From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Page 1
,,-, ¸~, = ,,

,. _,¯ ¸·




From the
Treasures
of
Arabic
Morphology

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 2
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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 3

Title From the Treasures of Arabic
Morphology

Author

Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad
First Edition

Ramadān 1427 A.H.
October 2006

Published by
Academy for Islamic Research
Madrasah In’āmiyyah
P.O. Box 39
Camperdown
3720
South Africa

Tel +27 031 785 1519

Fax +27 031 785 1091

email al_inaam@yahoo.com
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Contents

Introduction
Morphology or Etymology?
Some Useful Terms
Arabic Terms
The Types of Words
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
Positive and Negative
Active and Passive
The Second Category of Verbs
Exercise 1
Types of Nouns
The Scales of Verbs
Exercise 2
The Categories of Triliteral Verbs
Exercise 3
The Perfect Active ( ¸.' ,,·' )

Exercise 4
The Perfect Passive (¸,,- ¸.')

Exercise 5
The Imperfect (__.')

Exercise 6
The Imperfect Passive ( __.' ¸,,- )

Exercise 7
The (·. ,,-)

Exercise 8
The (··_- ,,-)

Exercise 9
The (·.) and (.,) of Emphasis

Exercise 10
The Imperative (,·')

Exercise 11
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The Prohibition (¸,)

Exercise 12
The Derived Nouns (·' .-.)

The active participle (¸· ,)

Exercise 13
The passive participle (¸,·' ,)

Exercise 14
The Elative (¸,. ,)

The (·,· ·.)

The Noun of the Instrument (·. ,)

Exercise 15
The Adverb (,= ,)

Exercise 16
The Intensive Adjective (··' ··,.)

Exercise 17
The Categories (.,,') of Verbs

The (.,,') of (·,- ¸·)

The First (.,)

The Second (.,)

The Third (.,)

The Fourth (.,)

The Fifth (.,)

The Sixth (.,)

Exercise 18
The (.,,') of (·,· ,,· ¸·)

Construction of the Derived Nouns
The Abbreviated Paradigm of each (.,)

(¸··¸ .,)

Exercise 19
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(¸,· .,)

Exercise 20
(··· .,)

Exercise 21
(¸·¸ .,)

Exercise 22
(¸··¸ .,)

Exercise 23
(¸···¸ .,)

Exercise 24
(¸` · .,)

Exercise 25
(¸· .,)

Exercise 26
(¸·¸ .,)

Exercise 27
(¸·,··¸ .,)

Exercise 28
(¸·,··¸ .,)

Exercise 29
(¸` ,··¸ .,)

Exercise 30
Four Root-Letter Verbs
The (.,,') of (¸-· ·,· ,,· ¸·)

The Classification of Verbs
Exercise 31
The Derived Forms of Four Root-Letter
Verbs

Exercise 32
Exercise 33
Exercise 34
Other Derived Forms
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Exercise 35
The Seven Categories
Exercise 36
The Rules of (_,,·)

Rule 1
Rule 2
Rule 3
Rule 4
Rule 5
Rule 6
Rule 7
Rule 8
Rule 9
Rule 10
Exercise 37
The Orthography of the Hamzah
The Paradigms of (_,,·)

Exercise 38
Exercise 39
Exercise 40
Discussion of (¸· _,,·)

Discussion of ( _,,· ·· )

Exercise 41
The Rules of (¸··)

Rule 1
Rule 2
Rule 3
Rule 4
Rule 5
Rule 6
Rule 7
Rule 8
Rule 9
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Rule 10
Exercise 42
Rule 11
Rule 12
Rule 13
Rule 14
Rule 15
Rule 16
Rule 17
Rule 18
Rule 19
Rule 20
Rule 21
Rule 22
Rule 23
Rule 24
Rule 25
Rule 26
Exercise 43
The Paradigms of (¸··)

Exercise 44
The Paradigms of (,-')

Exercise 45
The Paradigm of (¸, ,-')

Exercise 46
The Paradigms of (¸·) and (.,)

Exercise 47
Exercise 48
Combination of (_,,·) and (¸··)

Exercise 49
The Rules of (.·.·)

Rule 1
Rule 2
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Rule 3
Rule 4
Rule 5
Exercise 50
Exercise 51
A Combination of ( .·.· , , ) _,,· ) and (¸··)

Exercise 52
Challenging Words
Special Meanings ( ,.- . ) of Each (.,)

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ,. )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., .,. )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., _- )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ·,¯ )

The Derived Categories
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸··¸ )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸,· )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ··· )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸··¸ )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸·¸ )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸···¸ )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸· )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸· )

The ( .- , . ) of ( ., ¸·¸ )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸·,··¸ )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸·,··¸ )

The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸` ,··¸ )

Application of the Special Meanings
Bibliography

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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,,-, ¸~, = ,,

Introduction

Arabic Morphology (,... ,..·) is a branch of Arabic
Grammar dealing with word-forms and patterns. It is
highly essential for the incumbent student of Arabic to
learn this science in order to be proficient in the language.
Acquiring an understanding of word patterns is of prime
importance in learning the language.

This is a comprehensive book dealing with all the
important aspects of the subject. If a student has to study
this book thoroughly, he would develop a very good
foundation in this science and it would absolve him of the
need to study any further books on the subject.

The Arabic names of morphologic terms have been
adopted instead of the Urdu forms commonly found in the
text books of Islamic seminaries. Thus I have used the
term (·´ ¸·) instead of ( ·.¯ ¸.·). Similarly, instead
of writing (...¯,-), the correct Arabic form of (·..¯,-)
has been used while the term (¸...') is used instead of
(¸...·) which is incorrect. This will enable the student to
learn the correct Arabic terms from the initial stages of his
learning.

Included also is a collection of rules of word-changes
which affect many Arabic verbs and nouns. The rules have
been clearly explained with examples and a step by step
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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method as to how a word is changed from its original form
to its present one.

It is hoped that this book will be beneficial for the students
of Arabic Grammar and Morphology and simplify the path
to understanding the intricacies of the language. Āmīn.

For a detailed discussion on the name of this subject,
whether it is called Morphology or Etymology, refer to
Appendix A at the end of this book.

Some Useful Terms

Conjugation: A paradigm, class, or table of verb forms in
such inflected languages as Latin and French, where
elements are distinguished from each other by patterns of
inflection relating to tense, person, number.
1


Declension: A term used to describe the case system of
nouns and other words.
2


Inflection: The variation or change of form that words
undergo to mark distinctions of case, gender, number,
tense, person, mood, voice, comparison.
3


Linguistics and Philology: The study of language.

Paradigm: pronounced (pa-ra-dime), in grammar, a set of
all the (especially inflected) forms of a word (write, writes,
wrote, writing, written), especially when used as a model
for all other words of the same type.
4



1
The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 256, 1992.
2
Ibid, p. 281.
3
Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1160.
4
The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 747, 1992.
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Arabic Terms

The following are some of the Arabic terms used
frequently in this book. It would be advisable to learn
them thoroughly as they are frequently used throughout
the book.

Term Meaning
-¬·· A diacritical point . denoting the sound
of ‘a’.
-«= A diacritical point - . denoting the sound
of ‘u’.
·¸.· A diacritical point - . denoting the sound
of ‘i’.
. .,´=
;¸-
A diacritical point - . that serves the
purpose of joining two letters in
pronunciation
_,·«- A letter having a fathah, e.g. ( )
;,«=- A letter having a dammah, e.g. (` ¸)
_,.´- A letter having a kasrah, e.g. ( ·)
. ¸··=
;¸¸=
A letter having a sukûn or jazm, e.g. (` ¸)
-·¸-
The three diacritical points, fathah
dammah and kasrah are each called a
harakah
=¸¬·- A letter having a harakah, e.g. ( )
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-«·´|· ···
The first root letter of a word, also referred
to as consonant or radical, e.g. the () of
( _ ·)
-«·´|· _-
The second root letter of a word, e.g. the
(.) of ( _ ·)
-«·´|· ;v The third root letter of a word, e.g. the (_)
of ( _ ·)
--,=
Word-form denoting the number, gender
and mood of the verb
=·,,| (.,,') is the plural of (.,) which refers
to a category of verbs belonging to one
class. The first verb of the perfect tense
(¸.') and the imperfect tense ( ' __. ),
are used to indicate the diacritical points of
the alphabets of the verbs.
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The Types of Words

Term Meaning
Example
· · « -
word
` . ¯
` , = ·
noun
¸` - _
¸ - ·
verb
¸ · ·
¸ - ` =
particle – it is dependent on either
an ( ,.) or ( ¸.··) in conveying its
meaning
` ¸ ·

With regards to meaning and tense, a verb is of three
types:

Term Meaning Example
_=·'·
Indicates the occurrence of
an action in the past tense. It
is referred to as the perfect
tense in English.
¸.. · · – He
did.
g_·='·
Indicates the occurrence of
an action in the present or
future tense. It is referred to
as the imperfect tense in
English.
¸ · , - He is
doing or he
will do.
¸-v·
a command
¸.. · · – You
do.

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Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Term Meaning Example
|· ;_:
Intransitive – does
not require an object
` ¸ ...` , - He is
walking.
'· ¸=-·
Transitive - requires
an object
.. ` _ , – He is
opening the door.

Positive and Negative

Term Meaning Example
=·,·,
positive
¸ · , – He is doing.
_«·
negative
¸ · , . – He is not doing.
The terms (.··) and (¸·) are also used.

Active and Passive

Term Meaning Example
=¸¸--
active tense – the doer
of the action is known
¸ · , – He is doing.
,,,=
passive tense – the doer
of the action is not
known

¸ · , – It is being
done.


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The Second Category of Verbs

With regard to the root letters (·,.. ,,-) of a verb, they
are of two types:

Term Meaning Example
¸·
3 root letters or
triliteral
, .
¸·,_
4 root letters or
quadriliteral
, ·` · ,

Each of these two types is further divided into two categories:
(1) (·,-) – the (¸.') consists of root letters only, without
any extra letters.
(2) (·,· ,,·) - the (¸.') has root letters plus extra letters.

This results in the following four categories:

Term Meaning Example
·,- ¸·
3 root letters only
, .
·,· ,,· ¸·
3 root letters plus extra
letters
. ` -
·,- ¸·,_
4 root letters only
, ·` · ,
·,· ,,· ¸·,_
4 root letters plus extra
letters
¸ ,` ,

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Exercise 1

(1) Determine whether the following verbs have 3 root-
letters or 4 root-letters.
(a) ¸ ¯ '
(b) _ ,` - ·
(c) _ , -
(d) , ` · _
(e) , =` ·

(2) What do the following terms mean:

Term Meaning
.' ¸

__.'

,·.

¸·

¸·,_

·,-

,,· ·,·

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Types of Nouns

(1) There are three types of nouns - (.-):
[a] _.· , [b] ¸· and [c] ·- .
(2) The ( _..· – verbal noun) is a word that indicates the
occurrence of an action and is free of tense e.g. ( ` ,` ..` ) –
to assist.
(3) The ( ¸.·) is a word derived from a verb e.g. ( ` ,. . ) –
helper is derived from ( , . ).
(4) The (..·-) is neither a (_...·) nor a ( ¸.·) e.g.
( ¸` - _) – man.

(5) The (_...·) and the (¸..·) also fall under the
categories of (¸·), ( ¸·.,_), ( ·,.-) and ( ·.,· .,,·) like
the (¸..··). The categories mentioned under the verb like
(_,-.) etc. also apply to an (,).
(6) The noun (..·-) with regard to its letters can either
have three root letters (triliteral), four root letters
(quadriliteral) or five root letters (quinquiliteral). It is
therefore of six types:
[1] (·,- ¸·) e.g. ( ¸` - _) – a man
[2] (·,· ,,· ¸·) e.g. (` _ -) – a donkey
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[3] (·,- ¸·,_) e.g. (` . , ·) – scorpion
[4] (·,· ,,· ¸·,_) e.g. ( · ` ¸ ~` , ) - paper
[5] (·,- ¸~) e.g. ( ¸ -` , ) - quince
[6] (·,· ,,· ¸~) e.g. (` .` ,` ´` ·) – a
spider

(7) The scholars of morphology generally deal with the
( ¸.··) because most of the changes ( .,,..) occur in a
( ¸.··) while few changes occur in an ( ,.) and none occur
in a (,-).
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The Scales of Verbs

The Arabic verb is constructed from a root which usually
consists of three letters called consonants or radicals.
These consonants form a kind of skeleton which
constitutes the verb-stem to which prefixes and suffixes
may be added.

Arabic verbs are mostly triliteral, that is, they are
constructed of three root letters. The simplest form of the
verb is the third person masculine singular of the perfect
tense ( ¸..' ¸.· ¸.· ..· ,¯.· .-,). In most
dictionaries, all the words derived from a triliteral root are
entered under the third person masculine singular form of
the verb.

In Arabic, there are two main tenses, the perfect or past
tense (¸...'), denoting actions completed at the time to
which reference is made; and the imperfect (__...'), for
incompleted actions, referring to the present or future
tenses. The present and future tenses are thus expressed by
the imperfect form ( __..'). The imperative ( ,.·.) may
be considered a modification of the imperfect.

To indicate patterns or type-forms of verbs, the
grammarians use the three letters of the verb ( ¸.. · ·), where
the () represents the first radical of the verb, the (_)
represents the second radical of the verb and the (¸)
represents the third radical of the verb. This is the scale
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( . ,.` , ·) or standard by which the root letters of a verb are
determined. Accordingly, the word ( ... ¯) is on the scale
of ( ¸ · ·), ( ` ..` ´,) is on the scale of ( ¸.` · ,) and ( ` ..` ¯ ')
is on the scale of ( ¸` · · ').

The letter that corresponds to the () of the (.,..,·) is
called the ( ·. ´ .. · ِ ), that which corresponds to the (_) is
called the (·.. ´ ` ¸` ,.. · ِ ) while the letter corresponding to
the (¸) is called the (· ´ ` · . ِ ).
Example: the word ( . ¯) is on the scale of ( ¸ · ·):

,

g

=

= = =


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Exercise 2

(1) Determine the scales of the following verbs and what
each letter represents. The first one has been done for you.

(a) ( , . )
,

g

=

_ ¸ .

The (.) is the (·´ .·), the (¸) is the ( ·.´ ¸.·), the
(_) is the ( ` · . ·´ ).
(b) (` _ ` ¸)
(c) (` _ )
(d) (` . ,` . )
(e) ( ¸ ·` -,)
(f) ( ·` , ¯)
(g) (` . ` -,)
(h) (` . · ,)
(i) ( ¸ ' )
(j) ( · , )
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The Categories of Triliteral Verbs

(.¸=· _·:·|· =·,,|)

(1) The first and third letters of a simple triliteral verb in
the active tense is always vowelled with a fathah (·..-·).
The second letter or radical may be vowelled by a ( ·.-·),
(·.) or ( ·,.¯). The active perfect tense ( ¸.· ¸..'
,,.·') of triliteral verbs ( ·,.- ¸.·) is used on three
scales:
[a] ¸ · · e.g. ( _ ·)
[b] ¸ · · e.g. ( _ )
[c] ¸` · · e.g. ( ·` , ¯)
(2) The conjugation of the ( ¸. · ·) and ( ¸.` · ·) forms is similar
to the conjugation of ( ¸ · ·).
(3) The imperfect tense (,,..·· __...·) of ( ¸.. · ·) is
sometimes ( ¸. · ,) e.g. ( ` _ . , _ . ·) and sometimes ( ¸.` · ,)
e.g. ( ` ,` ..` , , .. ) and sometimes ( ¸. · ,) e.g. ( . ,. .
` . ,` .,).
(4) The conjugation of the ( ¸.` · ,) and ( ¸. · ,) is similar to
the conjugation of ( ¸ · ,).
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(5) The ( ,,.·· __.·) of ( ¸. · ·) is sometimes ( ¸. · ,) e.g.
(` _ ` , _ ) and sometimes ( ¸ · ,) e.g. (` . ` -, . -).
(6) The ( ,,.·· __..·) of ( ¸.` · ·) is only ( ¸.` · ,) e.g.
(` ·` , ´, ·` , ¯).
(7) The (¸,,- ¸.') of all three scales is ( ¸ · ·).
(8) The (¸,,- __.·) of all three scales is ( ¸ · `,).
(9) Based on the above-mentioned facts, there are six
categories (.,,') of (·,- ¸·) which are as follows:
(` ,` .` , , . ) , · ,
( , . , . ` . ,` . ) , · ,
(` _ , _ ·) , · ,
(` _ ` , _ ) , . ,
(` ·` , ´, ·` , ¯) , ~ ,
(` . ` -, . -) , · ,

(10) There is no rule to specify which verb belongs to
which category (...,). It is based on (_..-) – as heard
from the Arabs. One can also ascertain which
category a verb belongs to from a dictionary. There are
however certain guidelines which are as follows:
[a] If the verb belongs to the category of ( _ .. ·
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` _ . ,) the second or third letter will be from the ( ,,.-
·,-)
5
, e.g. ( · · ` . · , . ), ( ¸ '` , ¸ ' ), (` _ ` -, _ -).
[b] If the perfect (¸...' ¸..·) is of the form
( ¸. · ·), the imperfect ( __..' ¸.·) is generally from the
category of (` _ ` , _ ).
[c] If the perfect ( ¸..' ¸·) is of the form ( ¸.` · ·),
the imperfect ( __...' ¸..·) is generally from the
category of (` ·` , ´, ·` , ¯).

Exercise 3
To which category (...,) does each of the following verb
belong:
(1) ( . ·` , . · ,)
(2) (` ·` ,` , · , )
(3) (` , , , , , ·)
(4) (` . =, . ~)
(5) (` · ,` , · , )

5
The (·,- ,,-) are the following six letters:
(_ . _ . _ . _ . · . .).
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The Perfect Active Tense (,,·' ¸.')

(1) There are 14 word-forms (··,...) of the perfect tense
( ¸...' ¸..·). All three diacritical points or vowels
( ..¯,-) can be used on the ( ·.´ ¸.·) as is apparent
from the above-mentioned six categories (.,,').

(2) The Arab Grammarians usually begin the Perfect ( ¸.·
¸..') and Imperfect ( __..' ¸.·) conjugations with the
third person (....·), followed by the second person
(.~-) and finally the first person (,´·).

(3) Unlike English, Arabic also has a dual form for the
second and third persons. As for the first person, the plural
form is used for both the dual and plural.

(4) Hereunder follow the paradigms of the perfect tense.
Note that the first three froms are for the masculine while
the second three are for the feminine of the third person.
The following six forms are for the second person, the first
three being for the masculine and the second three for the
feminine. The final two forms are for the first person.
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.,·'· =¸¸-'· _=·'· ¸-«|·

--,=|· (Word-form)
Verb
.· ,¯· -, ¸ · ·
.· ,¯· ·,· · ·
.· ,¯· _~ ` , · ·
.· .,· -, ` . · ·
.· .,· ·,· · ·
.· .,· _~ ¸ · ·
,.- ,¯· -, . · ·
,.- ,¯· ·,· ` · ·
,.- ,¯· _~ ` ,` · ·
,.- .,· -, . · ·
,.- .,· ·,· ` · ·
,.- .,· _~ ` ¸` · ·
,´· -, ` . · ·
,´· _~ · ·
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Exercise 4

Conjugate the following verbs in the perfect tense ( ¸..'
,,·') in table form :
(a) ( · ` . ` ·, . )
(b) (` _ -` , _ - )
(c) ( ¸` , ¸ ·)
(d) ( . ·` , . · ,)
(e) ( ¸` -` , ¸ - ·)
(f) (` .` ´, . ¯)
(g) (` , ` ·, , ·)
(h) (` , ·` , , · )
(i) (` -` -, - -)
(j) ( ¸ , ¸ ·)
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The Perfect Passive (¸,,- ¸.')

The (¸,..,- ¸...') is constructed from the ( ¸...'
,,.·') in all triliteral verbs ( ·,.- ¸.·). If we take the
first verb, namely the third person singular form, ( ¸.. · ·), a
( ·..) is rendered to the first letter, a ( ·,.¯) is rendered
to the second letter while the third letter remains in its
original condition. The result is ( ¸. · ·). No matter what the
(·..¯,-) of the second letter in the active tense is, in the
passive tense it will always be (_,´·). Examples:

Active – (=¸¸--) Passive – (,,,=)
, . , .`
_ _ `
·` , ¯ · , ¯

Note that the intransitive verbs can be used in the passive tense if
they are used with a particle (,-), e.g.
(· , . · · ) – It was taken.
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.,·'· ,,,=· _=·'· ¸-«|·

Word-form Verb
singular masculine 3
rd
person
¸ · ·
dual masculine 3
rd
person
· · ·
plural masculine 3
rd
person
` , · ·
singular feminine 3
rd
person
` . · ·
dual feminine 3
rd
person
· ·
plural feminine 3
rd
person
¸ · ·
singular masculine 2
nd
person
. · ·
dual masculine 2
nd
person
` · ·
plural masculine 2
nd
person
` ,` · ·
singular feminine 2
nd
person
. · ·
dual feminine 2
nd
person
` · ·
plural feminine 2
nd
person
` ¸` · ·
singular first person
` . · ·
dual and plural first person
· ·

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_«·'· =¸¸-'· _=·'· ¸-«|·
Verb Pronoun
· ¸ · · ,` ·
· · · ` ·
` , · · · ` ,` ·
` . · · · ¸ ·
· · · ` ·
¸ · · · ` ¸` ·
. · · · .` '
` · · · ` ` '
` ,` · · · ` ,` ` '
. · · · .` '
` · · · ` ` '
` ¸` · · · ` ` ' ` ¸
` . · · · '
· · · ` ¸` -
The words ( . ·) or ( .)
are used for the
negative sense. To use
( .) with ( ¸..'), the
condition is that the
( .) must be repeated
eg.
(¸ . . , ·` . · ·).

The column on the
right indicates how the
pronouns (,...) are
used with the verbs.
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_«·'· ,,,=· _=·'· ¸-«|·

Word-form Verb
.· ¸ · · ·
.· · · ·
.,· ` , · · ·
·· ` . · · ·
.· · · ·
.· ¸ · · ·
.~-' . · · ·
-' .~ ` · · ·
.,~-' ` ,` · · ·
·~-' . · · ·
.~-' ` · · ·
.~-' ` ¸` · · ·
,´' ` . · · ·
_· _· ,´' · · ·

Note the Arabic terms used for the different word-forms in
this table.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 5

(a) Translate the following sentences:

, · , .¯` , , · ,` ·
, · , .¯` , . , ·
, · , ¸` , ,` ,` ´ · ¯ ` ·
, . , ~ . `
, ~ , - ` . ¯ ' .` '
, · , · ´ · ¸ ¸ ` ,` · ·` , ` ,` ` '
, · , · .` ~ .` ' ,
, , ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ¸ ` ¸` · ·` , ` ¸` ` '
, - , ` , , ` ¸` -
, · , ` , ´ ` , · ` , · ·

(b) What is the (··,.) of the following verbs:
[1] ( ·,· ··· ¸· ,¯ . , · - = .·,, ·_·¯ ··· )
[2] ( ¸· ¸ · | )
[3] ( ,¯ · , · ¸ · - ¸· . )
[4] ( · = ¸ · ., )
[5] ( ¸· = ¸ = ·· )
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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[6] ( · = ¸ , , · ·· )
[7] ( . · · ·,. ,´,· )
[8] ( ··,,,' ·¸, . · · = )
[9] ( .· ` ¸', . · · | )
[10] ( ·, , ·· · | _ _ )

(c) Are the following verbs (,,··) or (¸,,-)?
[1] ( . , -)
[2] ( . ·)
[3] (` ¸` ` , , ~)
[4] ( ` · ,)
[5] ( ` . ·)



From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The Imperfect (__.')

The Imperfect (__.') is formed by adding prefixes and/or
suffixes to the perfect tense. The prefixes can either be any of the
letters ( ¸` , '). The suffixes may either be (.), (.,), (¸,) or just
(.).

After adding the prefix, the first radical or letter of the verb has
(.,´), e.g. the () of ( ¸ · ,) has a sukûn. The second letter
can have any of the three harakât, depending on which category
(.,) the verb belongs to.

In the indicative case (_·, ·-), the final vowel of the third
radical (·´ ·.) is (·.) in the singular form of the verb, e.g.
( ¸ · ,), ( ¸ · ), ( ¸ · · ') and ( ¸ · ). For the subjunctive case ( ·-
..), this (·.) is changed to (·-·), e.g. ( ¸ · ,), ( ¸ · ),
( ¸ · · ') and ( ¸ · ); while for the jussive case (·,- ·-), it is
replaced by a (.,´), e.g. ( ¸ · ,), ( ¸ · ), ( ¸ · · ') and ( ¸ · ). The
changes in the singular and dual forms will be discussed later.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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'· ¸-«|· .,·'· =¸¸-'· g_·=

Meaning Verb
He is doing or he will do.
¸ · ,
They (2 males) are doing or they will do.
. · ,
They (plural males) are doing or they will do.
.` , · ,
She is doing or she will do.
¸ ·
They (2 females) are doing or they will do.
. ·
They (plural females) are doing or they will do.
¸ · ,
You (1 male) are doing or you will do.
¸ ·
You (2 males) are doing or you will do.
. ·
You (plural males) are doing or you will do.
.` , ·
You (1 female) are doing or you will do.
¸` , ·
You (2 females) are doing or you will do.
. ·
You (plural females) are doing or you will do.
¸ ·
I am doing or will do.
¸ · · '
We are doing or we will do.
¸ ·

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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_«·'· =¸¸-'· g_·='· ¸-«|·

¸ · , .
. · , .
.` , · , .
¸ · .
. · .
¸ · , .
¸ · .
. · .
.` , · .
¸` , · .
. · .
¸ · .
· ' . ¸ ·
¸ · .

.,·'· ,,,=· g_·='· ¸-«|·

¸ · `,
. · `,
.` , · `,
¸ · `
. · `
¸ · `,
¸ · `
. · `
.` , · `
¸` , · `
. · `
¸ · `
¸ · · '
¸ · `

_«·'· ,,,=· g_·='· ¸-«|·

¸ · `, .
. · `, .
.` , · `, .
¸ · ` .
. · ` .
¸ · `, .
¸ · ` .
. · ` .
.` , · ` .
¸` , · ` .
. · ` .
¸ · ` .
· · ' . ¸
¸ · ` .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 6

(1) To which category (...,) do each of the following
verbs belong:
(a) (¸ - ¸ -)
(b) (, =, , ~)
(c) (` ·, ·)
(d) (: · : ·)
(e) (, =, , =)
(2) What is the (··,.) of the following words:
, · , ¸·' ¸´, v . , « · - ,
, · , · _,,, ', . , · « - ·
, · , = .¸ , · = , v ·, ¸
, . , c · - | v ` ¸
, « , ¸, . , · · | ,
, · , = , - | v _,=· ¸
, v , . ¸ ¸ = · , : · | ¸,¸ _¸
, , , . , - · « , .,·'
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The Imperfect Passive Tense ( __.' ¸,,- )

The ( __...' ¸,..,- ) is constructed from the ( __...'
,,.·') in all triliteral verbs ( ·,.- ¸.·). If we take the
first verb, namely the third person singular form, ( ¸. · ,), a
( ·..) is rendered to the first letter which is the ( ·.···
__...') – sign of the imperfect tense. A (·..-·) is
rendered to the ( ·.´ ¸.·) while the ( ·.´ ·.)
remains as it is. The result is ( ¸.. · `,). No matter what the
( ·.¯,-) of the ( ·.´ ¸.·) in the active tense is, in the
passive tense, it will always be (_,·). Examples:

Active – (=¸¸--) Passive – ( = ,,, )
` ,` .` , ` , .` `,
` _ ` , ` _ ` `,
` . ,` ., ` . ,` .`,

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 7

(a) Translate the following into English:

, · , .` , ·` `, ,·, ¸ · , ` · ¸ ·` `, .
, · , ` ¸ ` . ,` `,
, · , ' _` _ . , ` : ` ·` , , ¸ ¯` ,`,
, . , · ¸ `, · , _ -` ¸ · ' ¸ , ´`
, ~ , · ´` · ` ¸ · ' ¸ ` · . ` , , `, ¸ ·

(b) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:
[1] The door of the school is being opened.
[2] He is being sent to Madînah.
[3] The disbelievers will be defeated.
[4] The car will be left on the road.
[5] The book will be read today.

