows students to learn based either on what method is easiest for them to acquire knowledge. "How" a teacher plans to deliver the instruction is based on assessment results that show the needs. Another way to group the students could be based on the students’ learning styles. 237 . The teacher would then give each group a series of questions. The product is an integral component of the differentiated model. related to the objectives of the lesson. This eliminates the need for pre-assessment and is useful for teachers with large class loads. Based on students' skill levels and educational standards. simply offers student a choice of assignments but requires demonstration of learning in order to pass of the assignment. Product The product is essentially what the student produces at the end of the lesson to demonstrate the mastery of the content: tests. or acquire knowledge by manipulating objects associated with the content.

choice boards or open-ended lists of final product options. Robinson. Tips for teaching: Differentiating instruction to include all students. Teacher Magazine. S. Curry/Samara models. R. teacher-facilitated classroom where all students have the opportunity to meet curriculum foundation objectives. The method of assessment may look different for each child. M. Examples of differentiated structures include Layered Curriculum. A classroom that utilizes differentiated instruction is a learner-responsive. A Mind at a Time. Differentiating the High School Classroom. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 'Differentiation 3-7'. ISBN 0743202228. Lessons may be on inquiry based. Roeper Review 18. (2008). 49-54. The Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Children: What Do We Know? National Association of Gifted Children (Prufrock Press. Differentiating the High School Classroom. 2(1). 31-47  Levy. 2007. Classrooms (2 ed. REACH: A framework for differentiating classroom instruction. Alexandria. (2007). Gregg. (1996). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Differentiated Instructions provides access for all students to the general education curriculum. L. tiered instruction. Rock. instructional needs. Sidney. Carol (2001). 263-270.  Rebora. K. (2000). 26. Corwin Press  Further reading  Allan. interests and strengths. Maureen ed.  ^ Levine. D.When an educator differentiates by product or performance. 2010  ^ Nunley.  ^ Nunley. A. (2002). K. A. It is done by using menu unit sheets. (2008). H. and similar designs. and Moon. Preventing School Failure. An analysis of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence. M. with Reis.. 161-164. 286  ^ Kathy Bigio 'Differentiation 3-7'. E. (2006). ISBN 0871205122. 2010  ^ Taylor. however the skill / concepts taught will be the same. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Corwin Press. Gable. C. The Clearing House. tic-tactoe extension menus.. p. 81(4). 51(3). 'Differentiation 3-7' 2010  ^ Kathy Bigio. H. A. ISBN 0321086694.  ^ Kathy Bigio 'Differentiation 3-7' 2010  ^ Kathy Bigio. interests and learning preferences and provide opportunities for students to work in varied instructional formats. teachers respond to students’ readiness. (2008). pg 8  ^ Morgan. Nunley. Sally. K. 52(2).. Preventing School Failure. Catharine Whittaker (2003). M. Leadership for differentiating schools and classrooms. References ^ a b c d Tomlinson. Inc.  ^ Neihart. 2006). Alexandria.).. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. problem based and project based instruction.  Anderson. Bridging Multiple Worlds: Case Studies of Diverse Educational Communities. 28-31. (see external links below) In differentiated instruction. Lorraine. New York: Simon & Schuster. It is meant to allow students to show what they learned based on their learning preferences. Meeting the needs of all students through differentiated instruction: Helping every child reach and exceed standards. 2006. Nancy. Making a difference. RAFT writing activities. Mel (2002). they are affording students various ways of demonstrating what they have learned from the lesson or unit (Anderson.. M.). 238 . & Tomlinson.  Ellis.

a sampling of considerations and 239 . 1/14/2011 Introduction Not all students are alike. a curriculum designed approach to increase flexibility in teaching and decrease the barriers that frequently limit student access to materials and learning in classrooms (Rose & Meyer. Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks.org: Amherst. Based on this knowledge. we introduce UDL and the linkages with differentiated instruction both in theory and with specific lesson examples. (2006).S. available on videotape and DVD. including the websites ReadingRockets. and Anne Meyer Note: Updated on 11/2/2009. Nicole Strangman. 2nd ed. 2002). then identifying components and features. the flagship public television and radio station in the nation's capital. NH  Nunley. Next. Brains. Department of Education.5. Nunley. Reading Rockets is an educational initiative of WETA. The report concludes with a listing of web resources for further information and explicit examples. CA. why so many struggle. and professional development opportunities. and is funded by a major grant from the U. Differentiated instruction is a teaching theory based on the premise that instructional approaches should vary and be adapted in relation to individual and diverse students in classrooms (Tomlinson. Layered Curriculum. Studii semnificative Studiile Reading Rockets (Reading Rockets is a national multimedia project offering information and resources on how young kids learn to read. Office of Special Education Programs. (2004). and how caring adults can help. additionally. online services.org. 3. Differentiating the High School Classroom: Solution Strategies for 18 Common Obstacles. The model of differentiated instruction requires teachers to be flexible in their approach to teaching and adjust the curriculum and presentation of information to learners rather than expecting students to modify themselves for the curriculum.) Differentiated Instruction and Implications for UDL Implementation By Tracey Hall. This report on differentiated instruction and UDL begins with an introduction to differentiated instruction in which we provide the definition. K.org and ColorinColorado. The Reading Rockets project is comprised of PBS television programs. 2001). We begin with an introduction to differentiated instruction by defining the construct. we provide a sampling of applications. This report examines information on the theory and research behind differentiated instruction and the intersection with Universal Design for Learning (UDL). K. Many teachers and teacher educators have recently identified differentiated instruction as a method of helping more students in diverse classroom settings experience success. differentiated instruction applies an approach to teaching and learning that gives students multiple options for taking in information and making sense of ideas.

curriculum applications. preferences in learning and interests. and research evidence for effectiveness. Whole class. This portion develops an understanding of UDL and proceeds to identify the theoretical and teacher practice levels." The box at the bottom is labeled "Process: How teacher: Plans instruction." 240 . readiness. and to react responsively. Two boxes. Look for it on the Effective Classrooms Practices page of the National Center for Accessing the General Curriculum's web site http://www. Differentiated instruction is a process to teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class. UDL is a theoretical approach that is based on research from the neurosciences and effective teaching practices.cast.html. Our document concludes with general guidelines for the implementation of UDL and a list of web resources that provide further information about differentiated instruction. Definition To differentiate instruction is to recognize students' varying background knowledge. The literature review in this paper is also available as a stand alone document. Groups/Pairs. Figure 1. The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize each student's growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is and assisting in the learning process. are joined together at the center of the graphic organizer within a blue background. language. the discussion moves to UDL applications of differentiated instruction.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstruc. The second part of the paper. Individually. Learning Cycle and Decision Factors Used in Planning and Implementing Differentiated Instruction Image description: This graphic organizer is entitled "Learning Cycle and Decision Factors Used in Planning and Implementing Differentiated Instruction" and is made up of a series of seven labeled boxes connected by arrows. The box at the top is labeled "Content: what teacher plans to teach. one on top of the other. with annotated references.

Grouping of students is not fixed. concepts." The box at the bottom is labeled "Student: Readiness/Ability. Align tasks and objectives to learning goals. and Products (Figure 1). Instruction is concept-focused and principle-driven. attitudes. The box at the top is labeled "Curriculum: State and Local Standards and Benchmarks. several key elements guide differentiation in the education environment. Access to the content is seen as key. The instructional concepts should be broad-based. Tomlinson (2001) identifies three elements of the curriculum that can be differentiated: Content. Content Several elements and materials are used to support instructional content. These include acts. Student groups may be coached from within or by the teacher to complete assigned tasks. a box labeled "Summative evaluation" is connected to the box labeled "Product" with a black line. The content of instruction should address the same concepts with all students. Teachers may conduct whole-class introductory discussions of content big ideas followed by small group or paired work. A horizontal black line goes across the bottom of the graphic organizer. Identifying Components/Features According to the authors of differentiated instruction. Strategies for flexible grouping are essential." To the right of the two center boxes with the blue background is a box labeled "Assessment of content: Product. An objectives-driven menu makes it easier to find the next instructional step for learners entering at varying levels. Process 2. Objectives are frequently written in incremental steps resulting in a continuum of skills-building tasks. Designers of differentiated instruction view the alignment of tasks with instructional goals and objectives as essential." A black line connects these two boxes to each other and a black arrow points from the center of this line to the two boxes in the center of the graphic organizer. Teachers must focus on the concepts. high-stakes tests and frequently administered standardized measures. A small box at the bottom left is labeled "Pre-Assessment" and a black arrow points from it to the box labeled "Student. Flexible grouping is consistently used. Process." A black. which are followed by several additional guidelines for forming an understanding of and developing ideas around differentiated instruction. generalizations or principles. On the far right. As one of the foundations of differentiated 241 . double-sided arrow points to it and to the two center boxes.To the left of these two boxes are two smaller boxes. Black arrows point from the bottom of the boxes labeled "Product" and "Summative evaluation" to the bottom of the graphic organizer. Interests/Talents. Goals are most frequently assessed by many state-level. Learners are expected to interact and work together as they develop knowledge of new content. The variation seen in a differentiated classroom is most frequently in the manner in which students gain access to important learning. principles and skills that students should learn. Prior knowledge. not focused on minute details or unlimited facts. and skills. Learning profile. Two arrows point from it to the two center boxes and to the two boxes on the left. These are described in the following three sections. but the degree of complexity should be adjusted to suit diverse learners. also one on top of the other.

and it should be used to help pose questions regarding student needs and optimal learning. Assessments may be formal or informal. The tasks. materials. Items to which students respond may be differentiated so that different students can demonstrate or express their knowledge and understanding in different ways. Ensure that all learners gain powerful understandings that can serve as the foundation for future learning. Teachers are encouraged to strive for the development of lessons that are engaging and motivating for a diverse class of students. Teachers should ensure that students have choices in their learning. project. the balance will vary from class-to-class as well as lesson-to-lesson. In her text. A well-designed student product allows varied means of expression and alternative procedures and offers varying degrees of difficulty. Each child should feel challenged most of the time. In other words. activities. Instruction may require supports. Teachers respect that each task put before the learner will be interesting. including interviews. Products Initial and on-going assessment of student readiness and growth are essential. • Engaging all learners is essential. • Emphasize critical and creative thinking as a goal in lesson design. teachers must carefully select organization and instructional delivery strategies. Students are active and responsible explorers. Teachers are encouraged to identify essential concepts and instructional foci to ensure that all learners comprehend. How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms (Chapter 7). Assessment should occur before. To effectively operate a classroom using differentiated instruction. performance assessments. 3.instruction. additional motivation. Additional Guidelines That Make Differentiation Possible for Teachers to Attain Clarify key concepts and generalizations. an entire session for students should not consist of all drill and practice. during. Carol Tomlinson (2001). A balanced working structure is optimal in a differentiated classroom. and on-going evaluations. the "package" itself is lacking empirical 242 . and following the instructional episode. varied tasks. Meaningful pre-assessment naturally leads to functional and successful differentiation. interests and abilities that exist in classrooms of diverse students. • Use assessment as a teaching tool to extend rather than merely measure instruction. identifies 17 key strategies for teachers to successfully meet the challenge of designing and managing differentiated instruction. and accessible to essential understanding and skills. or equipment for different students in the classroom. and more formal evaluation procedures. engaging. surveys. and procedures for students should require that they understand and apply meaning. changing with the content. Incorporating pre and on-going assessment informs teachers so that they can better provide a menu of approaches. Vary expectations and requirements for student responses. and scaffolds for the varying needs. Based on pre-assessment information. choices. types of evaluation. Vary tasks within instruction as well as across students. • Provide a balance between teacher-assigned and student-selected tasks. grouping and regrouping must be a dynamic process. Classroom management benefits students and teachers. or any single structure or activity. and scoring. Evidence of Effectiveness as a Classroom Practice • Differentiation is recognized to be a compilation of many theories and practices. Based on this review of the literature of differentiated instruction.

strongly supports the ZPD concept. The researchers found that in classrooms where individuals were performing at a level of about 80% accuracy. the range at which learning takes place. For example. and engaging learners (Ellis and Worthington. 1980 in Tomlinson." That is. Tomlinson reports individual cases of settings in which the full model of differentiation was very promising and teachers using differentiation have written about improvements in their classrooms. Additionally. As classrooms have become more diverse.. differentiated instruction has been applied at all levels for students of all abilities. differentiated instruction adopts the concept of "readiness. strongly recommend that teachers adapt the practices slowly. Differentiated instruction is an instructional process that has excellent potential to positively impact learning by offering teachers a means to provide instruction to a range of students in today's classroom situations.validation. and the zone of proximal development (ZPD). These practices include effective management procedures. A number of web sites have been created in that include lessons to illustrate what teachers have created for instruction using the model of differentiated instruction. The initial application came to practice for students considered gifted but whom perhaps were not sufficiently challenged by the content provided in the general classroom setting. While no empirical validation of differentiated instruction as a package was found for this review. According to the proponents of differentiation. students learned more and felt better about themselves and the subject area under study (Fisher. Finally. The next section of this report introduces the reader to the theory and research behind Universal Design for Learning (UDL). we identify methods and materials that may be implemented to support the implementation of differentiated instruction in concert with the principles of UDL. (1980). the difficulty of skills taught should be slightly in advance of the child's current level of mastery. This is grounded in the work of Lev Vygotsky (1978). Several web sites are listed in a later section of this report. these experts agree that teachers should share the creative load by working together to develop ideas and menus of options for students. 2000). Many authors of publications about differentiated instruction. a set of guidelines for UDL implementation are 243 . 1994). there are a generous number of testimonials and classroom examples that authors of several publications and web sites provide. Applications to General Education Classroom Settings The design and development of differentiated instruction as a model began in the general education classroom. grouping students for instruction. We then investigate the links and connections between UDL and differentiated instruction. (See the links to learn more about differentiated instruction). Additionally. perhaps one content area at a time. the principles and guidelines are rooted in years of educational theory and research. Other practices noted as central to differentiation have been validated in the effective teaching research conduced from the mid 1980's to the present. There is an acknowledged and decided gap in the literature in this area and future research is warranted. The classroom research by Fisher et al.

An Introduction to Universal Design for Learning Applications Universal Design for Learning is a theoretical framework developed by CAST to guide the development of curricula that are flexible and supportive of all students (Dolan & Hall. for example. These 3 principles parallel 3 fundamentally important learning components and 3 distinct learning networks in the brain: recognition. methods. In contrast. 2002. and progress in all 3 essential facets of learning. the process of designing for individuals with disabilities has led to improved usability for everyone. The common recommendation of these 3 principles is to select goals. Similarly. Rose & Meyer. Principles of the Universal Design for Learning Framework Principle 1: To support recognition learning. Principle 3: To support affective learning. a student without a well-developed ability to see. 2001. Rose. provide multiple. The UDL framework guides the development of adaptable curricula by means of 3 principles (Figure 2). so that methods. & Meo. or comprehend printed text is compelled to adapt to its ubiquity as best as he or she can. Pisha & Coyne. 244 . Traditional curricula present a host of barriers that limit students' access to information and learning. materials. Rose. printed text is particularly notorious. Of these. In this manner. but uniquely. 1998. UDL calls for the design of curricula with the needs of all students in mind. strategy. serve their intended use of facilitating the travel of those in wheelchairs. decode. 2002). 2000a. attend to. Curb cuts. This movement calls for the design of structures that anticipate the needs of individuals with disabilities and accommodate these needs from the outset. and affect (Rose & Meyer. flexible options for engagement. a UDL curriculum is designed to be innately flexible. Meyer & Rose. Rose & Dolan. 2000). but they are also beneficial to people pushing strollers. participation. flexible methods of presentation Principle 2: To support strategic learning. provide multiple. In a traditional curriculum. but in addition they offer unforeseen benefits for all users. provide multiple. minimizing barriers and maximizing access to both information and learning. 2001. enriched with multiple media so that alternatives can be accessed whenever appropriate. assessment and materials in a way that will minimize barriers and maximize flexibility. 2001. flexible methods of expression and apprenticeship. and assessment are usable by all. young children. A UDL curriculum takes on the burden of adaptation so that the student doesn't have to.provided including a listing of web resources to provide further information on the concepts presented in this report. Sethuraman. 2000b. Universally designed structures are indeed more usable by individuals with disabilities. And so. the UDL framework structures the development of curricula that fully support every student's access. and even the average walker. The concept of UDL was inspired by the universal design movement in architecture. 2000.

and affective networks operate. the first Teaching Method to support recognition learning is to provide multiple examples. and maintenance of a large collection of examples in the form of digital text. images. Within the context of these teaching methods. Although presentation of multiple examples might be challenging in a classroom limited to printed text and hard copy images. and printed images. The three UDL principles call for flexibility in relation to three essential facets of learning. unlike the conventional pedagogical mainstays. each one orchestrated by a distinct set of networks in the brain. Network-Appropriate Teaching Methods To support diverse recognition networks:  Provide multiple examples  Highlight critical features  Provide multiple media and formats  Support background context To support diverse strategic networks: • Provide flexible models of skilled performance • Provide opportunities to practice with supports • Provide ongoing. strategic. strategic. Rose & Meyer. This teaching method takes advantage of the fact that recognition networks can extract the defining features of a pattern and differentiate it from similar patterns simply by viewing multiple examples. For example. CAST has devised three sets of broad teaching methods that support each of the 3 UDL principles (Figure 3. sound. The UDL Teaching Methods will anchor the upcoming discussion where we will highlight the ways in which computer simulations align with each of the 3 UDL principles. storage. 2002). For teachers wondering how to customize the curriculum. have an inherent flexibility. depending on the needs of the student. or video—all in the modest space of a classroom. Critical to successfully implementing UDL theory is the use of digital materials. Digital materials. They can be modified in a host of ways. relevant feedback • Offer flexible opportunities for demonstrating skill To support diverse affective networks: • • • • Offer choices of context and tools Offer adjustable levels of challenge Offer choices of learning context Offer choices of rewards 245 . and affective learning. This flexibility makes it feasible to customize learning materials and methods to each individual. speech. we'll show how computer simulations can support individualized instruction of recognition.Figure 2. printed text. This is one example of how digital materials and UDL Teaching Methods can facilitate the successful implementation of UDL. digital materials enable the assembly. These teaching methods draw on knowledge of the qualities of digital media and how recognition.

and product. A wide range of tools for presenting instructional content are available digitally. Differentiated instruction is designed to keep the learner in mind when specifying the instructional episode. CAST has developed three sets of UDL teaching methods. thus teachers may manipulate size. better supporting recognition. flexible methods of presentation when teaching patterns—no single teaching methodology for pattern recognition will be satisfactory for every learner. a range of examples can help to ensure that each student's recognition networks are able to identify the fundamental elements identifying a pattern. projecting a state map. supports an important UDL Teaching Method for individualized instruction of pattern recognition. highlight critical features. process. and affective networks. Other students may benefit from the same multiple examples by obtaining a perspective that they otherwise might not. teachers are highlighting essential components. a teacher could vary the difficulty of the material by presenting smaller or larger. provide multiple media and formats. depending on their needs and preferences. content. Also. simpler or more complex maps. 246 . strategic and affective. The content guidelines of differentiated instruction also recommend that content elements of instruction be kept concept-focused and principle-driven. In this way. This practice is consistent with a third UDL Teaching Method for recognition. These can be saved for future use and flexibly accessed by different students. Each of the three key elements of differentiated instruction. The content guidelines for differentiated instruction support the first UDL Teaching Method for recognition networks. in that they encourage the use of several elements and materials to support instructional content. recognition. such a diversity of examples may be vital in order for them to access the pattern being taught.Figure 3. By avoiding any focus on extensive facts or seductive details and reiterating the broad concepts. For students with physical or cognitive disabilities. Top Differentiated Instruction and the Three Universal Design for Learning Principles Differentiated instruction is well received as a classroom practice that may be well suited to the three principles of UDL. The theory of differentiated instruction incorporates some guidelines that can help teachers to support critical elements of recognition learning in a flexible way and promote every student's success. To help teachers support learners' diverse recognition. and other features to develop examples in multiple media and formats. while preserving the essential content. provide multiple examples. strategic. Recognition learning. The following section looks at the three network appropriate teaching methods. Certain instructional techniques have been found to be very effective in supporting different skills as students learn. The first UDL principle focuses on pattern recognition and the importance of providing multiple. in order to address the ways in which differentiated instruction coordinates with UDL theory. color contrasts. This same use of varied content examples supports a second recommended practice in UDL methodology. a goal of differentiated instruction. These teaching methods can be used to make the curriculum more flexible and broadly supportive. A teacher following this guideline might help students in a social studies class to understand the location of a state in the union by showing them a wall map or a globe. or describing the location in words.

This kind of flexibility is key for teachers to help meet the needs of their diverse students. 247 . students need flexible opportunities for demonstrating skill. People find for themselves the most desirable method of learning strategies. Differentiated instruction and UDL Teaching Methods bear another important point of convergence: recognition of the importance of engaging learners in instructional tasks. As noted above. learners enter the instructional episode with different approaches. teaching methodologies need to be varied. In order to successfully demonstrate the skills that they have learned. therefore. the assessment step of the differentiated instruction learning cycle is instrumental. less supported skills mastery. and in this respect. Supported practice enables students to split up a complex skill into manageable components and fully master these components. and offer a choice of learning context. provide adjustable levels of challenge. one of the four UDL Teaching Methods for strategic learning. teachers implementing differentiated instruction are encouraged to demonstrate information and skills multiple times and at varying levels. Differentiated instruction can support these teaching methods in valuable ways.The fourth UDL Teaching Method for recognition is to support background knowledge. Differentiated instruction recognizes the need for students to receive flexible models of skilled performance. including the degree of difficulty and the means of evaluation or scoring. organization. Differentiated instruction promotes thi teaching method by encouraging students to be active and responsible learners. Differentiated instruction theory reinforces the importance of effective classroom management and reminds teachers of meeting the challenges of effective organizational and instructional practices. and provide varying levels of scaffolding to gain and maintain learner attention during the instructional episode. As a result. By providing varying levels of scaffolding when differentiating instruction. and strategies for learning. Differentiated instruction directly supports this UDL Teaching Method by reminding teachers to vary requirements and expectations for learning and expressing knowledge. When students are engaged in initial learning on novel tasks or skills. By evaluating student knowledge about a construct before designing instruction teachers can better support students' knowledge base. Therefore teachers are encouraged to offer choices of tools. and by asking teachers to respect individual differences and scaffold students as they move from initial learning to practiced. Supporting affective learning through flexible instruction is the third principle of UDL and an objective that differentiated instruction supports very effectively. supported practice should be used to ensure success and eventual independence. scaffolding instruction in a very important way. Engagement is a vital component of effective classroom management. adjust the level of difficulty of the material. students have access to varied learning contexts as well as choices about their learning environment. and instruction. knowledge. and this is reflected in the 4 UDL Teaching Methods. These practices bear much in common with UDL Teaching Methods for affective learning: offer choices of content and tools. Strategic learning. Affective learning.

more flexible lesson. the teacher created multiple examples of finding and identifying seeds. 248 . Before teaching the lessons presented on this web site. Students have multiple examples of texts from which to find information about the life cycle of seeds. Table 1 contains a listing of UDL features made possible by elements of differentiated instruction employed in this lesson. fast growing seeds were planted in the classroom. we identified UDL features implemented in a well designed differentiated instruction lesson in mathematics and recommend ways in which UDL could be applied to make an even more accessible. then monitors students to check their focus on important features of the lesson. and the tools. skills and strategies required to do so. This lesson enabled the teacher to discuss. Massachusetts State and local District standards in Science and English Language Arts. by teaching students the necessary environmental variables about growth in plants. Student choice and access flexibility in the lesson exemplify applications of UDL. the teacher or students may literally highlight critical Provide multiple examples. and the second is from work outside of CAST. we present actual lesson plans employing differentiated instruction. CAST gathering evidence: The Life Cycle of Plants from the Planning for All Learners (PAL) toolkit. In the example from CAST. This lesson is a two-day instructional plan that is a part of a larger unit designed by a first grade teacher for a diverse class of students. Additionally. by having texts available in digital format. In the second. display and increase student understanding of the science content and concepts. Each exemplifies applications of UDL in differentiated instruction. The first is a product of a school that is working with CAST. The lesson plan addresses McRel.Examples of UDL and Differentiated Instruction The focus of the previous sections was to describe ways in which differentiated instruction supports the three principles of UDL and aligns with UDL teaching practices. the teacher provided several examples of finding appropriate texts to complete the assignment. the teacher introduced students to science concepts around the growth of seeds through oral presentation and in-class experiments. giving students the opportunity to observe the seed life cycle. Here. Highlight critical features. –TABLE 1– UDL Features of the CAST PAL Toolkit Model Gathering Evidence: Life Cycle of Plants UDL Teaching Method Supportive Differentiated Instruction Feature(s) In preparation for this lesson. Teacher provides critical information for the lesson through oral presentation and highlights critical features in written form. Additionally. As another example. we highlight the ways that differentiated instruction is used to implement UDL teaching methods.

recorded). The books were then made available digitally as well as in audio format for flexible accessibility. audio). • Provide multiple media and formats. representing a range of difficulty levels. 249 . • During guided practice and independent practice portions of each lesson. Offer choices of learning contexts. the concept of seeds was brought out of the abstract. Support background context. The teacher organized the lesson at multiple points for choice of tools: Offer choices of content and tools. the teacher provides supports by checking and prompting. Offer flexible opportunities for demonstrating skill. digital. the student could use a simpler text and/or access the information via audio or digital read-aloud. The teacher located several (4–5) resources. Throughout the lesson the teacher has organized several choices that help diversify the available learning contexts: Offer adjustable levels of challenge. Before this assignment the teacher and students found seeds in a variety of vegetables and fruits. In this way. • students can opt to work independently or with a partner during the assignment completion portion of the lesson. and • students can select the "right book" based on difficulty and/or interest. choice of access (text. yet not too difficult.features of the text in preparation of lesson assignments. Provide opportunities to practice with support. scribed. 6. Careful instruction was organized to teach students the concept of finding a book that is "just right. Thus. This helps to ensure that researching the answers to science questions is appropriately challenging for each student. in this case books of different reading difficulty. Students may select their best or preferred type of working situation and means for responding. For example. materials were available in a variety of media and formats. Students had the option to work in selected pairs as they search for answers to the science questions. The design of this lesson allows students varied approaches throughout the lesson. if decoding were challenging. This. and choice of response style. choice of resource materials. Several levels of preparation were designed to support background context: 5. The teacher offers multiple texts." helping students to find a book that is challenging. students had experiences seeing and finding seeds from a range of plants. containing the same science constructs on seed life cycles. helped keep students work and learn in their "zone of proximal development" when obtaining background information for the lesson. • students can select from a variety of methods to respond to the science questions (written. and different means to access these texts.

grade 6 mathematics. Highlight critical features. can help achieve this goal. The teacher highlights critical features of the mathematics in the story by stopping and calculating the amount of rice accumulating and using a t-table to do so. Support background context. In cooperative groups. The numbers are represented in the story and on the t -table. We have selected a mathematics lesson for 6th grade focusing on the concept of patterns. Offer adjustable levels of challenge. Through the use of clearly stated goals and the implementation of flexible working groups with varying levels of challenge. Provide multiple media and formats. specifically. Please note that we are not making generalized recommendations for making this lesson more UDL. The teacher reads the story aloud and students have the story to read. Offer choices of content and tools. all students are working on the same task but with varying supports. Provide ongoing. this lesson helps to break down instructional barriers. students may receive feedback from the teacher and from peers. Students are assigned to one of three groups tiered by difficulty. Varied supports in the working groups alter the level of independence and difficulty in solving the task. We provide Table 3 with recommendations of employing teaching methods of UDL to support this lesson. relevant feedback. Differentiated Instruction Features The teacher provides multiple examples through the story of The King's Chessboard and other math problems. This web site hosted by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) contains a number of lessons that illustrate different teachers' examples of how to use the principles of differentiated instruction. 250 . but instead are focusing on ways that differentiated instruction. Teachers analyze or pretest students for key preskills and background knowledge. –TABLE 2– UDL Elements in a Differentiated Instruction Mathematics Lesson UDL Teaching Method Provide multiple examples. We have identified additional ways to reduce barriers in this lesson even further by employing the principles of UDL teaching methods and differentiated instruction.Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development differentiating instruction web site Differentiated Instruction Lesson Example. This instructional approach to teaching mathematics patterns has several exciting UDL features (see Table 2).

Consider background knowledge for students entering this mathematical problem. the challenge of acquiring and mastering new technology. Although UDL has been more than a decade in the making. teachers face challenges in implementing them: the challenges of shifting away from traditional views of intelligence and traditional reliance on print media. What range of supports could be made available to provide the informational knowledge so that students can focus on the problem solving component? Students write an exit card to explain the mathematical story. For example. Here visitors will find an articulation of UDL. through text. and ideas and examples for implementing UDL. The CAST web site devotes a large section to Universal Design for Learning. numerical representations. Even with such models available. they are admittedly hard to come by. creating a diagram. consistent with the framework itself. discussions of its core concepts. The following sections offer recommendations that can help teachers overcome each one of these challenges. and the challenge of garnering support from the school system. speech. they may need to learn a different way of looking at their students and the materials that they use in the classroom. Before teachers can implement UDL effectively. and. Scaffold how to use the t-table and visualize the chessboard. Recommendations for Implementation at the Classroom Level Although UDL applications of differentiated instruction already exist. and interactive activities) through which individuals can learn about UDL and develop the skills necessary to put it into practice. speaking. descriptions of UDL research projects. self-driven and trainertaught. The Locker Problem. have developed multiple avenues (direct and indirect. UDL Strategy Provide different demonstrations or models of how to use the tools employed in the lesson. it is an approach that challenges many traditional educational perspectives and practices. CAST has been working to disseminate UDL widely. a listing of tools and resources that support UDL. Provide alternative formats for students to express their interpretation of the story and the mathematical implications. Learn about Universal Design for Learning. The first and most basic step toward successfully implementing UDL is self-education.–TABLE 3– UDL Strategies to Further Minimize Lesson Barriers in a Differentiated Instruction Lesson Plan for Mathematics Barrier Deducting/constructing numeric functions. Visit the CAST web site. • 251 .

textto-speech and text-to-image programs (e. Another inexpensive but instrumental option for supplying a classroom with digital materials is the World Wide Web—a tremendous source of free digital material and much of this material is in a multimedia format. The amount of technology available to teachers varies extensively— limited by district and school resources.. or adaptive reading or information access needs of blind or other persons with disabilities. makes UDL implementation practical and achievable in a diverse classroom. CD-ROM storybooks (e. Edmark's various learning games). 252 . Kurzweil 3000. including Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age (Rose & Meyer. a fairly simple step such as digitizing print materials can greatly ease UDL implementation. Fortunately. Technology. both monetary and otherwise. 2002). PowerPoint).. a step that can help to diversify the presentation of materials for students with disabilities.com. Professional development institutes by CAST teach professionals about the challenges of improving access to and progress participation in the general education curriculum and how to make the curriculum accessible for all learners. including interactive activities and an online community where visitors can ask questions and engage in discussion about UDL. Department of Education. collaborate and obtain support from other educators who are exploring and teaching with UDL. The companion web site to the book provides an evolving set of resources and classroom examples. HyperStudio5.. Read&Write GOLD..org) a national technical assistance center that is funded by the U. This provision makes special education teachers eligible to digitize printed text materials. • Find more information and to engage in discussion about universal design and increasing access for students with disabilities at the web site for the Access Center (www. • Inventory and build technology support. education. the Chafee Amendment. gives authorized entities the freedom to digitize otherwise proprietary materials for individuals that have disabilities that impede access to the printed version.g. Teachers who have greater financial resources and district support can supplement their materials with innovative products such as multimedia composition tools (e. it is important to point out that UDL implementation can proceed successfully across a range of technology availability. in particular digital media. graphic organizer software (e. and learning software (e. Kid Pix Deluxe 3X. which can greatly improve access to students.S. Although we recommend that teachers try to build a library of digital materials. Intellitalk II).g. funbrain. Office of Special Education Programs to make elementary and middle school curriculum more accessible to students with disabilities. The 1996 United States copyright additions (Chapter 1 of Title 17 Section 121 of the United States Code).. JAWS.Read CAST publications. Digital materials make it possible for the same material to be flexibly presented and accessed—even adapted on a student-to-student basis. The Teaching Every Student section of the CAST web site includes an online community where teachers can communicate. • Enroll in an institute. An authorized entity is a nonprofit organization or governmental agency that has a primary mission to provide specialized services relating to training.g. Kidspiration). Universal Reader. Having more digital media unquestionably enables teachers to implement UDL in a more extensive way. Inspiration. CAST has a range of publications highlighting UDL and UDL practice.g.g. Reader Rabbit's Reading Development Library). • Talk to others.k8accesscenter.

" From there. This may come in the form of a school or district help desk. UDL can proceed effectively. a curved line of arrows goes around the outside of the circles from the top of the graphic around to the left side. computer teacher. Align to standards. inner circle touches the right side of the larger. An arrow in the middle of the line points to text on the bottom right that reads "Apply UDL: Identify UDL materials and methods. to be at hand to help problem solve any unforeseen challenges with implementation. The smaller.Whether teachers are able to invest in the purchase of a lot of technology or not. materials. If the web is a tool you may use and ask students to access. test out web accessibility your school computer lab(s) and media center(s) as appropriate. Effectively working with and managing technology can be a challenging process. outer circle. When you are ready to teach a lesson using some technologies new to you or your students. Image description: This graphic organizer is made up of two circles with two arrows each placed at different points and an outer circular line of arrows with text placed at different points along the line of arrows. Installation of software and hardware on computers may be time consuming. or one's own technology training. plan for issues of timing in your implementation and installation of software and hardware. etc. and assessment. On the right." From there. find out what's available and if there are available licenses for computers in your classroom. teachers can determine the level of UDL implementation appropriate to their classroom. But taking inventory is an important step toward setting a realistic course of action. the line goes 253 . Additionally. In the center are two circles with two arrows each. how available is it? Ask for or take an inventory of your school or district software. consider notifying your technology support person. By inventorying the resources they have available to them. technology integration teacher. Text at the top of the graphic reads "Set goals: Establish context. one inside the other. For example. An arrow in the middle of the line points to text on the right that reads "Analyze Status: Identify methods. Find out what policies your school or district may have regarding the tools you may adopt for use in your planning and teaching." From there.. the line goes around to the right side of the graphic. Check into scheduling issues around shared equipment. Collect and organize materials. computer resource specialist. the line goes around toward the bottom of the graphic. so it is important as well to assess the available technology support. survey your classroom and your school media center for a clear idea of computer and projection systems and other technology hardware available to teachers and students. Identify barriers. Write UDL plan.

instructors can engage more students and help all students progress. You may obtain additional information about designing UDL methods. Massachusetts. What are the current methodologies. In this way. Teach the UDL Lesson/Unit. Revise lesson/unit. When teaching and evaluating students work. and materials and tools. The process includes four steps. This includes the goals. also evaluate and revise the lesson/unit to assure student access and success. Do all students have access to the materials? Are students able to express themselves with the current methods and materials? There are a number of resources and tools available from CAST to analyze lessons in the Planning for All Learners Toolkit located on the TES web site. Context is usually driven or based on state standards. ending in an arrow pointing up. Next. collect and organize materials that support the UDL lesson. methods and assessment. we recommend that teachers have a basic understanding of UDL and a commitment to make the curriculum and learning accessible for all learners. The third recommended step of the planning process is to Apply UDL to the Lesson/Unit. (a) Set Goals. grounded in the learning goals. An arrow in the middle of the line points to text on the bottom left that reads "Teach UDL Lesson: Teach lesson. proven professional development strategies. Curriculum planning and delivery. Another important step in implementation of UDL in instruction is curriculum planning and delivery. and apply challenges appropriate for each learner. School districts and administrations can be powerful sources of support—financial and otherwise. In the Set Goals stage of curriculum planning.around to the bottom left of the graphic. assessments. A case in point is the town of Gloucester. and materials used to teach the lesson? Analyze these teaching procedures in relation to potential barriers of learners in the classroom. strategic and affective. Create the UDL lesson plan. rely on effective teaching practices. we recommend that teachers establish the context for instruction. We recommend that all teachers closely evaluate these to assure alignment and assure that the means for attaining the goals are separated from the goals and standards. Then. Secure administrative support. followed by the design of goals for the instructional episode." The line continues around to the left side of the graphic. teachers should Analyze the Current Status of the instructional episode. To begin. assessments. Evaluate success. based on the three networks recognition. and effective teaching practices. we have found the following process useful in designing lessons. methods. classroom profile. In the final step. Administrative commitment to UDL can strengthen a teacher's sense of mission and self-satisfaction and lead to important funding. and (d) Teach the UDL Lesson. in Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age. The principal for the school system is so convinced of the importance of digitized 254 . While keeping in mind the three principles of UDL. assessments and materials used to implement the lesson. (b) Analyze Status. based upon the principles and concepts of UDL. and materials. when designing a UDL lesson. Chapter 4. minimize barriers and realize the strengths and challenges each student brings to learning. (c) Apply UDL.