(c) Conjugate the following verbs into the ( __....·
¸,,-):

, ~ ,
` _ , ,

, . ,
` · ,` ,,

, · ,
` , ´` ,

, · ,
` ·` _` ,,

, · ,
` _ -` ,,


From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The (·. ,,-)

The (·. ,,-) are: ( . '), ( ` ¸ ), (` ¸ ¯) and ( . · ¸). When they
precede the (__.· ¸··), they render (..) to the following
five words:
, · , .· ,¯· -, . ¸ · ,
, · , .· .,· -, . ¸ ·
, · , ,.- ,¯· -, . ¸ ·
, . , ,´· -, . ¸ · · '
, ~ , ,´· _~ . ¸ ·
The ( .,·¸ ., ) of the following seven words is deleted:
, · , .· ,¯· ·,· . . · ,
, · , .· ,¯· _~ . .` , · ,
, · , .· .,· ·,· . . ·
, . , ,.- ,¯· ·,· . . ·
, ~ , ,.- ,¯· _~ . .` , ·
, · , ,.- .,· -, . ¸` , ·
, · , ,.- .,· ·,· . . ·

The following two words remain unchanged:
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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, · , .· .,· _~ . ¸ · ,
, · , ,.- .,· _~ . ¸ ·
The word (` ¸ ) changes the positive imperfect tense ( __.·
.··) to negative (¸·) with emphasis.

The paradigms of (,,··) – the active tense and (¸,,-) – the
passive tense – when used with the other particles, ( . '), (` ¸ ¯) and
( . · ¸) will be the same as was in the case of (` ¸ ).
Examples:

` , · , . '

· · , . ' ¸ · , . '
, · , ` ¸ ¯

` ¸ ¯ · · , ¸ · , ` ¸ ¯
` , · , . · ¸ · · , . · ¸ ¸ · , . · ¸

Hereunder follow the paradigms of (__.· ¸··) when used with
the particle (` ¸ ).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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¸-«|· _·- ¸| _- _«·|· =,·|·
· =¸¸-'· ¸,«·.'
¸ · , ` ¸
· , ` ¸
` , · , ` ¸
¸ · ` ¸
· ` ¸
¸ · , ` ¸
¸ · ` ¸
· ` ¸
` , · ` ¸
` ¸ · ` ¸
· ` ¸
¸ · ` ¸
¸ · · ' ` ¸
¸ · ` ¸

«·|· =,·|· ¸-«|· _·- ¸| _- _
,,,=· ¸,«·.'·
¸ · `, ` ¸
· `, ` ¸
` , · `, ` ¸
¸ · ` ` ¸
· ` ` ¸
¸ · `, ` ¸
¸ · ` ` ¸
· ` ` ¸
` , · ` ` ¸
` ¸ · ` ` ¸
· ` ` ¸
¸ · ` ` ¸
¸ · · ' ` ¸
` ` ¸ ¸ ·

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 8

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( . '):
, · , ¸` .` -,
, · , ` ¸ ,` ,
, · , ` , ´` ,
, . , , ` . ·
, ~ , ` .` , ,

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using (` ¸ ¯):
, · , ` , = ,
, · , ` _ ·` ,,
, · , ` ` ` ·,
, . , ` : ` ,
, ~ , ¸ ` ·,


From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The (··_- ,,-)
The (··_- ,,-) are ( . ¸), (` , ), (` ), ( ,` · . ` · .) and ( . .
¸` ,` ). When they precede the (__.· ¸··), they render (·,-)
to the following five words:
, · , .· ,¯· -, . ¸ · ,
, · , .· .,· -, . ¸ ·
, · , ,.- ,¯· -, . ¸ ·
, . , ,´· -, . ¸ · · '
, ~ , ,´· _~ . ¸ ·
The (.,·¸ .,) of the following seven words is deleted:
, · , · , .· ,¯· ·,· . .
, · , .· ,¯· _~ . .` , · ,
, · , .· .,· ·,· . . ·
, . , ,.- ,¯· ·,· . . ·
, ~ , ,.- ,¯· _~ . .` , ·
, · , ,.- .,· -, . ¸` , ·
, · , ,.- .,· ·,· . . ·

The following two words remain unchanged:
, · , .· .,· _~ . ¸ · ,
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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, · , ,.- .,· _~ . ¸ ·
The word (` , ) changes the positive imperfect tense ( __.'
.·') to the negative perfect tense ( ¸.' ¸' ).

The paradigms of (,,··) – the active voice and (¸,,-) – the
passive voice – when used with ( . ¸), (` ), ( ,` · . ` · .) and ( . .
¸` ,` ), will be the same as was in the case of (` , ).
Examples:

` , · , . ¸ · · , . ¸ ¸ · , . ¸
, · , ` · · , ` ¸ · , `
· , ` , · · , ¸ · ,
` , · , . · · , . ¸ · , .

The word (` ) means ‘not as yet’. Thus ( ¸ · , ` ) will mean ‘he
did not do as yet’.
The ( ,` · . ` · .) enters all the word-forms of the passive tense
(¸,,-). In the active tense (,,··), it is only used in the third
person (.·) and first person (,´·) word-forms.

If any of the (··_- ,,-) precede a (__.· ¸··) whose ( ·.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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·´) is a (·· ,-), the (·· ,-) is deleted.
Examples:

( =¸¸-
--_·-)
Example of
(¸)
Example of
(¸)
Example of
(·)
` , ` _` , ` ,
·` ,, ` , ¸` -, ` ,
` ` _` , ` ·` ,, ` ¸` -, `
,·. ·. ` _` , ·` , , ¸` - ,
¸, .. ` _` , . ·` ,, . ¸` -, .

Hereunder follow the paradigms of (__.· ¸··) when used with
the particle (` , ).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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, | _- _«·|· g_·='· _·-
=¸¸-'·
¸ · , ` ,
· , ` ,
` , · , ` ,
¸ · ` ,
· ` ,
¸ · , ` ,
¸ · ` ,
· ` ,
` , · ` ,
` ¸ · ` ,
· ` ,
¸ · ` ,
` , ¸ · · '
¸ · ` ,

, | _- _«·|· =,·|· g_·='· _·-
,,,=·
¸ · `, ` ,
· `, ` ,
` , · `, ` ,
¸ · ` ` ,
· ` ` ,
¸ · `, ` ,
¸ · ` ` ,
· ` ` ,
` , · ` ` ,
` ¸ · ` ` ,
· ` ` ,
¸ · ` ` ,
· · ' ` , ¸
¸ · ` ` ,

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 9

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using (` , ):
, · , ` ·` , ´,
, · , ` _ ` ,
, · , ` , ´` ,
, . , ` . · ,
, ~ , ` .` , ,

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using (,·. ·.):
, · , ` ,` - ,
, · , ` _ ¯` ,,
, · , ` ` ` ·,
, . , ` : ` ,
, ~ , ¸ ` ·,
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The (·.) and (.,) of Emphasis
(·,, ` , ¯ '` ` · .) – The Energetic Forms

(1) To create emphasis in the meaning of (__.· ¸··), the ( ` · .
` , ¯ '` ) is prefixed to it and (·, .,) or (·,- .,) suffixed to
it. The (·, .,) is (·` ` ·) and is suffixed to all the word-forms
(_ , .). The (·,- .,) is (¸¯) and is not suffixed to the
(·,·) and (.,· _~) word-forms.
(2) The letter prededing the (·, .,) is (_,·) in the
following word-forms:
, · , · , ` ¸ · , . .· ,¯· -, . ¸
, · , ` ¸ · . .· .,· -, . ¸ ·
, · , ` ¸ · . ,.- ,¯· -, . ¸ ·
, . , ` ¸ · · ' . ,´· -, . ¸ · · '
, ~ , ` ¸ · . ,´· _~ . ¸ ·

(3) The (.,·¸ .,) is deleted in the following words before
attaching the (,¯' .,):

, · , . · , . .· ,¯· ·,· . . · ,
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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, · , ` ¸ · , . .· ,¯· _~ . .` , · ,
, · , . · . .· .,· ·,· . . ·
, . , . · . ,.- ,¯· ·,· . . ·
, ~ , ` ¸ · . ,.- ,¯· _~ . .` , ·
, · , ` ¸ · . ,.- .,· -, . ¸` , ·
, · , ,.- .,· ·,· . . · ¸ . ·

(4) The (.) of the (·,·) is retained while the (·, .,) itself
becomes (_,´·), e.g. ( . · , ).
(5) The (,,) of (,¯· _~) and the (¸) of (.,· -,) are also
deleted. The (·.) before the (,,) and the (·,¯) before the
(¸) are retained, e.g. (` ¸ · , ) and (` ¸ · ).
(6)In the (.,· _~) word-forms, an (.) is inserted between
the ( , . ) of (_~) and the (·, .,) so that three nûns do not
occur in one place. This will occur in the following two word-
forms:

, · , . · , . .· .,· _~ . ¸ · ,
, · , . · . ,.- .,· _~ . ¸ ·

(7) The (·, .,) itself is (_,´·) in these two words. In short,
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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the (·, .,) is (_,´·) after (.) and (_,·) in the other
instances.

(8) The (·,- .,) is similar to the (·, .,) except in the
(·,·) and (.,· _~) word-forms. The (·,- .,) is only used
in those words where there is no (.) before (·, .,) and
these are eight word-forms.
Once (·, .,) and (·,- .,) enter a (__.· ¸··), its
meaning changes to the future tense.


From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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_·- -·,«·|· .,·|· _- =,·|·|· ;v
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
` ¸ · ,
. · ,
` ¸ · ,
` ¸ ·
. ·
. · ,
` ¸ ·
. ·
` ¸ ·
` ¸ ·
. ·
. ·
` ¸ · · '
` ¸ ·

_·- -·,«·|· .,·|· _- =,·|·|· ;v
,,,=· g_·='·
` ¸ · ` ,
. · ` ,
` ¸ · ` ,
` ¸ · `
. · `
. · ` ,
` ¸ · `
. · `
` ¸ · `
` ¸ · `
` . ·
. · `
` ¸ · · '
` ¸ · `

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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_·- -«,«-· .,·|· _- =,·|·|· ;v
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
` ¸ · ,
X
` ¸ · ,
` ¸ ·
X
X
` ¸ ·
X
` ¸ ·
` ¸ ·
X
X
` ¸ · · '
` ¸ ·

=,·|·|· v _·- -«,«-· .,·|· _-
,,,=· g_·='·
` ¸ · ` ,
X
` ¸ · ` ,
` ¸ · `
X
X
` ¸ · `
X
` ¸ · `
` ¸ · `
X
X
` ¸ · · '
` ¸ · `

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 10

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ·., .,.) in the
active and passive tenses:

, · , ` . ` -,
, · , ` _ ` ,
, · , ` , ´` ,
, . , ` . · ,
, ~ , ` .` , ,

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ·.,- .,.) in the
active and passive tenses:

, · , ` : ` ,
, · , ` _ ·` ,,
, · , ` ` ` ·,
, . , ` ¸ ` -,
, ~ , ¸ ` ·,
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The Imperative (,·')

The ( ,..- ,.·' – imperative second person) is constructed
from the (__.· ¸··) in the following manner:
(1) The ( __..' ·.···) – the sign of the imperfect tense -
is deleted.
(2) If the following letter is (·,..-·), the final letter is
rendered (¸¯). Example: the verb (` · ) changes to (` ·).
(3) If the following letter is ( ¸¯.), a ( ¸.., ·,.·) is
inserted at the beginning and the end is rendered (¸¯).
(4) If the ( ·.´ ¸·) has a ( ·..), the ( ¸.., ·,.·) is
rendered a (·.). Example: (` ,` .` ) becomes (` ,` .` ').
(5) If the (·´ ¸·) has a ( ·.-·) or ( ·,.¯), the ( ·,.·
¸.,) is rendered a (·,¯). Examples:
(` _ ) becomes (` _ · ¸).
(` . ,` . ) becomes (` . ,` . ¸).
(6) The ( .,.·¸ .,) is deleted while the ( ·,. .,.) –
the nūn of the feminine plural - is retained. Examples:
( . · ) becomes ( · · ¸).
( ¸ · ) becomes ( ¸ · · ¸).
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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(7) The (·..· ,..-) at the end is deleted. Examples:
(` ,` ·` ) becomes (` _` · ').
(` ¸ ·` , ) becomes ( ·` _ ¸).
(¸ ` - ) becomes ( ¸` - ¸).

(8) The imperative of the first and third persons ( ,..·'
,´..', ...·) is formed by adding a (·.) at the
beginning of ( __..· ¸.··). This (·.) has the same effect
on the verbs as (` , ).

(9) The ( .,¯' ·.) and ( .,¯' .,.) can also be attached
to the (,·') word-forms.

Hereunder follow the paradigms of (,,..·' ,..·. - the
imperative active) and ( ¸,...,- ,...·. - the imperative
passive).
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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=¸¸-'· ¸-v·
¸ · ,
· ,
` , · ,
¸ ·
·
, ¸ ·
¸ · · ¸
· · ¸
` , · · ¸
` ¸ · · ¸
· · ¸
¸ · · ¸
¸ · · '
¸ ·

,,,=· ¸-v·
¸ · ` ,
· ` ,
` , · ` ,
¸ · `
· `
¸ · ` ,
¸ · `
· `
` , · `
` ¸ · `
` ·
¸ · `
¸ · · '
¸ · `

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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-·,«·|· .,·|· _- =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` ¸ · ,
· · , .
` ¸ · ,
` ¸ ·
· · .
. · ,
` ¸ · · ¸
· · ¸ · .
` ¸ · · ¸
` ¸ · · ¸
· · ¸ · .
. · · ¸
` ¸ · · '
` ¸ ·

-·,«·|· .,·|· _- ,,,=· ¸-v·
` ¸ · ` ,
· ` , · .
` ¸ · ` ,
` ¸ · `
· ` · .
. · ` ,
` ¸ · `
· · ` .
` ¸ · `
` ¸ · `
· ` · .
` . ·
` ¸ · · '
` ¸ · `

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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-«,«-· .,·|· _- =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` ¸ · ,
X
· , ` ¸
` ¸ ·
X
X
` ¸ · · ¸
X
` ¸ · · ¸
` ¸ · · ¸
X
X
` ¸ · · '
` ¸ ·

-«,«-· .,·|· _- ,,,=· ¸-v·
` ¸ · ` ,
X
` ¸ · ` ,
` ¸ · `
X
X
` ¸ · `
X
` ¸ · `
` ¸ · `
X
X
` ¸ · · '
` ¸ · `

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 11

Conjugate the imperative (,..·') of the following verbs in
the active and passive forms first and then conjugate them
using the (,¯' ·.) and (,¯' .,):
, · , ¸ ` ·,
, · , ¸` -` ,
, · , ` . ` -,
, . , ¸ ,` -,
, ~ , _ ` .,




The Prohibition (¸,)
(1) The particle ( .) is used before ( __..· ¸.··) to denote
prohibition. It has the same effect as ( .. ` , ) in changing the
different word-forms.
(2) The ( ·., .,) and ( ·.,- .,.) can be attached to all
the forms of (¸,).
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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=¸¸-'· _,·|·
¸ · , .
· , . ·
` , · , .
¸ · .
· . ·
¸ · , .
¸ · .
· . ·
` , · .
. ` ¸ ·
· . ·
¸ · .
¸ · · ' .
¸ · .

,,,=· _,·|·
¸ · `, .
· `, . ·
` , · `, .
¸ · ` .
· ` . ·
¸ · `, .
¸ · ` .
· · ` .
` , · ` .
` ¸ · ` .
· ` . ·
¸ · ` .
¸ · · ' .
¸ · ` .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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-·,«·|· .,·|· _- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
` ¸ · , .
· , . · .
` ¸ · , .
` ¸ · .
· . · .
. · , .
` ¸ · .
· . · .
. ` ¸ ·
` ¸ · .
· . · .
. · .
` ¸ · · ' .
` ¸ · .

-·,«·|· .,·|· _- ,,,=· _,·|·
` ¸ · `, .
· `, . · .
` ¸ · `, .
` ¸ · ` .
· ` . · .
. · `, .
` ¸ · ` .
· ` . · .
` ¸ · ` .
` ¸ · ` .
· ` . · .
. · ` .
` ¸ · · ' .
` ¸ · ` .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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-«,«-· .,·|· _- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
` ¸ · , .

` ¸ · , .
` ¸ · .


` ¸ · .

` ¸ · .
` ¸ · .


` ¸ · · ' .
` ¸ · .

-«,«-· .,·|· _- ,,,=· _,·|·
` ¸ · `, .

` ¸ · `, .
` ¸ · ` .


` ¸ · ` .

` ¸ · ` .
` ¸ · ` .


` ¸ · · ' .
` ¸ · ` .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 12

(1) Conjugate the prohibition (¸,..) of the following
verbs in the active and passive forms first and then
conjugate them using the (,¯' ·.) and (,¯' .,):
, · , ` _ ` -,
, · , ` _` ,` -,
, · , ` . ` -,
, . , ¸ ,` -,
, ~ , _ ` .,

(2) What is the (··,.) of the following verbs?

, · , . ` -` , .
, · , ` ¸ ` ' .
, · , . ` .
, . , ` ¸ · ` ` .
, ~ , . ` - ,` - .
, · , ·` , . ` ¸`
, · , . ` ,` .
, , ` ¸` ¯` ,, .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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THE DERIVED NOUNS (·' .-.)

The following six nouns are derived from the verb:
, · , ¸· , , · , ¸,·' , , · , ¸,. , , . , ·.
·,' , ~ , ·. , , · , ,= ,

The Active Participle (¸· ,)

The active participle (¸· ,) indicates the person or being
from whom the action emanates, e.g. (` _ · ) – a person who
listens.
In 3-root letter verbs (·,- ¸·), the (¸· ,) is formed by
adding an (.) after the first letter, rendering a (·,¯) to the
second letter and (¸,,) to the final letter. Thus, ( ¸ · ·) becomes
( ¸ · ·). In the dual forms (·,·), (.) and (.,) are attached to
the end, e.g. ( · · · . ). For the feminine form, a round (·) is
inserted at the end. For the masculine plural (,¯· _~), (.,) is
inserted, e.g. ( .` , · ·), while for the feminine plural (.,· _~),
the syllable, (.) is attached, e.g. ( · · · ` . ). There are three
scales for the masculine form and three for the feminine form of
the word.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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--,=|· ¸-·«|· ,=·
,¯· -, ¸ · ·
,¯· ·,· · · · .
,¯· _~ .` , · ·
.,· -, · · ·
.,· ·,· . · ·
.,· _~ · · · ` .

In the indicative case (_·, ·-), the (·,·) is used with an (.)
while in the accusative and genative cases (,-, .. ·-), it
is used with a (¸) preceded by a (·-·). The (.,) of the (·,·) is
(_,´·), e.g. ( · · · . ) and ( ¸` , · ·).
For the masculine plural in (_·, ·-), a (,) is used while in
( ·- ,-, .. ), a (¸) preceded by a (·,¯) is used. The
(.,) of (_~) is (_,·), e.g. ( .` , · ·) and ( ¸` , · ·).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 13

Conjugate the (¸· ,) of the following verbs:
, · , ` _ ` -,
, · , ` _` ,` -,
, · , ` . ` -,
, . , ¸ ,` -,
, ~ , ` _ ` ,
, · , ¸ ` ·,
, · , ¸` -` ,
, , ` _ ,` -,
, - , ` ` ,
, · , _ ` .,



From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The Passive Participle (¸,·' ,)

The passive participle (¸,·' ,) is that entity on which the
action occurs, e.g. (` _` ,` ·) – the thing which is opened. It is
formed by adding a (_,· ·) at the beginning, a (,) after the
second letter and (¸,,) at the end. The first root letter ( ,-
¸.') becomes (¸¯) while the second one becomes (·,.·).
The additions for the dual and plural forms are the same as the
(¸· ,). Like the (¸· ,), it also has six word-forms.


--,=|· ,,-«'· ,=·
,¯· -,
¸` ,` · ·
,¯· ·,· ` ,` · · . .
,¯· _~
.` , ` ,` · ·
.,· -,
· ` ,` · ·
.,· ·,·
. ` ,` · ·
.,· _~ ` ,` · · . ` .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 14

Conjugate the ( ,·' , ¸ ) of the following verbs:

, · , ` , =,
, · , ` . ´,
, · , ` , ` ·,
, . , ` ,` ,
, ~ , _ ` .,
, · , ¸ ` ·,
, · , ¸` -` ,
, , ` . ` -,
, - , ¸ ,` -,
, · , ` _ ` ,

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The Elative (¸,. ,)

The (¸,. ,) is a derived noun that indicates the comparative
or superlative degree e.g. ( ¸ . · ') – more virtuous or most
virtuous. The scale of ( ¸ · · ') is used for this purpose, except for
colours and defects. In the case of colours and defects, the scale
of ( ¸ · · ') is used for (·,' ·.) e.g. (` , ` - ') – red, (_` · ') –
blind. Tanwīn never enters the end of (¸,. ,). The ( ,
¸,.) generally renders the meaning of the doer (¸··) but
sometimes it can render the meaning of the object (¸,··), e.g.
(` , ,` ') - more famous.

Hereunder follows the paradigm of the (¸,. ,):
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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--,=|· ¸,=«·|· ,=·
,¯· -, ¸ · · '
,¯· ·,· · · · ' .
,¯· ,. _~ .` , · · '
,¯· ,´· _~ ¸ · · '
.,· -, ¸ ` · ·
.,· ·,· . , ` · ·
.,· ,. _~ ` . , ` · ·
.,· ,´· _~ ¸ · ·


From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 14

Conjugate the (¸,. ,) of the following verbs:

, · , ` ·` , ´,
, · , ¸` ` -,
, · , ` ¸` ` -,
, . , ` ,` ·` ,
, ~ , _ ` .,
, · , ¸ ` ·,
, · , ¸` -` ,
, , ` . ` -,
, - , ¸ ,` -,
, · , ` _ ` ,

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The (·,· ·.)

The ( ·. ·,· ) is a derived noun referring to the permanent
quality of an entity, e.g. ( ¸` , -) – beautiful. The (¸· ,) on
the other hand describes a temporary quality e.g. (` _ · ) –
listening at the moment. A person will only be referred to as
(` . _ .) if the quality of (.` , .) emanates from him whereas the
attribute of ( ¸` , -) applies to a person all the time.The ( ·.
·,·) is always intransitive (·_.) even though it may be
constructed from a transitive verb (¸··). Hence the difference
between (` _ · ) and (` _` , ) is that (` _ · ) indicates a being
listening at the moment while (` _` , ) indicates a being which
permanently has the quality of listening even though there may
be no object. Therefore one can say ( : · ¯ ` _ · ), but to say
( : · ¯ ` _` , ) is incorrect. The (·,· ·.) has six word-forms
like the (¸· ,). For the dual and plural forms, changes are
made to the end as in the (¸· ,).

Hereunder follows the paradigm of the ( ·. ·,· ):
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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--,=|· -,,=- -«=
,¯· -, ` ¸ -
,¯· ·,· . -
,¯· _~ .` ,` -
.,· -, · -
.,· ·,· . -
.,· _~ ` . -

The (·,· ·.) is used on many scales for which there is no
rule. It is based on (_-) – as heard from the Arabs. Sometimes
a (), (,) or (¸) is inserted after the second alphabet, e.g.
(` _ -` ), (` _` , · ,), (` .`, , ). Sometimes the root-form remains
intact but a change occurs in the harakāt, e.g. (` .` · .), (` .` ` -),
(` , .). Some of the more common scales are listed hereunder.

Scale Example Meaning
¸ · · ` ¸ -
handsome
¸` · · ` .` ` -
impure
¸ · · ` _ -`
brave
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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¸ · · . . -
chaste
¸` · · ` ,` - .
thick
¸` · · ` , .
empty
¸` · · ¯ ,` -
free
¸ · · ` _ , ·
happy
¸ · · ` . - .
companion
¸` , · · ` ,`, , ¯
noble
¸ · · ' ` , ` - '
red
. ` · · . = ·
thirsty

The Noun of the Instrument ( , ·. )

The (·. ,) is a derived noun that indicates the instrument
used for the action. It is formed by adding a (_,´· ·) at the
beginning of the root letters. It has three scales.


Scales
¸ · · · · · ¸ · ·
Examples
,` - · · - ,` , · ` _ ·
Meanings needle fan key
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The paradigm including the dual and plural cases is as follows:

Scales Examples
¸ · · ` , .` ·
. · · . , .` ·
¸ · · ` , . ·
· · · · , .` ·
· . · . , .` ·
¸ · · ` , . ·
¸ · · ` _ .` ·
. · · . _ .` ·
¸` , · · ` ,` , . ·

Sometimes the underived noun (·-) is used to denote an
instrument. Different scales are used for this purpose but there is
no rule for arriving at a particular scale. Examples:
(` ¸ ' ·) - axe , (` ·` ,` ·) – adze
6
, (` ¸` , ´ ) - knife.


6
Adze: kind of axe with arched blade used for shaping wood.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 15

(a) Conjugate the ( , ·. ) of the following verbs:

, ~ , , =

, . , · , ~ , · , · , , , · , ¸ ¯ , · , _ ·

, · , ¸ ¯ ' , - , _ . , , · _ = , · , ¸ - ·

, · , ¸ ·

(b) Identify the derived nouns in the following sentences:

, · , _,, .= ¸·- ¸_., ., ¸- = .
, · , ,,,' ,·=·· ··_, ·_ .
, · , ··,.,· .,¯', ··,·,· _, ,,· ·,_- ¸· ,,· .
, . , ,´' ,. ., .,,', ¸ .
, ~ , ._·, _·· ,,· ,·, .
, · , _. ,··,· .¸ .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The Adverb (,= ,)

The (,= ,) is a derived noun that indicates the place or
time of the action. If the word indicates the place of the action, it
is called (.´' ,~) and if it indicates the time of the action, it
is called (.·, ,~). It is made by adding a (_,· ·) at the
beginning of the root letters. It has two scales, namely ( ¸ · ·) and
( ¸ · ·). If the (__.·) is (¸· _,·) or (¸· ·,.·) or
(¸·), the (,= ,) will be on the scale of ( ¸ · ·), e.g.
(` _ ·), (` , .` ·) and (¸ ·` , ·). If the (__.·) is (¸· _,´·) or
(¸··), the (,= ,) will be on the scale of ( ¸ · ·), e.g.
(` . ,` . ·) and (` _ ·` , ·).

The paradigm including the dual and plural forms is as follows:

_< -,··· =-·¸
¸ · · · · · . ¸ · ·
scale
` _ · . - · ` _ ·
example

The (,= ,) is often constructed from the underived noun
(·-) on the scale of ( · · ·) to indicate an excess of that object
in that place, e.g.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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( · ·) – a place of many lions - derived from (` ') – lion,
( · · ` ·)– a place of many predators - derived from (` _` ) –
predator,
( · - =` ·) – a place of many ducks - derived from (` _` , = ,) – duck.

There are certain words, which according to the rule should have
a (·-·) on the (·´ ¸·), but have been used with a (·,¯)
instead. These may be regarded as exceptions to the rule. The
scholars have written that it is permissible to pronounce these
words with a (·-·) as well. These words are:

Word Meaning Word Meaning
` -` ·
place of
prostration
` , ` - ·
place of assembly
` _ = ·
place of rising
` ·
place of falling
` ¸ ´` ·
place of staying
` · , ·
intersection
` : ` ·
place of
slaughtering
` _ ,` - ·
place of slaughtering
` . ` ·
place of
germinating
` · ,` ·
east
` ¸ ·` , ·
place of resting
the elbow
` . ,` · ·
west
` , -` ·
nostril
·` = ·
place where one
expects something

Sometimes the (,= ,) is used on the scale of ( · · ` ·), e.g.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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( · - ´` ·) – antimony bottle, from ( ¸` - ¯) - antimony.
The scale of ( · · ·) indicates the place where a thing falls during
the action, e.g.
( · ·) – the water which falls during bathing,
( · ¯) – the dirt which falls off the broom when sweeping.

Exercise 16

(a) Conjugate the (,= ,) of the following verbs:

, · , _ ·
, · , ¸ ¯
, · , · , ,
, . , · , ~
, ~ , , =
, · , ¸ ·
, · , ¸ - ·
, , _ = ·
, - , _ .
, · , ¸ ¯ '


From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The Intensive Adjective (··' ··,.)

The (··' ··,.) is a noun that indicates excess in meaning of
the verbal noun e.g. (` .` , .) – one who hits a lot. The difference
between (··' ··,.) and (¸,. ,) is that in (··' ··,.),
the excess meaning is limited to itself without taking others into
consideration whereas in the (¸,. ,), the excess in
meaning is in comparison to others. Hence (¸ ` -` · ` ¸ · ` . ,` . ') or
( ·` , ` . ,` . ') is in comparison to others while (` .` , .) is not in
comparison to anyone.