(1998). Teachers will use a text-to-speech reader to further improve the accessibility of the text. teachers can develop a support system of informed individuals who can assist with and advocate for UDL instruction.materials that he has set a mandate that teachers use only those textbooks that have a digitized version. and sabbaticals. Districts vary widely concerning the types and level of funding that they offer teachers. although somewhat still developing in educational settings. There are many ways that parents can do this. Links to Learn More About Differentiated Instruction Guild. and the launching of new UDL teaching projects. And along with them grows the promise of differentiated instruction and UDL in educational practices. but teachers who can convince their administrators of the value of UDL may be able to secure district-level grants. which although not a prerequisite for UDL. p. Administrator support can also help to facilitate funding.. By educating parents about the UDL activities going on in the classroom.2) http://www. parent night presentations. and reforms. donating equipment. Once parents are educated about UDL they may wish to become involved themselves. professional development. For example. Clearly. Parents are another valuable resource for teachers building a UDL curriculum. P. including volunteering in the classroom and lending support at home. has received significant recognition. in a North Shore Massachusetts school district. Conclusion Differentiated instruction. S. This is just one example of how support at the administrative level can facilitate the acquisition of materials that support UDL efforts in the classroom. A few possibilities are helping to prepare materials.aspx 255 . practices continue to evolve and the relevant research base should grow. differentiated instruction can provide teachers with both theory and practice to appropriately challenge the broad scope of students in classrooms today. What Is Differentiated Instruction? Marching to Different Drummers. When combined with the practices and principles of UDL. monitoring kids during UDL lessons. B. resources. Although educators are continually challenged by the ever-changing classroom profile of students. Teachers should think about ways to inform parents about classroom activities. the Technology Program Manager and Special Education Director teamed with two teachers using UDL were awarded a state-level technology grant to implement UDL. Funding might enable the purchase of equipment. Notes sent home. this kind of change would have happened much more slowly in the absence of such tremendous administrator-level support.ascd. 2nd Ed. helping with technology. can create important opportunities. and IEP meetings are all excellent opportunities to engage in this kind of communication. professional development awards. and Garger. (ASCD.org/publications/books/198186. Parent education and involvement. and supporting homework assignments. There are at least two important ways that parents can be a resource: as advocates and as volunteers.

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.org/ This web site belongs to the Access Center. Marching to Different Drummers was one of the first sources to pull together information on what was a newly-flourishing topic in education. University of Virginia. ERIC Digest ED443572. Tomlinson. discusses the reasons for differentiated instruction. (2000). The purpose of the K12 Access Center is to make elementary and middle school curricula more accessible to students with disabilities. (1995).ed. C. Foundations and Policy at the Curry School of Education. Leadership for differentiating schools and classrooms. many teachers differentiate instruction. 57(1). Educational Leadership.. what makes it successful. Differentiating instruction for advanced learners in the mixed-ability middle school classroom.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED443572 The ability to differentiate instruction for middle school aged learners is a challenge. A. http://www. with an emphasis on the learning needs of academically advanced students. Web Article: Mapping a route toward differentiated instruction. mixed-ability classrooms is particularly difficult. The Access Center http://www. http://www.eric. & Allan. This digest describes differentiated instruction. 256 .Initially published in 1985. C.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept99/vol57/num01/Mapping-a-RouteToward-Differentiated-Instruction. and suggests how teachers may begin implementation. http://www. a national technical assistance center. A. funded by the U.org/publications/books/100216. D. Part II describes applications of style in seven areas.S. The web site hosts chats and discussions and offers publications and presentations on topics related to accessing the general education curriculum. ERIC Digest E536.aspx Carol Ann Tomlinson.ascd... C. including Universal Design for Learning. Differentiating instruction for advanced learners in the mixed-ability middle school classroom..ascd. A. Tomlinson. an Associate Professor of Educational Leadership. http://www. VA provides an article entitled: Mapping a route toward differentiated instruction. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. S.ed. Responding to the diverse students needs found in inclusive. Charlottesville. Part I defines style and looks at the history of style research. This digest provides an overview of some key principles for differentiating instruction. This book is designed for those in leadership positions to learn about differentiated instruction.aspx This web site contains two chapters from Tomlinson's recent publication: Leadership for differentiating schools and classrooms. Part III identifies common questions and discusses implementation and staff development.k8accesscenter. Tomlinson.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED443572 To meet the needs of diverse student populations. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs.eric. (1995).

ascd. links to articles including research on educational practices including links to information on differentiated instruction are included.d).org/publications/educational-leadership/sept00/vol58/num01/-PreparingTeachers-for-Differentiated-Instruction. Teaching Every Student. (2000). the law in education.com/litined/dif_instruction/ This web site is designed for educators and uses technology to inform teachers about current practices. Web Site: for Teachers.ca/~jdurkin/edd401/Differentiated. John Durkin. Preparing Teachers for Differentiated Instruction.aspx This web site. to challenge students who may be identified as gifted as well as students who lag behind grade level.(n.org/publications/curriculum-update/winter2000/Differentiating-Instruction. rules of thumb on how to instruct.cfm?tk_id=21 257 .Willis. Educational Leadership. Preparing Teachers for Differentiated Instruction http://www. http://web.cast. H. Curriculum Update. & Mann. It also includes a listing of what differentiated instruction is and is not. as well as professional development.d. 2003. related readings. Differentiating instruction: Finding manageable ways to meet individual needs (Excerpt). Additionally. and Higher Education www.). Page links to other pages with examples from a high school and elementary school.cast. J. 2003.. from http://www. discussion. (2000). http://www.org/teachingeverystudent/ Top References CAST. It includes a diagram with suggestions for approaches to differentiated instruction. L. Retrieved September 15.ascd. The author has provided a bulleted summary regarding the principles and theories that drive differentiated instruction. 58(1). (n. provided by Educational Leadership. The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) Web Site http://www. and products. Retrieved August 19. key characteristics of a differentiated classroom. from http://www.org/teachingeverystudent/toolkits/tk_introduction. UDL Toolkits: Planning for All Learners (PAL). links the reader to a brief summary of an article by Holloway. S. benefits.uvic. process. Administrators. literature..aspx A site by ASCD (2000) which discusses differentiated instruction. More teachers are determined to reach all learners. and related links to explore. This article excerpt describes the essential components of differentiated instruction beginning with three aspects of curriculum: content.html This site is from an education course by Dr.teach-nology.ascd.org/research-a-topic/differentiated-instruction-resources.aspx Based on the concept that "one size does not fit all" the authors describe the teaching philosophy of differentiated instruction. Holloway. CAST. and management strategies.

.. 15(1). Educational Leadership 57(1). & Meyer. How the brain learns. (2001).. On the road to differentiated. 5 National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators.S. Rose. Journal of Special Education Technology.. Universal Design for Learning: Deriving guiding principles from networks that learn. A. S. Rose. L. Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning.. 1.324H between CAST and the Office of Special Education Programs. D. Ellis. Citation Cite this paper as follows: Hall. A response: Equal does not mean identical. & Meyer. (2002). Tomlinson. VA: ASCD. (2000). Tallahassee.... D. & Allan. & Meo. A.. the opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the U. This content was developed pursuant to cooperative agreement #H324H990004 under CFDA 84. Callahan. & Hall. (2001). 258 . (1994). Universal Design for Learning. T. 22-25. H.Dolan. Tomlinson. (2001). C. Oaksford. (2000). D. 8. Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation. (2nd Ed. Sethuraman. D. (2003). Universal Design for Learning: Associate Editor Column. & Meyer. Meyer. 66-67. Rose. U. G. Educational Leadership. Rose. 56. Retrieved [insert date] from http://aim. L. B. & Cooper.. However. (2000). 15(4). S.. R. P. (1998). (2000a). K. P. T. FL: Leon County Schools.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/differentiated. (2000). Department of Education or the Office of Special Education Programs and no endorsement by that office should be inferred. (2001). C. D. Universal Design for Learning: Associate Editor's Column. 16(2).. Pisha.) Alexandria. L. VA: ASCD. N. (2001).. D. MA: Brookline Books. A. K. E.. & Jones. R. 15(2).. C.S. Department of Education... A. T. Alexandria. University of Oregon: Technical Report No. 27(4)... 14-18. Reis. C. VA: ASCD. Pettig. IDA Perspectives. D. (2000b). Sizer. Universal design for individual differences. (1998).. Wakefield. A. M. S. Alexandria. Learning to read in the computer age. & Coyne. N.. 197-203. A. Leadership for differentiating schools and classrooms. 58(3). Differentiated instruction abstract. Westbert. Rose. Cambridge. Strangman. L. Kaplan. 67-70.. 22(4). S. 3. A. 26-60.. D... 39-43. MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Smart from the start: the promise of Universal Design for Learning. R. 47-51. R. & Rose. E. Journal of Special Education Technology.. How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Journal of Special Education Technology. C. Journal of Special Education Technology.. A. & Dolan..cast. Tomlinson. (2001). A.. P. Research synthesis on effective teaching principles and the design of quality tools for educators. & Meyer. and Worthington.. M. Educational Leadership. Education Leadership.. Universal Design for Learning: Implications for large-scale assessment. L.. Remedial and Special Education. Rose. No two are quite alike: Personalized learning. S.

. This can include interests relevant to the content area as well as outside interests of the student. teachers should do three things:  Use diagnostic assessments to determine student readiness.e. some of the students may learn to subtract two-digit numbers. How is it implemented? Implementation looks different for each student and each assignment. process. Differentiation of process refers to the way in which a student accesses material. and to teach skills related to the writing process. and environmental preferences (i. is a process through which teachers enhance learning by matching student characteristics to instruction and assessment. These assessments can be formal or informal. Differentiation of product refers to the way in which a student shows what he or she has learned. they do so in response to a student's readiness. One student may explore a learning center. or kinesthetic learner). grouping preferences (i. Teachers can give pre-tests. For example. & Meyer. is a process through which teachers enhance learning by matching student characteristics to instruction and assessment. question students about their background 259 . 1999).Differentiated Instruction for Writing By: The Access Center (2004) Differentiated instruction.. and outcomes that are tailored to students' needs (Hall. one student may solve a problem set. When teachers differentiate. 1999). Teachers can differentiate content. a visual. Readiness refers to the skill level and background knowledge of the child. if the classroom objective is for all students to subtract using renaming. Finally. Differentiated instruction allows all students to access the same classroom curriculum by providing entry points. learning tasks. What is differentiated instruction? Differentiated instruction. also called differentiation. auditory. and/or learning profile. but rather an approach to instruction that incorporates a variety of strategies. individual. 2003). Interest refers to topics that the student may want to explore or that will motivate the student. to demonstrate understanding of a geometric concept. Differentiation of content refers to a change in the material being learned by a student. Strangman. For example. or large group).. Differentiated instruction is not a single strategy. Writing instruction can be differentiated to allow students varying amounts of time to complete assignments. small group. Before beginning instruction. a student's learning profile includes learning style (i. while another student collects information from the web. while others may learn to subtract larger numbers in the context of word problems.e. also called differentiation.e. and/or product for students (Tomlinson. while another builds a model. tactile. interest. A teacher may differentiate based on any one of these factors or any combination of factors (Tomlinson. to give students different writing product options. lots of space or a quiet area to work).

What does it look like for writing? Writing instruction can be differentiated to allow students varying amounts of time to complete assignments. but is often informal and can include taking anecdotal notes on student progress.knowledge. Compacting involves a three-step process: (1) assess the student to determine his/her level of knowledge on the material to be studied and determine what he/she still needs to master. (2) create plans for what the student needs to know. and open-endedness.  Determine student interest. but the process and/or product are varied according to the student's level of readiness. or use KWL charts (charts that ask students to identify what they already Know. what they Want to know. Teachers incorporate different instructional strategies based on the assessed needs of their students. Compacting is the process of adjusting instruction to account for prior student mastery of learning objectives. The curricular content and objective(s) are the same. Identifying environmental preferences includes determining whether students work best in large or small groups and what environmental factors might contribute to or inhibit student learning. Learning styles can be measured using learning style inventories. This can be done by using interest inventories and/or including students in the planning process. and asking the student questions about his or her understanding of the topic. and excuse the student from studying what he/she already knows. and to teach skills related to the writing process. Teachers can ask students to tell them what specific interests they have in a particular topic. to give students different writing product options. Strategy Focus of Differentiation Definition Example Tiered Readiness assignments Tiered assignments are designed to instruct students on essential skills that are provided at different levels of complexity. a student might need to be free from distraction or have extra lighting while he or she works. For example. a student who already has that skill is asked to apply it to a variety of topics and is given instruction on writing a five-paragraph essay. Teachers can also get information about student learning styles by asking students how they learn best and by observing student activities. The results of the assessment could then be used to drive further instruction. The chart below offers a variety of strategies that can be used. Students with more advanced skills are asked to research the topic in more depth and use substantive arguments from their research to support their thesis. teachers should assess students on a regular basis. abstractness.  Identify student learning styles and environmental preferences. This assessment can be formal. examining students' work. and then teachers can try to incorporate these interests into their lessons. 260 . and (3) create plans for freed-up time to be Students with moderate writing skills are asked to write a four-paragraph persuasive essay in which they provide a thesis statement and use their own ideas to support it. Throughout a unit of study. and what they have Learned about a topic). Compacting Readiness Rather than receiving additional direct instruction on writing a five-sentence paragraph.

Readiness Learning contracts begin with an agreement Learning Profile between the teacher and the student. cutting out magazine letters to create poems. and provide examples and activities that center on a theme of interest. Choice boards can be organized so that students are required to choose options that focus on several different skills. specifies the process by which he or she will research newspaper writing and decides how to present the final product.Centers can focus on specific writing skills. Groups can either be assigned by the teacher or chosen by the students. This strategy allows students to work with a wide variety of peers and keeps them from being labeled as advanced or struggling. with support from the teacher. and allow students to choose their own groups and methods for acquiring background information on a writing topic (i. using a word processor. or dictating a poem into a tape recorder and transcribing it.spent in enriched or accelerated study. Allowing students to choose a topic can be motivating to them. other times they are placed based on interest and/or learning profile. while the student identifies methods for completing the tasks. Students can be assigned purposefully to a group or assigned randomly. watching a video or reading an article). For example. such as sports or movies. and eliminate unnecessary skill practice. The teacher specifies the necessary skills expected to be learned by the student and the required components of the assignment. Students must complete two activities from the board and must choose these activities from two different learning styles. and tactile. Readiness Choice boards are organizers that contain a Interest variety of activities. Learning Contracts A student indicates an interest in writing a newspaper article. Choice Boards Students in an elementary school class are given a choice board that contains a list of possible poetry writing activities based on the following learning styles: visual. 261 . the article could be published in the school newspaper or shared during a writer's workshop. and (3) helps students work independently. The student. Students can choose Learning Profile one or several activities to complete as they learn a skill or develop a product. The teacher may assign groups based on readiness for direct instruction on the writing process. Flexible Grouping* Readiness Students work as part of many different Interest groups depending on the task and/or Learning Profile content. This strategy (1) allows students to work at an appropriate pace. Interest Centers or Interest Groups Readiness Interest Interest centers (usually used with younger students) and interest groups (usually used with older students) are set up so that learning experiences are directed toward a specific learner interest. Examples of activities include. learn planning skills. auditory.e. such as steps in the writing process. (2) can target learning styles. Sometimes students are placed in groups based on readiness.. Interest Centers . students can work in pairs on topics of interest. Interest Groups — When writing persuasive essays. kinesthetic. * More information about grouping strategies can be found in Strategies to Improve Access to the General Education Curriculum on The Access Center website.

Differentiated Instruction for Writing. VA : ASCD.: Author.. C. (2004).Resources • Differentiated Instruction (CAST) This site contains an article by Tracy Hall at the National Center for Accessing the General Curriculum.A. T.asp Tomlinson . Retrieved July 9.org/training_resources/udl/diffinstruction..k8accesscenter. National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Strangman. 2004 from: http://www. N. Washington D. Access Center.C. A. How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms.Alexandria . & Meyer. • Strategies for Differentiating The Enhancing Learning with Technology site provides explanations for various differentiation strategies. Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation. References Hall. The article discusses differentiation as it applies to the general education classroom. (2003). 262 . (1999).