In the (··' ··,.), there is no difference in gender. Sometimes
a (·) is added for excess in meaning, e.g. ( · · · ¸` - _) – a very
learned man, ( · · · · ' ,` · ) - a very learned woman.

When ( ¸` , · ·) is in the meaning of ( ¸ · ·), or ( ¸` ,` · ·) is in the
meaning of ( ¸` ,` · ·), a differentiation is made between the
masculine and feminine forms. Examples:
(` ,` , · ,` ·) , ( · ` , · ¸ ·)
( ¸` ,` - ¸ -) , ( · ` ,` - · · ).

The following scales are the ones most frequently used for
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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( ··,. ··' ):

Scale Example Meaning
¸ · · ` _ -
very cautious
¸` , · · ` ,` , ·
very knowledgeable
¸` ,` · · ¸` , ¯ '
big eater
¸` · · ` ·
shedder of blood
¸` · · ` _` ¯
very great
¸` ,` · · ` ¸`,` .
very truthful
¸ · · ` · ,` - ·
one who cuts a lot
¸ · · ` · ·` ·
one who awards many prizes
¸` , · · ` ¸` , =` ·
chatterbox
¸ · · ` . -` ·
very strange
¸` ,` · · ` ·` ,` _ ·
very decisive
· ` · · · ´` -` .
one who habitually laughs
¸` ,' · · ` ·` ,' , ·
eternal
¸` ,' · · ` ¸` ,' ·
most holy
¸` · · ` . ·
very agile

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 17

(A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:
(1) He is very agile.
(2) This book is very strange.
(3) The principal awards many prizes.
(4) Abū Bakr is very truthful.
(5) She is a big eater.
(6) Allāh is very knowledgeable.
(7) The king was a shedder of blood.
(8) The student is very cautious.
(9) His mother is very patient.
(10) The mujāhid is extremely brave.

(B) What is the scale of the following (··' _,.):
, · , ` _` -
, · , ¸ . ·
, · , ` . ` ¸`,
, . , · ·` , ·
, ~ , ` ¸` , ´` ·
, · , ` .` ,` ,`
, · , ` ,` , ·
, , ` _ -
, - , ` _` ¯
, · , ` ¸` ,' ·
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The Categories (.,,') of Verbs
The (.,,') of (·,- ¸·)

You have already learnt that the verbs of (·,- ¸·) –three root-
letter verbs – have six categories (.,,') – plural of (.,).

The First (.,): ( , . ` ,` .` , )
( ¸` · , ¸ · ·) – the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of the (¸.') has a (·-·) while
the (__.·) has a (·.), e.g. (` ,` .` ) – to help. The abbreviated
paradigm
7
of this (.,) is as follows:



7
The abbreviated paradigm is where the first (··,...) of each paradigm
of the active and passive tenses is used.
` . ` , .` `, , .` , ` , . ,` , · ,` . ` ,` .`, , . ,` , · ,
` ·` · ` ` , = ` ,` .` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` ,` .` ' ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` _` ,` .` ·
¸` , . ` ¸ · · ' , ` _ .` · , · , .` · , ` , .` · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` , .` ·
¸ ,` .` ` ·` · .` ,` , ` , .` ' ` ·` ·
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The Second (.,) : ( . , . ` . ,` ., )
( ¸ · , ¸ · ·) – the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of the (¸.') has a (·-·) while
the (__.·) has a (·,¯), eg (` .` ,` .) – to hit. The abbreviated
paradigm of this (.,) is as follows:












The Third (.,) : ( _ · ` _ , )
( · · ¸ · , ¸ ) – the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of the (¸.') has a (·-·) while
the (__.·) also has a (·-·), e.g. (` _` ) – to open. The
condition for this (.,) is that if the verb is (_,-.)
8
, the ( ` ¸` , ·
· ´ ) or (· ´ ` · .) must be from the (·,- ,,-). This
does not mean that every verb which is (_,-.) and whose ( ` ¸` , ·

8
( _,-..) is that word which has no ( ·.· ,.-), two letters of the
same type or (·,·) as its root letter.
` . ,` ., . , . ,` , . . ,` ., ` . _ . ,` , · ,` , . ` . ,` .`,
` . ,` . . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` . ,` . ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` ·' ` .` ,` ,` . · ,` , ·
, · , ,` . · , ` . ,` . · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` . ,` . · ` ·` · ` ` , =
· .` ,` , ` . ,` . ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` ¸ ·· ' , ` . ,` . · ¸ ,` ,` . ` ·`
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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· ´ ) or (· ´ ` · .) is from the (·,- ,,-), will be from
(_· .,). The abbreviated paradigm of this (.,) and the
remaining (.,,') is similar to the above-mentioned examples.










The Fourth (.,) : ( _ , ` _ ` )
( ¸ · , ¸ · ·) – the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of the (¸.') has a (·,¯) while
the (__.·) has a (·-·), e.g. (` _` ` ) – to listen.







` _` ,` · ,` , · -` · ` _ `, _ · , ` _ · ,` , · -` · ` _ , _ ·
` _ · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` _ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` _ · ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · '
. ` ¸ · · ' , ` _ · , · - · , ` _ · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` ·` · ¸` ,
¸ -` · ` ·` · .` ,` , ` _ · '
,` , · ·` ` _ ` `, _ ` , ` _ · ,` , · ·` ` _` , _
` ·` · ` ` , = ` _ ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` _ ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` _` ,` ` ·
` · , ` _ ` · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` _ ` · ¸ · · ' , ` _ ` · , · ·
¸ ·` ` ` ·` · .` ,` , ` _ ` ' ` ·` · ¸` , . `
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The Fifth (.,) : ( ·` , ¯ , ` ·` , ´ )
( · ¸` · , ¸` · ) – the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of the (¸.') has a (·.) while
the (__.·) also has a (·.), e.g. (` ·` , ´ ) – to be noble. The
verbs of this (.,) are intransitive. In this (.,), instead of the
(¸· ,), the (·,· ·.) on the scale of ( ¸` , · ·) has been
used, e.g. (` ,`, , ¯).







The Sixth (.,) : ( . - , ` . ` - )
( ¸ · , ¸ · ·) – the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of the (¸.') has a (·,¯) while
the (__.·) also has a (·,¯), e.g. (` .` - ) – to ponder.
Besides ( . -), no other (_,-. ¸··) has been used in this
(.,). Acccording to some scholars, the verb (` , ·` , , · ) is also
,` , · · , ¯ ` · , ´`, · , ¯ , ` ,`, , ¯ ,` , · · , ¯ ` ·` , ´, ·` , ¯
` ·` · ` ` , = ` ·` , ´ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` ·` , ¯ ' ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` ·` ,` , ´ ·
· ¸` , . ` ¸ · · ' , ` · , ´ · , · · , ´ · , `· , ´ · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` · , ´
¸ ·` , ¯ ` ·` · .` ,` , ` · , ¯ ' ` ·` ·
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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from this (.,). However, verbs that are (¸··)
9
or (.,)
10
have
been used, e.g. ( . ,, . _ ,) and (` ¸ , ¸ ,). The verb ( . -) has
also been used with a (·-·) on the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of (__.·),
that is (` . ` -,).














9
A word having a (,) or (¸) as the ( .· ·´ ).
10
A word having two ( ,,- · · ).
` . ` -`, . ` - , ` . - ,` , · ` - ` . ` -, . -
` ¸` ,` , ` . ` - ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` .` ,` ` - · ,` , · ` - . ` ·` ·
, ` . ` - · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` . ` - · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` . ` -
.` ,` , ` . ` - ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · ·' , ` . ` - · , · ` - ·
¸ ` ` - ` ·` ·
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 18

Conjugate the following verbs as done above:

, · , . ¯
, · , _
, · , , ·
, . , , ·
, ~ , ¸ -
, · , .` · .
, · , ` ,
, , . ·
, - , _ ·
, · , . , ·
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The (.,,') of ( ,,· ¸· ·,· )
The Derived Forms of the Triliteral Verb

Arabic is extremely rich and copious in derived forms
which extend or modify the meaning of the root form of
the verb, giving many exact shades of meaning. This is a
common feature of Semitic languages and perhaps it
reaches its pinnacle in Arabic.

Derived forms are made by adding letters before or between the
root letters of the simple verb. Accordingly, ( , . ), which is the
root, means to help. From this verb the following verbs are
derived with differing meanings:

Verb Meaning
, .
to support
,` .
to try to help
, .
to render mutual assistance
, . ` '
to come to someone’s aid
, .` ` '
to ask for assistance

Another example of derived verbs is ( ¸ ·) which means to kill.
When extra letters are added to this root, the following meanings
are achieved.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Verb Meaning
¸` ·
to massacre
¸ ·
to combat, battle
¸ · '
to fight with one another
¸ ` '
to risk one’s life

Very few verb roots have all the other derived forms. Some have
only one (like – ` . · to drive away) or two (like . - – to sink),
while others have four or five as in the above examples. There is
often a good deal of overlapping of meaning between the forms.

Sometimes the root form is not in use while the derived forms
are used, e.g. ( .` _ - to arrange).

The (.,,') of (·,· ,,· ¸·) are twelve in total. They are
formed by adding extra letters to the (¸.' ¸·) of ( ¸·
·,-). Upto a maximum of three extra letters can be added to a
verb, thus bringing the maximum number of letters of a verb to
six (root letters plus extra letters).

Seven of these (.,,') have (¸., ·,·) at the beginning while
five do not have. Besides (·,- ¸·), every letter with a (·¯,-)
will become (·,.·) in the (¸,,- ¸.') except for the
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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penultimate letter which will be (_,´·). The (¸¯) will
remain as it is,
e.g. ( . ` ` - '), ( , .` ` ` ').

When ( ·) or ( .) are used in the (¸' ¸.'), the (¸., ·,·)
will not be pronounced as will the (.) of the ( ·) and ( .), e.g.
( . ` - ·), ( , = ` .).



From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The 12 (.,,') of (·,· ,,· ¸·) are as follows:

=·,
Example Extra Letters
¸=,|· ·¸'
,· - · , · , ¯ ' ' _= ·,·
¸ , - « · ` , . ` _
no hamza
- · -· « - ¸ ·
no hamza
,· - · · , . ` - ¸ . . ' ¸., ·,·
,· - « · , , = ` ¸ . . ' ¸., ·,·
,· · - · , ` , ` - ¸ ¸ . ' ¸., ·,·
¸- « · ¸` ` _ . .
no hamza
¸ -· « · ¸ , . .
no hamza
,· - « · = , , .` ` ¸ . . ¸ . ' ¸., ·,·
- · , ,· - , ¸ ` , ` - ¸ , . ' ¸., ·,·
,· · , - · , ` · ·` · ¸ ¸ . . ' ¸., ·,·
,·, - · , ·` , ` - ¸ ` , . ' ¸., ·,·



From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Construction of the Derived Nouns

To construct the (¸· ,) of any (.,) besides (·,- ¸·),
the (,,·· __.·) is modified by adding a (·,.· ·) at the
beginning and making the penultimate letter (_,´·) if it is not
already (_,´·).
Examples:
` · , ´`, ` · , ´` ·
` ` , .`, ` ` , .` ·
¸ `, ¸ ` ·

The (¸,·' ,) is like the (¸· ,) except that the
penultimate letter is (_,·).
Examples:
` · , ´`, ` · , ´` ·
` ` , .`, ` ` , .` ·
¸ `, ¸ ` ·

The (,= ,) of these (.,,') is used on the scale of the
(¸,·' ,). There is neither (·. ,) nor (¸,. ,) in
these (.,,'). In ordert to express the meaning of the (·. ,),
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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the words ( · , ·) are added to the (_.·) for this purpose, e.g.
(` . ` - , · , ·) – the means of refraining.

To express the (¸,. ,), the word (' ') is used before the
(.,.· _.·), e.g. ( , ` - ¸ ' ') – more refraining. Words like
(` , · ¯ '), ( ¸ · ') etc. can also be used.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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The Abbreviated Paradigm (_·. ,.) of Each
(.,)
,·-·, =·,
` · , ´` · ,` , · · , ¯ ¸ ` · , ´`, · , ¯ ' , ` ·, ´` · ,` , · · , ¯ ¸ ` · , ´`, · , ¯ ' ` ,` · '
` · , ´` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` · , ¯ ' ` ·` ·

The sign of ( ..., ¸..··¸ ) is a (_..= ·,..·)
11
in the
( ¸..' ¸.·) and ( ,.·') while the ( __..' ·.···) is
always (·,...·). The (_..= ·,..·) of the (¸...') is
deleted from the ( __..·). Thus ( .`, ` · , ¯ ' ) becomes ( ` · ,. ´`,).
The remaining word-forms follow the same pattern.

The detailed paradigms of this verb are provided
hereunder.

11
A hamzah that is not deleted in pronunciation when prefixed by any
letter.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. `, ` · , ´ ` · , ´` , ` · , ´`, · , ¯ '
´`, . · , · , ´` , · , ´`, . · , ¯ '
` · , ´`, . ` , ` · , ´` , ` , ` · , ´`, .` , ` · , ¯ ' ` ,
` · , ´` . ` · , ´` ` · , ´` · , ¯ ' ` .
· , ´` . · , ´` · , ´` . · , ¯ '
` · , ´`, . ¸ ` · , ´` , ¸ ` · , ´`, ¸ ¸` · , ¯ '
` · , ´` . ` · , ¯ ' ` · , ´` .` · , ¯ '
· , ´` . · , ¯ ' · , ´` . ` · , ¯ ' `
` ,` · , ´` . ` · , ¯ ' ` , ` ,` · , ´` . ` · , ¯ ' ` ,`
` ¸ · , ´` . · , ¯ ' ` ¸ ` , · , ´` ¸ ` · , ¯ ' .
· , ´` . · , ¯ ' · , ´` . ` · , ¯ ' `
` · , ´` . ¸ ' ` · , ¯ ¸ ` · , ´` ¸ ` · , ¯ ' ` ¸`
` · , ¯ ' . ` · , ¯ ' ` · , ¯ ' ` · , ¯ ' ` .
` · , ´` . ` · , ´` ` · , ´` ` · , ¯ '

¸..· ,.. · . ·.. · , ´` · . .` ,..` · , ´` · . ... · , ´` · . ` ·,.. ´` ·
` . · , ´` · . . · , ´` · .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 19

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , ¸ ` - ' , · , ·` , ' , · , , .` - ' , . , ¸ ` _ ' , ~ , , ` - '

¸,-«· =·,
,` , · `, ,` . ` ` , .`, ` ,` . , ` ` , .` · ,` , · `, ,` . ` ` , .`, ` , .
` ` , .` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` ` , . ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` ` , .` ·

The sign of (¸,· .,) is the tashdîd of the (·´ ¸·) in the
(¸.') and (,.- ,·') without a (.) preceding the ( .·
·´). The (__.' ····) of this (.,) is also always
(·,.·).
The (_.·) of this (.,) is also used on the following scales:
( · · ¸ ) e.g. (` · . ` · ¯);
( ¸` · ·) e.g. (` . ¯);
( · · ) e.g. ( · , ¯` , );
( ¸ · ) e.g. (` _ , ´ ).

The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. ` ` , .`, ` , ` ` , . ` ` , .`, ` , .
. ·` , .`, ·` , .` , ·` , .`, . ·` , .
. ·` , .`, ` , ·` , .` , ` , ·` , .`, .` , ·` , . ` ,
. ` ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ` , .` ·` , . ` .
. ·` , .` ·` , .` ·` , .` . ·` , .
. ·` , .`, ¸ ` , ·` , . ¸ ·` , .`, ¸ ·` , . ¸
` ` , .` . ` ` , . ` ` , .` ·` , . .
. ·` , .` ·` , . ·` , .` . ·` , . `
. ·` , .` ` , ·` , . ` , ·` , .` ` , . ·` , . ` ,`
. ·` , .` ` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸ ·` , .` ` , ¸ ·` , . .
. ·` , .` ·` , . ·` , .` . ·` , . `
. ·` , .` ¸ ·` , . ¸ ·` , .` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸`
. ` ` , . ' ` ` , . ' ' ` ` , . ·` , . ` .
. ` ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ` ` , . ·` , .

¸.· , · . · ·` , ..` · . .` , ·` , ..` · . . ·` , ..` · . ` ` , ..` ·
` , .` · ` . ·` , .` · . . · .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 20

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , , , · , ¸` · , · , ,` , , . , _` · , ~ , ·` .


-·-·«- =·,
` · ` ,` · ' ¸ ` · ,` , · · ` · ¸ `, ¸ ` , · , ¸ ` · ,` , · · ` · ¸ `, ¸ · ` ·
¸ ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ ·

The sign of (··· .,) is the (·_ .) after the (·´ .·)
in the (¸.' ¸·) and (,.- ,·. ¸··) without a (.)
preceding it. The (__.' ····) of this (.,) is always
(·,.·).
The (_.·) of (··· .,) is also used on the following scales:
( ¸ · ·) e.g. ( ¸ ·);
( ¸ ·` , ·) e.g. ( ¸ ` , ·).


The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. ¸ `, ¸ ` , `, ¸ ¸ ·
. · `, · ` , · `, . · ·
. ` , `, ` , ` , ` , `, . · ` ,
. ¸ ` ¸ ` ¸ ` · ` .
. · ` · ` · ` . ·
. `, ¸ ` , ¸ `, ¸ ¸ ·
¸ ` . ¸ · ¸ ` . ·
. · ` · · · ` . · `
. ` , ` ` , · ` ` , . · ` ,`
. ` ¸ ` ` ¸ · ` ` , ¸ · .
. · ` · · · ` . · `
. ` ¸ · ¸ ` ¸ · ` ¸`
. ¸ · ' ¸ · ' ¸ · ' · ` .
. ¸ ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ·

¸· , · . ¸ ` · · ` · . . . ` · . .` , . ` · . · ` · ..
. ` · · ` . .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 21

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , . · _ , · , · , · , _ · · , . , , · , ~ , , - ·


,·-«·· =·,
` , = ` ` · ,` , · _ = ` ¸ ` , = ` `, , = ` ' , ` , = ` ` · ,` , · _ = ` ¸ ` , = ` , , = ` ¸
¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` , = ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , = `

The sign of (¸· .,) is the (.) before the (·´ .·). This
(.,) is always intransitive (·_.).

The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
·'· _=
=¸¸-'·
. ` , = ` , ` , = ` , ` , = ` , , = ` ¸
. , = ` , , = ` , , = ` , . , = ` ¸
. ` ,` , = ` , ` ,` , = ` , ` ,` , = ` , . ` , = ` ¸ ` ,
. ` , = ` ` , = ` ` , = ` , = ` ¸ ` .
. , = ` , = ` , = ` . , = ` ¸
. ` , = ` , . ` , = ` , . ` , = ` , . ` , = ` ¸ .
` , = ` . ` , = ` ¸ ` , = ` ` , = ` ¸ .
. , = ` , = ` ¸ , = ` . ` , = ` ¸ `
. ` ,` , = ` ` , = ` ¸ ` , ` , = ` ` , . ` , = ` ¸ ` ,`
. ` ¸ , = ` , = ` ¸ ` ¸ , = ` `, ¸ ` , = ` ¸ .
. , = ` , = ` ¸ , = ` . ` , = ` ¸ `
. ` , = ` . ` , = ` ¸ . ` , = ` . ` , = ` ¸ ` ¸`
. ` , = ` ' ` , = ` ' ` , = ` ' ` , = ` ¸ ` .
. ` , = ` ` , = ` ` , = ` ` , = ` ¸

¸.· , · ` ,. = ` ` · . ,. = ` ` · . . ` ,. = ` ` · . .` , ,. = ` ` · . ·
, = ` ` · . . , = ` ` · ` . .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 22

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , , ´` ¸ , · , . ´` ¸ , · , . ` ¸ , . , ·` ¸ , ~ , , .` ¸


,·-··· =·,
,` , · , ` - ¸ ` . ` -`, . ` ` - ' , ` . ` -` · ,` , · , ` - ¸ ` . ` -, . ` - ¸
` . ` - . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` . ` - ¸ ` ·` · `,` · ' ` . ` -` ·

The sign of (¸·· .,) is the (.) after the (·´ .·).

Rule 1

If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (·), (·), or (_), the (.) of
(¸··) is changed to (·). If the (·´ .·) is a (·), then (···¸ -
assimilation) is compulsory, e.g. ( , · ` · ¸) changes to (¸ ·` · ¸).

If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (·), then after changing the
(.) to (·), the following three changes are permissible:
(1) The (·) is changed to (·) and the rule of (···¸) is applied,
e.g. ( , ´ · ¸) changes to ( , ¯` · ¸).
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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(2) Sometimes the (·) is changed to (·) and then the rule of
(···¸) is applied to the (·´ .·), e.g. ( , ´ · ¸) changes to
( , ¯ · ¸).
(3) Sometimes the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of
(···¸), e.g. ( , ¯ · · ¸).

If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (_), then after changing the
(.) to (·), the following two changes are permissible:
(1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (···¸),
e.g. ( , - ·` _ ¸).
(2) Sometimes the (·) is changed to (_) and then the rule of
(···¸) is applied to the (·´ .·), e.g. ( , - ` _ ¸) changes to
( , -` _ ¸).

Rule 2

If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (¸), (¸), (), or (), the
(.) of (¸··) is changed to (). If the (·´ .·) is a (), then
it is compulsory to apply (···¸) e.g. ( . ~ ¸) changes to ( ~ ¸ . ).
If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (), then after changing the
(.) to (), the following three changes are permissible:
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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(1) The () is changed to () and the rule of (···¸) is applied,
e.g. ( , ~ ¸) changes to ( , ~ ¸).
(2) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (···¸),
e.g. ( , = ~ ¸).
(3) The () is changed to () and the rule of (···¸) is applied,
e.g. ( , ~ ¸) changes to ( , ~ ¸).

If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (¸) or (¸), then after
changing the (.) to (), the following two possibilities are
permissible:
(1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (···¸),
e.g. ( , =` . ¸) and ( . , =` . ¸).
(2) Sometimes the () is changed to (¸) or (¸) and then the
rule of (···¸) is applied, e.g. ( , ` . ¸) changes to ( , ` . ¸) and
( . , ` . ¸) changes to ( . ,` . ¸).

Rule 3

If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (.), then it is permissible to
change the (.) to (.) and apply the rule of (···¸), e.g. ( _ ¸)
changes to ( _ ¸).
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Rule 4

If the (·´ ¸·) of (¸·· .,) is (.), (.), (_), (_), (·),
(·), (¸), (¸), (¸), (¸), (), or (), then after changing the
(.) to the same letter as the (·´ ¸·), the (·¯,-) of the (.)
is transferred to the preceding letter and the rule of (···¸) is
applied. The (¸., ·,·) is deleted, e.g. ( , . ` - ¸) changes to
( ,` . -) and (¸ ` · ¸) changes to (¸` ·).

(4.2) The (__.·) of these verbs - ( ,` . -) and (¸` ·) - will be
(` ,` . -,) and (` ¸` ,,).

(4.3) It is permissible to have a (·,¯) on the (·´ .·), e.g.
(` ,` . -, ,` . -) and (` ¸` ,, ¸` ·). The words ( .` ,` ` . -,) and
(` ¸` ,,) which have appeared in the Qur’ân are from this (.,).
(4.4) It is permissible to read a (·.) on the (·´ .·) of the
( , ¸· ). Therefore all three harakats are permissible, e.g.
(` ,` . -` ·), (` ,` . -` ·), (` ,` .` -` ·).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 109

|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. ` . ` -, ` . ` - , ` -, ` . . ` - ¸
. ` -, ` - , ` -, . ` - ¸
. ` ,` ` -, ` ` - , ` , ` ` -, ` , . ` ,` ` - ¸
. ` . ` - ` . ` - ` . ` - ` - ¸ ` .
. ` - ` - ` - . ` - ¸
. , ` ` - ¸ ` ` - , ¸ ` ` -, ¸ ` ` - ¸ ¸
. ` . ` - ` . ` - ¸ ` . ` - ` ` - ¸ .
. ` - ` - ¸ ` - . ` ` - ¸ `
. ` ,` ` - ` ` - ¸ ` , ` ` - ` , . ` ` - ¸ ` ,`
. ` ¸ ` - ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` - ` , ¸ ` ` - ¸ .
. ` - ` - ¸ ` - . ` ` - ¸ `
. ` ` - ¸ ` ` - ¸ ¸ ` ` - ¸ ` ` - ¸ ` ¸`
. ` . ` - ' ` . ` - ' ` . ` - ' ` ` - ¸ ` .
. ` . ` - ` . ` - ` . ` - ` ` - ¸

¸.· , · ` .. ` -` · . . ` -` · . . .` ` -` · . .` , . ` -` · . ·
` -` · . . ` -` · ` . .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 23

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , _ ` - ¸ , · , ¸ ` - ¸ , · , · , ` - ¸ , . , _ ` ¸ , ~ , ¸ · ` ¸



,· · - · , =·,
` , ` - ¸ ` _ , ` - ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¯ ,` -` · ,` , · _ , ` - ¸ ' , ` -,
` _ , ` - . ` , ` - . ` , ` - . ` · · ` ¸` ,` ,

The sign of (¸···¸ .,) is the repetition of the (·´ ·.) and
four letters after the (¸., ·,·) in the (¸.' ¸·). The ( ·.
·´) of this (.,) is always (·` ·) except in (¸·).
12


Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.

12
The rules of (¸·) will be discussed later.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. ` , ` -, ` , ` - , ' , ` -, ¸ ` , ` -
. ` , ` -, ` , ` - , ` , ` -, . ` , ` - ¸
. ' , ` -, ` , ' , ` - , ` , ' , ` -, ` , . ' , ` - ¸ ` ,
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ' , ` - ` , ` - ¸ ` .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ` , ` - . ` , ` - ¸
. ` _ , ` -, . ` _ , ` - , . ` _ , ` -, . ` _ , ` - ¸ .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ¸ ' , ` - ` _ , ` - ¸ .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ¸ ` , ` - . ` _ , ` - ¸ `
. ' , ` - ` , ' , ` - ¸ ` , ' , ` - ` , . ` _ , ` - ¸ ` ,`
. ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` - `, ¸ ` _ , ` - ¸ .
. ` - ` , ` , ` - ¸ ` , ` - . ` _ , ` - ¸ `
. ` _ , ` - . ` _ , ` - ¸ . ` _ , ` - . ` _ , ` - ¸ ` ¸`
. ' ` , ` - ' ` , ` - ' ' , ` - ` _ , ` - ¸ ` .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ' , ` - ` _ , ` - ¸

¸.· , · ¯ ,. ` -` · . ` ,. ` -` · . . . ` -` · ' , . .` , ` ,. ` -` · . ·
` , ` -` · . . ` , ` -` · ` . .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 24

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , ` · ,` ¸ , · , ` , .` - ¸ , · , ` , · ¸ , . , ` , ` . ¸ , ~ , ` ¸ ,` , ¸



¸- « · =·,
¸` ` , ¸` ` · ,` , · ' ¸` , ¸` ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¸` ` · ,` , · ' ¸` `,
¸` . ` · · ` ¸` ,` , ¸`

The sign of (¸` · .,) is the tashdīd of the (·´ ¸·) and (.)
precedes the (·´ .·) in the (¸.' ¸·).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. ¸` , ¸` , ¸` , ¸`
. ·` , ·` , ·` , . ·`
. ` , ` , ` , ` , ` , ` , . ` ` ,
. ¸` ¸` ¸` ` ` .
. ·` ·` ·` . `
. ` , ¸ ` , ¸ ` , ¸ ` ¸
. ¸` ¸` ¸` ` .
. ` · ·` ·` . ` `
. ` ` , ` ` , ` ` , . ` ` ,`
. ` ` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` ` , ¸ ` .
. ·` ·` ·` . ` `
. ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ` ¸`
. ¸` ' ¸` ' ¸` ' ` ` .
. ¸` ¸` ¸` `

¸· , · ¸` ` · . ·` ` · . . ` ` · . .` , . ` ` · . · ` ` · . ..
·` ` · ` . .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 25

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , , , · , ·` , · , , ´ , . , .` - · , ~ , , ·


¸ - ·« · =·,
·` , ¸ , , ¸ , ` , ¸ , ` · ,` , · ·` , ¸ , `, ¸ ,` , ¸ , ` · ,` , ·
` · ` ,` · ' ¸ , . ` · · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ , ` ·

The sign of (¸· .,) is that the (.) precedes the (·´ .·)
in the (¸.' ¸·) and there is an extra (.) after the ( .·
·´).

Rule 1

In (¸` · .,) and (¸· .,), when two (.)’s are adjacent to
one another in the (__.· ¸··), it is permissible to delete one,
e.g.
( ¸` ) ( ¸` )
( .` ,` , · = ) ( .` ,` , · = ).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Rule 2

If the (·´ .·) of (¸` · .,) and (¸· .,) is (.), (.),
(_), (·) ,(·), (_), (¸), (¸), (¸), (¸), () or (), it is
permissible to change the (.) into the (·´ .·) and apply the
rule of (···¸). In this case, the (¸.' ¸·) and (,·') require a
(¸., ·,·) at the beginning. The ( ¸' · · ¸ .,) and ( ¸` · · ¸ .,)
have been created due to this rule.

Examples:
( ,` , = ) ( ,` , =~) ( ,` , ~ ¸)
( ¸ · · ) ( ¸ · ·) ( ¸ · ¸)

¸-· , =·, ¸,, ` ,` , ~ ¸ ·· ,·. ` ,` , =` · ,,· ,' , ~ ¸ `,` , =, ,` , ~ ¸ .
` ,` , = . ··
¸ -·· , =·, ¸ ¸ ¸ · ·, ¸ · ¸ ¸,, ¸ · ¸ ·· ,·. ¸ · ·` · ,,· ·
¸ · · . ··

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. ¸ , , ¸ , , ¸ , , ¸ ,
. , · , · , , · , , . · ,
. , , ` , , , ` , , , ` , . , ` ,
. ¸ , ¸ , ¸ , , ` .
. · , · , · , . ,
. , , ¸ , , ¸ , , ¸ , ¸
. ¸ , ¸ , ¸ , ` .
. , · · , · , . , `
. , ` , , ` , , ` , . , ` ,`
. , ` ¸ , ` ¸ , ` , ¸ ` .
. · , · , · , . , `
. , ¸ , ¸ , ¸ , ` ¸`
. ¸ , ' ¸ , ' ¸ , ' , ` .
. ¸ , ¸ , ¸ , ,

, ¸· · ¸ , ` · . · , ` · . . , ` · . .` , , ` · . · , ` · . .
· , ` · ` . .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 26

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , . · - , · , ¸ , · , · _ , . , , · = , ~ , , . -

,· - « · = , =·,
` , , .` ` ¸ _ .` ` ¸ ` , .` ` `, , .` ` ` ' , ` , .` ` ` · ,` , · _ .` ` ¸ ` , .`
` , .` ` . ·· ¸,, ` , .` ` ¸ ·· ,·. ` ,.` ` ` · ,` , ·

The sign of ( ¸ · ` ¸ .,) is the extra (¸) and (.) before the
(·´ .·).
It is permissible to delete the (.) from the verb ( _ = ` ¸
` _` , = ` ,). The verbs (` ,` · =` ·) and (` _ =` ` , ·) mentioned
in the Qur’ân are from this (.,).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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|· _,· =¸¸-'· ¸-'· ¸-v· =¸ =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ` , .` ` , ` , .` ` , ` , .` ` , , .` ` ¸
. , .` ` , , .` ` , , .` ` , . , .` ` ¸
. ` , .` ` , ` , ` , .` ` , ` , ` , .` ` , ` , . ` , .` ` ¸ ` ,
. ` , .` ` ` ` , .` ` , .` ` , .` ` ¸ ` .
. , .` ` , .` ` , .` ` . , .` ` ¸
. ` , .` ` , . ` , .` ` , . ` , .` ` , . ` , .` ` ¸ .
. ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ¸ ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ¸ .
. , .` ` ` ` ¸ , . , .` ` . ` , .` ` ¸ `
. ` , .` ` ` , ` , .` ` ¸ ` , ` , .` ` ` , . ` , .` ` ¸ ` ,`
. , .` ` ` ¸ , .` ` ¸ ` ¸ , .` ` `, ¸ ` , .` ` ¸ .
. , .` ` , .` ` ¸ , .` ` . ` , .` ` ¸ `
. ` ` ` , . . ` , .` ` ¸ . ` , .` ` . ` , .` ` ¸ ` ¸`
. ` , .` ` ' ` , .` ` ' ' ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ¸ ` .
. ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ¸

¸· , · ` , .` ` ` · . , .` ` ` · . . ` , .` ` ` · . .` , , .` ` ` · . ·
, .` ` ` · . . , .` ` ` · ` . .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 27

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , ¸ ` - ` ¸ , · , ¸ ` ¸ , · , , ` · ` ¸ , . , ,` ` ¸ , ~ , · ` - ` ¸



,· - , - · , =·,
` ¸ ` , ` -` · ,` , · ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` -, ¸` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ·· ,·.
` ¸ ` , ` - . ·· ¸,,

The sign of ( ¸ ·` , · · ¸ .,) is the repetition of the (_) and the
appearance of a (,) between the two (_)’s. This (,) has changed
to a (¸) in the (_.·) due to the preceding (·,¯). This (.,)
is mostly intransitive (·_.).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ` ¸ ` , ` -, ` ¸ ` , ` - , ` ¸ ` , ` -, ¸ ` , ` - ¸
. ` , ` -, ` , ` - , ` , ` -, . ` , ` - ¸
. ` ` , ` -, ` , ` ` , ` - , ` , ` ` , ` -, ` , . ` ` , ` - ¸ ` ,
. ` ¸ ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ` , ` - ¸ ` .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ` , ` - . ` , ` - ¸
. ` , ` -, ` ¸ ` , ` - , ` ¸ ` -, ` , ` ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸
. ` ¸ ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` - ` ` , ` - ¸ .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ¸ ` , ` - . ` ` , ` - ¸ `
. ` ` , ` - ` , ` ` , ` - ¸ ` , ` ` , ` - ` , . ` ` , ` - ¸ ` ,`
. ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` - ` , ¸ ` ` , ` - ¸ .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ¸ ` , ` - . ` , .` ` ¸ `
. ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` - ` ¸ ` ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸`
. ` ¸ ` , ` - ' ` ¸ ` , ` - ' ` ¸ ` , ` - ' ` ` , ` - ¸ ` .
. ` ¸ ` , ` - ` , ` - ` ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` - ` , ` - ¸ `

¸· , · ` ¸ ` , ` -` · . ` , ` -` · . . ` ` , ` -` · . .` , ` , ` -` · ·
. ` , ` -` · . . ` , ` -` · ` . .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 28

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , . ·` , ` - ¸ , · , _ ` , ` · ¸ , · , ¸ ` , ` - ¸


·, ,· · , - · , =
` , · ·` · ¸ ` · ·` · ¸ ` · ·` · ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ · ·` ` · ,` , · · ` , ·` · ¸ ' · ·` , ` · ·` · ¸
` , · ·` . ` · ·` . ` · ·` . ·· ¸,,

The sign of ( ¸ ` , · · ¸ .,) is the repetition of the (¸) and the
appearance of an extra (.) before the first (¸) in the ( ¸·
¸.'). This (.) changes to a (¸) in the (_.·).

The (···¸) in this (.,) is similar to the (···¸) of (¸ · · ¸ .,).
The verbs of (¸ · · ¸ .,) and ( ¸ ` , · · ¸ .,) mostly have the
meanings of colours and defects and they are intransitive (·_.).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ` · ·` , ` · ·` , ' · ·` , ` · ·` · ¸
. ` · ·` , ·` , ` · ` · ·` , . ` · ·` · ¸
. ' · ·` , ` , ' · ·` , ` , ' · ·` , ` , . ' · ·` · ¸ ` ,
. ` · ·` ` · ·` ' · ·` ` · ·` · ¸ ` .
. ` · ·` ` · ·` ` · ·` . ` · ·` · ¸
. ` · ·` , ¸ ` · ·` , ¸ ` · ·` , ¸ ¸` · ·` · ¸
. ` · ·` ` · ·` · ¸ ' · ·` ` · ·` · ¸ .
. ` · ·` ` · ·` · ¸ ` · ·` . ` · ·` · ¸ `
. ' · ·` ` , ' · ·` · ¸ ` , ' · ·` ` , . ` ` · ·` · ¸ ` ,
. ` ¸` · ·` ` · ·` · ¸ ` ¸ ` ,` · ·` ¸ ` · ·` · ¸ .
. ` · ·` ` · ·` · ¸ ` · ·` . ` · ·` · ¸ `
. ` · ·` ¸ ¸` · ·` · ¸ ` · ·` ¸ ` · ·` · ¸ ` ¸`
. ` · ·` · ' ` · ·` · ' ' · ·` · ' ` · ·` · ¸ ` .
. ` · ·` ` · ·` ' · ·` ` · ·` · ¸

¸· , · ¯ · ·` ` · . ` · ·` ` · . . ' · ·` ` · . .` , ` · ·` ` · . · ` · ·` ` · . .
` · ·` ` · ` . .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 29

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , ` . ,` ¸ , · , ` . ¯ ¸ , · , ` _ ` ¸ , . , ` _ ` - ¸


,·, - · , =·,
` - ,` , · ·` , ` - ¸ ·` , ` -, ·` , ` - ¸ . ·· ¸,, ·` , ` - ¸ ·· ,·. ·` ,
·` , ` -

The sign of ( ¸` , · · ¸ .,) is the (` ,) after the (·´ ¸·).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ·` , ` -, ·` , ` - , ·` , ` -, ·` , ` - ¸
. ·` , ` -, ·` , ` - , ·` , ` -, . ·` , ` - ¸
. ·` , ` -, ` , ·` , ` - , ` , ·` , ` -, ` , . ·` , ` - ¸ ` ,
. ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸ ` .
. ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ·` , ` - . ·` , ` - ¸
. ·` , ` -, . ·` , ` - , . ·` , ` -, . ·` , ` - ¸ .
·` , ` - . ·` , ` - ¸ ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸ .
. ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸ ·` , ` - . ·` , ` - ¸ `
. ·` , ` - ` , ` , ` - ¸ · ` , ·` , ` - ` , . ·` , ` - ¸ ` ` ,
. ·` , ` - ` ¸ ·` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ·` , ` - `, ¸ ·` , ` - ¸ .
. ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸ ·` , ` - . ·` , ` - ¸ `
. ·` , ` - . . ·` , ` - ¸ . ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸ ` ¸`
. ·` , ` - ' ` , ` - ' · ' ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸ ` .
. ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸

¸· , · ` · ·` , ` - . ·` , ` -` · . . ·` , ` -` · . .` , ·` , ` -` · . · ·` , ` -` · .
. ·` , ` -` · ` . .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 30

(A) Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , ` , ,` - ¸
, · , ` , ` · ¸

(B) What is the (··,.) of the following words:
, · , ·` , ` -` · .` ,
, · , ·` , ` - , .
, · , . ~` , ` · ` ¸
, . , ~` , ,` -` · ·
, ~ , ·` , ` - ¸
, · , ` ¸` ~` , ,` - ¸
, · , ~` , ` · ¸
, , ` .` _ _ ` - ¸
, - , .` ´,
, · , . ` _ _ ` .


From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Four-Root letter Verbs
The (.,,') of (¸·,_)

- · · - · =·, . .¸= _-·,_
·· ,·. ` , ·` · ` · ,` , · · , ·` · , ` , ·` · `, , ·` ·` , , ` , ·` · ` · ,` , · · , ·` · , ` , ·` · `, , ·` · ,
` , ·` · ` . ·· ¸,, ` , ·` · ,

The sign of ( · ` · · .,) is the presence of four root letters in the
(¸.' ¸·). The (__.' ····) of this (.,) is (·,.·).

The rule for the (·¯,-) of the (__.' ····) is that if the ( ¸·
¸.') has four letters, whether root letters or extra letters, the
(__.' ····) will be (·,.·) even in the active tense
(,,··), e.g. (` · , ´`,), (` ` , .`,), ( ¸ `,), (` , ·` · `,). If the ( ¸·
¸.') has less than or more than four letters, the ( ····
__.') will be (_,·), e.g. (` ,` .` ,), (` . ` -,), ( ¸ , ,).


Four-root letter verbs are of three types:
(1) those of genuine four-radical origin, e.g. ( , -` , ) – to translate.

(2) verbs formed by the doubling of a biliteral root, e.g. ( , ·` , ·)
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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– to gargle, ( , ` ) – to stammer.

(3) composite roots taken from a familiar phrase or combination
of roots, e.g. ( ¸ ` -) – to say Al-hamdulillāh, ( ¸ ` ,) – to say
Bismillāh.

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· -'· g_·='· =¸¸ =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ` , ·` · `, ` , ·` · ` , ` , ·` · `, , ·` · ,
. , ·` · `, , ·` · ` , , ·` · `, . , ·` · ,
. ` , ·` · `, ` , ` , ·` · ` , ` , ` , ·` · `, ` , . ` , ·` · , ` ,
. ` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · ` , ·` · , ` .
. , ·` · ` ` , ·` · , ·` · ` . , ·` · ,
. ` , ·` · `, . ` , ·` · ` , . ` , ·` · `, . ` , ·` · , .
` , ·` · ` . ` , ·` · , ` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · , .
. , ·` · ` , ·` · , , ·` · ` . ` ` , ·` · ,
. ` , ·` · ` ` , ` , ·` · , ` , ` , ·` · ` ` , . ` , ·` · , ` ` ,
. , ·` · ` ` ¸ , ·` · , ` ¸ , ·` · ` `, ¸ ` , ·` · , .
. , ·` · ` , ·` · , , ·` · ` . ` , ·` · , `
. .` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · , . ` , ·` · ` . ` , ·` · , ` ¸`
. ` , ·` · , ' ` , ·` · , ' ` , ·` · , ' ` , ·` · , ` .
. ` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · ` , ` , ·` ·

¸· , · ` , ·` · ` · . , ·` · ` · . . ` , ·` · ` · . .` , , ·` · ` · . · , ·` · ` · . .
, ·` · ` · ` . .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 31

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , _ ,` - ·
, · , , ´` ·
, · , ,` - _
, . , ¸ ` ·
, ~ , , =` ·
(B) What is the (··,.) of the following words:
, · , . ` _ ,` - `
, · , ` , ´` ·` ·
, · , . · ` · ` ` ¸
, . , ¸ , _
, ~ , ` ¸ ` ,` ·
, · , .` ,` , =` `,
, · , ` ,` ` · ·` , ·
, , ` , - -
, - , · · , · ,` ·
, · , . ¸ · ,` - ,`
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The Derived Forms of Four-Root Letter Verbs

=,¸- _-·,_ -,·
¸ · - « · =·,
. ·· ¸,, ¸ ,` , ·· ,·. ¸ ,` , ` · ,` , · ` ,` , ¸ ,` , , ¸ ,` ,
¸ ,` ,

The sign of ( ¸ ` · .,) is the extra (.) before the four root
letters.

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ¸ ,` , , ¸ ,` , , ¸ ,` , , ¸ ,` ,
. · ,` , , · ,` , , · ,` , , . · ,` ,
. ,` , , ` , ,` , , ` , ,` , , ` , . ,` , ` ,
. ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ,` , ` .
. · ,` , · ,` , · ,` , . ,` ,
. ,` , , ¸ ,` , , ¸ ,` , , ¸ ¸ ,` ,
¸ ,` , . ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ,` , .
. · ,` , · ,` , · ,` , . ,` , `
. ,` , ` , ,` , ` , ,` , ` , . ` ,` , ` ,
. ,` , ` ¸ ,` , ` ¸ ,` , ` , ¸ ,` , .
. · ,` , · ,` , · ,` , . ,` , `
. ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ,` , ` ¸`
. ' ¸ ,` , ' ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ' ,` , ` .
. ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ,` ,

¸· , · ¸ ,` , ` · . · ,` , ` · . . ,` , ` · . .` , ,` , ` · . ·
,` , ` · . . · ,` , ` · ` . .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 32

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , . · , · , ¸ ,` , , · , · ` , , . , , ` - , ~ , , `


,·· - · , =·,
¸ ·· ,·. ¯ , · ` · ,` , · _ ,` · · ¸ ' , · , ` , · · ¸ ` _ ,` · · ¸ ` , · · ¸ ` , · ·
` _ ,` · . ` , · . ` , · . ·· ¸,,

The sign of ( ¸ · · ¸ .,) is having four root letters, the repetition
of the second (¸) and the inclusion of (¸., ·,·) in the ( ¸·
¸.') and (,·').

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ` , · , ` , · , ' , · , ` , · · ¸
. ` , · , ` , · , ` , · , . ` , · · ¸
. ' , · , ` , ' , · , ` , ' , · , ` , . ' , · · ¸ ` ,
. ` , · ` , · ' , · ` , · · ¸ ` .
. ` , · ` , · ` , · . ` , · · ¸
. ` _ ,` · , . ` _ ,` · , . ` _ ,` · , . .` _ , · · ¸
` , · . ` , · · ¸ ' , · ` _ , · · ¸ .
. ` , · ` , · · ¸ ` , · . ` _ , · · ¸ `
. ' , · ` , ' , · · ¸ ` , ' , · ` , . ` ` _ , · · ¸ ` ,
. ` , · ` ¸ ` , · · ¸ ` ¸ ` , · `, ¸ ` _ , · · ¸ .
. ` , · ¸ ` , · · ` , · . ` _ , · · ¸ `
. ` _ ,` · . ` _ ,` · · ¸ . ` _ ,` · . ` _ , · · ¸ ` ¸`
. ` , · · ' ` , · · ' ' ' , · · ` _ , · · ¸ ` .
. ` , · ` , · ' , · ` _ , · · ¸

¸· , · ¯ , · ` · . ` , · ` · . . ' , · ` · . .` , ` , · ` · . · ` , · ` · .
. ` , · ` · ` . .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 33

Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , ¸ - ` . ¸ , · , . ' ~ ¸ , · , ` , = · ¸ , . , ` , ` ¸ , ~ , ` , , ·` _ ¸



,· · · - · , =·,
` ,` , ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ·· ¸,, ` ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ·· ,·. ` ¸ ` ,` ` · ,` ,· · ` ,` , ¸ ` ¸
` ¸ ` ,` .

The sign of ( ¸ ` · · ¸ .,) is the inclusion of (¸., ·,·) in the
(¸.' ¸·) and (,·') and the extra (.) after the (_).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ` ¸ ` ,` , ` ¸ ` ,` , ` ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ` ,` , ¸
. ` ,` , ` ,` , ` ,` , . ` ,` , ¸
. ` ,` , ` , ` ,` , ` , ` ,` , ` , . ` ,` , ¸ ` ,
. ` ¸ ` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` ` ,` , ¸ ` .
. ` ,` ` ,` ` ,` . ` ,` , ¸
. ` ,` , ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ¸
. ` ¸ ` ,` ` ,` , ¸ ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ,` ` ,` , ¸ .
. ` ,` ` ,` , ¸ ` ,` . ` ,` , ¸ `
. ` ,` ` , ` ,` , ¸ ` , ` ,` ` , . ` ,` , ¸ ` ` ,
. ` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ` ¸ ` ,` ` , ¸ ` ,` , ¸ .
. ` ,` ` ,` , ¸ ` ,` . ` ,` , ¸ `
. ` ,` ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ¸ ` ,` ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ` ¸`
. ` ¸ ` ,` , ' ` ¸ ` ,` , ' ' ` ¸ ` ,` , ` ,` , ¸ ` .
. ` ¸ ` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` ` ,` , ¸

¸· , · ` · ` ¸ ` ,` . ` ,` ` · . . ` ,` ` · . .` , ` ,` ` · . ·
` ,` ` · . . ` ,` ` · ` . .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Exercise 34

(A) Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , , =` ,` - ¸
, · , _ ` ` , ¸
, · , ¸ ´` ,` · ¸
, . , _ =` ` ¸
, ~ , ¸ .` ,` - ¸

(B) What is the (··,.) of the following words:
, · , . ¸ .` ,` -
, · , ` · . - =` ` .
, · , ` ¸ ´` ,` · '
, . , ` . - ` ` ` ·
, ~ , ` =` ,` -
, · , ` ¸ - ` ` , ¸
, · , . .` ,` -` ·
, , ` ,` · ` , ·
, - , ` · . ´` ,` ·
, · , . ¸` =` ,` -
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Other Derived Forms
The (=·,,|) of (¿¬·- -,· =,¸- _·:·)

There are two categories of (.,,') here:
(1) (·,- ¸·,,, ¸-·)
(2) (,,· ¸·,,, ¸-·)

The first category (·,- ¸·,,, ¸-·) has seven (.,,'):
(1) ( -. · · - ·) – the (¸) is repeated, e.g. ( ·. -) – to don a
shawl.

` · `, ,` . · ¸,, ` . - ·· ,·. ` . -` · ,` , · · - ` . -`, . -
` . -` . ··

(2) ( -.. | , - ·) – there is an extra (,) after the (_), e.g.
( · ,` , ) – to don a trouser.

` · `, ,` . · ¸ ,` , `, ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ·· ,·. ¸ ,` , ` · ,` , · · ,` ,
¸ ,` , ` . ·· ¸,,

(3) ( - · - , ·) – there is an extra (¸) after the (), e.g.
( · , =` , .) – to command. This word can be used as ( , =` , ) as well.
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` · `, ,` . · . ` , =` , .`, , =` , . ` , =` , . ·· ,·. ` , =` , .` · ,` , · · , =` ,
` , =` , .` . ·· ¸,,

(4) ( - · , - ·) – there is an extra (¸) after the (_), e.g.
( · ,` , ) – to trim the extra leaves of a plant.

` · `, ,` . · ` · ,` , · · ,` , ` .,` , `, .,` , ` .,` , ·· ,·. ` .,` ,
` .,` , ` . ·· ¸,,

(5) ( - · - , ·)– there is an extra (,) after the (), e.g.
( · , _` , -) – to make someone don socks.

` · `, ,` . · ` . _` , - ·· ,·. ` . _` , -` · ,` , · · , _` , - ` ._` , -`, . _` , -
¸,, ` . _` , -` . ··

(6) ( - · · - ·)– there is an extra (.) after the (_), e.g. ( · ·) – to
make someone don a hat.

` · `, ,` . · ¸,, ` ¸ · ·· ,·. ` ¸ ` · ,` , · · · ` ¸ `, ¸ ·
` ¸ ` . ··

(7) ( ·· · - ·)– there is an extra (¸) after the (¸), e.g. ( · ·) – to
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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make someone don a hat.

` · `, ,` . · ,` , · · · ¸ `, ¸ · , ¸ ¸ ` · ,` ,· · · ` ¸ `, ¸ ·
¸ ` . ·· ¸,, ¸ · ·· ,·. ¸ ` ·

(¸ ·) was originally ( ¸ ·). (` ¸ `,) was originally
(` ¸ `,). ( · ·) was originally ( · , ·). These changes will be
discussed later.

The second category - (,,· ¸·,,, ¸-·) has three groups:
(1) ( ¸ ` · , ¸-·)
(2) ( ¸ ` · · ,, ¸-·)
(3) ( -· ¸ · · ,, ¸ )

The first group ( ¸ ` · , ¸-·) has 8 (.,,'):

(1) ( ¸ · -« ·) – the extra letters are (.) before the () and the (¸)
is repeated, e.g. (` .` - ) – to don a shawl.

(2) ( , , -« ·) – the extra letters are (.) before the () and the (,)
between the (_) and the (¸), e.g. ( ¸` ,` , ) – to don a trouser.

(3) ( ¸ - , « ·) – the extra letters are (.) before the () and a (¸)
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after the (), e.g. (` ¸ =` , ) – to be a satan.

(4) ( ¸ - , « ·) – the extra letters are (.) before the () and a (,)
after the (), e.g. (` .` _` , - ) – to don socks.

(5) ( ¸ · - « ·) – the extra letters are (.) before the () and a (.)
after the (_), e.g. (` ¸` ) – to don a trouser.

(6) ( ¸ - « « ·) – the extra letters are a (.) and a (·) before the (),
e.g. (` ¸ ´` ) – to be poor.

(7) (` . · - « ·) – the extra letters are a (.) before the () and a
(.) after the (¸), e.g. (` .` , · ) – to behave like a devil.

(8) (¸ ¸ - « ·) – the extra letters are a (.) before the () and a (¸)
after the (¸), e.g. ( ¸ ¸ ) – to don a hat.

The conjugation of these (.,,') should be done like
( ¸ ,` , ), while the last one, namely, (¸ ¸` · ) is like ( _ · ` ¸ `, ).

The second group, ( ¸ ` · · ,, ¸-·) has two (.,,'):
(1) ( ,· · · - · ,) – The second (¸), the (.) after the (_) and the ( ·,·
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¸.,) are extra, e.g. (` ¸ ` · · ¸) – to walk with the chest and
neck protruding out.

` · `, ,` . · ·· ,·. ` ¸ ` · ` · ,` , · ` · · ¸ ` ¸ ` · , ¸ ` · · ¸
` · . ·· ¸,, ` ¸ ` · · ¸ ` ¸

(2) ( ·· · · - · ,) – The (¸) after the (¸), the (.) after the (_) and the
(¸., ·,·) are extra, e.g. ( . ` ` ¸) – to lie on one’s back.

` · `, ,` . · _` ` ¸ ¸` ` ¸ ·· ,·. ¸ ¸` ` ` · ,` , · . ` ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ` ,
. ·· ¸,, ¸` `

The (_.·) of this (.,) – ( . ` ` ¸) was originally
(` ¸ ` ` ¸). The (¸) was changed to a (·,·).

The third group - ( ¸ · · ,, ¸-·) has one (.,):
( ,· · - , · ,) – The (,) after the () and one (¸) is extra, e.g.
( ¯ ¸ ` · ` · , ) – to strive.

` · `, ,` . · ` · , ¯ ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ · , ´` · ,` , · · ` · , ¯¸ ' · , ´, ` · , ¯ ¸
` · ` · , ´ . ` · , ´ . ` · , ´ . ·· ¸,, ` · ` · , ¯ ¸ ` · , ¯ ¸
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In all the word-forms of this (.,), (···¸) has been applied and
the changes are similar to those of (` , · · ¸).



Exercise 35

What is the word-form (··,.) of the following words and which
(.,) are they from:

, · , .` , ,` , ` ·
, · , .` · ` · , ´ .
, · , ` .,` ,
, . , ¸` , _` , -`
, ~ , ` ¸ =` ,
, · , ` ¸ ` ` '
, · , ` ¸ ` · · ¸
, , ¸` , ·
, - , ` ,
, · , ` . =` ,


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The Seven Categories

With regards to the letters of verbs, they fall into seven
categories, namely:
., . .·.· . _,,· . ¸· . ,-' . ¸·· . _,-.
Definitions

Term Meaning Example
_,-.
A word whose root letters do
not have a (·,·), ( ·.· ,.-)
13

or two letters of the same type
, .
¸··
A word having a ( ·.· ,.-)
in the (·´ .·)
· ,
,-'
A word having a ( ·.· ,.-)
in the (·´ ¸·)
¸ ·
¸·
A word having a ( ·.· ,.-)
in the (·´ ·.)
· ·
_,,· A word having a (·,..·) as a
root letter – a hamzated verb
, · '
.·.·
A word having, as its root
letters, two letters of the same
type
` ·
.,
A word having two ( ,,..-
··) as the root letters
¸ · ,

13
The (·· ,,-) are (,), (.) and (¸).
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1) The term (¸..··) refers to any verb that contains a
(·· ,-).
2) If there is a ( ·.· ,-) in the ( ·.´ ..·), it is called
( ¸ ` ·` ·) or (¸··), eg ( · ,).
3) If there is a ( ·.· ,-) in the ( ·.´ ¸.·), it is called
(¸` , · ¸ ` ·` ·) or (,-'), e.g. ( ¸ ·).
4) If there is a ( ·.· ,.-) in the ( ·.´ ·.), it is called
( · ¸ ` ·` ·) or (¸·), e.g. ( · ·).

5) If the ( ·.´ ..·) has a (,), it is called ( ¸,, ¸.··) eg
( · ,).
6) If the ( ´ .· ·. ) has a (¸), it is called ( ¸., ¸.··). eg
( , ,).
7) If the ( ·.´ ¸.·) has a (,), it is called ( ¸,, ,.-' )
eg ( ¸ ·).
8) If the ( ·.´ ¸·) has a (¸), it is called ( ¸., ,.-')
eg ( _ ,).

9) If the ( ·.´ ·.) has a (,), it is called ( ¸,, ¸·.) eg
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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( · ·).
10) If the (·´ ·.) has a (¸), it is called ( ¸., ¸·.) eg
(¸ · _).