 Instructional System: An instructional system is an arrangement of resources and procedures to promote learning.1.  Instructional Design as a Discipline: Instructional Design is that branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies. evaluation. Often a glimmer of an idea is developed to give the core of an instruction situation. and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities. cognitive. Penn State University)  Instructional Design as a Process: Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. Instructional Technology = Instructional Design + Instructional Development  Instructional Development: The process of implementing the design plans. DESIGN INSTRUCŢIONAL 4. and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity. Instructional design is the systematic process of developing instructional systems and instructional development is the process of implementing the system or plan. Applied Research Laboratory. 263 . Instructional technology is the systematic application of theory and other organized knowledge to the task of instructional design and development. implementation.  Instructional Technology: Instructional technology is the systemic and systematic application of strategies and techniques derived from behavioral.Definitions of Instructional Design (Adapted from "Training and Instructional Design".  Instructional Design as a Science: Instructional design is the science of creating detailed specifications for the development. and constructivist theories to the solution of instructional problems. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs.Documentarul Nr 4. Then the entire process is written up as if it occurred in a systematic fashion. It includes development of instructional materials and activities.  Instructional Design as Reality: Instructional design can start at any point in the design process. By the time the entire process is done the designer looks back and she or he checks to see that all parts of the "science" have been taken into account.

and 5) evaluation. History Much of the foundation of the field of instructional design was laid in World War II. and to a lesser extent in the primary and secondary classroom. The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner.[3] Later in the 1980s and throughout the 1990s cognitive load theory began to find empirical support for a variety of presentation techniques. defining the end goal of instruction. Ideally the process is informed by pedagogically (process of teaching) and andragogically (adult learning) tested theories of learning and may take place in student-only. Skinner on operant conditioning. physically) and Affective (what one feels. a committee led by Benjamin Bloom published an influential taxonomy of what he termed the three domains of learning: Cognitive (what one knows or thinks). instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology.(from Wikipedia: ) Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)) is the practice of maximizing the effectiveness. 3) development. 2) design.S. training programs focused on observable behaviors.S. or what attitudes one has). Mastery was assumed to be possible for every learner. when the U. After the war.[2] During the latter half of the 20th century. The approach is still common in the U. military. given enough repetition and feedback.[4] Cognitive load theory and the design of instruction Cognitive load theory developed out of several empirical studies of learners.[5] Sweller and his associates began to measure the effects 264 . David Merrill for instance developed Component Display Theory (CDT). and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences.[1] In 1956. many instructional design theorists began to adopt an information-processingbased approach to the design of instruction. the success of the wartime training model was replicated in business and industrial training. which concentrates on the means of presenting instructional materials (presentation techniques). Drawing on the research and theories of B. These taxonomies still influence the design of instruction.F. As a field. In the 1970s. Tasks were broken down into subtasks. 4) implementation. Psychomotor (what one does. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. Training was designed to reward correct performance and remediate incorrect performance. learning theories began to be influenced by the growth of digital computers. and each subtask treated as a separate learning goal. from field-stripping a carbine to navigating across the ocean to building a bomber —see "Training Within Industry (TWI)". as they interacted with instructional materials. There are many instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the five phases: 1) analysis. military faced the need to rapidly train large numbers of people to perform complex technical tasks. teacher-led or community-based settings.

and the worked-example effect). SLD 2. other researchers like Richard Mayer began to attribute learning effects to cognitive load. human performance experts have even taken notice of cognitive load theory. LDL. Later. the split attention effect. etc. Rather than attempting to substantiate the use of media. For example.[10][11][12] In the past decade. cognitive load theory has begun to be internationally accepted[13] and begun to revolutionize how practitioners of instructional design view instruction. Nguyen and Sweller[15] published a textbook describing how Instructional Designers can promote efficient learning using evidence-based guidelines of cognitive load theory. 265 . cognitive load effects were being documented in several journals. Learning design might be defined as "the description of the teaching-learning process that takes place in a unit of learning (eg.[citation needed] The designers also use auditory and visual methods to communicate information to the learner.to late-1990s.. IMS Learning Design[20].g.[9] Mayer and his associates soon developed a Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. The technical realisations around the implementation of the concept like TELOS. redundancy effect. Recently. they think that the onscreen text should not be more than 150 words or the text should be presented in small meaningful chunks.. with instructional designers as the practitioners of this field.of working memory load.[14] Finally Clark. a course. learning design may be associated with: • • • The concept of learning design The implementation of the concept made by learning design specifications like PALO.. etc.[9] By the mid. to refocus their attention on what was most important: learning.0. and found that the format of instructional materials has a direct effect on the performance of the learners using those materials. Learning design The concept of learning design arrived in the literature of technology for education in the late nineties and early 2000s [16] with the idea that "designers and instructors need to choose for themselves the best mixture of behaviourist and constructivist learning experiences for their online courses" [17]. But the concept of learning design is probably as old as the concept of teaching. Instructional Designers use various instructional strategies to reduce cognitive load. Mayer asked the instructional design community to reassess the media debate. Sweller and his associates had discovered several learning effects related to cognitive load and the design of instruction (e.. As summarized by Britain[19]. RELOAD LD-Author. a lesson or any other designed learning event)" [18]. these cognitive load learning effects provided an empirical basis for the use of instructional strategies. and have begun to promote this theory base as the science of instruction.[6][7][8] While the media debates of the 1990s focused on the influences of media on learning.

O.(2004)And FYI. That is the area where 266 .[25] However. After you thoroughly conduct the analysis—you can then choose a model based on your findings.W. transportation planning. Analye Learners and Contexts Design – develop learning objectives. product development. architecture. task to be learned.&Carey. Rapid prototyping A sometimes utilized adaptation to the ADDIE model is in a practice known as rapid prototyping. Conduct Instructional Analysis.Instructional design models ADDIE process Perhaps the most common model used for creating instructional materials is the ADDIE Process. This acronym stands for the 5 phases contained in the model: c) Analyze – analyze learner characteristics. user experience design. Proponents suggest that through an iterative process the verification of the design documents saves time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix. etc. regardless of the analysis rigor that may have been applied up front. Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation  Implement – deliver or distribute the instructional materials  Evaluate – make sure the materials achieved the desired goals Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation Most of the current instructional design models are variations of the ADDIE process.. Develop – create instructional or training materials Design and selection of materials appropriate for learning activity.[24] In other words. Identify Instructional Goals. Develop Assessment Instruments.[21] Dick. at the heart of Instructional Design is the analysis phase.MA:Allyn&Bacon.Carey. some proponents of design prototyping assert that a sophisticated understanding of a problem is incomplete without creating and evaluating some type of prototype.Boston. J. naive. Susan Schminke fails as an instructor! Systematic Design of Instruction. This approach is not novel to the design of instruction.[21][22][23] In fact. etc. but appears in many design-related domains including software design. message design. some consider rapid prototyping to be a somewhat simplistic type of model. As this argument goes. and even counter-productive. up-front analysis is rarely sufficient to allow one to confidently select an instructional model. choose an instructional approach Write Performance Objectives. L.O. For this reason many traditional methods of instructional design are beginning to be seen as incomplete.. Develop Instructional Strategy 8.

the condition and criteria. "Components such as the instructor. delivery system. Characteristic directly related to the skill to be taught.[26] The components of the Systems Approach Model. 267 .[26] The model was originally published in 1978 by Walter Dick and Lou Carey in their book entitled The Systematic Design of Instruction. are as follows:  Identify Instructional Goal(s): goal statment describes a skill. also known as the Dick and Carey Model. knowledge or attitude(SKA) that a learner will be expected to acquire  Conduct Instructional Analysis: Identify what a learner must recall and identify what learner must be able to do to perform particular task  Analyze Learners and Contexts: General characteristic of the target audience. Analysis of Performance Setting. content. Dick and Carey made a significant contribution to the instructional design field by championing a systems view of instruction as opposed to viewing instruction as a sum of isolated parts. learning and instruction. and learning and performance environments interact with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes". (Part of Article By Chris Bressi on LinkedIn) Dick and Carey Another well-known instructional design model is The Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model. The component of an objective that describes the criteria that will be used to judge the learner's performance. materials. instructional activities. The model addresses instruction as an entire system. focusing on the interrelationship between context. learners. According to Dick and Carey.most people get snagged—they simply do not do a thorough-enough analysis. Analysis of Learning Setting  Write Performance Objectives: Objectives consists of a description of the behavior.

Esseff. and psychomotor domains – 1955 268 . PhD in their book entitled IDLS—Pro Trainer 1: How to Design. PhD and Mary Sullivan Esseff. social learning and cognitivism help shape and define the outcome of instructional materials. Develop Assessment Instruments: Purpose of entry behavior testing. as well as.net/akteacher/dick-cary-instructional-design-model Instructional Development Learning System (IDLS) Another instructional design model is the Instructional Development Learning System (IDLS). Develop. and Validate Instructional Materials.slideshare. Gabriel Ofiesh. constructivism. The components of the IDLS Model are: Design a Task Analysis Develop Criterion Tests and Performance Measures Develop Interactive Instructional Materials Validate the Interactive Instructional Materials Other models Some other useful models of instructional design include: the Smith/Ragan Model. Influential researchers and theorists Alphabetic by last name  Bloom.[26] http://www. the Morrison/Ross/Kemp Model and the OAR model. assessment  Develop and Select Instructional Materials  Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction: Designer try to identify areas of the instructional materials that are in need to improvement. a Founding Father of the Military Model mentioned above. Wiggins theory of backward design. Esseff and Esseff contributed synthesized existing theories to develop their approach to systematic design. Benjamin – Taxonomies of the cognitive. purpose of practive items/practive problems  Develop Instructional Strategy: Preinstructional activities.[27] The model was originally published in 1970 by Peter J.  Revise Instruction: To identify poor test items and to identify poor instruction  Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation With this model. Learning theories also play an important role in the design of instructional materials. components are executed iteratively and in parallel rather than linearly. "Instructional Development Learning System" (IDLS). content presentation. Theories such as behaviorism. purpose of pottesting.[28] Peter (1968) & Mary (1972) Esseff both received their doctorates in Educational Technology from the Catholic University of America under the mentorship of Dr. purpose of pretesting. affective. Learner participation.

1037/0022-0663.^ Mayer. (1987).The Instructional Designs Library: 40 Instructional Designs. David – Learning Objects. ^ Bloom's Taxonomy 3. 6. ISBN 0521-78239-2.1999-2010 Skinner.38(1):1 . Robert – Instructional Media and the new technologies of instruction 3rd ed. Cognitive Science 12 (1): 257–285. J. L. R. Lev – Learning as a social activity – 1930s Wiley. "Cognitive Load Theory and the Format of Instruction". ^ MIL-HDBK-29612/2A Instructional Systems Development/Systems Approach to Training and Education 2.^ Mayer. & Sweller. 11.88. Educational Psychologist 32 (41): 1–19. 8. – How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice – 1999 Bruner. R. "Effects of schema acquisition and rule automation on mathematical problem-solving transfer". John D. Roger – Constructivist simulations – 1990s Sweller. ^ a b Mayer. ^ Sweller. Ruth – Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load / Guided Instruction / Cognitive Load Theory Dick. A. II. J. Richard – Clark-Kosma "Media vs Methods debate". ^ Sweller. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. George – Rapid Instructional Design – 2006 Simonson.Cognitive load. Curtis – Blended learning – 2000s Bransford. Michael – Instructional Systems and Design via Distance Education – 1980s Schank. – "The Systematic Design of Instruction" Gagné. & Tapangco. (1991).. .F. Charles – Elaboration Theory. Clark. Cognition and Instruction 8 (4): 293–332. Publications Mager. doi:10. doi:10. "The use of worked examples as a substitute for problem solving in learning algebra". Mars. Bryman. J. Danny G . Alison – Instructional Design for Teachers ID4T -2010 Carey. Journal of Educational Psychology 79 (4): 347–362. doi:10.79.4. G.1037/0022-0663. Robert F.E. W. ^ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ^ Cooper..1207/s1532690xci0804_2. "Multimedia Learning: Are We Asking the Right Questions?". 9. M. Jerome – Constructivism Carr-Chellman. 10.Educational Psychologist . G. "Green Books" I. 269 . R. & Cooper. LOGO – 1970s Piaget.                        Bonk.E. doi:10. Educational Tech. doi:10.347. doi:10. Robert M.1207/s15326985ep3201_1. – "The Systematic Design of Instruction" Clark. and III . L.1207/s1532690xci0201_3.A. John . – Educational Technology – 1989 Jonassen. (2001). – Radical Behaviorism. J. & Sweller. Cognition and Instruction 2 (1): 59–89. Journal of Educational Psychology 88 (1): 64–73. David – problem-solving strategies – 1990s Langdon. Worked-example effect. (1985).1. (1997). Programed Instruction Vygotsky.Component Display Theory / Knowledge Objects Papert. "When Less Is More: Meaningful Learning From Visual and Verbal Summaries of Science Textbook Lessons". David . – ABCD model for instructional objectives – 1962 Merrill. W.. Seymour – Constructionism.64. ^ Chandler. (1996).E. "Guidance" debate. P.1016/0364-0213(88)90023-7. – Nine Events of Instruction (Gagné and Merrill Video Seminar) Heinich. Jean – Cognitive development – 1960s Piskurich. 7. Bove. "Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning". ^ TIP: Theories 4. Multimedia Learning. Split-attention effect Reigeluth. R.Citation 5. Open Learning – 2000s References 1. Inc. (1988). B.

^ Hokanson. R. 27. ISBN 0-7879-6051-9.. The evolution of American educational technology. Carey (2005) [1978]. Instructional Development Learning System (IDLS) (8th ed. & Keeps.^ Paas. G. Walter.). B.E..^ Clark. "Cognitive Load Theory: Instructional Implications of the Interaction between Information Structures and Cognitive Architecture". pp. J.C. e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning.d0. Mayer. Rapid Instructional Design: Learning ID fast and right. Renkl. 23. May 2004. (2006).17516. Bower. (2009). 25. ESF Press.12..C. 2005 (08). Handbook of human performance technology. and Mars. “The ideal online course. 15. 28.^ Esseff.com/Materials. 21–28.1007/BF02300480.. Lou Carey. and Sweller. R. 9 (1). 26. (1995).google. ISBN 1582830371.^ Britain S. R.. doi:10. doi:10. F. & Littman.2. 17.0000021806..^ Clark. 13-22. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.. 16. “Current Research in Learning Design. 1–12. (1999). “A learning design toolkit to create pedagogically effective learning activities”. July 2000.^ a b Piskurich.^ Kelley. Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load. A... 13. 20. T. & Miller. Instructional Science 32: 1–8. John 270 . and Esseff.^ Saettler. The Systematic Design of Instruction (6th ed.^ Conole G. Thomas Aquinas who discussed the perception of teachings in terms of free will. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Educational Technology. C. pp. ISBN 0205412742.^ Carr-Chellman A.^ a b c Dick. and James O.E. 31(3). 19.. 1–12. J. F. 24. R. ISBN 0-7879-7728-4. “A Review of Learning Design: Concept.. Peter J. E. P.html. The ten faces of innovation: IDEO's strategies for beating the devil's advocate & driving creativity throughout your organization. 229-241. (2006). (2004). H.1023/B:TRUC. Nguyen.” British Journal of Educational Technology. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.D. http://esfprotrainer. 14. Educational Technology Research and Development 43 (1): 31–41. K. Specifications and Tools” A report for the JISC E-learning Pedagogy Programme. 49(2). "A generative theory of textbook design: Using annotated illustrations to foster meaningful learning of science text". (1990). & Sweller.M.^ Mayer.. Steinhoff. R. Socrates and Plato regarding the cognitive basis of learning and memory was later expanded by the 13th century philosopher St. http://books. Allyn & Bacon. and Fill K. G. (2002). J.. and Duchastel P. 22.^ [1] 4.^ Stolovitch. The early contributions of thinkers such as Aristotle. Mary Sullivan (1998) [1970].). O istorie a designului instrucţional A Brief History of Instructional Design By Douglas Leigh As a formal discipline.. Role-based design: A contemporary framework for innovation and creativity in instructional design. 18.^ IMS Learning Design webpage 21. 2006.com/? id=sYQCAAAACAAJ&dq=the+systematic+design+of+instruction.” Educational Technology & Society.^ Koper R. Instructional Systems Design has been a long time in the making. (2005). Four hundred years later. New York: Doubleday.

Bloom's taxonomy was not in and of itself capable of satisfying the desire of large organizations to relate resources and processes to the performances of individuals. such as training. Though their initial incarnation did not see much use after the Depression. a behaviorist approach to educational psychology became increasingly predominant. The publication of B. F. To achieve this researchers in the military's Air Research and Development Command borrowed from Ludwig von Bertalanffy's General Systems Theory of biological interactions to integrate the operations of a wide range of departments. programmed instruction emphasizes the formulation of behavioral objectives. Another substantial instructional theorist of the 1950's was Benjamin Bloom. and educational behaviorists during the 1920's such as Sidney Pressey applied mechanized technology to increase the efficiency of the learning process. Skinner's The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching in 1954 canonized the basic behaviorist principles of S-R. The 1950's are characterized by a shift away from the uninformed application of instructional technology to the formulation of theoretical models of learning.and sub-systems (the organization as a whole. As the key element of his theory of operant conditioning. the United States' heavy investment in training and R&D was credited with the country's victory in the war. The advent of the Second World War presented a tremendous instructional dilemma: the rapid training of hundreds of thousands of military personnel. Considered by many the progenitor of contemporary instructional design. In part. cognition. Ralph Tyler's work a decade before WWII indicated that objectives were most useful to instructional developers if written in terms of desired learner behaviors. many of the lessons learned research into these teaching machines regarding the delivery of standardized instruction contributed to the instructional media research & development movement of World War II. and instruction. federal dollars followed researcher's desire to better flesh out the underpinnings of learning. intelligence. attention. feedback. as well as 271 . With the economic boom that followed. His 1956 taxonomy of intellectual behaviors provided instructors a means by which to decide how to impart instructional content to learners most effectively. While this approach provided instructional developers a means by which to match subject matter and instructional methods. military researchers developed a bevy of training films and other mediated materials for instructional purposes. Bloom endorsed instructional techniques that varied both instruction and time according to learner requirements. and staffing. the systems approach to instructional and organizational development allowed planners and policy-makers to match the content and delivery of instruction in a fashion which considered both super. Thorndike's theory of connectionism represents the original stimulus-response (S-R) model of behavioral psychology. and reinforcement. With the Industrial Revolution came an increased attention to productivity. rather than rote regurgitation of facts. at the turn of the 20th century John Dewey presented several tenets of the philosophy of education which promoted the idea that learning occurs best when married with doing. breaking instructional content into small units and rewarding correct responses early and often. the reinforcement of desired learner responses was also incorporated into Skinner's implementations of programmed instruction. and activities. Armed with this knowledge and the experience of creating standardize methods of instructional delivery using teaching machines. Advocating a mastery approach to learning. As the 1920's approached.Locke advanced Aristotle's notion of human's initial state of mental blankness by proposing that almost all reason and knowledge must be gained from experience. Combined with the Bloom's Taxonomy. Then. and was expanded on some twenty years later by Hull in his exposition of drive reduction – a motivational model of behavior which emphasizes learner's wants.