11) If the (·´ .·) has a ( ·,.·), it is called ( . _,.,·)
eg ( , · ').
12) If the ( ·.´ ¸.·) has a ( ·,.·), it is called ( _,.,·
¸·) eg ( ¸ ' ).
13) If the ( . ·´ · ) has a (·,·), it is called ( ··. _,.,·)
eg ( ' , ·).

14) ( ..,) is of two types: ( ·,,.· ..,) and ( ..,
.,,·).
15) (·,,..· ...,) is when the two (·..· ,..-) are
separate, e.g. (¸ · ,).
16) (.,,..· ...,) is when the two (·..· ,..-) are
adjacent to one another, e.g. (¸ , ~).
17) If the ( ·.´ ¸.·) and ( ·.´ ·.) are the same, it is
called (¸· .·.·) e.g. (` ·).
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18) If the () and the first (¸) and the (_) and the second
(¸) are the same letters, it is called ( ¸·.,_ .·..·) e.g.
( ¸ , _).



Exercise 36

Classify the following verbs according to the seven categories:

, · , ` _` ,` -,
, · , ¸ ,
, · , ` , ·
, . , · ` · ·
, ~ , ¸ , ~
, · , ` ¸`, ,
, · , - '
, , · _ ,
, - , ¸` ,
, · , , ·



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The Rules of (_,,·)
Rule 1:
It is permissible to change a (·,..·), that is alone and
(¸¯) to correspond to the previous (·¯,-).
That is,
(a) after a (·-·), change the (·,·) into an (.).
Example
( _ ' ` ¸ )(head) becomes( ` ¸ _. )

(b) after a (·.), change the (·,·) into a (,).
Example
` ¸` ,` , (destitute) becomes (` ¸` ,` ,).

(c) after a (·,¯), change the (·,·) into a (¸).
Example
· ` . (wolf) becomes (` .`, ·).

ν ν ν ν ν
Rule 2
If a hamzah mutaharrik ( ·,..· ·,..-· ) appears before a
( ·,.·) that is ( ¸¯.), it becomes necessary to change the
( ¸¯ ) letter to the corresponding (·· ,-).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Examples
' ¸ · becomes ¸ ·¯
¸ · becomes ¸ ·` ,
· becomes `, .
ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 3
(3.1) It is permissible to change a ( ·,.·) that is ( _,.·)
and is preceded by a (·.) to a (,).
Example
,` - . becomes . ,` -
,` - . is the plural of ,` - · which means a perfume holder.
(3.2) It is permissible to change a ( ·,.·) that is ( _,.·)
and is preceded by a (·,¯) into a (¸).
Example
` , · · becomes ` , , · .
ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 4
(4.1) If two (·,..·)’s are (·,..-·) and one of them is
( _,.´·), then it is permissible to change the second ( ·,.·)
into a (¸).
Example
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¸ ·` · can also be read as ·` , .
If there are two ( ·,.·)'s which are ( ·,.-·) and none of
them are (_,..´·), then it is necessary to change the
second (·,·) into a (,).

Examples
i) ' ' ` · · will be read as ` · · ,
ii) ' ' ` · ¸ will be read as ¸` · , '

(¸ . -) originally was ( - _., ) ( ¸.·· ,. of .. -). The
(¸) which comes after ( ._ ..) will change into a
( ·,.·). It becomes ( . - . _ ). Now there are two ( ·,.·
·,.-·) and one of them is ( _,.´·) . The second ( ·,.·)
changes into a (¸) becoming (` ¸ .. -) (according to the
rule of ·..` · - rule 4.1). (` ¸ .. -) can also be written as
` ¸`, ... -. The (·...) on the (¸) is ¸.., (difficult to
pronounce). Therefore it is removed and ( ... - . ` ¸` , )
remains. Now due to (¸¯.. _..-¸) (the coming
together of two [ ¸¯.] letters), the ( ¸¯. ¸) is deleted.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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We are left with - . ` ¸ which can also be read as ¸ . - .

Step by Step
- _., _ - (` ¸ -) ( . - ` ¸`, )
( . - ` ¸`, ) - ` ¸ (¸ . -)

ν ν ν ν ν
Rule 5
If a ( ·,.·) comes after the (,) or (¸) that are .· · and
_ · or if a ( ·,.·) comes after the (¸) of ( _·.. ,.), it is
permissible to change the (·,...·) into the letter that
precedes it and then (·..··¸) (incorporation of one letter
into another) is made.

Example of (,) ·_ ··
` · · ` ,` , ` · · ,` ,` , ·` ,` , ` ·

The word ( ` · · ` ,` , ) is the (¸,·· ,) of ( , ' , · ' , ).
Example (¸) ·_ ··
· ·` , = - · ,` , = - ·` , = -.
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Example of _·. ,
` ¸ ·` , · ' ` ¸ ,` , · ' ` ¸` , · ' .

The word ( ` ¸ ·.` , · ') is the ( _·.. ,.) of ( ` ¸` ,. · ') which is
the (_~) of (` ¸ ' ·) - meaning axe.

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 6
If there occurs a ( ·,.·) after the ( ..) of ¸.·· and before
a (¸), the (·,..·) changes to (·..-,· ..,) and the (¸)
changes to (.).
Example
The word (, = -) is the plural of ( · ·` , = -).
The word ( ., = -) was originally ( _,. = -). The (¸) which
comes after the (...) of (_..~) as the second last letter,
changes into a (·,..·).
14
It becomes ( . ... = -). Now we
have two ( ·,.-· ·,.·)’s and one of them is ( _,.´·).
The rule of ( ·..` , ) applies, whereby the second (·,..·)
changes into a (¸) and becomes ` ¸ . = -. Now there is a

14
This refers to rule no. 18 which you will read under the rules of ¸·· .
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( ·,.·) after the ( ..) of ¸.·· and it is before a (¸). It
changes to ( ·.-,· .,) and the (¸) changes to ( ..). The
word becomes (, = -).

NOTE: This law is compulsory ( ,,-,).

Step by Step

= - , _ . . = - ` ¸ = - , = -
ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 7
If a ( ·,.·) is ( ·,.-·) and it comes after a ( ¸¯.) that is
not a ( ·._ ··) nor is it ( ¸ _·.. ) , then the ( ·.¯,-) of
the (·,·) is given to the letter preceding it.

This law is permissible ( _,-).
Examples
1) In the word ( ¸ ·` .,), the ( ·.¯,-) of the ( ·,.·) is given to
the (¸) and the (·,·) is then deleted. It becomes
( ¸ ,).
2) In the words _. · ' ` · the ( ·.¯,-) of the ( ·,.·) is given to
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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the (·) and the (·,·) is then deleted. It becomes
( _ · · ).
3) In the words ` ·. - ' ` ¸. ·` ,, the ( ·.¯,-) of the ( ·,.·) is
transferred to the (¸) and the (·,..·) is then deleted. It
becomes (` · - ¸ ·` ,,).

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 8
The rule of ( ¸ ·` ..,) is compulsorily applied to all the
( ' ¸.·· ) (verbs) of ( ,., ¸ ) and ( ,.`, ¸ ) ( ,,.·' __..'
¸,,-,).

Example
In ( ` ,, ' ` ¸ ) the ( ·.-·) of the ( ·,.·) is given to the (_) and the
(·,·) is deleted. It becomes ( ,, ¸ ).

NOTE:
It is permissible to apply this rule to the ( ...· ..-)
(derived nouns) too.
The ( ,· _.· _ ) can be read as ( ` , · ¸ ) or ( ¸, ·).
The (·¯ ,) can be read as ( ·¯` , ·) or ( , · · ).
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The ( ·.-·) of the ( ·,.·) of ( · '` ,. ·) is given to the (_) and
then the (·,·) is removed leaving ( , · · ).
The (¸,·· ,) can be read as (¯ ¸ ` , ·) or (¯ ¸ , ·).

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 9
If a ( ·,.-· ·,.·) is preceded by a ( ·,.-·) letter, then
both ( ..,,· ¸.., ¸.., . ) and (..,·, ¸.., ¸..,) are both
permissible.
9.1 ( .,,· ¸, ¸, . ) is to read the ( ·,.·) between its ( _,.-)
and the (_,-) of the ( ·· ,-) corresponding to its
(hamza’s) ·¯,-.
9.2 ( .,·, ¸., ¸,) is to read a letter between its ( _,.-) and
the (_,..-) of the ( ·..· ,..-) corresponding to the
preceding (·¯,-).
(¸, ¸,) is also known as ¸,,.

Examples
When (¸, ¸,) is made on the word ( ¸ ' ), then in both
(.,,· ¸, ¸,) and ( .,·,) the ( _,.-) will be that of ( ·,.·)
and (.).
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In the word ( , ·. ) if ( ..,,· ¸., ¸.,) is made, then the
(_,-) will be between (·,·) and (¸). If ( .,·, ¸., ¸.,) is
made, then the (_,-) will be between (·,·) and
(.).
In the word ( ·` , ) if (.,,· ¸, ¸,) is made, then the
(_,-) will be between (·,·) and (,). If ( .,·, ¸., ¸.,) is
made then the (_,-) will be between (·,·) and (.).

(9.3) If there is a (·..¯,-· ·,..·) after (...), it is
permissible to apply (.,,· ¸, ¸,) only. ( .,·, ¸., ¸.,) is
not permissible in this case.

Examples
[1] In the word ( .` , ·), the (·,·) is (_,·). Therefore the
(·,·) will be read between the (_,-) of the (·,·) and the
(.).
[2] If ( .` , ·) is read with a (·.), the (·,·) will be read
between the (_,-) of the (·,·) and (,,).
[3] If ( .` , ·) is read with a (·,¯), the (·,·) will be read
between the (_,-) of the (·,·) and (¸).
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 10

If a (·,¸ ·,·) comes before a (·,·) as in the word
(` ,` ` ' '), then it is permissible to apply the rule of
(` · · , ') (Rule 4). Thus, (` ,` ` ' ') will be read as ( ' , ` ,` ` ) .
It is also permissible to make ( ¸,,.), whether ( ..,,·) or
(,·,).
It is also permissible to bring an (.) between the two
(·,·)’s and read it as (` ,` ` '¯).

ν ν ν ν ν

Exercise 37

(1) Apply rule no.1 to the following words:

, · , ¸ ' , . , · , ` , · · , · , ` _` ,`

(2) Which rule applies to the word ( -¯) and how?
(3)Analyse the changes to the word (¸ . ).
(4) Apply the rule of (_,,·) to the word ( · ` ,` ` ·).
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(5) What can ( .` ' ') also be read as?
The Orthography
15
of the Hamzah

The following rules are general guidelines with regards to
how a hamzah is written:
(a) Hamzah is invariably written over or under an alif at
the beginning of a word, e.g. ( , · '), ( , · ') and ( . ` ¸).
(b) When the initial hamzah is followed by an alif of
prolongation (long vowel .. ), the latter is replaced by a
madd over the initial alif, e.g. (` , ·¯) for (` , · ').
(c) The hamzah tends to be written over the semi-
consonant ( ·..· ,..-) corresponding to the vowel
(·¯,-) of the preceding letter.
Examples:
(` ,` · ',), (` , ·` ,`,), ( , = ,), (` . · = -)

(d) Where the previous consonant has a (.,´..), the
hamzah tends to be written over the semi-consonant
(·· ,-) coinciding with its own vowel (·¯,-).
Examples:
( ¸` ,` ,` ·), ( · ·` '), ( · ' )
This rule is applied for ( ¸..' ¸.·) instead of (c) above.
Thus, ( ¸` ,. ,) is written with a (,) and ( , ·. ) with a (¸)

15
the correct spelling
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without dots.
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The Paradigms of (_,,·)
= - | |· . ¸ = · =·, ¸- ··«|· _,«,-
·` ,` - '. · ,.` , · .` - ' . -` ,`, - ' , -¯ ,` , · ` - ' ` - ', - '
. . - ' · . - ' · ` ·.` · ` ` , = ` - ' . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` - ` ·` · ` ,` · '
-` , · ` ·` · · ¯ , -¯ · . . -` , · · . -` , · , . -¯ · . . -` , ·
. -¯ ` ·.` · ¸` , .. ` ¸. · · ' , ` ,-¯ · . · -` , · · -` , · , -¯ ·
, . - ' ., .` - ' ¸ ` - ' ` ·` · .` ,` , - , ' , .` , -¯ . -¯
` ., ` - '

Analysis of the changes

(1) The ( ,.·') of this ( ..,) is ( .` -) which is an exception
from the normal method of constructing the ( ,.·'). ( .` -)
was originally ( ` -` , ').
(2) Similarly, the (,..·') of ( ¸.. ¯ , ¸.. ¯ ') is ( ¸.. ¯). It is
necessary to delete the (·,·) from both ( ` -) and ( ¸ ¯).
(3) In the verb, ( ` ,` · '., ,. · '), it is permissible to delete the
hamzas and to retain them. Therefore, both (` ,..` ·) and
(` ,..` ·` , ') are correct to use. If the verb is used at the
beginning of the sentence, it is more eloquent to delete the
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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(·,·), e.g. it is stated in a hadîth, ( · ` . , ` , ¯ · ` , ' ` ,` ,` ·).
(4) If the verb is used in the middle of the sentence, then
most often the hamzah is retained, e.g. The Qur’ânic verse,
( · ` . , : ` · ' ` ,` · ' ,).
(5) In the word-forms of ( ,,.·' __..') of this ( ..,),
besides the singular first person ( ,´.· .-,), the rule of
(` ¸ ' _) has been applied. The same rule applies to the
(¸,·' ,) and (,= ,).
(6) The rule of (` , · ,) applies in the (·. ,).
(7) The rule of (` ¸` ,..` ,) applies in the (¸,..,- __...')
except for the singular first person (,´· -,).
(8) In the singular first person ( ,´.· .-,) of ( __..'
,,·') and the (¸,. ,), the rule of (¸·¯) applies.
(9) In the plural ( _.~) of ( ¸,.. ,.), the rule of (` · · , ')
applies.
(10) In the singular first person of the (¸,..,- __...'),
the rule of ( ¸ ·` , ') applies.

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Exercise 38

(a) Conjugate the following verbs:
, · , ¸ ¯ '
, · , , · '

(b) What is the paradigm of the ( ¸,..,- __...·) of
( ' . · )?
(c) What is the paradigm of the ( ,,..·· ,..·') of
( , · ')?
(d) What is the paradigm of the (,,..·' ¸...') of
( ¸ ¯ ')?
(e) How has the word (` , , ') changed from its original?



¸ = | |· . = ¸ = =·, ¸- ··«|· _,«,-
' ` ,` · '. ` _` ,.` ' · ,.` , · ,` ' ` , ` ,`, , ' , ` , ¯ ,` , · ,` ' ` , ', ,
` ,. ¯ · . ,. ' · ` , ' · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ' . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , `, ¸ ` ·` ·
· . , .` , · · , ` , · ` , ¯ · . ,` , · ` , ` , · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` _ .` , · ` ,. ¯
.` ,` ,. ¯ . ,. ¯ ` ,. ¯ ` ·.` · ¸` , .. ` ¸ · · ' , ` ,` , ¯ · . _ ` , ·
` ., ,` ' , ` , ' , ., ,` ' ¸ ,` ' ` ·` · .` ,` , ` , , ' ,
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Analysis of the changes

(1) The changes of this ( ..,) are similar to those of ( .-'
.-',) except for the imperative ( ,.·') – ( ` , .`, ¸) – where the
rule of ( . `, ¸) applies.
(2) The other (.,..,') of (·,..- ¸..·) follow the same
pattern.



Exercise 39

Conjugate the following verbs:
, · , , '
, · , ¸ · '

(b) What is the paradigm of the (__...· ,,..··) of
( ¸ · ')?
(c) What is the paradigm of the (¸,,- ,·') of ( · ')?
(d) What is the paradigm of the (¸,,- ¸.') of ( ¸ · ')?
(e) How has the word (` ,` , `, ¸) changed from its original?


From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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· . ,·-··, =·, ¸- ··«|· _,«,- _· « · , , |
` ,` · ' ` , ` ,` · ,` , · _ `, ¸ ` , ` ,`, , ` ` , ' , ` , ` ,` · ,` , · _ `, ¸ ` , ', , `, ¸
` , ` ,` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ' . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , `, ¸ ` ·` ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) The rule of ( .. `, ¸) applies in the ( ,,.·' ¸..'),
(,,·· ,·') and (_.·).
(2) The rule of ( ¸ ·` , ') applies in the (¸,,- ¸.').
(3) The rule of (` ¸ ' _) applies in the (,,·' __.').
(4) The rule of (` ¸` ,..` ,) applies in the (¸,..,- __...'),
(¸· ,), (¸,·' ,) and (,= ,).

.· = , · =, | · . ,·-«·=, =·, ¸- ··«|· _,«,-
,` , · ` , ` ¸ . · ' ` `, . · '` ` ' , . · ' ` ` · ,` , · ` , ` ¸ . · ' ` , . ·' ` ¸
` ,` , . · ' ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' . · ' ` `· . · ' ` ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = . · ' ` . ` ·` · ` ¸

Analysis of the changes

(1) Conjugate all the verbs of ( ·.,· .,,· ¸.· .,,') like
the conjugations of ( - ') and ( , `, ¸).

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Exercise 40

Conjugate the following verbs:
, · , . ' ` ¸
, · , ¸ ¸
, · , , ~ '` ¸

(b) What is the paradigm of the (__...· ,,..··) of
( ¸ · ')?
(c) What is the paradigm of the (¸,,- ,·') of ( · ')?
(d) What is the paradigm of the (¸,,- ¸.') of ( ¸ · ')?
(e) How has the word (` ,` , `, ¸) changed from its original?


Discussion of ( _,,· ¸· )

(1) The rule of ( ¸., ¸.,) or ( ¸,,.) applies to all the verbs
of (¸.') of ( ·,.- ¸.· ¸.· _,,·). Note that this rule
is optional.
(2) The rule of ( ¸ ·` .,) applies to the ( __..·) and ( ,.·') of
( ¸· _,,· ·,- ¸· ).
(3) (` , ` ,, _ ' _) is from ( .., .,.. ), ( ¸ '. ¸ ·` ., ) is from
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( ., _· ), (` , ·` , , · ) is from ( ., _- ), ( ` ·` ,. , ·` ,. ) is from
( ., ·,¯ ).
(4) In the imperative (,..·'), after applying the rule of
( ¸ ·` ..,), the ( ·,..· ¸..., ) is deleted. Therefore (` ,.. ` _ ¸)
becomes (` _ _), ( ¸ ·..` ¸) becomes ( ¸.. ), ( , ·..` ') becomes
(` , ) and (` , · ') becomes (` , ).
The conjugation of the imperative second person ( ,..·'
,,·· ,.-) form is as follows:

.` _ _ _ _ ` ¸ _ _ ` ,` _ _ _ _ ` _ _
¸ ` ¸ ` , ¸
¸` ` ¸ ` ,` ` ,
¸` ` ¸ ` ,` ` ,


Discussion of (ما ز)

(1) In most of the word-forms of ( ··. _,.,·), the rule of
(¸, ¸,) or (¸,,) applies, e.g. ( ' , , ' , ·).
(2) The rule of (` , , ·) applies to ( ¸,.,- ¸..' .-,), e.g.
( . , ·).
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(3) The rule of ( ·¯. ··,.· ·,.·), that is the rule of
(` ¸ ' _) applies to all the word-forms of ( ,.·') and ( __..·
·,,-). Accordingly, in the words ( ' ,. · ¸) and ( ' ,. , ` ,. ), the
hamzah can become (...), in the words ( .` ·` _ ') and ( ` ,..
.` ·` ,.,), the hamzah can become (,) and in the words ( _. ` ')
and ( _ ` , ` , ), the hamzah can become (¸).


Exercise 41

Conjugate the following verbs:
, · , '` ` ,, ' ·
, · , ` ¸ ¸` ,, ¸ ' _
, · , ¸` · '
, . , -¯
, ~ , ¸ '` , '
, · , ¸` · '
, · , ' ~ -
, , ' ´` ¸
, - , ' ` , ¸
, · , . ' ` ¸
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The Rules Of (¸··)
Rule 1
(1.1) The (,) which appears between ( .··· ' __. )
16

which is (_,·) and the ( ·.´ .· ¸ ) which is ( _,.´·),
falls off.

Example
The word ` ·` ,, becomes ` ·, .
Every (,) that comes between the
(_,· __.· .···) and the (·¯ _) which is
(_,..·), the (,) falls off, on condition that either the
(·¯ _) or the (·¯ ¸) is from the (¸- ,,-)
17
.
Example
The word ` . ·` ,, becomes ` . ,,.

Note:
Every (¸,, ¸..··) on the scale of (.,...) follows this
rule.
ν ν ν ν ν

16
__.· .··· are the following letters . . ¸ .
17
The _- ,,- are the following letters: _ _ _ · . _
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Rule 2
If a (_.·) is on the scale of ( ¸` · ·) and its (·´ .·) is a
(,), that (,) is deleted and the (·¯ _) is given a
(·,¯). A (·) is then added at the end of the word.

Step by Step Example

` ` · , ` ` · ` · · ·

Note:
If the ( __..·) has a ( ·.-·) on its ( ·.¯ _), for example
in the word (` _ ,), the ( ·.´ ..·) of the ( _..·) can also
be given a (·-·).

Step by Step Example
The word ( · · ) the (_.·) of (` _ , _ ,).
` _` , ` _` ` _ · ·

Note:
It is also permissible to read ( · · ) as ( · · ).

ν ν ν ν ν
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Rule 3
(3.1) If a (¸¯ ,) is not (·` ·) and is preceded by a
(·,¯), it changes into a (¸).

Example
The word ` · ·` , · changes to ` · ·` , ·.

Exception
The word (` _` ,.. ` - ¸) will remain unchanged, because the (,)
is ,·· (·` ·).

(3.2) If ( ¸¯. ¸) is not ( ,·.·) and it is preceded by a
(·.), the (¸) changes into a (,).
Example
The word (` , ` ,` ·) changes to (` , ` ,` ·).

Exceptions
The word (` ,` ,` ·) remains unchanged because the (¸) is
(,··).
(3.3) If an ( ..) is preceded by a ( ·..), it will change
into a (,).

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Step by Step Example

¸ · · ¸ ¸ ` , ·
(3.4) If an ( ..) is preceded by a ( ·,.¯), it will change
into a (¸).

Example
The plural of (` . ,` - ·) is (` . _ - ·). This changes to
(` .`, _ - ·) because the (.) is preceded by a (·,¯).

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 4
If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is a ( ' , _. ) or
( ¸ _.' ), the (,) or (¸) will change into a (.) and
(·..··) will be made, that is, both the (.)’s will be
assimilated.

Step by Step Example of (¸,, ¸··)

` , ¸ ` ¸ . ` ¸ .
Step by Step Example of (¸, ¸··)
`, . , ` . , , `

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ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 5

(5.1) If at the beginning of a word there is a ( ·,..· ,), it
is permissible to change it into a (·,·).

Examples
( ` ·` ,.` -` , – plural of ` ·.` - ,) changes to ( ` ·` ,.` - ). (This is an
example of an ,).
( ·` , . ` . – the [¸,,- ¸.'] of ` .,·,) changes to
( · . ` . ). (This is an example of a ¸··).

(5.2) If ( , _,..´· ) appears at the beginning of a word, it
is permissible to change it to a (·,·).

Example
(` _ , – swordbelt) can be read as (` _ ¸).

(5.3) If a ( _,.·,· ,) appears in the middle of a word, it is
permissible to change it into a (·,·).

Example
(` _` ,` · ) can be read as (` _` ,` · ).
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Rarely is a (_,· ,) changed into a (·,·).

Examples
(` - , - one) can be read as (` - ).
( · , – a lazy woman) can be read as ( · ).

ν ν ν ν ν
Rule 6
When two ( , , ·,..-· ) come together at the beginning of
a word, it is compulsory (...-,) to change the first (,)
into a (·,·).
Example
( ¸ . , ,) is read as ( ¸ . , ) (This is the plural of · . ,).
( ¸ .`, ,` ,) is read as ( ¸ ..`, , '). This is the ( . ,.¸ _.·. ) of
( ¸ . ,).
ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 7
(7.1) If (,) or (¸) ( ·,.-·) is preceded by a ·.-·, the (,)
or (¸) is changed into an (.).

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Examples
Example of a (·,-· ,) in the middle of a (¸··):
( · ¸ , ) changes to ( ¸ ·).
Example of a (·,-· ¸) in the middle of a (¸··):
( _ , ,) changes to ( _ ,).
Example of a (·,-·,) at the end of a (¸··):
( , · ·) changes to ( · ·).
Example of a (·,-· ¸) at the end of a (¸··):
( · _ ¸ ) changes to (¸ · _).

Example of a (·,-·,) in an (,):
(` . , ,) changes to (` . ,).
Example of a (·,-· ¸) in an (,):
(` . , ) changes to (` . ).

Conditions for the above rule

This rule only applies if the following conditions are met:

[1] The (,) or (·,-· ¸) must not be in the place of the
( ·.´ ..·). Therefore this rule will not apply to the word
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· , · - the (,) is in the place of the (·´ .·) and the
() is a (.=· ,-). It will also not apply to (_ · , )
because the (,) is in the place of the ( ..· ·.´ ) of ( ..,
¸' ·).
It will also not apply to ,` , - (¸) is in the place of the
(·´ .·) of ( ., ¸' · ).

[2] The (,) or (¸) must not be in place of the ( ·.¯ _) of
a word which is ( ..,). ( .., is that word which has two
·.· ,.-). Therefore this law will not apply to the word
( ¸ ,. ~) . Here (,) is in the place of the ( ·.¯ _). The
law will also not apply in the word ( - ¸. , ). Here (¸) is in
the place of the (·¯ _).

[3] The (,) or (¸) must not come before the (...) of
(·,...·.). Therefore this law will not apply to the word
( ,. · ·), since there is a (,) before the ( ..) of ( ·,..·.)
and in the word (.. ,· _), since there is a (¸) before the
(.) of (·,.·.).

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[4] The (,) or (¸) must not come before a (·.._ ·` ..·).
Therefore this law will not apply to the word ( ¸..`, , ~)
because the (,) is before a (¸) which is not a ( ,..-
' ¸..). It will also not apply in the word ( ` _` ,.` , ·) because
the (,) after the (¸) is not a ( ¸.. ,.-). Also in the
word ( ·.. , , ·), the (¸) is before an (...) which is not a
(¸. ,-).

Objection
In the words (` , · ·), ( .` , .` -,), ( .` , .` - ) and ( ¸` , .` - ), the
(,) and (¸) were not supposed to be changed to (...)
because they came before a ( ·._ ·` .·), but yet this rule
has been applied.

Answer
The (¸) in these words is a separate word and it is the
(¸··) of the ( ¸.··), while the ( ·.·) is not ( ._), therefore
the (,) or (¸) changes to (.) and then falls off due to
(¸¯ _-¸).

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Step by Step Examples
` ,` , · · (` , · ·) ` , · · · · ` ,

.` ,` , ` -, ( .` , · ,) .` , ` -, .` , ` -,

.` ,` , ` - ( .` , · ) .` , ` - .` , ` -

¸` , , ` - ( ¸` , · ) ¸`, ` - ¸` , ` -

[5] The ( ¸ ·,.-· ) or ( ·,.-·,) must not be before ( ¸
·` ..·), for example, the word ( ,.. · ¯ ¸ ). The (¸) or
( ·,.-·,) must also not be before ( .,¯ .), for example,
the word
(` ¸ , ` - ¸).

[6] The word must not have the meaning of a colour or
defect, for example,
( _ , ·) (to be one-eyed),
( , .) (to have a crooked neck).

[7] The word must not be on the scale of ( · · . . ), ( . · · _ ) or
( · · ·), for example
( . _ , ·) – ( · · . ) – example of (,). [meaning – rotation]
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( . , ) – ( · · . ) example of (¸). [meaning – flowing]
( ¸ _ ,. .) – ( . · · _ ) example of (,). [meaning – name of a
spring of water]
( .. , - ¸ ) – ( .. · · _ ) example of (¸). [meaning – to walk
arrogantly – from ,- ·-]
and ( ·. ¯ , -) – ( ·. · ·) example of (,). [meaning – weaver –
plural of ` : -]

[8] The word must not be from (¸..··¸ ...,) having the
meaning of (¸· ..,). For example, the word _ ,. ` - ¸ (in
the meaning of _ ,.. - ) and _ ,.. ` · ¸ (in the meaning of
, · _ ). Both words mean to take in turns.

(7.2) If after such an ( ..) (which has been changed from
a , or ¸), there is a ( ¸¯ ) letter, the (.) falls off.

Examples

[1] In the word ( ` ,` ,. · ·), the first (,) changes to ( ..). It
becomes (` , · ·). Here ( ..) has come before a ( , ¸¯. ).
The (.) falls off and it becomes (` , · ·).
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[2] In the word ( ¸` , ,. .` , ), the first (¸) changes to an ( ..).
Due to the ( ..) coming before a ( ¸¯.), it is deleted. It
becomes ( ¸` , .` , ).

(7.3) If such an (...) has come before a (..., .) of
( _..· ¸.··), even if the (.) is ( ·,.-·), the ( ..) is
deleted.

Examples
1. The word ( . · · ` . , ) changes to ( ` .. · ·). Now we have an
( ..) before ( .., .) of ( _..· ¸.··). Therefore it is
deleted. It becomes (` . · ·).

2. The word ( , · · ) changes to ( · ·). There is a ( . ..,
·,.-·) after the ( ..). Therefore the ( ..) is deleted. It
becomes · ·.

(7.4) In the ( ··,. ) of (,,·' ¸.'), from ( ..,· _.~
..·) until the end, if the word is ( ¸,, ,.-), whether
the ( ·.´ ¸·) has a ( ·..) or ( ·.-·), after deleting the
(.), the (·´ .·) is given a (·.).

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Example in which (·¯ _) has a (·-·)

( ¸ ,. ·) changes to ( ¸ . ·). The ( ..) is now deleted because
it is followed by a ( ¸¯.). It becomes ( ¸. ·). The (·) is
now given a (·...) because it is (¸,, ,..-). It
becomes ( · ¸ ). The word ( · ¸ ) is from the (.,) of (,.).

Example in which (·¯ _) has a (·.)

` , ~ ¸ ¸ ~ ¸ ~ ¸ ~

The word ( ¸ ~) is from the (.,) of (·` ,¯).

(7.5) In the ( ··,.. ,,.·' ¸..'), from ( ..,· _.~
..·) till the end, after deleting the ( ..), if it is ( ,.-
¸.,) or there is a ( ·,.¯) on the ( ·.¯ _) in ( ,.-
¸,,), the (·´ .·) is given a (·,¯).

Example in which (·¯ _) has a (·,¯)

In the word ( ¸` · ,. ,), the ( ·,.-· ¸) is preceded by a ( ·.-·).
Therefore the (¸) changes to (...). It becomes ( ¸` ·.. ,).
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The ( ..) is deleted. It becomes ( ¸.` · ,). Now the (.) is
given a (·,¯). It becomes ( ¸` · ,).

Step by Step Example of (¸,, ,-) with (·,¯)
¸ · , - ¸ · - ¸ - ¸ -

The word ( ¸ -) is from the (.,) of (_-).


ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 8

(8.1) If the letter before (,) or (¸) is ( ¸¯.), the ( ·.¯,-)
of the (,) or (¸) is transferred to the preceding letter.

Example

[1] In the word ( ¸` ,. ,), the ( ·.¯,-) of the (,) which is a
( ·..) in this case, is given to the (·). It becomes ( . , ¸` , ).
(This is an example of ,-' ¸,, ).


[2] In the word ( ` _. ,` ,), the ( ·,.¯) of the (¸) is given to the
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(.). It becomes ( ` _.` , ,). (This is an example of ,.-'
¸,).

(8.2) If the ( ·.¯,-) is a ( ·.-·), the (,) or (¸) is changed
into an (.).

Examples

[1] In the word ( . `, ¸ , ), the ( ·.-·) of the (,) is given to the
(·). It becomes ( ¸` ,. `,). Now due to the ( ·.-·), the (,) is
changed into an (.) becoming ( ¸ `,).

`, ¸ , ¸` , `, ¸ `,

[2] In the word ( ` _. ,` `,), the ( ·.-·) of the (¸) is given to the
(.) becoming ( ` _.` , `,). Now due to the ( ·.-·) of the (.)
the (¸) changes into an (.), thus becoming (` _ `,).
` _ ,` `, ` _` , `, ` _ `,

Remember

The conditions applicable to Rule 7 apply to Rule 8 as
well.

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(8.3) If such a (,) or (¸) is followed by a ( ¸¯.), in the
case of (·.) and (·,¯), the (,) or (¸) will be deleted.

Example of (¸,, ,-')

In the word ( ¸` ,. , ` , ) because of ( ¸¯. _.-¸) the (,)
is deleted. It becomes ( ¸ , ` , ).

Example of ,-' _,

In the word ( , ` ,. .` , ` _ ), the (¸) is followed by a ( ¸¯.),
therefore the (¸) is deleted. It becomes (` _ , ` , ).

(8.4) If a (,) or (¸) is followed by a ( ¸¯.) and preceded
by a ( ·.-·), the ( ..) (which was originally , or ¸) is
deleted.

Examples

( ` , ¸ , `, ) changes to ( ¸. `, ` ,. ). After the ( ..) is deleted,
it becomes ( ¸ `, ` , ).
( ` , ` _ ,.` `, ) changes to ( ` _. `, ` ,. ). After the ( ..) is deleted,
it becomes (` _ `, ` , ).
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Important

This rule (Rule 8) does not apply to the words ( . · . · , ` ¸ )
because condition number one has not been fulfilled.
In the words ( ¸ ,. =,) and ( _. ,` -,), the rule is not applied
because of condition number 2 - (., ¸·).

The words ( ¸ , ·), ( ¸ ,` - ) and ( ` ,` ,.. ,` ) remain unchanged
because of the fourth condition - (·_ ·· ¸·).

However, the (,) of the ( ¸,.·· ,.) is an exception to
condition number 4. Despite there being a ( ·._ ·.·), the
(·¯,-) of the (,) or (¸) will still be given to the previous letter.

Example of (¸,, ,-)
In the word ( ¸` ,` , ·) which is the ( ¸,.·· ,) of ( ¸.·), the
( ·..) of the (,) is still transferred to the (·). It becomes
( ¸` ,` ,. ·). Due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸), the first (,) is deleted.
It becomes ( ¸` , · ).

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Example of (_, ,-')

In the word ( ` ,` · ` _` , ) which is the ( ¸,.·· ,) of ( _ .,), the
(·..¯,-) of the (¸) is transferred to the (.). It becomes
( ` _` ,.` ,` ·). Due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸), the (,) is deleted and it
becomes ( ` _.` ,` ·). Since the corresponding ( ·.¯,-) of (¸)
is a (·,¯), the (.) is given a (·,¯). It becomes (` _` , ·).

Exception

In the words ` _ ,..` ·, (to be one-eyed), ` ,` ..., (to have a
crooked neck), ` · ,..` ' (black), ` ¸ ,..` , ' (white) and ·` · ,` ..` ·
(black), due to condition number 6 (i.e. having the
meaning of a colour or defect), no change occurs.

The aforementioned rule (Rule 8) does not apply to ( ,..¸
¸,...), that is those words on the scale of ( ¸ ,.. · '); or
(.-· ¸··'), like ( ` ·. , · ' · and ·. , ¸ ,. · '); and words that
are (_·,,, ¸-·), like ( .,` , and _ ,` , -).

ν ν ν ν ν

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Rule 9

(9.1) If there is a (,) in the ( ·.¯ _) of ( ¸,.,- ¸..'),
the preceding letter is made ( ¸¯.) and the ( ·.¯,-) of the
(,) is transferred to the preceding letter. Then the (,)
changes to (¸).

Example 1

¸ , · ¸` , · ¸` , ·.

Example 2

· , ` ' ·` , ` ' ` , ` '

(9.2) If there is a (¸) in ( ¸,.,- ¸..') in the place of the
(·..¯ _), the preceding letter is made (¸¯..) and the
(·..¯,-) of the (¸) is transferred to the preceding letter.
No other changes are made.

Example 1

In the word ( _.. ,` ,) the (.) is made (¸¯..). It becomes
( _ ,` ,). Now the (·¯,-) of the (¸) is transferred to the
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(.), thus becoming ( _` , ,).
_ ,` , _ ,` , _` , ,

Example 2

In the word ( .` - ' . , ,` ) the (.) is made ( ¸¯.). It becomes
( ..` - ' . , ,` ). The (·..¯,-) of the (¸) is transferred to the
(.). It becomes ( ` - ' . ,` , ).

, ,` ` - ' , ,` ` - ' ` - ' . ,` ,

(9.3) It is also permissable to retain the (·..¯,-) of the
preceding letter and to make the (,) or the (¸) ( ¸¯.). In
this case the (¸) changes to (,).

Examples

¸ , · ¸` , ·
_ ,` , _` ,` , _` ,` ,
, ,` ` - ' ,` ,` ` - ' _` ,` ` - '
· , ` ' ·` , ` '

(9.4) It is also permissible to pronounce these words with
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( ·.-¸). ( ·.-¸) means to pronounce a ( ·.¯,-) in such a way
that it has the effect of another (·..¯,-). For example in
the word ( ¸..` , ·), the (·,..¯) of the (·) is pronounced in
such a way that it has the fragrance of a
(·.).

Similar is the case with the (.) of ( _.` , ,). The ( ·,.¯) of
the (.) will have the effect of a ( ·..). The condition for
this rule is that changes must have taken place in the
( ,,.··) form of the verb. Therefore, the word ( _ ,.` ` · ')
will remain unchanged because the (,,..··) form of this
word, namely ( _ , ` · ¸) was unaffected by any change.

(9.5) In (¸,, ,-'), if the (·¯ _) is (_,·) in
(,,·' ¸.'), after the (¸) is deleted in the
( ¸.' - ¸,, ), the (·´ .·) is given a (·.) from the
(··,.) of ( ..· .,· _~) until the end (i.e. .~ , ·.,· _
,´· .,· , ,¯·).

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Step by Step Example

` . , · ` . , · ` . ` , · ` . ` , ·
` . ·

(9.6) In ( _., ,-'), whatever the ( ·.¯,-) may be, or that
(¸,, ,..-') where the (·..¯ _) is (_,..´·) in the
( ,,.·' ¸.'), after deleting the (¸), the ( ..· ·.´ ) is
given a (·,¯) from the (··,.) of ( ..· ..,· _~) until
the end, that is, (,´· .,· , ,¯· _~ , ·,·).

Example of ( ,-' _, )
` .` · ,` , ` .` · ,` , ` .` ·` , , ` .` · ,
Example of such a (¸,, ,-') wherein the (·´ ¸·)
is (_,´·)
,` - ¸ · ¸ · ,` - ¸ ·` , - ¸ -

Note that the forms of ( ,,.··) and ( ¸,.,-) are now the
same. However the ( ¸..') - original form of each one will
be different:
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Original Form Changed
Form
(,,·' ¸.')
(¸,,- ¸.')
` . , ·
` . , ·
` . ·
` . ·
(,,·' ¸.')
(¸,,- ¸.')
` .` · , ,
` .` · ,` ,
` .` · ,
` .` · ,
(,,·' ¸.')
(¸,,- ¸.')
` . · , -
` . · ,` -
` . -
` . -

Note:
In the ( ¸,.,-) of ( ¸·.' ..,), the transferring of the
( ·.¯,-) is not according to this rule i.e. rule number 9, but
is due to rule number 8 (the rule of ¸` ,. ,). Therefore the
rule of ( ` ,.. · ¸ ) and (·..-¸) will not apply. For example
( , ,` -` ` ') becomes ( ,` , -` ` ').

ν ν ν ν ν

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Rule 10
(10.1) If the ( ·.´ ·.) of the following ( ··,..)’s is (,) or
(¸), it becomes ( ¸¯.) if it is preceded by a ( ·..) or a
(·,¯):
1. ¸ · ,
2. ¸ ·
3. ¸ · · '
4. ¸ ·

Examples

(` ,` ·` ,) becomes (` ,` ·` ,) – example of (¸,, ¸·)
(` ¸ ·` ,,) becomes (` _ ·` ,,) – example of (¸, ¸·)

If the (,) or (¸) of the ( ·.´ ·.) is preceded by a ( ·.-·),
it becomes (.) in accordance with the rule of ( ¸ ·).

Examples

(` ¸ ` -,) becomes (_ ` -,) – example of (¸, ¸·)
(` , .` ,,) becomes (_ .` ,,) – example of (¸,, ¸·)

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(10.2) If a word has a (,) preceded by a (·...) and
followed by another (,), that (,) falls off.

Example of (,)
In the word .` ,` ,` ·` ., ( ..· ,¯.· _.~), before the (,)
there is a (·...) and after the (,) there is another (,).
Therefore, the first (,) is made ( ¸¯.) and the second one
falls off due to (¸¯ _-¸). It becomes ( .` ,` ·` ,).

If a (¸) is preceded by a ( ·,.¯) and followed by another
(¸), the first (¸) becomes (¸¯..) and the other (¸) is
deleted because of (¸¯ _-¸).

Example of (¸)

In the word ¸` , , ·` , ( · -, ,..- .., ) there is a ( ·,.¯)
before the (¸) and it is followed by a second (¸).
Therefore the first (¸) becomes (¸¯..) and the second
(¸) falls off. It becomes ( ¸` , ·` , ).

(10.3) If a (,) is preceded by a (·...) and followed by a
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(¸), the preceding letter is made ( ¸¯.) and the ( ·.¯,-)
of the (,) is transferred to the preceding letter. Then the
(,) changes into a (¸) and falls off due to ( _..-¸
¸¯).

Example

In the word ( ¸`, ,` ·` . ) the (,) is preceded by a ( ·..) and
followed by a (¸), therefore the preceding letter (_) is
made ( ¸¯.) and the ( ·.¯,-) of the (,) which is a ( ·,.¯)
is transferred to the preceding letter, the (_). It therefore
becomes ( ¸`,` , ·` . ). Due to the preceding ( ·,.¯), the (,)
changes into a (¸). Now due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸) the (¸)
is deleted. It becomes ( ¸` , ·` ).

(10.4) If a (¸) is preceded by a ( ·,.¯) and followed by a
(,), the preceding letter is made ( ¸¯.) and the ( ·.¯,-) of
the (¸) is given to the preceding letter. Then the (¸)
changes into a (,) and falls off due to (¸¯ _-¸).

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Example

In the word ( .` ,.` , ·` ,,), the (¸) is preceded by a ( ·,.¯) and
followed by a (,). Therefore, the preceding letter (·) is
made (¸¯) and the ( ·.¯,-) of the (¸) which is a ( ·..),
is transferred to the preceding letter (·). It becomes
( .` ,.` ,` ·` ,,). Due to the preceding ( ·..), the (¸) changes to
(,). It becomes ( .` ·` ,, ` , .` , ). Now due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸),
the (,) is deleted. It becomes ( .` ,` ·` ,,).

Further Examples
` ,` , (` , · · – ,,·' ¸.') becomes ` , .
` _ ` ,` , · (` , · · – ¸,,- ¸.') becomes ` ,` ·` _ .

Step by Step

` ,` , ` ,` , ` ,` , ` , ` ,
` ,

` ,` , ·` _ ` _ ` · ` ,` , ` ·` _ ` ,` , ` ,` ,` ·` _
` ,` ·` _
ν ν ν ν ν
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Exercise 42

(a) Identify the rules or changes of ( ¸.··) in the following
words:
, · , ` .` ·` ·
, · , . ,,
, · , · · .
, . , . ,` , ·
, ~ , ·` ,` ·
, · , . ,` ¸
, · , ` ` , ·` ,
, - , ¸` ·` _
, · , ` ¸`, ,


Rule 11
If a (,) appears in the place of the (·..´ ·.) after a
(·,¯), the (,) changes into a (¸).
Example
In the word ( ,. ·` ·) the (,) appears in the place of the ( ·.
·..´) after a (·,..¯). Therefore the (,) changes into a
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(¸). It becomes ( ¸ ·` ·).

The same change occurs in ( , ·` ·), ( . , · ·) and ( · , · ·).

, ·` · ¸ ·` ·
, ·` · , ·` ·
· . , · . , · ·
· · , · · , · ·

Rule 12

If a (¸) is in the place of the (·´ ·.), preceded by a
(·.), the (¸) changes into a (,).

Example
In the word ¸` , , which is ( ..· ,¯.· -,) of ( ..,
·` ,. ¯) from the masdar ( · ,. , ), meaning intellect, the (¸) is
in the place of the ( ·.´ ·.), preceded by a ( ·..). The
(¸) changes into a (,). It becomes ( ,` , ).

ν ν ν ν ν
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Rule 13

(13.1) If a (,) comes in the place of the ( ·.¯ _) preceded
by a (·,..¯) in the (_...·), it changes into a (¸), on
condition that (¸,· – a change) occurred in the (¸··).

Examples

1. The word · , · (which is the _..· of ·. ·) was originally
· , ·.
2. The word · ,.. . (which is the _...· of ·.. .) was
originally · , ..

However, the word ( · , · ) which is the (_.·) of ( · , ·) of
(·..·· ...,) remains unchanged, because no (¸..,·)
occurred in the (¸··). The (¸··) is ( · , ·).

(13.2) The same (¸..,·) occurs if a (,) comes in place of
the ( ·.¯ _) of a word that is ( _.~), on condition that (,)
is (¸¯) in the ( ··,.. .-,) or ( ¸.,·) took place in the
(,) of the (··,. -,).

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Examples
1. The word ` ¸ ,. - (the _.~ of the word ` ¸` ,. -) changes
to ` ¸. , -. This is an example of a ( _.~) in which the (,) is
(¸¯).
2. The word ` · ,. - (the _.~ of the word ` .` , -) changes to
` ·. , -. This is an example of a ( _.~) in which the (,) is
changed in the original (from ` · ,` , - to ` ` , - ).

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 14
(14.1) If a (,) or (¸) which are are not changed from any
other letter, come together in one word, which is not
( _·.,,, ¸.-·) (on the scale of _ ,.` - ·) and the first of the
two, namely the (,) or (¸) is ( ¸¯.), then the (,) changes
into a (¸). Then ( ·.··¸) is made and the preceding ( ·..)
is changed into (·,¯).

Examples

1. In the word ` · ,` ,. , (,) and (¸) come together, and the
first of the two i.e. the (¸) is (¸¯..). Therefore the (,)
changes into a (¸), thereby becoming (` ,` ,.. ). After
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(···¸) is made, it becomes (` ` , ).

2. In the word (` ¸` ,..` ·` , ·), (,) and (¸) come together, and
the first of the two i.e. the (,) is ( ¸¯.). Therefore the (,)
changes into a (¸), thereby becoming (` ¸..` ,` ·` , ·). After
( ·.··¸) is made, it becomes ( ¯ ¸.` ·` , ·). The ( ·..) of the (·)
is changed to a (·,¯), thereby becoming (¯ ¸ ·` , ·).

3. In the word ( ` ¸` ,` ..` ·), (which is the _..· of _ .. ·
` _ ..` ,), the (,) and (¸) come together, and the first of the
two i.e. the (,) is ( ¸¯.). Therefore the (,) changes into a
(¸) becoming ` ¸` ,` ...` ·. After (·..··¸) is made, it becomes
(¯ ¸` ...` ·). The (·...) of the (·) is changed to (·,..¯)
thereby becoming ( ¯ ¸ ..` ·). It is also permissible to read the
(·) with (·,..¯) corresponding with the (·..¯,-) of the
(¸), that is (¯ ¸ . ·).

(14.2) The ( ,..- ,·') of ( . ¸ , ' ` ¸ , '., .´, , ' . – to take
refuge) is ( , ' ¸). The (.) changes to a (¸). It becomes ,.`, ¸, .
Because this (¸) has changed from a ( ·,.·), rule 14.1 will
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not apply.

Another example where this rule will not apply is the word
( . ,` , .). No change occurs because it is (_·,,, ¸-·).

If the (,) and (¸) are in different words, no change will
occur.

Example
(1) = , ` ¸ ¸ – the (,) will not change into a (¸).

(2) _. · ,.`, _ , ` ¸. _ - the (¸) of the word ( ` ¸. _) and
the (,) of the word ( ,..`, _ ,) are in different words and will
therefore remain unchanged.


ν ν ν ν ν
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Rule 15

If a word is on the scale of ( ¸` ,.` · ·) and it has two (,)’s at
the end of the word, then both the (,)’s are changed into
(¸) and ( ·.··¸) is made. The ( ·..) of the preceding letter
(·..´ ¸..·) is changed into (·,..¯) and it is also
permissible to give the (·´ .·) a (·,¯).

Example
The word ( ` ,` ,. ` ·) - ( _.~ of ` ,. ·) is on the scale of ( ¸` ,.` · ·).
Therefore, according to the above rule, both the (,)’s are
changed into (¸). It becomes ( ` ¸.` , ` ·). Then ( ·.··¸) is made
thereby becoming ( ¯ ¸. ` ·). After changing the ( ·..) of the
preceding letter into ( ·,.¯), it becomes ¯ ¸. ` ·. It is also
permissible to read it as ¯ ¸ ·.

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 16
(16.1) If there is a (,) in the (·..´ ·.) of an (,..)
preceded by a (·...), the (·...) will be changed into a
(·,..¯) and the (,) into a (¸). The (¸) is then made
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(¸¯). Due to (¸¯ _-¸), the (¸) is deleted.

Example
In the word ( ` ,. ` · ') - ( _.~ of ` ,. ·), the (,) is on the ( ·.
·.´) of an ( ,.) preceded by a ( ·..). Therefore the
( ·..) will be changed into a ( ·,.¯) becoming ( ' ` · ` ,. ).
Then the (,) changes into a (¸), thereby becoming ( ' ` · ` ¸. ),
which can also be written as (` ¸` ,.. ` · '). After (¸) is made
( ¸¯.), due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸), the (¸) is deleted. It
becomes (` ¸ ` · ') which can also be written as (¸ ¸` · ').

Step by Step Example

` , ` · ' ' ` · ` , , ` ¸` , ` · ' , ' ` · ` ¸ ` ¸ ` · '
¸ ¸` · '

(16.2) The law of (16.1) will also occur on a _..·, which
is from ( ., ¸` · ) and is (¸,, ¸·).

Example
The word (` ,... · ) undergoes the following changes,
eventually becoming ( ¸ · ).
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` , · ` ¸ · ` ¸` , · ` ¸` , · ` ¸ ·
¸ ·

(16.3) The law of 16.1 will also occur on a ( _..·), which
is from (¸· .,) and is (¸,, ¸·).
Example
The word ( ` , ... · ) undergoes the following changes,
eventually becoming (¸ ¸ · ).
` , · ` ¸ · ` ¸` , · ` ¸` , · ` ¸ ·
¸ ¸ ·

(16.4) If a (¸) comes in the ( ·.´ ·.) of an ,. and is
preceded by a letter which has a (·...), the (·...) is
changed into a (·,¯).

Example
The word (` ¸` ~ ') - (_~ of ` ¸.` ~) changes to ( ` ¸. ~ ') , which
can also be written as ( ` ¸` ,. ~ '). The (¸) is made ( ¸¯.) so
it becomes ( ` ¸` ,. ~ '). Due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸), the (¸) is
deleted. It becomes ( .. ~ ' ` ¸ ), which can also be written as
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(¸ . ~ ').

Step by Step Example

` ¸` ~ ' ` ¸ ~ ' ` ¸` , ~ ' ` ¸` , ~ '
` ¸ ~ ' ¸ . ~ '

ν ν ν ν ν


Rule 17
(17.1) If a (,) or (¸) comes in the place of the ( ·.¯ _) of
a word which is ( ¸.·· ,.), the (,) or (¸) changes into a
(.), on condition that change took places in the (¸··).

Examples
1. The word ( ¸ ,. ·) changes to ( ¸. ·). (Changes took place
in its ¸·· from ¸ , · to ¸ ·).
2. The word ( ` _,. ,) changes to ( ` _ . ,). (Changes took place
in its ¸·· from _ , , to _ ,).

(17.2) Sometimes the ( ·.· ,.-) is deleted as in the case
of ( ` _. ·) which was originally ( ` , . ·). This word is used in
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the Qur’ân: (¸ _ · ¸ ` ,` - ¸ ·)

Exception
In the word (` ¸ ,` ,) the (,) will not change into a (·,·) because no
change took place in the ¸·· (` ¸ ,` ,, ¸ , _).

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 18
If a ( , _ ) or ( ¸ _ ) or (_ .) appears after the ( ..) of
( ¸ · ·), it changes into a (·,·).

Examples
1. The word ( ` _ ,. - ·) changes to ( ` , . - ·) - ( _.~ of the
word · ` _` ,` - ). This is an example of (,).
2. The word ( ` , ,. ) changes to ( ` . ,. ) - ( _.~ of the
word · `, , ). This is an example of (¸).
3. The word ( ¸ _) changes to ( ¸ . _) - ( _.~ of the word
· _). This is an example of (_ .).

Exception
The ( _.~) of the word ( · ` , ..` ·) is ( ` . .. ·). Although the
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(¸) is original, it changed into ( ·,.·). This is an exception
to the rule.

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 19
If a (,) or (¸) comes at the end of a word after ( ._ ..),
they change into a ( ·,.·). This rule applies to all kinds of
words, namely _.·, ·,·, _~, ¸· and ·-.

Examples of _.·
i. ` , ·` · . ·` · (example of ,) – ( ... ·` · means
supplication).
ii. ` ¸ ,` _ . ,` _ (example of ¸) - ( . ,` _ means
pleasing appearance).

Examples of _~
i. · · ` , . · · (_~ of ¸ _ ·)
ii. ` , ` ' . ` ' (_~ of ` ,.` ¸, which was originally
` ,` ).
i. ` ¸ ,` - ' . ,` - ' (_~ of ¯ ¸ -).

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Examples of - , ·
i. ¯ ` , ¯ . (example of ,)
ii. ` ¸ · _ . · _ (example of ¸)

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 20

(20.1) If a (,) comes in the fourth position or later in a
word and it is not preceded by a ( ·..) or a ( ¸¯. ,), it
changes into a (¸).

Examples
1. The word ( . , ·` .`,) was originally ( . , ·` .`,). The (,) is
in the fourth position of the (¸..··), thus it changes into a
(¸).
2. The word ( ` ..` , ` · ') was originally ( ` .` ,. ` · '). The (,) is in
the 4th position of the (¸··), thus it changes into a (¸).
3. The word ( ` .` , ` · .` ¸) was originally ( ` .` , ` · .` ¸). The (,)
is in the sixth position of the ( ¸.··), thus it changes into a
(¸).

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(20.2) The plural of ( . ·` . ·) is ( ¯ ¸ · . ·), which originally
was ( ` ,` , · . ·). In this word, the (,) is in the sixth position.
It changes into a (¸) and (·..··¸) is made. It becomes
( ' ¸ · . ·). The rule of ( ` ` ,. ) (Rule number 14, example 2)
is not applicable here because the (¸) has changed from
an ( ..). The ( ·,.·) of this word is ( . ·` . ·). In Rule 14,
the condition was that the (,) or (¸) must not be changed
from another letter.
ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 21
(21.1) The ( ..) that comes after a ( ·..) changes into a
(,).
Examples
1. The word ( . _` ,..` .) was originally ( . _..` .) - (the
[¸,,- _.·] of ` . _ ..`, . _. .). The ( ..) is preceded
by a (·.), thus it changes into a (,).
2. The word ` . ,`, ,..` . - (_·... ,..) of (` . _.. .) was
originally ( ` . ,`,.` .). The ( ..) is preceded by a ( ·..),
thus it changes into a (,).

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(21.2) The ( ..) that comes after a ( ·,.¯) changes into a
(¸).
Example
The word ` ...`, _ - · (plural of ,..` - · ` . ) was originally
` . _.. - ·. The (...) is preceded by a (·,..¯), thus it
changes into a (¸). It becomes (` .`, _ - ·) .

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 22
If there is an (_ ..) before the ( ..) of ( . .· . ·, ) or
(, .,· _~), it changes into a (¸).

Example

i. The (·,·) of ( _. ` ` -) is ( .. , ` ` -). The end of the word
(_ ` ` -) has an ( ..) which does not accept a ( ·.¯,-).
Therefore, the (.) is changed into (¸).
ii. The (_~) of (_ ` ` -) is (` . , ` ` -). Here also the the (.)
of (_ ` ` -) is changed into (¸).

ν ν ν ν ν
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Rule 23
If (¸) appears as the (·..¯ _) of either a plural on the
scale of ( ¸.` · ·) or it appears in the feminine adjective on the
scale of (_ ` · ·), the preceding letter is given a (·,¯).
Examples
1. The word (` ¸` ,.. ,) (plural of ...` , , . and ` ¸ ,..` , ') was
originally ` ¸` ,..` ,. The (¸) appears as the (·..¯ _) of
( ¸..` · ·), thus the preceding letter is made (_,..´·). It
becomes (` ¸` , ,).
2. The word (_.. ´` , - – meaning ‘to walk arrogantly’) was
originally ( _. ´` ,` -). The (¸) appears as the ( ·.¯ _) of the
feminine (_... ` · ·), thus the preceding letter is made
(_,´·). It becomes (_ ´` , -).