groups and individuals within the organization). These advances of Skinner, Bloom and von Bertalanffy were usually employed to develop instruction in what was only assumed to be an effective an efficient manner. The formalization of a standardized design process still had yet to be devised. Again it was a crisis that spurred the next evolution of instructional technology – a shift away from an emphasis in the development of instructional programs to one which focused on the design of entire curriculum. Again the crisis was a war, but this time the war was a political one. In 1957 the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite and began the "space race". America was taken by surprise and the government was forced to reevaluate the education system and its shortcomings. Science and math programs were the first to be targeted, and the government employed experts in these fields to bring the content up to date. In 1962 Robert Glaser synthesized the work of previous researchers and introduced the concept of "instructional design", submitting a model which links learner analysis to the design and development of instruction. Interestingly, Glaser's contribution to the current field of instructional systems is not so much in the advancement of his model, but in work concerning Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI), an approach whereby the results of a learner's placement test are used to plan learner-specific instruction. At the same time Glaser was developing his theories of instructional design and IPI, Robert Mager published his treatise on the construction of performance objectives. Mager suggested that an objective should describe in measurable terms who an objective targets, the behavior they will have exhibited, the conditions or limitations under which they must carry out this behavior, and the criteria against which their behavior will be gauged. As early as 1962 when he published "Military Training and Principles of Learning" Robert Gagné demonstrated a concern for the different levels of learning. His differentiation of psychomotor skills, verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, and attitudes provides a companion to Bloom's six cognitive domains of learning. Later, Gagné extended his thinking to include nine instructional events that detail the conditions necessary for learning to occur. These events have long since been used for the basis for the design of instruction and the selection of appropriate media. The mediation of instruction entered the computer age in the 1960's when Patrick Suppes conducted his initial investigations into computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at Stanford University. Developed through a systematic analysis of curriculum, Suppes' CAI provided learner feedback, branching, and response tracking – aspects were later incorporated into the PLATO system in the 1970's and continue guide the development of today's instructional software. By the late 1960's America was again in crisis. Not only was the country involved in another war, but the nation's schools were unable to elicit the achievement from learners it anticipated. Grant Venn argued that since only 19% of first graders complete a bachelor or arts degree, that the current educational system is only serving the advantaged minority of schoolchildren. To counter this trend Robert Morgan proposed to conduct an experiment with an "organic curriculum" which would to incorporate into the educational system the best instructional practices identified through research. Accepted in 1967 the proposal by the US Office of Education, the project was dubbed "Educational Systems for the 1970's", or ES'70. Morgan engaged an array of experts in the field of

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learning, cognition, and instructional design to contribute to the project and carried out multiple experiments in a variety of settings. Of these was Leslie Briggs, who had demonstrated that an instructionally designed course could yield up to 2:1 increase over conventionally designed courses in terms of achievement, reduction in variance, and reduction of time-to-completion – this effect was four times that of the control group which received no training. In 1970, Morgan partnered with the Florida Research and Development Advisory Board to conduct a nation-wide educational reform project in South Korea. Faced with the task of increasing the achievement of learners while at the same time reducing the cost of schooling from $41.27 per student per year Morgan applied some of the same techniques as had been piloted in the ES'70 project and achieved striking results: an increase in student achievement, a more efficient organization of instructors and course content, an increased teacher to student ratio, a reduction in salary cost, and a reduction in yearly per student cost by $9.80. Around this time Roger Kaufman developed a problem-solving framework for educational strategic planning which provided practitioners a means by which to demonstrate value-added not only for the learner, but the school system and society as a whole. This framework provided the basis for the Organizational Elements Model (OEM), a needs assessment model which specifies results to be achieved at societal, organizational, and individual performance levels. By rigorously defining needs as gaps in results Kaufman emphasized that performance improvement interventions can not demonstrate return-on-investment unless those interventions were derived from the requirements of these three primary clients and beneficiaries of organizational action. This approach to needs assessment and strategic planning has since been used across the world as the foundation for planning, evaluation, and continuous improvement in military, business, and educational settings. A variety of models for instructional system design proliferated the late 1970's and early 80's: Gagné and Briggs, Branson, Dick and Carey, and Atkins, to name a few. One possible reason for this phenomenon deals with the establishment of formal education and training departments within both public and private organizations. Faced with the computerized technologies of the times, these organizations require a means by which to quickly develop appropriate methods by which to educate internal employees in the new business practices ushered into existence by the Information Age. Another explanation is that businesses, especially consulting organizations, are becoming increasingly required to demonstrate value-added not only to their organization, but to the clients they serve. The evaluation and continuous improvement components of contemporary models of ISD make far strides from the early develop-and-implement models of the middle of the century in this aspect. In the 1990's a dual focus on technology and performance improvement has developed. For example, in his 1988 essay "Why the Schools Can't Improve: The Upper Limit Hypothesis" Robert Branson offers an argument for systemic school reform, suggesting that schools are operating at near peak efficiency and must be redesigned from the top down using technological interventions. Later in that year Branson was contracted by the Florida Department of Education (DOE) to analyze it's various programs and plan a system-wide technology-based educational reform initiative for Florida called Schoolyear 2000. Over the next several years Branson's team developed and piloted multiple computerized instructional technologies, as well as models of the interaction between the internal operations of the school system and the experiences and knowledge of students, parents, and teachers.

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Developments in performance improvement outside ISD during the 1990's such as Quality Management (QM), Organizational Engineering, and Change Management have required that instructional designers look outside their profession to demonstrate the utility of their practice. Introduced earlier by Deming, QM has swept public and private organizations alike in the 90's. Whereas initially thought of in terms of "quality control" or "zero defects", quality practices have evolved into tools for organizational continuous improvement. Similarly, instructional designers in the 90's often work alongside authorities in the field of organizational engineering. Characterized by a concern for an organization's culture and interaction between groups, organizational engineering seeks to improve organizations through the identification of relationships between an organization's vision, mission, goals, methods and personnel. Similarly, change management has become a business in and of itself, with leaders such as Darly Conner and Joel Barker pioneering methods for and models of organizational change. The advent of new media, such as the Internet and hypermedia, has brought about not only technological innovations, but also coupled these with new ways of approaching learning and instruction. As opposed to the behavioralist perspective that emphasizes learning objectives, the constructivist approach holds that learners construct their understanding of reality from interpretations of their experiences. Theorists such as Thomas Duffy and Seymour Papert suggest that constructivism provides a model whereby socio-cultural and cognitive issues regarding the design of learning environments can be supported by computer tools. This philosophy has been applied to such computerized technologies as online help systems and programming language LOGO. In the future, instructional designers are likely to choose one of two paths: specialist or generalist. In the prior path, designers will focus on one aspect of learning or instruction and act as consultants or subject matter experts, whether internal or external to the organization. The other approach is one more aligned with managerial activities. Since the field is becoming too broad for most designers to work with authority in all matters, this option allows practitioners to oversee the development of instructional projects, rather than narrow their efforts exclusively on assessment, analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation or continuous improvement. References
Boling, E. (1996). Instructional Technology Foundations I: Historical Timelines Project Page [Online]. Available: http://education.indiana.edu/~istcore/r511/datelist.html [1998, June 7]. Kearsley, G. (1994). Learning & Instruction: The TIP Database [Online]. Available: http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/educ/tip/1.htm [1998, June 7]. Reiser, R. A. (1987). Instructional Technology: A History. In R. M. Gagné (ed.), Instructional Technology: Foundations (pp. 11 - 40). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Shrock, S. A. (No date). A Brief History of Instructional Development [Online].Available: http://uttcmed.utb.edu/6320/chapters/summary_ch2.html [1998, June 7].

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4.3. Gagne’s Conditions of Learning Theory
A) Description Although Gagne’s theoretical framework covers many aspects of learning, "the focus of the theory is on intellectual skills" (Kearsley, 1994a). Gagne’s theory is very prescriptive. In its original formulation, special attention was given to military training (Gagne 1962, as cited in Kearsley, 1994a). In this theory, five major types of learning levels are identified:
• • • • •

verbal information intellectual skills cognitive strategies motor skills attitudes

The importance behind the above system of classification is that each learning level requires "different internal and external conditions" (Kearsley 1994a) i.e., each learning level requires different types of instruction. Kearsley provides the following example: for cognitive strategies to be learned, there must be a chance to practice developing new solutions to problems; to learn attitudes, the learner must be exposed to a credible role model or persuasive arguments. Gagne also contends that learning tasks for intellectual skills can be organized in a hierarchy according to complexity: • • • • • • • • stimulus recognition response generation procedure following use of terminology discriminations concept formation rule application problem solving

The primary significance of this hierarchy is to provide direction for instructors so that they can "identify prerequisites that should be completed to facilitate learning at each level" (Kearsley 1994a). This learning hierarchy also provides a basis for sequencing instruction. Gagne outlines the following nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes (as cited in Kearsley 1994a):
   

gaining attention (reception) informing learners of the objective (expectancy) stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval) presenting the stimulus (selective perception)

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    

providing learning guidance (semantic encoding) eliciting performance (responding) providing feedback (reinforcement) assessing performance (retrieval) enhancing retention and transfer (generalization)

B) Practical Application Gagne’s nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes can serve as the basis for designing instruction and selecting appropriate media (Gagne, Briggs & Wager, 1992, as cited in Kearsley 1994a). In applying these instructional events, Kearsley (1994a) suggests keeping the following principles in mind:
• • •

Learning hierarchies define a sequence of instruction. Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to be learned. Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes.

EXAMPLE The following example applies Gagne's nine instructional events:
• •

Instructional Objective: Recognize an equilateral triangle (example from Kearsley 1994a). Methodology:

Gain attention - show a variety of computer generated triangles Identify objective - pose question: "What is an equilateral triangle?" Recall prior learning - review definitions of triangles Present stimulus - give definition of equilateral triangle Guide learning - show example of how to create equilateral Elicit performance - ask students to create 5 different examples Provide feedback - check all examples as correct/incorrect Assess performance - provide scores and remediation Enhance retention/transfer - show pictures of objects and ask students to identify equilateral triangles. C) Related Theories, Pedagogical Practices and Practical Web-Design Strategies

Provide a variety of learning activities. Instructional designers should anticipate and accommodate alternate learning styles by "systematically varying teaching and assessment methods to reach every student" (Sternberg 1994, as cited in Ross-Gordon 1998, 227). They should also provide alternate offline materials and activities, as well as, present "alternate points of view and interpretations" (Fahy 1999, 237) so that the learner is free to "[criss-cross] the intellectual landscape of the content domain by looking at it from multiple perspectives or through multiple themes" (Jonassen et al., 1997, 122). Use Bloom’s "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives for the Cognitive Domain" to increase retention. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives for the Cognitive

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Domain (1956, as cited in Fahy 1999, 42-43) is similar to Gagne’s hierarchy of intellectual skills. Bloom outlines the following cognitive activities organized from least to greater complexity: - knowledge - comprehension - application - analysis - synthesis - evaluation (making judgements) In the following example, Bloom’s taxonomy is used to illustrate different objectives related to learning objectives for studying nails (Fahy 1999, 43): Knowledge – Know enough about nails to be able to explain what they are and what they are used for. Be able to recognize a nail as a fastening device from a nonfastening devices. Comprehension – Be able to identify a nail and distinguish it from other fastening devices. Application – Be able to use a nail to fasten something competently, and actually do so. Analysis – Be able to determine what kind of nail and nailing technique would be required for most effective use of the device for a specific purpose. Synthesis – Be able to compare nails to other fastening devices, and to compare various types of nails and nailing techniques for their specific qualities and characteristics in specific situations. Evaluation – Be able to assess examples of the use of nails for fastening, and different nailing techniques, and to pass judgement as to which were more effective, more artistic, more secure, more skillful, more workman like, etc.

4.4. Carroll’s Minimalist Theory
A) Description The Minimalist theory of J.M. Carroll focuses on the instructional design of training materials for computer users and has been "extensively applied to the design of computer documentation" (e.g., Nowaczyk & James, 1993, van der Meij, & Carroll, 1995, as cited in Kearsley 1994d). It is based upon studies of people learning a wide range of computer applications including word processors and databases.

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Minimize the amount of reading and other passive forms of training by allowing users to fill in the gaps themselves Include error recognition and recovery activities in the instruction Make all learning activities self-contained and independent of sequence. Applying the principles of Carroll's Minimalist theory. EXAMPLE 1 The following is an example of a guided exploration approach to learning how to use a word processor (Carroll 1990. (b) "The Windex Index" image banner runs a lake ripple Java applet which is highly distracting. (c) the lake ripple Java applet significantly increases the time it takes to download the page. Learners should be given realistic projects as quickly as possible. as cited in Kearsley 1994d). as cited in Kearsley 1994d). should exploit the learner's prior experience and knowledge. Training materials and activities should provide for error recognition and use errors as learning opportunities. users learned the task in about half the time with the cards. Kearsley reports that "in an experiment that compared the use of the cards versus the manual. Kearsley (1994d) recommends the following: • • • • Allow learners to start immediately on meaningful tasks.daci. a 94-page training manual is replaced by 25 cards. The cards do not provide complete step-by-step specifications but only key ideas or hints about what to do. This page however has four serious design flaws: (a) the banners occupy too much valuable space at the top of the screen.net. Each card is self contained and includes a meaningful task and error recognition information.As Kearsley (1994d) explains. Instruction should permit self-directed reasoning and improvising. (d) the 278 . chapter 5. There should be a close linkage between training and the actual system because "new users are always learning computer methods in the context of specific preexisting goals and expectations" (Carroll 1990. B) Practical Application In applying Carroll’s Minimalist theory. this theory suggests that: All learning activities should be meaningful and self-contained. Activities The critical idea behind Carroll's Minimalist theory is that course designers must "minimize the extent to which instructional materials obstruct learning and focus the design on activities that support learner-directed activity and accomplishment" (Kearsley 1994d). This site allows software developers to submit shareware and freeware to be stored in their database." EXAMPLE 2 The following example illustrates the redesign of a Web page using Carroll’s Minimalist theory and other related web design strategies:  Problem: Below is a screen shot of The WINDeX Search Engine located at http://windex.

Considering this advice. Keep frames simple and be consistent in design of text. Guay (1995. Similarly. as cited in Fahy 1999. as cited in Fahy 1999. important information should be kept on the top of the page. This [problem can be solved] by combining all of the pages into a single document that is labeled as such" (Jones and • • 279 . Furthermore. they immediately scan for interesting and important information. C) Related Theories. the banners should be designed to occupy less space and the user input forms should be moved up higher so users don't have to scroll as much. Research on the Web suggests that "users do not like to scroll" (Nielsen 1996. Pedagogical Practices and Practical Web-Design Strategies • Keep important information at the top of the page.white text on a blue background is difficult to read. 243). white and black Solution: (a) Carroll advises that learners should be allowed to start right away on meaningful tasks. graphics and sound to limit cognitive overload.4 modem. 191). multimedia components should be used "to reinforce rather than distract from learning. Gillani & Relan (1997) advise that frames should be kept simple and be consistent in design of text. especially considering that the site uses four colors for text: red." Keep pages short so learners don’t have to scroll." West also estimates that readers give only between 7 and 15 seconds to assess the probable usefulness of a site before leaving it. such as the "redesign notice" should also be removed or shrunk in size. Jones and Farquhar (1997) advise that in web-design. 236 maintain that "simplicity and consistency eliminates cognitive overload. He also recommends that graphics and other enhancements should "never obscure the central message of the page" (p." Content that is not essential. Considering this advice. but take up too much of the immediate viewable space to be considered instructionally useful (Jones and Farquhar 1997). the ripple effect distracts from the content of the site and is just plain "annoying. Large graphics at the top of a page may be aesthetically pleasing. Simiarly Gillani & Relan 1997. 191) agrees with this and advises that "each page should fit on the screen without scrolling. as cited in Jones & Farquhar 1997. or download the entire contents of a group of pages. Furthermore. Guay (1995. blue. When learners come to a page. the Java applet should be removed as it greatly increases the time to download the entire page without adding to its usability." West (1998. Jones and Farquhar (1997) advise that background to a display should not compete with or obscure the text. to improve this web page. the range of text colors should be reduced and a more suitable background chosen to improve readability. to improve the design of this web page. It should be noted that "the problem with making pages short is that people may choose to print out certain pieces of information. graphics and sound to limit cognitive overload. 192) similarly advises that "the requirement for the user to scroll down in Web-based documents should be kept to a minimum. as many users will not scroll more than 3 times before abandoning a site." Thus. Good web-design demands that you give your learners the information they want right away and in a hurry. (b) (c) (d) Carroll advises that web-design should minimize the extent to which instructional materials obstruct learning. 191). Guay advises that "cognitive bandwidth should be minimized to ensure users easily and accurately grasp the message" (as cited in Fahy 1999. as cited in Fahy 1999) advises that Web pages should reduce clutter and download in 30 seconds or less with a 14.

In support of this. Screen excess information. helping students memorize factual data to be regurgitated on mandated. as Carroll recommends. as cited in Szabo 1998. Guay (1995 as cited in Fahy 1999. 192) recommends that "each page should be uncluttered. audio and visual stimuli would arrive at the central nervous system simultaneously.4 modem. and lead to poorer retention of material (Broadbent 1958. Both for development and maintenance. Dede (1996. Only one person should have site maintenance responsibilities. Keep effects simple. and video to make sure that these files do not slow down the site too much." Pages should download in 30 seconds or less with 14. Commercial graphics tools such as Adobe ImageReady 2. but filtering a plethora of incoming information. Test any outside links regularly. 32). Get feedback from users. Map out the whole site.pdf files. Guay also suggests that tagging graphics (in HTML) with vertical and horizontal size can speed download. "teachers [must] frantically race through required material. Strive for quality not quantity. 1997. Everything on your site should work now. 32). Special consideration should be given to logos. and balanced. standardized tests. Don’t attempt to do everything at once. And pay attention to it." He adds that as we increasingly are required to dive into a sea of information we must master the ability to immerse ourselves in data "to harvest patterns of knowledge just as fish extract oxygen from water via their gills" (p. Structure materials as topical modules. 243). audio. as cited in Szabo 1998. • Keep pages uncluttered by extracting unnecessary elements. readable. 280 . Broadbents’ theory of single-channel processing states that "humans are capable of processing information through only one channel at a time and that it is not possible to process two channels simultaneously"(Hsia 1968.Farquar. causing the information to jam. Don’t post any part of a site while it is still under construction. 196-197) gives the following advice for the planning and management of Web-based resources: Design small. Plan for growth. A print button can be provided so that users can eaisly print longer material for off-screen reading. If this were to happen. as cited in Fahy 1999." Dede also advises that "the core skill for today’s workplace is not foraging for date. • • • • Make what you have effective. banners. Instead of "under construction. Anticipate and direct it. must reduce excess information and allow learners to fill in the gaps. 191). 6). Give only one person edit privileges. 422). Good design. Rockley (1997. Guay advises that "physical bandwidth should be minimized to ensure acceptable access and response times" (1995 as cited in Fahy 1999. . This "simplifies selective reuse of course materials" (Butler 1997. Assure effects ADD to the message/content. Don’t’ link to sites which do not appear to be will maintained or stable.0 can also reduce graphics size by among other things reducing the color pallet. 13) maintains that the curriculum is "overcrowded with low-level information" and as a result. then add to it. put up announcements of the expected availability of "coming" or "new" features.

identified three domains of educational activities: • • • Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge) Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills) Since the work was produced by higher education. and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. and Attitude). Domains can be thought of as categories. but none for the psychomotor domain. Quote prices from 281 . Their explanation for this oversight was that they have little experience in teaching manual skills within the college level (I guess they never thought to check with their sports or drama departments). Category Knowledge: Recall data or information. That is. Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Recite a policy. However.4. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts. The committee also produced an elaborate compilation for the cognitive and affective domains. after a learning episode. procedural patterns. Trainers often refer to these three categories as KSA (Knowledge.” That is. the learner should have acquired new skills. This taxonomy of learning behaviors can be thought of as “the goals of the learning process. starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. led by Benjamin Bloom (1956). Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains The Three Types of Learning There is more than one type of learning. This compilation divides the three domains into subdivisions. starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. the first ones must normally be mastered before the next ones can take place. knowledge. Skills.5. the words tend to be a little bigger than we normally use. There are six major categories. 1956) involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. The divisions outlined are not absolutes and there are other systems or hierarchies that have been devised in the educational and training world. A committee of colleges. which are listed in order below. and/or attitudes. Cognitive Domain The cognitive domain (Bloom. The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. Bloom's taxonomy is easily understood and is probably the most widely applied one in use today.

composes. uses. shows. 282 . writes. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet. solves. relates. contrasts. tells. constructs.memory to a customer. separates. operates. relates. Knows the safety rules. outlines. modifies. discovers. relates. Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. computes. rewrites. interprets. distinguishes. breaks down. changes. devises. predicts. converts. Revises and process to improve the outcome. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training. reorganizes. translates. Key Words: applies. paraphrases. summarizes. with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. prepares. describes. distinguishes. differentiates. summarizes. discriminates. Examples: Select the most effective solution. Put parts together to form a whole. states. Explain in one's own words the steps for performing a complex task. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test. deconstructs. matches. Key Words: categorizes. revises. creates. generalizes. Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. generates. explains. rewrites. interpolation. names. recalls. compares. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. demonstrates. illustrates. diagrams. extends. reconstructs. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. labels. knows. Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Design a machine to perform a specific task. translation. Key Words: analyzes. Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. recognizes. Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. outlines. organizes. lists. Explain and Comprehension: Understand the meaning. Key Words: defines. infers. selects. modifies. combines. Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. gives an example. produces. reproduces. plans. explains. compiles. Hire the most qualified candidate. and interpretation of instructions and problems. infers. Key Words: comprehends. selects. identifies. Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee's vacation time. identifies. Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials. State a problem in one's own words. designs. estimates. predicts. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. rearranges. defends. manipulates.

Examples: Demonstrates belief in the democratic process. Receiving Phenomena: Awareness. studies. conforms. models. differentiates. practices. and attitudes. chooses. phenomenon. aids. describes. Key Words: answers. initiates. Bloom. while clues to these values are expressed in the learner's overt behavior and are often identifiable. defends. writes. reports. tells. joins. Examples: Participates in class discussions. reads. or satisfaction in responding (motivation). Key Words: completes. or behavior. uses. Proposes a plan to social improvement and follows through with commitment. recites. Shows the ability to solve problems. identifies. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people. Know the safety rules and practices them. follows. motivations. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding. in order to fully understand them. Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object. locates. appreciation. values. discusses. selects. critiques. 1973) includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally. Questions new ideals. summarizes. justifies. greets. The five major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex: Category Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Listen to others with respect. contrasts. reports. Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon. compares. assists. labels. selects. discriminates. relates. Is sensitive towards individual and cultural differences (value diversity). Affective Domain The affective domain (Krathwohl. works. willingness to hear. names. evaluates. performs. justifies. describes. replies.justify a new budget. Responding to Phenomena: Active participation on the part of the learners. concepts. selects. selected attention. enthusiasms. presents. Informs management on matters that one feels strongly about. explains. sits. concludes. Key Words: appraises. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values. 283 . complies. Masia. follows. demonstrates. such as feelings. Key Words: asks. proposes. interprets. erects. forms. points to. Gives a presentation. invites. gives. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. willingness to respond. etc. criticizes. helps. supports. holds. shares. explains. reads.

Revises judgments and changes behavior in light of new evidence. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal. compares. verifies. Examples: Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. qualifies. identifies. coordination. Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then moving to the correct location to catch the ball. modifies. Explains the role of systematic planning in solving problems. interests. relating. and use of the motor-skill areas. revises. completes. listens. through cue selection. Psychomotor Domain The psychomotor domain (Simpson. not how they look. Displays a professional commitment to ethical practice on a daily basis. and beliefs. Internalizing values (characterization): Has a value system that controls their behavior. procedures. characteristic of the learner. Values people for what they are. combines. arranges. and creating an unique value system. or techniques in execution. defends. family. Examples: Shows self-reliance when working independently. generalizes. Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Detects non-verbal communication cues.Organization: Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values. serves. and synthesizing values. and most importantly. This ranges from sensory stimulation. distance. formulates. Accepts professional ethical standards. emotional). alters. prepares. Cooperates in group activities (displays teamwork). synthesizes. modifies. consistent. precision. to translation. Prioritizes time effectively to meet the needs of the organization. displays. and self. The emphasis is on comparing. resolving conflicts between them. organizes. orders. influences. social. integrates. 1972) includes physical movement. explains. Adjusts heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste of food. The seven major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex: Category Perception: The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where 284 . The behavior is pervasive. discriminates. Key Words: acts. proposes. Creates a life plan in harmony with abilities. relates. performs. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed. Key Words: adheres. Uses an objective approach in problem solving. practices. predictable. questions. solves. Accepts responsibility for one's behavior.

fastens. NOTE: This subdivision of Psychomotor is closely related with the “Responding to phenomena” subdivision of the Affective domain. displays. distinguishes. identifies. but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker. Responds hand-signals of instructor while learning to operate a forklift. and emotional sets. It includes mental. builds. mixes. follows. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. and automatic performance. Shows desire to learn a new process (motivation). Key Words: assembles. isolates. Set: Readiness to act. shows. differentiates. manipulates. measures. more accurate. heats. Repair a leaking faucet. Proficiency is indicated by a quick. sketches. better. responds Mechanism: This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. fastens. Examples: Knows and acts upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process. dismantles. Examples: Use a personal computer. displays. organizes. describes. because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. Displays competence while playing the piano. Complex Overt Response: The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tight parallel parking spot. fixes. constructs. etc. reproduce. detects. explains. For example. sketches. players are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football. Follows instructions to build a model. mixes. Drive a car. reacts. organizes. volunteers. manipulates. and highly coordinated performance. displays. selects. relates. Key Words: chooses. constructs. physical. dismantles. heats. Key Words: copies. Guided Response: The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. react. grinds. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency.the forks are in relation to the pallet. requiring a minimum of energy. moves. This category includes performing without hesitation. mends. calibrates. 285 . grinds. Key Words: assembles. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person's response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets). traces. calibrates. fixes. measures. Examples: Performs a mathematical equation as demonstrated. accurate. Key Words: begins. NOTE: The Key Words are the same as Mechanism. Recognize one's abilities and limitations. Operates a computer quickly and accurately. proceeds. mends. states.

Key Words: adapts. Modifies instruction to meet the needs of the learners. composes. creates. 286 . makes. Key Words: arranges. varies. rearranges. originates. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills. reorganizes. Examples: Responds effectively to unexpected experiences. combines. builds. changes. Perform a task with a machine that it was not originally intended to do (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task). alters. constructs. Develops a new and comprehensive training programming. designs. Creates a new gymnastic routine. Origination: Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem.Adaptation: Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements. revises. initiate. Examples: Constructs a new theory.

Bloom’s CognitiveDomain 287 .

6. Instructional Design & Learning Theory 288 .4.

The Basics of Behaviorism 2. I have included some of those thoughts as asides within the main body of text. It was out of this feeling of cognitive dissonance that this site was born. The Basics of Cognitivism 3. it was difficult to know when and where to draw the line. Why does it seem so difficult to differentiate between three basic theories of learning? Why do the names of theorists appear connected to more than one theory? Why do the terms and strategies of each theory overlap? The need for answers to these questions sparked my investigation into the available literature on learning theories and their implications for instructional design. many parallels with the development of other theories in sciences. Besides behaviorism. because I know more now than I did when I began. semiotics. there were ideas and lists that I would wish to add to my writing. When I stopped finding new information. Reading about the development of learning theories and their connection to instructional design evoked.Brenda Mergel Educational Communications and Technology University of Saskatchewan May. for me. The main sections of this site are as follows: What are Theories and Models? The Basics of the Learning Theories 1. The Basics of Constructivism The History of Learning Theories in Instructional Design 1. I began to write. Perhaps in further development of this site I will change and refine my presentation. but I decided that a clear understanding of the basic learning theories would be best. I want to start over and make it even better. The writing process was a learning experience for me and now that I have finished. cognitivism and constructivism one could discuss such topics as connoisseurship. I found many articles and internet sites that dealt with learning theory and ID. Cognitivism and Instructional Design 3. and contextualism. and the articles were reaffirming what I had already read. Constructivism and Instructional Design Comparing The Development of Learning Theories to the Development of the Atomic Theory 289 . Every time I reread an article. in fact. Behaviorism and Instructional Design 2. 1998 Introduction: To students of instructional design the introduction and subsequent "sorting out" of the various learning theories and associated instructional design strategies can be somewhat confusing.

Cognitivism and Constructivism . Changes in behavior are observed. 1990) Behaviorism. Cognitivism: Based on the thought process behind the behavior. 4. (Dorin. A model is a mental picture that helps us understand something we cannot see or experience directly. through individual experiences and schema. (Schuman. Other philosophers that 290 . A theory explains and predicts behavior. Constructivism focuses on preparing the learner to problem solve in ambiguous situations. Constructivism: Based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world. and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learner's mind. A theory can never be established beyond all doubt. 1990) • What is a model? 1.The Basics Behaviorism: Based on observable changes in behavior.Some Strengths and Weaknesses Is There One Best Learning Theory for Instructional Design? Conclusion References and Bibliography What are Theories and Models? • What is a theory? 1. whose essay "Memory" focused on associations being made between events such as lightning and thunder. A theory provides a general explanation for observations made over time. (Dorin. 2. 3. 1996) The Basics of Behaviorism Behaviorism. as a learning theory. can be traced back to Aristotle. A theory may be modified.Learning Theories and the Practice of Instructional Design Learning Theories . Demmin & Gabel. Theories seldom have to be thrown out completely if thoroughly tested but sometimes a theory may be widely accepted for a long time and later disproved. Demmin & Gabel. Behaviorism focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic. 5.

Bain (1855) and Ebbinghause (1885) (Black. Learning takes place when the bonds are formed into patterns of behavior (Saettler. 1990). The "law of readiness" : because of the structure of the nervous system. It views the mind as a "black box" in the sense that response to stimulus can be observed quantitatively. He believed that a neural bond would be established between the stimulus and response when the response was positive.followed Aristotle's thoughts are Hobbs (1650). Watson believed that humans are born with a few reflexes and the emotional reactions of love and rage. as cited in Rizo. Some key players in the development of the behaviorist theory were Pavlov. the law of exercise also had to be updated when Thorndike found that practice without feedback does not necessarily enhance performance. Watson (1878 . Watson was the first American psychologist to use Pavlov's ideas. The theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study of overt behaviors that can be observed and measured (Good & Brophy. in a given situation. Hume (1740). Watson's Experiment 291 . As with the law of effect. His theory. Watson. and that some seemingly pleasurable consequences do not necessarily motivate performance. totally ignoring the possibility of thought processes occurring in the mind. Thorndike (1874 . but later became involved in the study of human behavior. 1991). Brown (1820).1958) John B. Like Thorndike. Thorndike later revised this "law" when he found that negative reward. The "law of exercise" held that the more an S-R (stimulus response) bond is practiced the stronger it will become. stated that learning was the formation of a connection between stimulus and response. "Anything that exists. Connectionism. Thorndike's laws were based on the stimulus-response hypothesis. Thorndike and Skinner. (punishment) did not necessarily weaken bonds. he was originally involved in animal research. exists in a certain quantity and can be measured" (Johcich. He set out to apply "the methods of exact science" to educational problems by emphasizing "accurate quantitative treatment of information". are more predisposed to conduct than others. The "law of effect" stated that when a connection between a stimulus and response is positively rewarded it will be strengthened and when it is negatively rewarded it will be weakened. certain conduction units. 1995).1949) Edward Thorndike did research in animal behavior before becoming interested in human psychology. All other behavior is established through stimulus-response associations through conditioning. 1990).

Skinner believed in the stimulus-response pattern of conditioned behavior. Watson and Thorndike. (Harris. ignoring the possibility of any processes occurring in the mind. The fear was generalized to other small animals. (1953) in which he pointed out how the principles of operant conditioning function in social institutions such as government. 1980. 1994). is about a utopian society based on operant conditioning. He also wrote. 1979. in Brophy. His theory dealt with changes in observable behavior. Skinner's 1948 book. Difference between Classical and Operant Conditioning Skinner's Operant Conditioning Mechanisms 292 .1990) Like Pavlov. (Watson is credited with coining the term "behaviorism") Skinner (1904 . Albert was unafraid of the rat. Because Albert was frightened by the loud noise. This may explain certain fears. Samelson. his work did demonstrate the role of conditioning in the development of emotional responses to certain stimuli.Watson demonstrated classical conditioning in an experiment involving a young child (Albert) and a white rat. phobias and prejudices that people develop. Walden Two .Science and Human Behavior. he soon became conditioned to fear and avoid the rat. economics and education (Dembo. Skinner's work differs from that of his predecessors (classical conditioning). but Watson created a sudden loud noise whenever Albert touched the rat. however. Watson then "extinguished" the fear by presenting the rat without the loud noise. 1990) Certainly Watson's research methods would be questioned today. Originally. religion. Some accounts of the study suggest that the conditioned fear was more powerful and permanent than it really was. in that he studied operant behavior (voluntary behaviors used in operating on the environment). law.

1990) Skinner and Behavioral Shaping If placed in a cage an animal may take a very long time to figure out that pressing a lever will produce food. and finally for pawing the lever. Variable Interval Schedules: similar to fixed interval schedules. for brushing against the lever. Reinforcement Schedules Once the desired behavioral response is accomplished. (Ignoring student misbehavior should extinguish that behavior. Behavioral chaining occurs when a succession of steps need to be learned.)  Punishment: Responses that bring painful or undesirable consequences will be suppressed. (Good grades reinforce careful study. reinforcement does not have to be 100%. variable ratio schedules produce steadier and more persistent rates of response because the learners cannot predict when the reinforcement will come although they know that they will eventually succeed. Variable Ratio Schedules: the number of correct repetitions of the correct response for reinforcement varies. Fixed Ratio Schedules: a fixed number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement may recur. Partial reinforcement schedules include interval schedules and ratio schedules. • • • • Fixed Interval Schedules: the target response is reinforced after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement. then for moving toward the lever. (Penalizing late students by withdrawing privileges should stop their lateness. To begin shaping. Positive Reinforcement or reward: Responses that are rewarded are likely to be repeated. (Being excused from writing a final because of good term work.)  Extinction or Non-Reinforcement : Responses that are not reinforced are not likely to be repeated. but the amount of time that must pass between reinforcement varies. Variable interval and especially. To accomplish such behavior successive approximations of the behavior are rewarded until the animal learns the association between the lever and the food reward.)  Negative Reinforcement: Responses that allow escape from painful or undesirable situations are likely to be repeated. the animal may be rewarded for simply turning in the direction of the lever. The animal would master each step in sequence until the entire sequence is learned. in fact it can be maintained more successfully through what Skinner referred to as partial reinforcement schedules.) (Good & Brophy. but may reappear if reinforcement contingencies change. 293 .

1994). the rats did not bother to try a certain path because they "knew" that it led to the blocked path.sensory input that is important or interesting is transferred from the sensory register to the STM. Short-Term Memory (STM) . They also acknowledge the importance of reinforcement. What is Cognitivism? "Cognitive theorists recognize that much learning involves associations established through contiguity and repetition.input first enters a sensory register. although they stress its role in providing feedback about the correctness of responses over its role as a motivator. STM capacity can be increased if material is chunked into meaningful parts. Piaget's ideas did not impact North America until the 1960's after Miller and Bruner founded the Harvard Center for Cognitive studies. One of the major players in the development of cognitivism is Jean Piaget. Plato and Aristotle. Much of the information never reaches short term memory but all information is monitored at some level and acted upon if necessary. Sensory Register . As with behaviorism. Short-term memory can hold up to 7 plus or minus 2 items. they may model new behavior days or weeks after their first initial observation without having been reinforced for the behavior. extended or altered to accommodate new information. They stated in their 1963 book.receives input from senses which lasts from less than a second to four seconds and then disappears through decay or replacement. Visually. Bandura and Walters departed from the traditional operant conditioning explanation that the child must perform and receive reinforcement before being able to learn. cognitive theorists view learning as involving the acquisition or reorganization of the cognitive structures through which humans process and store information.An internal knowledge structure. Schema may be combined. When he closed off a certain portion of the maze. who developed the major aspects of his theory as early as the 1920's. 294 .The Basics of Cognitivism As early as the 1920's people began to find limitations in the behaviorist approach to understanding learning. For example. 1990. 187). that an individual could model behavior by observing the behavior of another person. then is processed in short-term memory. pp. Memory can be retained here for up to 20 seconds or more if rehearsed repeatedly. children do not imitate all behavior that has been reinforced. The cognitive revolution became evident in American psychology during the 1950's (Saettler. Behaviorists were unable to explain certain social behaviors. Because of these observations. However. New information is compared to existing cognitive structures called "schema". the rats could not see that the path would result in failure. Key Concepts of Cognitive Theory Schema . yet they chose to take a longer route that they knew would be successful (Operant Conditioning [On-line]). Three-Stage Information Processing Model . and then is transferred to long-term memory for storage and retrieval. cognitive psychology can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. Furthermore. This theory lead to Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (Dembo. even while accepting such behavioristic concepts." (Good and Brophy. 1990). Social Learning and Personality Development. Edward Tolman found that rats used in an experiment appeared to have a mental map of the maze he was using.