Note:
This rule is like an exception to Rule 3 where the (¸)
changes to (,). Instead of changing the (¸) to (,), the (¸)
is maintained and the (·...) which is the preceding
(·¯,-), is changed to (·,¯).

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The ( ¸,.. ,.) falls in the category of ( .· ,.), that
is, a noun not having any descriptive qualities.
Examples
(¸ ,` ,.. ~) - the (...,·) of (...,~' ). It was originally
(¸ ` , ~) - purer. The (¸) is changed to (,).
(¸.. ` , ¯) – the (...,·) of (` ¸ ,.. ¯ '). It was originally
(¸ ` , ¯) - (more intelligent). The (¸) is changed to (,).

Step by Step Examples

` , ~ _ ,` , ~ _
` , ¯ _ ` , ¯ _

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 24
If a ( _..·) comes on the scale of ( ·. ` , ` · ·) and the ( ·.¯
_) is a (,), the (,) will change into a (¸).


Example
The word ( · ` ,` ` , ¯) was originally ( · ` ,` ` , ¯), the ( ·.¯ _) is a (,),
thus it changes into a (¸) thereby becoming ( · ` ,` ` , ¯).

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ν ν ν ν ν
Rule 25

The rule for words on the scale of ( ¸ · · ') or ( ¸. · ·), is that if
they end in (¸), and are (·,´), [that is, they are neither ( ,··
·.,) nor (.·)], then in ( ,.-, _.·, ·-), the (¸) is
deleted. The (·¯ _) is now read with tanwīn.
In (.. ·-), the word will remain (_,·).
Example of (·,´), that is, they are neither ( ·.., ,··) nor
(.·): ( _ , - ` ¸ ) changes to (¸ _ , -).

¸-·¸ -|·- .=·|· -|·- ¸-·¸ _·¸|· -|·-
¸ _ , - , ` .` _ , · , _ , - ` .`, ' _ ¸ _ , - · ·

If they are (··,··), the (¸) becomes (¸¯) in
(,-, _·, ·-) and in (.. ·-), the (¸) will be
(_,·).
Examples: (` ¸ _ , -) changes to (` ¸ _ , -) or ( ¸ _ , -).

¸-·¸ -|·- .=·|· -|·- ¸-·¸ _·¸|· -|·-
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_,,-
.,.·
, ` .` _ , · ` ¸ _ , - ¸ _ , - ` .`, ' _ - · · ` ¸ _ ,
All words having (·,-· ¸) preceded by a (·,¯) follow this
rule. Such words are called (¸,· ,¸).
Examples:
·,´
,` · ¸ · · ¸ ´ ¸ ¸ · . ¸ , . ¯ , · ` ·

··,··
` ¸ · · ,` · ` _ . · ¸ ´ ¯ . ¸ , ¸ · ' .





Step by Step
·,´
` ¸ · _ ` ¸` , · _ ` ¸ · _ ¸ · _

··,··
_,·,·
.,.· _,,-
_,·,·
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` ¸ ·` , ` _ ·` ,

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 26
(26.1) If a (,) comes in place of the (·´ ·.)of ( _. ` · ·) in a
word which is either (·- ,¸) or ( ¸,.. ,¸), it changes
into a (¸).

Examples
i. The word ( ,` ` ·) was originally ( ,` ` ·). A (,) comes in place
of the (·´ ·.) of (_ ` · ·). Thus it changes into a (¸). It
becomes ( ,` ` ·). This is the (¸,. ,¸) from (' ,` ` · ` ,` ` , ·)
– to be near, [,. .,].
ii. The word ( . , ` ·) was originally ( ,. ` ·). A (,) comes in
place of the (·´ ·.) of ( _. ` · ·). Thus it changes into a
(¸). It becomes ( , ` ·). This is the (¸,. ,¸) from ( ·
' , ` · ` , ` ·,)- to be high, [,. .,].

Exception
If this word is a ( ·..), it remains unchanged e.g. . · ¸ ,` , (a
female warrior).
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(26.2) If a (¸) comes in place of the ( ·.´ ·.) of a word on
the scale of ( · _ ` · ), it changes into a (,).

Example
The word (¸ , ) was originally ( , ). A (¸) comes in place of
the (·´ ·.) of this word. Thus it changes into a (,).


Exercise 43

(a) Apply the rules of (¸··) to the following words:

, · , ¸ ,`
, · , ¯ ¸ .` , ·
, · , ¸ _
, . , ` , _
, ~ , ` ¸ ·
, · , .
, · , . , ` `,
, - , ·` ,` -
, · , ` - . , `

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The Paradigms of (¸··)

· = - |· ¸ = - , |· . = ¸ = =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··-
` ·` ,.` ·` , · ,.` , · .` · , ` . ·` ,`, ·` , , ` · , ,` , · ` · , ` ·, · ,
. ·` , · ` . ·` , · ` ·.` · ` ` ,. = ` · . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` · ` ·` · ` ,` · ' .
` ·. ·` , · . . ·` , · · . ·` , · ` . · , · . ·` , · ` ·` , · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` · , ·
.` ,` . ·` , ' . . ·` , ' ` . ·` , ' ` ·.` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · · ' , ` ` , · , · . · ·`, ·
` ·` , , ` ·` , ., ` ·` , ¸ ` ·` , ` ·` · .` ,` , ` · , ' , ` .,

Analysis of the changes

(1) The verbs of ( ¸,, ¸.··) are used in all the ( .,.,')
except (,. .,).
(2) The (,) of ( ,,.·' __..') has been deleted due to
rule no.1 – the rule of (` ·,).
(3) The (,) of the (_...·) has been deleted due to rule
no.2 – the rule of ( · ·).
(4) In ( ¸,.,- ¸..'), the (,) can be changed to ( ·,.·)
according to rule no. 5 – the rule of (` ·` ,..` - '). Accordingly,
( . ·` ,) can be pronounced as ( . · '). The same applies to the
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feminine of the ( ¸,... ,..) – (¸ ..` ·` ,) can be
pronounced as (¸ ` · ').
(5) The broken plural - ( ,.´· _.~) of the ( ¸.· ,.
..,·) which is ( ` . · , ') was originally ( ` . · , ,). The first
(,) is changed to a ( ·,.·) according to rule no. 6 - the rule
of ( ¸ . , ').
(6) The (,) of the ( . ,. ·. ) has changed to (¸) according
to rule no. 3 – the rule of (` · ·` , ·).
(7) However, the (,) is unchanged in the dimunitive ( ,.
_·..) of the ( ·.. ,.) – ( ` .` , ·`, ,` ·) and in the ( _.~
,.´·) – ( ` .` , · , ·), because the reason for the change is not
found, namely the (` ,) and a preceding (·,¯).

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¸ . , « |· . = ¸ = =·, ¸- _··, ,··-
` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` _` ,` ` , · ,` , · , ` , · ` , ` ,`, , `, , ` , , ,` , · , ` , · ` , ` ,, , ,
` , ` , . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , `, ¸

Analysis of the changes

(1) In this (...,), the only change that has occurred is in
the ( ¸,.,- __..') where the (¸) has changed to a (,)
according to rule no. 3 – the rule of (` , ` ,` ·).

¸ - , |· . _ « = =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··-
¸ -` , , ¸ - , ,` , · ` - , ¸ -` ,, ¸ - , ` ,` · ' ¸` ,` -` , · ,` , · ` - , ¸ -` ,`,
¸ -` , . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ -`, ¸ ` ·` ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) In the imperative ( ,..- ,.·') - ( ..,) , the (,) has
changed to a (¸) according to rule no. 3 – the rule of
(` · ·` , ·). The same rule applies to the ( ·.. ,) – ( , ¸. -` , ·
¸ -` , · , · -` , ·).
(2) In the word ( ¸. - , '), the (,) has changed to a ( ·,.·)
according to rule no. 6 – the rule of ( ¸ . , ').
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(3) It is permissible to change the (,) to a ( ·,.·) in ( ¸. -` ,)
– the ( ¸,.,- ¸..' ..· ,¯· -,) and in ( ¸. -` ,) –
the broken plural of the (.,· ¸,. ,).
There is no other change in this (.,).

- -.|· ¸ _ = , |· . _ « = =·, ¸- ¸-¹ ¸¸·¸ ,··-
` _ ` ,`, _ ` , , ` _ , ,` , · · · , ·` , ` _ , _ , ,` , · · · , ·` ,
` _ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` _ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' `_` ,` ` , ·

- , , |· . _ · · =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··-
` ,` · ' ` .` ,` ·` , · ,` , · · · ` . ·` ,`, . ·`, , ` . · , ,` , · · · ` . ,, . · ,
, . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` . · ` ·` · ` .

Analysis of the changes

(1) In both the above-mentioned (.,..,'), the (,) of the
(__...·) has been deleted due to rule no.1 – the rule of
( ` . ·,). The changes in the other words are similar to ( . · ,
` ·,).

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¿ - , |· . . . - =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··- - « '· ¸
,` , · · · , · , ` ¸ ·` ,`, ¸ ·` , , ` ¸ · , ,` , · · · , · , ` ¸ , ¸ · ,
` ¸ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` ¸ · ` ·` · ` ,` · ' `·` ,` ·` , ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) The changes in this ( ..,) are similar to those of ( . · ,
` ·,).

.· «`· , |· . ,·-··, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··-
` ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` ` ` · ,` , · · ` ¸ ` ` `, ' ' , ` ` ` · ,` , · · ` ¸ ` ` , ` ¸
` ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` ,

_· .`· , |· . ,·-··, =·, ¸- _··, ,··-
¸ ` ,` · ' ` , ` ` · ,` , · _ ` ¸ ` , ` `, , ' ' , ` , ` ` · ,` , · _ ` ¸ ` , ` , , `
` , ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , ` ¸ ` ·` ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) According to rule no. 4 – the rule of ( . ` ¸), the (,) and
(¸) have changed into (.) and have been assimilated into
the (.).
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.· « , , |· . ,·-·, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··-
` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` ·` ,` · ,` , · · `, ¸ ` ·` ,`, ·` , ' , ` ·` ,` · ,` , · · `, ¸ ` ·` ,`, ·` , '
·` ,` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` ·` , ' `

.· « , · = , |· . ,·-«·=, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··-
· ` , ` ¸ ` ·` , ` `, ·` ,` ` ' , ` ·` , ` ` · ,` , · · ` , ` ¸ ` ·` , ` , ·` , ` ¸
` ·` , ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` ·` , ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` ·` , ` ` · ,` , ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) In both the paradigms, the (,) has changed into (¸)
according to rule no. 3 – the rule of (` · ·` , ·).
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 222
Exercise 44

(a) Conjugate the following verbs:

, · , _ . ,
, · , , ,
, · , , ` ¸
, . , `, '
, ~ , ` , ` ¸
, · , , ,
, · , . , -
, - , · ` ¸
, · , ` - ,

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 223
The Paradigms of (,-')
, , « |· . ¸ = · =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ =,-|
¸ · ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¸` , · ,` , · .` , · ¸ `, ¸` , · , ¸ · ,` , · .` , · ¸` , , ¸·
· ¸ · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ , · ` ·` · · ¯ , ¸ , · .
¸ · · ' , ¸`, , · . , · ¸ , · ¸, · . , · · , · ¸ , · . , ·
. , ` , · ¸ ` , · ` ·` · .` ,` , ¸ , · ', .` , , · ' . , · ' ¸ , · ' ` ·` · ¸` , . `
, · ` . , ` , · , ¸

There is no change in the words ( ¸ ,.. ·) and ( ·.. , ·)
because they were originally ( ¸ ,.. ·). No change occurred
in ( ¸ ,.. ·) because of the exception in rule no. 8, namely
that the (,) should not be followed by an (.).
Hereunder follow the paradigms of the (¸....') and
(__...·). All other verbs which are (¸,, ¸..··) from this
(.,) follow the same pattern.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 224

_- _«·|· =,·|·
,,,= . ¸|
¸| _- _«·|· =,·|·
=¸¸-- .
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
'· =¸¸-
¸ `, ` ¸ ¸` , , ` ¸ ¸ `, ¸` , ,
¸` , · ¸ ·
`, ` ¸ ` , , ` ¸ . `, . ` , ,
` , · ·
` , `, ` ¸ ` , ` , , ` ¸ .` , `, .` , ` , ,
` , ` , · ` , ·
¸ ` ` ¸ ¸` , ` ¸ ¸ ` ¸` ,
· ` . ` , ` . ·
.` ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ . .` . ` , .
` , · ·
¸ `, ` ¸ ¸ , ` ¸ ¸ `, ¸ ,
¸ · ¸ ·
¸ ` ` ¸ ¸` , ` ¸ ¸ ` ¸` ,
. · . ·
.` ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ . .` . ` , .
` · ` ·
` , ` ` ¸ ` , ` , ` ¸ .` , ` .` , ` ,
` ,` · ` ,` ·
` ¸ .` ` ¸ ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ¸` , .` ¸` , ` , .
. · . ·
.` ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ . .` . ` , .
` · · `
¸ ` ` ¸ ¸ ` ¸ ¸ ` ¸
` ¸` · ` ¸` ·
¸ · ` ¸ ¸` , · ` ¸ ¸ · ¸` , ·
` . · ` . ·
¸ .` ` ¸ ¸` , . ` ¸ ¸ .` ¸` , .
· ·

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 225

,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
·|· _- -·,«·|· .,
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=
. , _- _«·|·
=¸¸--
` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ` , , ¸ `, ` , ¸ , ` ,
. ` , . ` , , `, ` , ` , , ` ,
` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ` , , ` , `, ` , ` , ` , , ` ,
` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` , ` , ¸ ` ¸ ` ,
. .` . ` , . .` ` , ` , . ` ,
. ` , . , ¸ `, ` , ¸ , ` ,
` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` , ¸ ` ` , ¸ ` ,
. .` . ` , . .` ` , ` , . ` ,
` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` , ` , ` ` , ` , ` , ` ,
` ¸ .` ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ .` ` , ` ¸ ` , . ` ,
. .` . ` , . .` ` , ` , . ` ,
. ` . ¸ ` ` , ¸ ` ,
· ` ¸ ` ¸ ` , · ¸ · ` , ¸ · ` ,
` ¸ .` ` ¸ ` , . ¸ .` ` , ¸ . ` ,

·,- ., _· ,,·' __.' · . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ` , , . ` ¸ ` , ,
¸ ` , . ` ¸ ` , · ' . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ` ,
' ·,- ., _· ¸,,- __. · ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ `,
` ¸ ` . ` ¸ · ' . ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 226

_- ,,,=· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` ¸ ` , , ` ¸ ` , ¸ ` , ¸ ,
. ` , . ` , , ` , ` , ,
` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ` , , ` , ` , ` , ` , ,
` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` , ¸ ` ¸
. .` . ` , . .` ` , .
. ` , , . ¸ ` , ¸ ,
` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` , · ¸ ` ¸ ·
. .` . ` , · ` ` , ·
` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` , · ` , ` ` , ` , ·
` ¸ .` ` ¸ ` , · ` _ ` ` ¸ ` , ·
. .` . ` , · ` ` , ·
. ` . · ¸ ` ¸ ·
` ¸ · ` ¸ ` , · ¸ · ¸ ·
` ¸ .` ` ¸ ` , . ¸ ` ¸

·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · ` ¸ ` , · . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ` , , . ` ¸ ` , ,
' . ` ¸ ` , · . ` ¸ ` , · . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ` , ·
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ,·. · . ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ` ,
` ¸ ` . ` ¸ · ' . ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ `
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 227

_- ,,,=· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· _,·|· '· _,·|· =¸¸-
. ` ¸ `, . ` ¸ ` , , . ¸ `, . ¸ ,
. . `, . . ` , , . `, . ` , ,
. ` ¸ `, . ` ¸ ` , , . ` , `, . ` , ` , ,
. ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` , . ¸ ` . ¸
. . .` . . ` , . . .` . ` , .
. . `, . . , . ¸ `, . ¸ ,
. ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` , . ¸ ` . ¸
. . .` . . ` , . . .` . ` , .
. ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` , . ` , ` . ` , ` ,
. ` ¸ .` . ` ¸ ` , . . ` ¸ .` . ` ¸ ` , .
. . .` . . ` , . . .` . ` , .
. . ` . . . ¸ ` . ¸
. ` ¸ · . ` ¸ ` , · . ¸ · . ¸ ·
. ` ¸ .` . ` ¸ ` , . . ¸ .` . ¸ .

·,- ., _· ,,·' ¸, · . . . ` ¸ ` , , . . ` ¸ ` , , . ` ¸ ` ,
. . ` ¸ ` , . . ` ¸ ` , .. ` ¸ ` , . . . ` ¸ ` , · ' ` ¸ ` ,
¸, ·,- ., _· ¸,,- · . . . ` ¸ `, . . ` ¸ `, . . ` ¸ `
. . ` ¸ ` . . ` ¸ ` . . ` ¸ ` . . ` ¸ · ' ` ¸ `
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 228

-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,=·
,,-«'·
¸-·«|· ,=·
¸ , · ¸ · ¸` , · ¸ ·
. , · · . · . ` , . ·
¸ , · · , ¸ .` , ` , · .` , ·
· , · · ` , · · ·
. , · . ` , · . ·
¸ , · ` . ` , · ` . ·
¸ , ·
. , ·
¸`, , ·

Analysis
(1) Rule no. 7.1 applies to the words from ( ¸ ·) till ( ·).
(2) Rule no. 7.4 applies to the words from ( ¸. ·) till ( . ·) in
the (,,·' __.').
(3) Rule no. 9 applies to the words from ( ¸` , ·) till ( ` , ·).
(4) Rule no. 9.5 applies to the words from ( ¸. ·) till ( . ·) in
the (¸,,- __.').
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 229
(5) In the paradigm of ( ¸` ,. ,), rule no. 8.1 applies to all the
words, while rule no. 8.2 applies to all the words of
( ¸ , `,).
(6) The imperative (,..·') is made from ( ¸` ,.. ). After
deleting the ( ·..··· __...' ), the last letter is rendered
(¸¯). The (,) is deleted due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸) – two
sâkins coming together.
(7) Where the (¸¯.. _..-¸) no more remains, the
deleted letter returns as in the paradigms of ( ·.,· .,.),
e.g. (` ¸ ` , ·).
(8) Rule no. 17 applies to the paradigm of ( ¸.· ,.),
e.g. ( ¸ ·).
(9) Rule no. 8 applies to the paradigm of (¸,..·' ,..),
e.g. ( ¸` , ·).
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 230
Exercise 45

(a) List the detailed paradigms (_..´ ,...) of the
following verbs:

, · , ` ·` ,` ,, · _
, · , - ` _` ,` -, _
, · , ` ·` , , · ·
, . , ¸` ,` -, ¸ -
, ~ , ` ·` ,` ,, · _

(b) Name the word-forms (_ , .) of the following verbs:

, · , ¸` -`
, · , .` , ·` , =,
, · , ` ¸ _` ,` - ` ,
, . , .` _` , ·
, ~ , ` ,` ·` ,


From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 231
The Paradigm of ( ,-' ¸, )

¸- _··, =,-| _ , , |· . = ¸ = =·,
` _ , ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` _` , · ,` , · ·` , , ` _ `, _` , , , ` _ , ,` , · ·` , , ` _` , , _ ,
` _ ,` · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` _, · . ·` , · ` _` , · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` _ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` ,
· ` _, · . · ,` · ¸ · · ' , ` _` ,, · . · ,` · ` _ ,` · ` _, · . · ,` · · · ,`
. , ·` ,` , , ¸ ·` ,` , ` ·` · .` ,` , ` _, , ' , .` ,` · ,` , ' . · ,` , ' ` _ ,` , ' ` ·` · ¸` , . `
` . , ·` ,` , , ` _ ,` , ,

Analysis

The ( ¸,.·' ,) and ( .= ,. , ) have become similar
after changes were made. However, the original form of
each word is different. The original form of the ( ,..
¸,.·') was ( ` _` ,.` ,` ·) while the original form of the ( ,.
,=) was (` _ ,` ·).
Hereunder follow the paradigms of this (.,).
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 232

_- _«·|· =,·|·
,,,= . ¸|
_- _«·|· =,·|·
=¸¸-- . ¸|
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
`, ` ¸ _ , ` ¸ _` , `, ` _ , ` _` , _` , , _ ,
`, ` ¸ · , ` ¸ ·` , `, · . , ·` , . ·` , , · ,
` ¸ `, ` · ` , , ` ¸ ` ·` , ` , `, ` · .` , , ` ·` , .` , ` ·` , , ` , ` ,` · ,
` ¸ _ ` ` ¸ _` , ` _ ` ` _` , ·` , , ` . ` . · ,
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ·` , · ` . ·` , . ·` , , · ,
`, ` ¸ ` · ¸ , ` ¸ ¸` · `, ` · ¸ , ¸` · , ` · ¸ ¸` · ,
` ¸ _ ` ` ¸ _` , ` _ ` ` _` , ` · , . ` · , .
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ·` , · ` . ·` , . ` · , ` ` · , `
` ¸ ` · ` ` , ` ¸ ` ·` , ` , ` · ` .` , ` ·` , .` , ` · , ` ,` ` · , ` ,`
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ` ¸ ·` , ` ¸ ` · ¸` , ·` , ¸` , ` · , . ` · , .
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ·` , · ` . ·` , . ` · , ` ` · , `
` ` ¸ ` · ¸ ` ¸ ¸` · ` ` · ¸ ¸` · ` · , ` ¸` ` · , ` ¸`
` ¸ _ , ` ¸ _` , , ' ` _ , ` _` , , ' ` · , ` . ` · , ` .
` ` ¸ _ ` ¸ _` , ` ` _ ` _` , ` · , ` · ,

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 233

,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=
. , _- _«·|·
=¸¸--
` , ` ¸ · , ` ¸ ·` , ` , ` _ `, , ` , ` _
` , · . , ·` , . ` , · `, , ` , ` , ·
` , ` · ` ¸ , ` ·` , ` ¸ `, ` , ` ,` · , ` , ` ·` , ` ,
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ·` , ` , ` _ ` ` , ` _
` · . ·` , . ` , · ` ` , ·` ,
` , ` · . , . ` · ` , ` · `, ¸ , ` , ¸` ·
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ·` , ` , ` _ ` ` , ` _
` · . ·` , . ` , · ` ` , ·` ,
` ¸` · ` ` ·` , ` ¸ ` , ` ,` · ` ` , ` ·` , ` ,
` ¸ · ` ·` , ` ¸ ` , · ` ` ¸ ` , ·` , ` ¸
` · . ·` , . ` , · ` ` , ·` ,
` ` · . . ` · ` ` , ` · ¸ ` , ¸` ·
` ¸ · , ` ¸ ·` , , ' ` , ` _ , ` , ` _ , '
` ` ¸ · ` ¸ ·` , ` ` , ` _ ` , ` _

·,- ., _· ,,·' __.' · , . ` ¸ ·` , , ` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸` ·` , . ` ¸ ·` , .
` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸ ·` , , ' . ` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸` ·` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · ` , . ` ¸ · ` , . ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸` ·
` ¸ · ` . ` ¸ · , ' . ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸` · `
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 234
_- ,,,=· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
v· _- =¸¸-'· ¸-
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` ¸ · ` , , ` ¸ ·` , ` _ ` , , ` _
· ` , . , . ·` , · ` , , ·` ,
` , ` ¸` · , ` ·` , ` ¸ ` , ` ,` · , ` ·` , ` ,
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ·` , ` _ ` ` _
· ` . . ·` , · ` ·` ,
` · ` , . , . ` · ` · ` , ¸ , ¸` ·
` ¸ · ` ` ¸·` , , ` _ ` ` _ ,
· ` . ·` , , . · ` ·` , ,
` ¸` · ` ` ¸` ·` , , ` ,` · ` ` ·` , , ` ,
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ·` , , · ` ` ¸ ·` , , ` ¸
· ` . ·` , , . · ` ·` , ,
` ` · . . ` · , ` ` · ¸ ¸` · ,
` ¸ · , ` ¸ ·` , , ' ` _ , ` _ , '
` ` ¸ · ` ¸ ·` , ` ` _ ` _

·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · , . ` ¸ ·` , , . ` ¸ ·` , , . ` ¸` ·` , , . ` ¸ ·` , , . ` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸` ·` ,
' . ` ¸ ·` , , ` ¸ ·` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ,·. · ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸ · , ' . ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸` · ` . ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸` · ` , . ` ¸ · ` ,
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 235

_- ,,,=· _,·|·
·|· -·,«·|· .,
_- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· _,·|· =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. ` ¸ · `, . , ` ¸ ·` , . ` _ `, . , ` _
. · `, . . , ·` , . . · `, . , ·` ,
. `, ` ¸` · . , ` ·` , ` ¸ . `, ` ,` · . , ` ·` , ` ,
. ` ` ¸ · . ` ¸ ·` , . ` _ ` . ` _
. · ` . . ·` , . . · ` . ·` ,
. ` · `, . . , . ` · . ` · `, ¸ . , ¸` ·
. ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸ ·` , . ` _ ` . ` _
. · ` . . ·` , . . · ` . ·` ,
. ` ¸` · ` . ` ·` , ` ¸ . ` ,` · ` . ` ·` , ` ,
. ` ¸ · ` . ·` , ` ¸ . · ` ` ¸ . ·` , ` ¸
. · ` . . ·` , . . · ` . ·` ,
. ` ` · . . . ` · . ` ` · ¸ . ¸` ·
. ` ¸ · , . ` ¸ ·` , , ' . ` _ , . ` _ , '
. ` ` ¸ · . ` ¸ ·` , . ` ` _ . ` _

·,- ., _· ,,·' ¸, · . , ` ¸ ·` , . . , ` ¸` ·` , . . ` ¸ ·` , . . ` ¸ ·` ,
.. ` ¸` ·` , . . ·` , ` ¸ . . ' ` ¸ ·` , , . . ` ¸ ·` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ¸, · . ` ¸ · `, . . ` ¸` · `, . . ` ¸ · ` . . ` ¸ · `
. . ` ¸` · ` . . ` ¸ · ` . . ' ` ¸ · , . . ` ¸ · `
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 236

-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,=·
,,-«'·
¸-·«|· ,=·
` _ ,` · · ` _` , · ` _` , ` _ ,
. · ,` · · ·` , . · ·` , . · , .
· ` _, · ` _, · ` ·` , .` , ` · , .` ,
· · ,` · · ·` , · · , ·
. · ,` · · ·` , . · , .
· ` _, · ·` , ` . · , ` .
` _ ,` ·
. · ,` ·
· ` _` ,,

Analysis
(1) Rule no. 7.1 applies to all the words from ( _.. ,) till
( ` · ,).
(2) Rule no. 9 applies to all the words of (¸,,- ¸.').
(3) In the (,,·' __.'), rule no. 8 has been applied.
(4) Rule no. 17 applies to the (¸· ,).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 237
= , ¬ | · . _ « = =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ =,-|
` ` ,` - · ,` , · ·` , - ` -`, .` , - , ` . - ,` , · ·` , - ` -, -
` - · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` . - . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` . - ` ·` · ` ,` · '
¸ ,·| · . _ « = =·, ¸- _··, =,-|
·` , ¸ , ¸ ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¸` , · ,` , · ·` , ¸ `, ¸` , , ¸ ,` , ·
¸ · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` ,

To distinguish between the ( ,.·') of ( _,.,·) in which the
( ·,.·) is deleted and the ( ,.·') of ( ,.-'), one will notice
that in (,-'), besides the (,¯· -,) and ( ..,· _.~),
the (·´ ¸·) remains in all the words. Examples:
( ` ¸ ·. - ` , · - · - ` ¸ ·` , , ` ,` ·` , , ·` , , ` ¸ ` , · ` , , · ` , ·). The ( ¸.·
·.´) returns in the words attached to ( ·., .,.) and
(·,- .,) as well. Examples: (` ¸ · - ` ¸ ·` , , ` ¸ ` , ·)
However, in ( ¸.· _,.,·), the ( ·.´ ¸.·) is deleted
from all the words. Examples:
(` ¸ . ` ¸ ` , . . _ _ . ` ¸ _ _ ` ,`_ _ _ _ )

Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of ( -).
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 238

=¸¸-'· ¸-v·
.,·|· _-
-·,«·|·
¸-v·
=¸¸-'·
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸· - , ` . - , ` -`, ` -, .` , - -
. · - , · - , · -`, . · -, . ` , - · -
· - , ` ¸ · - , ` , · -`, .` , · -, .` , ` , - ` , · - ` ,
` ¸ · - ` . - ` -` ` - ` , - ` . · - ` .
· - . · - · -` . · - . ` , - · -
, . - , ¸ - `, - ¸ , ¸ - - ¸ - ¸
` ¸ · - ` . - -` ` ` - - . - .
· - . · - · -` . · - . - ` - `
` ¸ · - ` , · - · -` .` , · - .` , - ` ,` - ` ,`
` ¸ · - · - ` ¸ · -` ¸` , · - ¸` , - . - .
· - . · - · -` . · - . - ` - `
. - ¸ - ` - ¸ ¸ - - ` ¸` - ` ¸`
` ¸ · - ' ` . - ' ` - ' ` - ' - ` . - ` .
` ¸ · - ` . - ` -` ` - - -

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 239
.· , · | , | · . ,·-··, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ =,-|
· ¸ ` · , · · ¸ ` ,` · ' ` · ` · ,` , · · , · ¸ ` · `, ` , · ' , ` · ` · ,` , · · ,
` · ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` · ¸ ` ·` ·

Analysis
(1) The forms of the ( ¸.· ,) and ( ¸,.·' ,.) have
become the same, namely (` ·.. ` ·). However, the original
form of each word is different. The (¸..· ,..) was
(` · , ` ·) while the ( ¸,.·' ,.) was ( ` · ,. ` ·). Note that the
( ,.= ,) is also the same as the ( ¸,.·' ,.) as in all
other (.,,') of (·,- ¸· _·).
(2) The verbs of the perfect tense (¸...') in the form of
(.· ,¯· ·,·) and ( ..· ,¯.· _.~) are the same as
the ( ,..- ,¯.· ·,·) and ( ,..- ,¯.· _.~) of the
imperative ( ,.·'), that is ( ·. · ¸) and ( ` ,` ·. · ¸). However, the
originals of the ( ..' ¸ ) were ( · ,. · ¸) and ( ` ,` · ,. · ¸) while
the originals of the ( ,.·') were ( · ,. · ¸) and ( ` ,` · ,. · ¸). The
( ,.·') is constructed from the ( __..·) which is ( . · ,. ).
Therefore the (,) is (_,´·).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 240
_· , · - , | · . ,·-··, =·, ¸- _··, =,-|
` _ ` -` · ,` , · _ , ` - ¸ ` _ ` -`, ,` , ` -' , ` _ ` -` · ,` , · _ , ` - ¸ ` _ ` -, _ ` - ¸
` _ ` -` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ` - . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , ` - ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · '

This (.,) is similar to ( · · ¸) – (¸,, ,-').