Practicing or rehearsing improves retention especially when it is distributed practice. 1972." (Jonasson. 1990) The more deeply a word is process the easier it will be to remember. 1975. Some materials are "forced" into LTM by rote memorization and over learning.When a learner categorizes input such as a grocery list. in Good and Brophy. Organization Effects . They are not simply outlines of the material. Meaningful Effects .Occurs when prior learning interferes with the learning of new material. If each person has their own view about reality. in Good and Brophy. Transfer Effects. it is easier to remember. 1991). mental structures.Words may be processed at a low-level sensory analysis of their physical characteristics to high-level semantic analysis of their meaning. The Basics of Constructivism Bartlett (1932) pioneered what became the constructivist approach (Good & Brophy. Interference Effects .The effects of prior learning on learning new tasks or material. 1990) Serial Position Effects . & Doctorow. so an individual's knowledge is a function of one's prior experiences. For example. Mnemonic Effects . 1971.If information does not fit a person's schema it may be more difficult for them to remember and what they remember or how they conceive of it may also be affected by their prior schema. the notes of a musical scale can be remembered by the rhyme: Every Good Boy Deserves Fruit. State Dependent Effects . addressing this issue in his article Thinking Technology: Toward a Constructivist Design Model. unless that item is distinctly different. Deeper levels of processing such as generating linkages between old and new information are much better for successful retention of material." "What someone knows is grounded in perception of the physical and social experiences which are comprehended by the mind. (Wittrock. (Cofer.Mnemonics are strategies used by learners to organize relatively meaningless input into more meaningful images or semantic contexts.Long-Term Memory and Storage (LTM) . 1990). Constructivists believe that "learners construct their own reality or at least interpret it based upon their perceptions of experiences.stores information from STM for long term use. Levels of Processing Effects . makes the following comments: 295 . in Good and Brophy. 1990) If a learner links relatively meaningless information with prior schema it will be easier to retain.Meaningful information is easier to learn and remember. (Craik and Lockhart. and beliefs that are used to interpret objects and events. Advance Organizers . Marks.It is easier to remember items from the beginning or end of a list rather than those in the middle of the list.Ausebels advance organizers prepare the learner for the material they are about to learn. By distributing practices the learner associates the material with many different contexts rather than the one context afforded by mass practice. but are material that will enable the student to make sense out of the lesson.If learning takes place within a certain context it will be easier to remember within that context rather than in a new context. Longterm memory has unlimited capacity. Practice Effects . Schema Effects . then how can we as a society communicate and/or coexist? Jonassen.

.. This can confuse you. Neiser. Realistic vs. a name you originally thought was in the behavioral category shows up in a constructivism article. 1991. Radical Construction Realistic constructivism . The most profound influence was Jean Piaget's work which was interpreted and extended by von Glasserfield (Smorgansbord. just as you think you have it cased. 1997). Ulrick.cognition serves to organize the learners experiential world rather than to discover ontological reality (Cobb.Merrill knowledge is constructed from experience learning is a personal interpretation of the world learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience conceptual growth comes from the negotiation of meaning. 1997) It Boggles the Mind! If you are reading about learning theories. that reality is only in the mind of the knower. in Smorgansbord. Kuhn. which will doubtlessly lead to intellectual anarchy. 1996. in Smorgansbord. Radical constructivism . the sharing of multiple perspectives and the changing of our internal representations through collaborative learning learning should be situated in realistic settings. testing should be integrated with the task and not a separate activity (Merrill. the threads of constructivism may be found in the writing of such people as Bruner. This problem is often the result of theorists and their ideas evolving over time and changes they make to their original ideas." "Constructivists also believe that much of reality is shared through a process of social negotiation." If one searches through the many philosophical and psychological theories of the past. since.• • • "Perhaps the most common misconception of constructivism is the inference that we each therefore construct a unique reality." "A reasonable response to that criticism is the Gibsonian perspective that contends that there exists a physical world that is subject to physical laws that we all know in pretty much the same way because those physical laws are perceivable by humans in pretty much the same way. Goodman. Dewey and Habermas. The Assumptions of Constructivism . Kant. Davidson includes the following example in an article she 296 .cognition is the process by which learners eventually construct mental structures that correspond to or match external structures located in the environment. 1997). you may notice that it is difficult to pin down what theory a certain theorist belongs to.

1870 Crookes finds the first evidence of electrons.J. The Greek philosophers. The ancient Greeks thought that matter was composed of fire. Thompson realized cathode rays are negative particles (electrons). 1913 Niels Bohr develops a new model of the atom with electron energy levels or orbits. 1990) 297 . Gagne's theory of learning and events of instruction have evolved progressively to approach a more cognitive theory. Demmin & Gabel. They called their particles "atomos". was that matter could be infinitely subdivided into smaller and smaller pieces without change. It wasn't until the 18th century that anyone could prove one theory was better than another. 1890's J. 1930's and 1940's The atom had a positive nucleus with an electron charge cloud." (Davidson. :-) Comparing The Development of Learning Theories to the Development of the Atomic Theory Atomic Theory Since the beginning of history. 1998) Okay? Okay. came up with the idea that matter made up of particles so small that they cannot be divided into anything smaller. This theory was referred to as the orbital model and the quantum-mechanical model. people have theorized about the nature of matter. proposed a theory of matter based on the existence of atoms.wrote: "Considered by most to be representative of [a] behaviourist learning paradigm. which is the Greek word for "indivisible". Democritis and Lucippus. His discussion of relating present information and past knowledge (event #3) and the inclusion of learning transfer (event#9) are indicative of this shift toward constructivism. the continuous theory. Another view. John Dalton in 1803. (Dorin. with his law of multiple proportions. water. The rest is history: 1803 Dalton's Atomic Theory. 1909 Rutherford discovered alpha particles and said that atoms consist of small positively charged particles surrounded by mostly empty space where electrons moved around. earth and air.

Constructivism builds upon behaviorism and cognitivism in the sense that it accepts multiple perspectives and maintains that learning is a personal interpretation of the world. if that learner choses and finds that type of learning suitable to their experiences and learning style. people began to realize that there is something happening inside the organism that should be considered. Behaviorism can be compared to Dalton's atom. what if I. negotiate my evaluation and wish to include objective evaluation? Then isn't behavioral and cognitive strategy a part of constructivism? 298 . evaluation is much more subjective. since constructivism recognises the concept of schema and building upon prior knowledge and experience. Rutherford and Bohr realized that there was something occurring within the atom causing its behavior. as a learner. Soon. Using overt behavior as a starting point. Thompson. people began in ernest to study and develop models of learning. Of course. Enter the constructivist learning theory which tells us that each organism is constantly in flux.Learning Theory Given that we will most likely never "see" an atom. other factors most also be considered. Could the constructivist approach be considered to be the quantum theory of learning? The quantum theory builds upon the previous atomic theories. theorists realized that the "atom" is not stable. which was simply a particle. whereas in constructivism. Does the development of learning theory follow a similar pattern as the atomic theory? It seems that learning theories. evaluation is based on meeting specific objectives. Therefore our learning models are mental pictures that enable us to understand that which we will never see. people such as Crookes. The behaviorist learning theory centered around that which was observable. and although the old models work to a certain degree. I believe that behavioral strategies can be part of a constructivist learning situation. with the onset of scientific inquiry. In the 18th century. not considering that there was anything occurring inside the mind. Similarly. like the study of matter can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. we will never "see" learning either. it is not so "cut and dried". Cognitive approaches have a place in constructivism also. however. Thus the cognitive model of learning was born. since it seemed to affect the overt behavior. In behaviorism and cognitivism. in physical science. Perhaps the greatest difference is that of evaluation.

A Biological Analogy to Learning Theory Classification The classification of learning theories is somewhat analogous to the classification system designed by biologists to sort out living organisms. the world does not fit the scheme in all cases. but eventually organisms that contained cholophyll and were mobile needed to be classified. cognitivism. Perhaps behaviorism is suitable to certain basic learning situations.Perhaps the learning theory used depends upon the learning situation.. This development and adjustment of the taxonomy remins one of behaviourism. postmodernism. The protist kingdom was established. depends upon the learning situation. biologists continued to modify the classification system as know knowledge and insights into existing knowledge were discovered. but it is a classification that gives us a place for all of the organisms that don't fit neatly into either the plant or animal kingdoms.. Originally there was a plant kingdom and an animal kingdom. contextualism. to establish criteria. neutrons and electrons to grade school students. Like any attempt to define categories. just as the atomic theory used. whereas "quantum" constructivism is better suited to advanced learning situations. 299 . The advent of new technology such as the electron microscope enabled the addition of the monera kingdom. To extend the analogy. The bohr atom is often used to introduce the concept of protons. The exact criteria for protists are still not established. constructivism. semiotics. Recently. fungi. the distinctive features of fungi have brought about a proposal for a fifth kingdom.

Many people are familiar with Bloom's Cognitive taxonomy: o knowledge o comprehension o application 300 . Example: After having completed the unit the student will be able to answer correctly 90% of the questions on the posttest. Cognitivism and Constructivism in Instructional Design Behaviorism and Instructional Design [This section on behaviorism is largely a synopsis of information from Paul Saettler's book.In 1956 Bloom and his colleagues began development of a taxonomy in the cognitive.Degree . In Paul Saettler's book The History of American Educational Technology.Audience . terminal behaviors" (Saettler. quantifiable.Condition . attitudinal (affective) and psychomotor domains. The advent of behavioral objectives can be traced back to the Elder Sophists of ancient Greece. which was the time that behaviorism actually began to decrease in popularity in American psychology.answer correctly C . the teaching machine phase. on a post test To develop behavioral objectives a learning task must be broken down through analysis into specific measurable tasks.the student B . but Franklin Bobbitt developed the modern concept of behavioral objectives in the early 1900s (Saettler. Cicero.The History of Behaviorism. pp. 1990). individualized instructional approaches. 1990). the programmed instruction movement. Behavioral Objectives Movement: A behavioral objective states learning objectives in "specified. (1990)]. 288. computer-assisted learning and the systems approach to instruction. Saettler identified six areas that demonstrate the impact of behaviorism on Educational Technology in America: the behavioral objectives movement. Herbart and Spencer. The History of American Educational Technology. Taxonomic Analysis of Learning Behaviors • Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning . The learning success may be measured by tests developed to measure each objective.Behavior . 1998). he states that behaviorism did not have an impact on educational technology until the 1960s.90% correct the unit. Behavioral objectives can be summed up using the mnemonic device ABCD (Schwier.after having completed D . A .

people who questioned the breaking down of subject material into small parts. but mastery learning is more effective for the lower levels of learning on Bloom's taxonomy. 1990). Franklin Bobbitt proposed utilization of this system in education stressing that the standards and direction of education should stem from the consumer - 301 ." (Saettler.  Gagne's and Brigg's Model  Action  Object  Situation  Tools and Constraints  Capability to be Learned By the late 1960's most teachers were writing and using behavioral objectives. test the result. 1990). of course. His formula for mastery was "Pretest. believing that it would lead away from an understanding of the "whole" (Saettler. measurable behavior. terminal behaviors that were manifested in terms of observable. in 1962 which prompted interest and use of behavioral objectives among educators. teach. There were. Gagne's taxonomy was comprised of five categories: • o o o o o verbal information intellectual skill cognitive strategy attitude motor skill Mastery Learning Mastery learning was originally developed by Morrison in the 1930s. teach and test again to the point of actual learning. and not appropriate for higher level learning (Saettler. 1931. 1990) Robert Mager wrote Preparing Instructional Objectives.Robert Gagne developed his taxonomy of learning in 1972. Gagne and Briggs who also had backgrounds in military and industrial psychology developed a set of instructions for writing objectives that is based on Mager's work. 1990). Military and Industrial Approach For military and industrial training. adapt procedure. Mastery learning assumes that all students can master the materials presented in the lesson. Bloom further developed Morrison's plan." (Morrison. Accountability Movement A movement known as scientific management of industry arose in the early 1900s in response to political and economic factors of that time.o o o analysis synthesis evaluation Gagne's Taxonomy of Learning . "behavioral objectives were written descriptions of specific. in Saettler.

Skinner demonstrated his machine in 1954. Contributors to this movement include the following: • • • • • Pressey .devises called "phase checks". and was revived in the 1960s. Skinner . W. B. 1990). Individually Prescribed Instruction. Individualized Approaches to Instruction Similar to programmed learning and teaching machines individualized instruction began in the early 1900s.introduced a multiple-choice machine at the 1925 American Psychological Association meeting.II . Concerned developers moved away from hardware development to programs based on analysis of learning and instruction based on learning theory.designed a branched style of programming for the US Air force in the 1950s to train troubleshooters to find malfunctions in electronic equipment. Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs. Despite these changes. The Keller Plan. programmed learning died out in the later part of the 1960s because it did not appear to live up to its original claims (Saettler. 1990). Crowder . Keller Plan (1963) 302 . Skinner is the most current and probably best known advocate of teaching machines and programmed learning. Holland first used programmed instruction in behavioral psychology courses at Harvard in the late 1950s. 1990). taught and tested such skills and dissassembly-assembly of equipment. Peterson .S. Comenius.G. (Saettler.W.society.based on operant conditioning Skinner's teaching machine required the learner to complete or answer a question and then receive feedback on the correctness of the response. which because of similar economic and political factors. F. (Saettler. B. Use of programmed instruction appeared in elementary and secondary schools around the same time.F. constructed in the 1940s and 1950s. 1990) Early Use of Programmed Instruction After experimental use of programmed instruction in the 1920s and 1930s. Herbart and Montessori used the concept of programmed instruction in their repertoire.a former student of Pressey's who developed "chemosheets" in which the learner checked their answers with a chemical-dipped swab. and Individually Guided Education are all examples of individualized instruction in the U. Early use of programmed instruction tended to concentrate on the development of hardware rather than course content. Bobbitt's ideas exemplified the idea of accountability. Much of the programmed instruction in American schools was used with individuals or small groups of students and was more often used in junior high schools than senior or elementary schools (Saettler. Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction Movement Although the elder Sophists. experienced a revival in America during the late 1960s and 1970s (Saettler. Skinner and J. competency-based education and performance-based education. 1990).

6. mastery learning. Developed by F.2. 6.7. prepared units.S. government wanted to determine the possible effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction. (Control Data Corporation and Mitre Corporation) who came up with the PLATO and TICCIT 303 . Flanagan. 4. Lasted into the 1970s when it lost funding and its use dwindled Main features of IPI: 6. schools selected items from about 6. 1990) Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN) (1967) d) Headed by Jon C. (Saettler.M. personal-social aspect of educational process. 2. so they developed two competing companies. five objectives. (Saettler. Developed by Learning Research and Development Center of the University of Pitsburgh. 8. materials continually evaluated and upgraded to meet behavioral objectives. use of proctors which permitted testing. Moore. (Saettler. 6.6.000 behavioral objectives.S. the Keller plan was used for university college classes. tutoring. behavioral objectives. School districts. included pretest and posttest for each unit. math and science. 6.4.3. 8. 8. 1990) Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Computer-assisted instruction was first used in education and training during the 1950s. Main features of Keller Plan individually paced. 5.S. e) Abandoned in late 1970s because of upgrading costs f) Main features of PLAN 1. Keller. 8. 6.2.3.5. lectures and demonstrations motivational rather than critical information. Early work was done by IBM and such people as Gordon Pask. PLAN was developed under sponsorship of American Institutes for Research (AIR). immediate scoring. and O. 1990) Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) (1964) 4. planned instructional sequences. 6. 8.1. Westinghouse Learning Corporation and fourteen U. The U. used for reading.1. remedial learning plus retesting. each instructional module took about two weeks instruction and were made up of approximately. 3. a colleague of Skinner. mastery learning. but CAI grew rapidly in the 1960s when federal funding for research and development in education and industrial laboratories was implemented.4.

(Saettler. 1990) Systems Approach to Instruction The systems approach developed out of the 1950s and 1960s focus on language laboratories. (Saettler. Some of the reasons are: • • • • • CAI had been oversold and could not deliver. multimedia presentations and the use of the computer in instruction. lack of quality software. teaching machines. devising a plan of action and continuous evaluation/modification of the program.projects. lack of support from certain sectors.controlled by the program developer rather than the learner. high cost. technical problems in implementation. Most systems approaches are similar to computer flow charts with steps that the designer moves through during the development of instruction. Little branching of instruction was implemented although TICCIT did allow the learner to determine the sequence of instruction or to skip certain topics. the systems approach involved setting goals and objectives. Despite money and research. programmed instruction. 1990) Cognitivism and Instructional Design Although cognitive psychology emerged in the late 1950s and began to take over as the dominant theory of learning. analyzing resources. Computer-assisted instruction was very much drill-and-practice . it wasn't until the late 1970s that cognitive science began to have its influence on instructional design. to a concern with the internal mental processes of the mind and how 304 . Rooted in the military and business world. Cognitive science began a shift from behavioristic practices which emphasised external behavior. by the mid seventies it was apparent that CAI was not going to be the success that people had believed.

a derivative of the MYCIN program that gave a student information about a case and compared their diagnosis with what MYCIN would suggest SOPIE . The goal of instruction remained the communication or transfer of knowledge to learners in the most efficient. Cognitivism and Computer-Based Instruction Computers process information in a similar fashion to how cognitive scientists believe humans process information: receive. A trouble-shooting programs is one example of these programs.enables a chemist to make an accurate guess about the molecular structure of an unknown compound META-DENDRAL . mnemonic devices. the transition from behavioral instructional design principles to those of a cognitive style was not entirely difficult.makes up its own molecular fragmentation rules in an attempt to explain sets of basic data GUIDION .teaches facts about South American geography in a Socratic method PUFF . break it down into smaller steps or chunks and use that information to develop instruction that moves from simple to complex building on prior schema. effective manner possible (Bednar et al. Artificial intelligence involve the computer working to supply appropriate responses to student input from the computer's data base. The design models that had been developed in the behaviorist tradition were not simply tossed out.diagnoses medical patients for possible pulmonary disorders MYCIN . i. the breaking down of a task into small steps works for a behaviorist who is trying to find the most efficient and fail proof method of shaping a learner's behavior.diagnoses blood infections and prescribes possible treatment DENDRAL . chunking into meaningful parts and the careful organization of instructional materials from simple to complex.. but instead the "task analysis" and "learner analysis" parts of the models were embellished.designed to help children learn to program a computer Davis' math programs for the PLATO system .allows teachers to diagnose causes for student mathematical errors LOGO . 1990). information storage and retrieval as well as the incorporation and integration of new knowledge with previous information (Saettler. in Anglin. 1990) Constructivism and Instructional Design 305 . This analogy makes the possibility of programming a computer to "think" like a person conceivable.e. The influence of cognitive science in instructional design is evidenced by the use of advance organizers. Below is a list of some programs and their intended use: • • • • • • • • • • SCHOLAR . The new models addressed component processes of learning such as knowledge coding and representation. artificial intelligence. For example. metaphors.to encourage mathematical development through discovery (Saettler.helps engineers troubleshoot electronic equipment problems BUGGY .. store and retrieve. Because Cognitivism and Behaviorism are both governed by an objective view of the nature of knowledge and what it means to know something. 1995). The cognitive scientist would analyze a task.they could be utilized in promoting effective learning.

in Schwier." (Perkins. is that if each individual is responsible for knowledge construction. in Schwier. since behaviorism and cognitivism are both objective in nature. in Schwier.avoid oversimplification of instruction by by representing the natural complexity of the world Present authentic tasks .The shift of instructional design from behaviorism to cognitivism was not as dramatic as the move into constructivism appears to be. [On-line]) In the same article. Other examples of the link between cognitive theory and constructivism are: • • • • schema theory (Spiro. in Schwier. but wielding it flexibly during learning -. 1991. cognitivism shares some similarities with constructivism. 1998) Despite these similarities between cognitivism and constructivism. While behaviorism and constructivism are very different theoretical perspectives. Constructivism has added that this information processor must be seen as not just shuffling data. case-based learning environments. 1998) multimedia (Dede.purposeful knowledge construction may be facilitated by learning environments which: Provide multiple representations of reality . and so on. how can we as designers determine and insure a common set of outcomes for leaning.21 in Schwier. on the other hand.. as Jonassen points out : "The conundrum that constructivism poses for instructional designers. Behaviorism and cognitivism both support the practice of analyzing a task and breaking it down into manageable chunks. 1991..contextualize Provide real-world. Consider the following statement by Perkins: ". 1991. promotes a more open-ended learning experience where the methods and results of learning are not easily measured and may not be the same for each learner. [On-line]) lists the following implications of constructivism for instructional design: ". establishing objectives. An example of their compatibility is the fact that they share the analogy of comparing the processes of the mind to that of a computer. p.. the objective side of cognitivism supported the use of models to be used in the systems approach of instructional design. et al. 1998) hypermedia (Tolhurst. however.making hypotheses. rather than pre-determined instructional sequences Foster reflective practice 306 . Constructivism is not compatible with the present systems approach to instructional design. Constructivism. 1992.. testing tentative interpretations. 1998 ). as we have been taught to do?" (Jonasson.information processing models have spawned the computer model of the mind as an information processor. and measuring performance based on those objectives. 1998) connectionism (Bereiter. Jonassen (Jonasson. 1992.

".and content-dependent knowledge construction Support collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiation.. (behavioral and cognitive).. Jonassen looks at the commonalties among constructivist approaches to learning to suggest a "model" for designing constructivist learning environments. and/or expectations Results in Mental Models and provides Meaningful. With this in mind. learning. predict. and infer.. which . instruction should foster..a constructivist design process should be concerned with designing environments which support the construction of knowledge. and reflecting on their utility (Piaget's accommodation.) Is Based on Social Negotiation o a process of sharing a reality with others using the same or similar processes to those used in internal negotiation Is Facilitated by Exploration of Real World Environments and Intervention of New Environments o processes that are regulated by each individual's intentions. Authentic Contexts for Learning and Using the Constructed Knowledge o should be supported by case-based problems which have been derived from and situated in the real world with all of its uncertainty and complexity and based on authentic realife practice Requires an Understanding of its Own Thinking Process and Problem Solving Methods o problems in one context are different from problems in other contexts Modeled for Learners by Skilled Performers but Not Necessarily Expert Performers Requires Collaboration Among Learners and With the Teacher o the teacher is more of a coach or mentor than a purveyor of knowledge Provides an Intellectual Toolkit to Facilitate an Internal Negotiation Necessary for Building Mental Models (Jonasson." • Is Based on Internal Negotiation o a process of articulating mental models. Norman and Rumelhart's tuning and restructuring. not control. not competition among learners for recognition "Although we believe that constructivism is not a prescriptive theory of instruction. needs. it should be possible to provide more explicit guidelines on how to design learning environments that foster constructivist learning" Jonassen points out that the difference between constructivist and objectivist. using those models to explain. while constructivism maintains that because learning outcomes are not always predictable.Enable context. [On-line]) • • • • • • • 307 . instructional design is that objective design has a predetermined outcome and intervenes in the learning process to map a pre-determined concept of reality into the learner's mind.

one may consider that cognitive theory is the dominant theory in instructional design and many of the instructional strategies advocated and utilized by behaviorists are also used by cognitivists.The technological advances of the 1980s and 1990s have enabled designers to move toward a more constructivist approach to design of instruction. In this method.abstracting concepts and strategies from the theoretical position that spawned then strips them of their meaning. In the article they compare the traditional approaches of analysis. Cunningham. but for different reasons. Duffy and Perry wrote an article that challenges the eclectic nature if instructional systems design by pointing out that ". For example. behaviorists assess learners to determine a starting point for instruction. With this in mind. If a novice learner is unable to establish an "anchor" in a hypermedia environment they may wander aimlessly through hypermedia becoming completely disoriented. suggesting a criteria for hypermedia learning based on an "exploration of relevant learning theories". 1993). the practice of instructional design can be viewed from a behaviorist/cognitivist approach as opposed to a constructivist approach. To address this concern. Reigeluth and Chung suggest a prescriptive system which advocates increased learner control. Individual tasks are broken down and learning objectives are developed. and evaluation to that of a constructivist approach. Davidson's (1998) article. (Bednar. In this approach the designer 308 .. When designing from a behaviorist/cognitivist stance. it is only fair to point out that not all theorists advocate a "mix and match" strategy for instructional design. One of the most useful tools for the constructivist designer is hypertext and hypermedia because it allows for a branched design rather than a linear format of instruction. 1995) Learning Theories and the Practice of Instructional Design What is the difference between the learning theories in terms of the practice of instructional design? Is one approach more easily achieved than another? To address this. should they become "lost". Hyperlinks allow for learner control which is crucial to constructivist learning. (Davidson. Bednar. students have some background knowledge and have been given some instruction in developing their own metacognitive strategies and have some way to return along the path they have taken. 1998) Most literature on constructivist design suggests that learners should not simply be let loose in a hypermedia or hypertext environment. sequenced instructional interaction and criterion-referenced evaluation while the more advanced second phase of knowledge acquisition is more suited to a constructivist environment. Evaluation consists of determining whether the criteria for the objectives has been met.. synthesis. but that a mix of old and new (objective and constructive) instruction/learning design be implemented. Duffy & Perry. while cognitivists look at the learner to determine their predisposition to learning (Ertmer & Newby. however. Cunningham. the designer analyzes the situation and sets a goal. [Online]) note that each phase of knowledge acquisition requires different types of learning and that initial knowledge acquisition is perhaps best served by classical instruction with predetermined learning outcomes. is an example of this method. Having noted the eclectic nature of instructional design. there is some concerns over the novice learner becoming "lost" in a sea of hypermedia." They question objectivist epistemology completely and have adopted what they consider a constructivist approach to instructional design. Jonassen and McAlleese (Jonnassen & McAlleese.

final products and journals. but rather the process and self-evaluation of the learner. but it may not be the best way. . (Assessment [On-line]) Because of the divergent.decides what is important for the learner to know and attempts to transfer that knowledge to the learner. Perhaps there is some truth in the statement that "Constructivism is a 'learning theory'. since although it may allow for some branching and remediation. 1995) Learning Theories . The standard pencil-and-paper tests of mastery learning are not used in constructive design.A worker who has been conditioned to respond to a certain cue at work stops production when an anomaly occurs because they do not understand the system. Imagine the fun Revenue Canada would have if every person decided to report their 309 . evaluation is based on notes. direction is determined by the learner and assessment is much more subjective because it does not depend on specific quantitative criteria." (Wilkinson. less time consuming and most likely less expensive to design within a "closed system" rather than an "open" one. instead. Cognitivism Weakness . and thus the objective approach to instructional design. a response which one would hope became automatic. The learning package is somewhat of a closed system.the learner learns a way to accomplish a task. therefore the learner cannot respond. it may be important do an exact routine to avoid problems. To design from a constructivist approach requires that the designer produces a product that is much more facilitative in nature than prescriptive. That is not to say that classical instructional design techniques are better than constructive design.II pilots were conditioned to react to silhouettes of enemy planes.W.Logging onto and off of a workplace computer is the same for all employees. subjective nature of constructive learning. The content is not prespecified. . early drafts.the goal is to train learners to do a task the same way to enable consistency. Strength .the learner is focused on a clear goal and can respond automatically to the cues of that goal. or suited to the learner or the situation.Some Strengths and Weaknesses What are the perceived strengths and weaknesses of using certain theoretical approaches to instructional design? Behaviorism Weakness -the learner may find themselves in a situation where the stimulus for the correct response does not occur. the learner is still confined to the designer's "world".W. For example. Strength . it is easier for a designer to work from the systems. more than a 'teaching approach'. but it is easier. Constructivism Weakness .in a situation where conformity is essential divergent thinking and action may cause problems. logging onto the internet on one computer may not be the same as logging in on another computer. .

(Schwier. Strength . instructional designers find what works and use it. Trying to tie Instructional Design to one particular theory is like school vs. cognitivism and constructivism . the learner is better able to deal with real life situations. 1997).taxes in their own way . What Works and How Can We Use It? Behaviorism. whereas others are more suited to learner control of the environment.because the learner is able to interpret multiple realities. If a learner can problem solve. It is necessary to realize that some learning problems require highly prescriptive solutions. there probably are some very "constructive" approaches used within the system we have.what works where and how do we knit everything together to at least give ourselves some focus in our approach to instructional design? First of all we do not need to abandon the systems approach but we must modify it to accommodate constructivist values. they may better apply their existing knowledge to a novel situation. Recipes contained in ID theories may have value for novice designers (Wilson. (Schuman. rather than a theory itself. We must allow circumstances surrounding the learning situation to help us decide which approach to learning is most appropriate. The instructional designer must understand the strengths and weaknesses of each learning theory to optimize their use in appropriate instructional design strategy. Theories are useful because they open our eyes to other possibilities and ways of seeing the world. 1995) Jonnassen in Manifesto for a Constructive Approach to Technology in Higher Education ([Online]) identified the following types of learning and matched them with what he believes to be appropriate learning theory approaches.although. different learning theories may apply. who lack the experience and expertise of veteran designers. the real world. Depending on the learners and situation. (the real world). Whether we realize it or not. 1995). 310 . An Eclectic Approach to Theory in Instructional Design The function of ID is more of an application of theory. 1996) Is There One Best Learning Theory for Instructional Design? Why bother with Theory at all? A solid foundation in learning theory is an essential element in the preparation of ISD professionals because it permeates all dimensions of ISD (Shiffman. just as the prescriptions of theory do not always apply in practice. the best design decisions are most certainly based on our knowledge of learning theories. What we learn in a school environment does not always match what is out there in the real world. From a pragmatic point of view.

T. The learner can develop some anchors for further exploration.. cognitivism and constructivism. They are at the initial stages of schema assembly and integration. Cognitive Tasks requiring an increased level of processing (e. basic paired associations.g.. In this stage the learner is able to make intelligent decisions within the learning environment. & Newby... rule or procedural executions) are primarily associated with strategies having a stronger cognitive emphasis (e. Expertise is the final stage of knowledge acquisition. Introductory Learning . heuristic problem solving.. algorithmic problem solving). and constructivist strategies are especially suited to dealing with ill-defined problems through reflection-in-action. personal selection and monitoring of cognitive strategies) are frequently 311 . Constructive Tasks demanding high levels of processing (e.. cognitive strategies are useful in teaching problem -solving tactics where defined facts and rules are applied in unfamiliar situations (knowing how). 2. discriminations. sequential and criterion-referenced.g. 1993) Behavioral . classifications. Advanced Knowledge Acquisition .g. Having pointed out the different levels of learning.g.1. Jonassen stresses that it is still important to consider the context before recommending any specific methodology. but stress that instructional strategy and content addressed depend on the level of the learners. A constructivist approach would work well in this case. At this stage classical instructional design is most suitable because it is predetermined.g. At this point constructivist approaches may be introduced. constrained. Ertmer and Newby (1993) feel that the instructional approach used for novice learners may not be efficiently stimulating for a learner who is familiar with the content. they match learning theories with the content to be learned: . They do not advocate one single learning theory. tasks requiring a low degree of processing (e. Reigeluth's Elaboration Theory which organizes instruction in increasing order of complexity and moves from prerequisite learning to learner control may work in the eclectic approach to instructional design.. Similar to Jonassen. stimulus-response. analogical reasoning. After having compared and contrasted behaviorism.follows introductory knowledge and precedes expert knowledge.. contiguity of feedback/reinforcement). rote memorization) seem to be facilitated by strategies most frequently associated with a behavioral outlook (e. since the learner can be introduced to the main concepts of a course and then move on to more of a self directed study that is meaningful to them and their particular context... schematic organization. (Ertmer P.learners have very little directly transferable prior knowledge about a skill or content area. a behavioral approach can effectively facilitate mastery of the content of a profession (knowing what). 3.

depending upon the situation and environment. Conclusion Upon completion of this site on learning theories and instructional design. (Ertmer P. I have not only accomplished my objective. There is a place for each theory within the practice of instructional design. & Newby.est learned with strategies advanced by the constructivist perspective (e. 312 . social negotiation. I especially favor the idea of using an objective approach to provide the learner with an "anchor" before they set sail on the open seas of knowledge. but gained insight and appreciation for the different learning theories and their possible application to instructional design.g.. Ertmer and Newby's suggestion that theoretical strategies can complement the learner's level of task knowledge. A basic understanding of the material in question provides the learner with a guiding compass for further travel. It was interesting for me to find that I am not alone in my perspective regarding learning theories and instructional design. situated learning. T. With this approach the designer is able to draw from a large number of strategies to meet a variety of learning situations. 1993) Ertmer and Newby (1993) believe that the strategies promoted by different learning theories overlap (the same strategy for a different reason) and that learning theory strategies are concentrated along different points of a continuum depending of the focus of the learning theory the level of cognitive processing required.. cognitive apprenticeships. allows the designer to make the best use of all available practical applications of the different learning theories.

In a mastery learning environment. with frequent and specific feedback by using diagnostic. It may involve direct teacher instruction. cooperation with classmates. Whichever situation the instructional designer finds themselves in. Students who do not satisfactorily complete a topic are given additional instruction until they succeed. 4. and is based on Benjamin Bloom's Mastery for Learning model. the free encyclopedia) Mastery Learning is an instructional method that presumes all children can learn if they are provided with the appropriate learning conditions. the teacher directs a variety of group-based instructional techniques. sequentially organized units. Finally. the instructional designer may be required to establish and meet the objectives of that business. Mastery learning may be implemented as teacher-paced group instruction. new insights to the learning process continue to replace.Another consideration is the distinction between "training" and "education". In today's competitive business world. mastery learning is a method whereby students are not advanced to a subsequent learning objective until they demonstrate proficiency with the current one. It requires well-defined learning objectives organized into smaller. 313 . Teachers evaluate students with criterion-referenced tests rather than norm-referenced tests. Individualized instruction has some elements in common with mastery learning. the designer may be challenged to provide material that fosters an individual to find divergent approaches to problem solving. one-to-one tutoring. although it dispenses with group activities in favor of allowing more able or more motivated students to progress ahead of others and maximizing teacher interaction with those students who need the most assistance.7. On the other hand. Whether designing for training or education. Advancements in technology make branched constructivist approaches to learning possible. with refinements made by Block. Specifically. though Instructional Design may have a behaviorist tradition. change and alter the process. they will require a thorough understanding of learning theories to enable them to provide the appropriate learning environment. Students who master the topic early engage in enrichment activities until the entire class can progress together. Mastery learning has nothing to do with content. Mastery learning curricula generally consist of discrete topics which all students begin together. the instructional designer's toolbox contains an ever changing and increasing number of theoretical applications and physical possibilities. the modern designer will find solutions to the learning requirements of the 21st century. as well as regularly correcting mistakes students make along their learning path. With intelligent application of learning theory strategies and technology. Mastery Learning (From Wikipedia. or self-paced learning with programmed materials. in a school setting. formative tests. Mastery learning includes many elements of successful tutoring and the independent functionality seen in high-end students. merely on the process of mastering it. or independent learning.

The material that will be taught to mastery is broken down into small discrete lessons that follow a logical progression.52 standard deviation units. 2000. The concept of mastery learning can be attributed to the behaviorism principles of operant conditioning. 1986). Kulik & Bangert-Drowns. Despite the empirical evidence. In order to demonstrate mastery over each lesson. which is considered a moderately large effect size. the mean effect size (Cohen's d) of 103 studies was 0. In one meta-analysis (Kulik. mastery learning programs have been shown to lead to higher achievement in all students as compared to more traditional forms of teaching (Anderson.In general. 1984).Most experiments that compared mastery learning to conventional instruction have shown that mastery learning is more effective. 2000). In line with the behavior theory. 2005). students must be able to overtly show evidence of understanding of the material before moving to the next lesson (Anderson. 1990). learning occurs when an association is formed between a stimulus and response (Skinner. many mastery programs in schools have been replaced by more traditional forms of instruction due to the level of commitment required by 314 . Gusky & Gates. mastery learning focuses on overt behaviors that can be observed and measured (Baum. According to operant conditioning theory.

(2000). 2000. Society and Mastery Learning. Malden. 265-306. 1975). J. Synthesis of research on the effects of mastery learning in elementary and secondary classrooms. Baum. 315 . Review of Educational Research. F. Gusky. MA: Blackwell Publishing. Learning and memory: An integrated approach (2nd ed.. 73-80. Kulik. M. Individualized instruction: An historical perspective. The Modern Language Journal. References Anderson. R. 60(2). ISBN 978-0030884078 Kulik. (1990). Schools. W. & Gates.). R. Grittner. R. Culture and Evolution. T. Grittner. (2005).. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Block. M. Understanding Behaviorism: Behavior.the teacher and the difficulty in managing the classroom when each student is following an individual course of learning (Anderson.. & Bangert-Drowns. J. Educational Leadership. 43. Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A metaanalysis. S. (1975). 323 333. C. (1986). Inc.