¸·¸ =,-| - -· «· = , | · . ,·-«·=, =·, ¸- ¸
,` , · · · ` ¸ ` · ` `, ,` , ` ` ' , ` ,` , ` ` · ,` , · · · ` ¸ ` ,` , ` , · ` ¸
` · ` ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ` . ` ·` · ` ¸`,` , ` , ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` · ` ` ·

Analysis

(1) The word ( · .` ¸) was originally ( · , .` ¸). Rule no. 8
is applied and it changes to ( · ` ¸).
(2) Rule no.8 and rule no. 3 have been applied to ( ` ,` , ` .,)
which was originally (` · , ` ,).
(3) The word ( · , .` ¸) has been changed due to rule no. 8
to ( · · ` ¸).
(4) The change in (` ,` , ` ` ·) is similar to that of (` ,` , ` ,).
(5) The ( ·.´ ¸.·) is deleted from the ( ,.·'), ( ¸.·) and
(·,,- __.·), e.g. (` , ` , ` , . ` , ` . . ` , ` ¸).
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(6) When (·, .,) or ( ·.,- .,) is attached to the ( ,.·')
or (¸·), the deleted letter returns, e.g.
( ` . . ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ).

· _· ¬ · = , | · . ,·-«·=, =·, ¸- _··, =,-|
` ' , ` ,` , - ` ` · ,` , · · _ - ` ¸ ` ,` , - ` , _ - ` ¸ · _ - ` ¸ ` _ - ` `, ,` , -`
` ·` · ` ` , = ` , - ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` ,- ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` _ - ` ` · ,` , ·
` _ - ` ` ·

This (.,) is similar to ( · ` ¸).

- -· | , | · . ,·-·, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ =,-|
· · · ¸ ` ,` , `, · · ' ` , · ' ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` · ` · ,` , · · · · ¸ ` · `, ,` , · ' , ` ,` , ` · ,` , ·
` · ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` ,

The changes of this (.,) are similar to those of ( · ` ¸).
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Exercise 46

(a) List the detailed paradigms ( _..´ ,... ) of the
following verbs:

, · , ` ¸`, , . ·
, · , _`, ,, _ _
, · , ` .`, ,, . _
, . , ` ¸` , -, ¸ -
, ~ , ` ¸` , , ¸ ·

(b) Name the word-forms (_ , .) of the following verbs:

, · , ` ,` ,` ,
, · , ¸` ., , ` ¸
, · , ` ,` .` , ` ,
, . , ` ¸ ` , -
, ~ , ` ¸ `, _


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The Paradigms of (¸·) and (.,)

· , -= |· ¸ ·· -=| · . ¸ = · =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
` _` · ' ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¯ ,` ·` · ,` , · . ·` · ¸·` `, ¸ ·` · , ¸ _ · ,` , · . ·` · ` ,` ·` , · ·
` _` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` ·` · · ¯ , ¸ _ · . , ·` · ¸ ·` · ` ·` · ` ` , =
' ¸ · · ., ·` · . ·` · ¸ _ · . , ·` · · ·` · ¸ _ · . , ·` · ¸ ·` ·
` ·` · ` ·` · .` ,` , .` , ·` · ' , ¸ _ · ' ., ·` · ' ¸ ·` · ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · · ' , _ ,
` . , ,` ·` · , ¸ ·` · . , ,` ·` ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) The verbs of ( ¸., ¸·.) and ( ¸., ,.-') do not
come on the (.,) of (,.).
(2) The (,) in the ( ,.= ,) – ( ¸ ·` . ·) and in the ( ,.
·..) – ( ¸ ·` . ·) is deleted due to rule no. 7. If these words
are used with ( ¸ ') or as a ( ..·), the ( ..) is retained,
e.g. (` , ¯ ·` · , ` , ¯ ·` · , ¸ ·` , ¸ ·` ).
(3) The (,) in the word ( . ·` . ·) has changed to ( ·,.·) as in
the (_.·).
(4) In the plural of the ( ,.= ,.) – ( ¸ _ . ·) and the
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plural of the ( ¸,.. ,.) – (¸ _ · '), rule no. 25 has been
applied.
(5) In the word ( ' ¸ · . ·) which is the plural of the ( ,.
·.), the (,) has changed to a (¸) due to rule no. 20.
(6) Rule no. 26 has been applied to (_ ,` ·` ·).
(7) In the words ( ... , ,` ·` ·) and (` ... , ,` ·` ·), the (...) has
changed to a (¸) due to rule no. 22. This applies to all the
words which are ( ..,· ·,·) of the ( ¸,.. ,.) and the
( ,. .,· _~) of the ( ¸,.. ,.), whether the words
are (_,-.), (¸·) or ( ¸··).

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¸| _- _«·|· =,·|·
,,,= .
¸| _- _«·|· =,·|·
=¸¸-- .
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ ¸ ·` `, , ` ¸ ,` ·` ¸ ·` `, , ` ,` ·` ¸ ·` · · ·
` ¸ , ·` `, , ` ¸ ,` ·` , ·` `, . , ,` ·` . , ·` · , · ·
` ¸ `, ·` ` , , ` ¸ ` ,` ·` ·` `, .` , , ` ·` .` , ` ·` · ` , · · ` ,
` ¸ ¸ ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` ¸ ·` ` ` ,` ·` , ·` · ` . · · ` .
` ¸ , ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` . , ·` ` ,` ·` . , ·` · · ·
` ¸ ¸` , ·` `, , ` ¸ ` ·` .` , ¸` , ·` `, , ` ·` .` , ` , ·` · ¸ .` , · ·
` ¸ ¸ ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` ¸ ·` ` ` ,` ·` .` , ·` · .` , · ·
` ¸ , ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` . , ·` ` ,` ·` . ` , ·` · ` ` , · · `
` ¸ ·` ` ` , ` ¸ ` ·` ` , ·` ` .` , ` ·` .` , ` , ·` · ` ,` ` , · · ` ,`
` ¸ ·` ` ` ¸ ` ¸ ·` ` ¸ ·` ` ¸` , ·` ¸` , ` , ·` · . ` , · · .
` ¸ , ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` . , ·` ` ,` ·` . ` , ·` · ` ` , · · `
` ¸ ·` ` ¸` , ` ¸ ` ·` .` , ·` ` ¸` , ` ·` .` , ` , ·` · ` ¸` ` , · · ` ¸`
` ¸ ' ¸ ·` · ` ¸ ,` ·` · ' ' ¸ ·` · ` ,` ·` · ' ` , ·` · ` . · · ` , ` .
` ¸ ` ¸ ·` ` ¸ ,` ·` ` ¸ ·` ` ,` ·` ` , ·` · ` , · ·

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,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=·
. , _- _«·|·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ , ·` ` , , ,` ·` . ` , _` `, , ` , ` _`
, ·` ` , . , ,` ·` . ` , , ·` `, , ` , ,` ·`
·` ` , ` , . , ` ·` ` ¸ ` , ·` `, ` , , ` , ` ,` ·`
` ¸ , ·` ` ,` ·` . ` , _` ` ` , ` _`
, ·` ` . ,` ·` . ` , , ·` ` ` , ,` ·`
` , ` , ·` . , ` ·` ` , . ` , ·` `, ¸` , , ` , ` ·` .` ,
` ¸ , ·` ` ,` ·` . ` , _` ` ` , ` _`
, ·` ` . ,` ·` . ` , , ·` ` ` , ,` ·`
` , ·` ` . ` ·` ` ¸ ` , ·` ` ` , ` , ` ·` ` ,
, ·` ` ` ¸ ·` ` ¸ ` , ·` ` ` ¸ ` , ·` ` ¸
, ·` ` . ,` ·` . ` , , ·` ` ` , ,` ·`
` , ·` ` . ` ·` . ` , ` , ·` ` ¸` , ` , ` ·` .` ,
, ·` · ' ` ¸ ,` ·` · ' . ` , ' _` · ` , ` _` · '
, ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` . ` , ` _` ` , ` _`

,- ., _· ,,·' __.' · · . . ,` ·` . . ,` ·` . ` ¸` ·` , . . ,`·` ,
. ,` ·` . . ,` ·` · ' . ` ¸ ·` . ` ¸` ·`
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · . ` ¸ , ·` ` . ` ¸ , ·` ` . .` , ·` ` , . ` ¸, ·` ` ,
` ¸ , ·` · ' . ` ¸ , ·` ` . .` , ·` ` ` ¸ , ·` ` .
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_- ,,,=· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` ¸ , ·` ` , , ,` ·` . _` ` , , ` _`
, ·` ` , . , ,` ·` . , ·` ` , , ,` ·`
·` ` , ` , . , ` ·` ` ¸ ·` ` , ` , , ` ,` ·`
` ¸ , ·` ` ,` ·` . _` ` ` _`
, ·` ` . ,` ·` . , ·` ` ,` ·`
` , ` , ·` . , ` ·` ` , . ¸` , ·` ` , , ` ·` .` ,
` ¸ , ·` ` ' ,` ·` · . _` ` ' ` _` ·
, ·` ` . ' ,` ·` · . , ·` ` ' ` · ,` ·
` , ·` ` . ' ` ·` · ` ¸ ·` ` ` , ' ` ·` · ` ,
, ·` ` ` ¸ ' ·` · ` ¸ ·` ` ` ¸ ' ·` · ` ¸
, ·` ` . ' ,` ·` · . , ·` ` ' ,` ·` ·
` , ·` ` . ' ` ·` · ` , . ·` ` ¸` , ' ` ·` · .` ,
, ·` · ' ` ¸ ,` ·` · ' . _` · ' ` · ' ` _
, ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` . _` ` ` _`

·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · . . ,` ·` · ' . . ,` ·` . ` ¸` ·` , . . ,` ·` ,
. ,` ·` . . ,` ·` · ' . ` ¸ ·` · ' . ` ¸` ·` · '
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ,·. · .` , ·` ` , . ` ¸ , ·` ` , . ` ¸ , ·` ` . ` ¸ , ·` ` .
` ¸ , ·` ` . ` ¸ , ·` · ' . ` ¸ , ·` ` . .` , ·` `
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_- ,,,=· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· _,·|· =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. ` ¸ , ·` `, . , ,` ·` . . _` `, . , ` _`
. , ·` `, . . , ,` ·` . . , ·` `, . , ,` ·`
. ·` `, ` , . . , ` ·` ` ¸ . ·` `, ` , . , ` ,` ·`
. ` ¸ , ·` ` . ,` ·` . . _` ` . ` _`
. , ·` ` . . ,` ·` . . , ·` ` . ,` ·`
. `, ` , ·` . . , ` ·` ` , . . ¸` , ·` `, . , ` ·` .` ,
. ` ¸ , ·` ` . ,` ·` . . _` ` . ` _`
. , ·` ` . . ,` ·` . . , ·` ` . ,` ·`
. ` , ·` ` . . ` ·` ` ¸ . ·` ` ` , . ` ·` ` ,
. , ·` ` ` ¸ . ·` ` ¸ . ·` ` ` ¸ . ·` ` ¸
. , ·` ` . . ,` ·` . . , ·` ` . ,` ·`
. ` , ·` ` . . ` ·` . ` , . ·` ` ¸` , . ` ·` .` ,
. , ·` · ' ` ¸ . ,` ·` · ' . . ' _` · . ` _` · '
. , ·` ` ` ¸ . ,` ·` . . ` _` . ` _`

, ·,- ., _· ,,·' ¸ · . . . . ,` ·` , . . ` ¸` ·` , . . . ,` ·`
. . . ,` ·` . . ` ¸` ·` . . ` ¸ ·` . . . ,` ·` · ' . ,` ·`
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ¸, · . . . ` ¸ , ·` `, . . .` , ·` `, . . ` ¸ , ·` `
` ¸ , ·` ` . . . . .` , ·` ` . . ` ¸ , ·` ` . . ` ¸ , ·` · ' ` ¸ , ·` `
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-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,=·
,,-«'·
¸-·«|· ,=·
¸ ·` · · ¸ ·` · ¯ ,` ·` ¸ _ ·
. , ·` · · , ·` . · ` ,` ·` . . , · ·
· ¸ _ · ¸ _ · ' ,` ·` .` , ` · · .` ,
· ·` · · ` ,` ·` · · , · ·
. ·` · · ` ,` ·` . . , · ·
· ¸ _ · ` ,` ·` ` . ` . , · ·
. ·` ·
. . ·` ·
· ' ¸ ·

Analysis
(1) Rule no. 7 has been applied to ( · ·).
(2) If an ( ..) is changed from a (,), it is written in the
form of an ( ..), e.g. ( . · ·). If the ( ..) is changed from a
(¸),it is written in the form of an (¸), e.g. ( · _ ¸ ).
(3) If an ( ..) is deleted due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸) or
(¸,,..), if ( ¸ ) is attached or the word is (...·), the
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( ..) will be written in the form of a (¸) in all three cases
– ( ,.-, ..., _·, ·-), e.g. If the word ( ¸ ·` . ·) has
( ¸ ) attached to it or it is (...·), the (...) will be
written in the form of a (¸) e.g. ( ·` . · , ¸ ·` . .· ` , ´, ),
( ·` .. · , ¸·` .. ` ...`, ' _ ` , ´, ) and ( , ¸·` .. , ` .` _ ,.. ·
·` .. · ` , ´, ). According to the grammarian, Sībawayh, in
( ... ·.-), the ( .. ·_,..· ) will be written in the
form of an (.), e.g. (` , ¯ ·` · ` .`, ' _).
(4) In the dual form ( ,.. · ·), the (,) remains unchanged
because it appears before the (.) of (·,·).
(5) From ( .` ,.. · ·) till the end, all the words are in their
original form.
(6) In the ( ¸,.,- ¸..'), rule no. 11 has been applied to
all the words whereby the (,) changes to (¸). In the word
(` ,` ·` ·), the (¸) is deleted.
(7) In words like ( ` ,` ·` .,), the (,) has become ( ¸¯.) due
to rule no. 10.1. In ( .` ,` ·` .,), ( .` ,` ·` . ) and ( ¸` , ·` . ), the (,)
is deleted due to rule no. 10.2 and 10.3. Besides the ( _.~
..,·) and all the forms of ( ·.,·), all the remaining words
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are unchanged.
(8) The plural masculine word-forms are the same for the
masculine and feminine, namely ( .` ,` ·` ,) and ( .` ,` ·` ).
(9) In the ( ¸,.,- __..'), the (,) has changed to (¸) due
to rule no. 20, e.g. (¸ ·` `,).
(10) The ( - .,· -, ,. ) and ( ,..- ..,· _~) have
the same word-forms, namely ( ¸` , ·` ...` ). However, the
original form of the (,....- ....,· ...-,) was
( ¸`, , ·` ` ) while the original form of the ( ,..- ..,· _.~)
was ( .` , ·` ` ).
(11) In words like ( ·` .`, ` ¸. _ ), due to the ( ..) at the end,
the effect of the (` ¸ ) is not visible.
(12) If at the time of (¸¯.. _..-¸), the first sâkin
letter is a ( ·.·), it is deleted. If it is not a ( ·.·), the (,) is
rendered a ( ·..) and the (¸) a ( ·,.¯), e.g. ( .` , ·` .` , ) and
(` ¸ , ·` ` ).
(13) Rule no. 11 has been applied to all the words of
( ¸.· ,.). Rule no. 10 applies to (¸ _ ·). The rules of
(¸,' ,¸) mentioned previously apply to it.
(14) Only (···¸) has been applied to the (¸,·' ,).
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Exercise 47

(a) List the detailed paradigms (_..´ ,...) of the
following verbs:

, · , ` ,` ` ,
, · , ` ,` ,` , ,` ,
, · , ` , ` ·, ·
, . , ` , ` , · ,
, ~ , ` , ` -, · -

(b) Name the word-forms (_ , .) of the following verbs:

, · , _·
, · , ` ¸ ¸ ` · ` '
, · , ¸ -` ` ,
, . , ` ¸ , `
, ~ , ¸` · '
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_ -¸| · . = ¸ = =·, ¸- _··, ¸|··
_· _ ` · _ ` ¸ ·` ,, _·` ,`, ¸ ·` _ , ¸ · _ ,` , · , ·` _ ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¯ ¸ ·` , · ,` , · ,` · _
. ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , · ` ·` · ` ` , = ·` , _ ·` , ` , · ` ·` · · ¯ , ¸ · , · . , ·` , · _ ·
· · ' , ' ¸ · , · ., ·` , · . ·` , · , ¸ · , · . ·` , · · ·` , · ¸ · , · . , ·` , · ¸
_·` _ ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` ` ,` ·` _ ' , ¸ · _ ' . , ·` _ ' . , ,` ·` _ _,` ·` _ ` ·` · .` ,` , .
_ ·` _ ` . , ,` ·` _ ,

Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of this verb.
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_- _«·|· =,·|·
,,,= . ¸|
_- _«·|· =,·|·
=¸¸-- . ¸|
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ ·` ,`, _ ` ¸ ¸ ·` ,, _·` ,`, ` ¸ ·` ,, ¸ ·` _ _· _
` ¸ , ·` ,`, ` ¸ , ·` ,, , ·` ,`, . , ·` ,, . , ·` _ , · _
` ¸ ` , ·` ,`, ` ¸ ` , ·` ,`, ` , ·` ,`, . ` ,` ·` ,, . ` ·` _ ` , · _ ` ,
` ¸ ·` ,` _ ` ¸ ¸ ·` , ·` ,` _ ` ¸ ·` , , ·` _ ` . · _ ` .
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , . , ·` ,` , ·` , . , ·` _ · _
` ¸ ¸` , ·` ,`, , ` ¸ ` , ·` , ¸ ¸` , ·` ,`, , ` , ·` , ¸ ` , ·` _ ¸ ¸` , · _
` ¸ ·` ,` _ ` ¸ ¸ ·` , ·` ,` _ ` ¸ ·` , .` , ·` _ .` , · _
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , . , ·` ,` , ·` , . ` , ·` _ ` ` , · _ `
` ¸ ` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` ·` , ·` ,` .` , ` ,` ·` , . ` , ·` _ ` ,` ` , · _ ` ,`
` ¸ ` ¸ ·` ,` ` ¸ ` ¸ ·` , ·` ,` ¸` , ¸` , ·` , ` , ·` _ . ` , · _ .
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , . , ·` ,` , ·` , . ` , ·` _ ` ` , · _ `
` ¸ ¸` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ¸` , ·` , ·` ,` ¸` , ¸` , ·` , ` , ·` _ ` ` ¸ ` , · _ ` ¸`
` ¸ ·` _ ' _ ` ¸ ¸ ·` _ ' ·` _ ' _ ` ¸ ·` _ ' ` , ·` _ ` . ` , · _ ` .
` ¸ ·` ,` _ ` ¸ ¸ ·` , ·` ,` _ ` ¸ ·` , ` , ·` _ ` , · _

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,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=·
. , _- _«·|·
¸¸-'· =
` ¸ , ·` ,` , ` ¸ , ·` , , ` , ·` ,`, ` , ·` ,,
. , ·` ,` , . , ·` , , ` , , ·` ,`, ` , , ·` ,,
.` , ·` ,` , ` ¸` ·` , , ` , ` , ·` ,`, ` , ` ,` ·` ,,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , ` , ·` ,` ` , ·` ,
. , ·` ,` . , ·` , ` , , ·` ,` ` , , ·` ,
. ` , ·` ,` , . ` , ·` , , ` , ¸` , ·` ,`, , ` , ` , ·` , ¸
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ ·` , ` , ·` ,` ` , ·` ,
. , ·` ,` . , ·` , ` , , ·` ,` ` , , ·` ,
.` , ·` ,` ` ¸` ·` , ` , ·` ,` ` , ` , ` ,` ·` ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ ·` , ` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ·` ,
. , ·` ,` . , ·` , ` , , ·` ,` ` , , ·` ,
. ` , ·` ,` . ` , ·` , ` , ·` ,` ¸` , ` , ¸` , ·` ,
` ¸ , ·` _ ' ` ¸ , ·` _ ' ` , ' ·` _ ` , ·` _ '
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , ` , ·` ,` ` , ·` ,

·,- ., _· ,,·' __.' · . ` ¸ , ·` , . ` ¸ , ·` , . ` ¸` ·` , , . ` ¸ ,·` , ,
` ¸ , ·` , . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . ` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸` ·` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · . .` , ·` ,` , . ` ¸ , ·` ,` , . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` ,`
` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . .` , ·` ,`
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_- ,,,=· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` ¸ , ·` ,` , ` ¸ , ·` , , ·` ,` , ·` , ,
. , ·` ,` , . , ·` , , , ·` ,` , , ·` , ,
.` , ·` ,` , ` ¸` ·` , , ` , ·` ,` , ` ,` ·` , ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , ·` ,` ·` ,
. , ·` ,` . , ·` , , ·` ,` , ·` ,
. ` , ·` ,` , . ` , ·` , , ¸` , ·` ,` , , ` , ·` , ¸
` ¸ , ·` ,` ·` _ ¸ ` ¸ , ·` ,` ·` _ ¸
. , ·` ,` . , ·` _ ¸ , ·` ,` , ·` _ ¸
.` , ·` ,` ` ¸` ·` _ ¸ ·` ,` ` , ` ,` ·` _ ¸
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ ·` _ ¸ ·` ,` ` ¸ ` ¸ ·` _ ¸
. , ·` ,` . , ·` _ ¸ , ·` ,` , ·` _ ¸
. ` , ·` ,` . ` , ·` _ ¸ ·` ,` ¸` , ¸` , ·` _ ¸
` ¸ , ·` _ ' ` ¸ , ·` _ ' ·` _ ' ·` _ '
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , ·` ,` ·` ,

·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · . ` ¸` ·` _ ¸ . ` ¸ , ·` _ ¸ . ` ¸ , ·` , . ` ¸` ·` , , . ` ¸ , ·` , ,
` ¸ , ·` , . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . ` ¸ ·` _ ¸
,·. ·,- ., _· ¸,,- · . ` ¸` ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸` ·`,` , . ` ¸ , ·` ,` ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . ` ¸ , ·` ,`
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_- ,,,=· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· _,·|· =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. ` ¸ , ·` ,`, . , ` ¸ , ·` , . ·` ,`, . ·` ,,
. . , ·` ,`, . . , ·` ,, . , ·` ,`, . , ·` ,,
. .` , ·` ,`, . ` ¸` ·` ,, . ` , ·` ,`, . ` ,` ·` ,,
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` , . ·` ,` . ·` ,
. . , ·` ,` . . , ·` , . , ·` ,` . , ·` ,
. . ` , ·` ,`, . . ` , ·` ,, . ¸` , ·` ,`, . , ` , ·` , ¸
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ ·` , . ·` ,` . ·` ,
. . , ·` ,` . . , ·` , . , ·` ,` . , ·` ,
. .` , ·` ,` . ` ¸` ·` , . ·` ,` ` , . ` ,` ·` ,
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ ·` , . ·` ,` ` ¸ . ` ¸ ·` ,
. . , ·` ,` . . , ·` , . , ·` ,` . , ·` ,
. . ` , ·` ,` . . ` , ·` , . ·` ,` ¸` , . ¸` , ·` ,
. ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . ' ·` _ . ·` _ '
. ·` ,` ` ¸ , . ` ¸ , ·` , . ·` ,` . ·` ,

·,- ., _· ,,·' ¸, · . . . ` ¸ , ·` ,, . . ` ¸` ·` ,, . . ` ¸ , ·` , ` ¸ , ·` ,
. . . . ` ¸` ·` , . . ` ¸ ·` , . . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' ` ¸ , ·` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ¸, · . ` ¸ , ·` ,`, . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . . .` , ·` ,`, .
` ¸ , ·` ,` . . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . . .`, ·` ,` . .
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-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,=·
,,-«'·
¸-·«|· ,=·
_ ·` , · · ·` , _ · ¯ ¸ ·` , ¸ · _
. , ·` , · · , ·` , . · ` , ·` , . . , · _
· ¸ · , · ¸ · , · ' , ·` , .` , ` · _ .` ,
· ·` , · · ` , ·` , · · , · _
. ·` , · · ` , ·` , . . , · _
· ¸ · , · ` , ·` , ` . ` . , · _
. ·` , ·
. . ·` , ·
· ' ¸ · ,

Analysis

(1) The (,= ,) – ( · . ·` , _ ) is ( ¸.· _,.·) if the verb
is ( ¸· ).
(2) When the word ( · .. ·` , _ ) is used with ( ¸ ) or as a
(.·), the (.) reverts, e.g. ( ·` , _ ) , ( · ,·` , ` , ´ ).
(3) Rule no. 25 applies to ( · ¸ · , ) and ( ' ¸ · _ ).
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(4) Rule no. 7 has been applied to ( ..·` _ ' _ ) whereby the
(¸) has changed to an (.).
(5) In the broken plural ( . ·` _ _ ), the (¸) was changed to an
(...) and was thereafter deleted due to ( _..-¸
¸¯).
(6) In the words ( .· _ _ ) and ( ` ,. · _), the (¸) was changed to
an (.) due to rule no. 7.
(7) In the words ( ` .. · _) and ( · _ . ), the ( ..) was deleted
due to (¸¯ _-¸).
(8) Rule no. 10 has been applied to (` ,` ·` _).
(9) Rule no. 10 has also been applied to ( ` ¸. ·` ,,), ( ` ¸. ·` , ),
(` ¸ ·` _ '), ( ` ¸. ·` , ), ( ` ,.` ·` ,, . ), ( ` ,.` ·` , . ), ( ¸` , ·` ,. ). After changes
were made in the singular feminine second person -
( ¸` , ·` , ) – it became like the plural feminine second person.
(10) Rule no. 7 has been applied to the passive tense verbs
like ( ·` ,`, _ ) etc.
(11) In the word (¸ · _), the (¸) was made sâkin and then
deleted due to (¸¯ _-¸).
(12) In the word ( .` ,..` · _), the harakah of the (¸) was
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transferred to the preceding letter, the (¸) was changed to
(,) and then deleted.
(13) Rule no. 14 has been applied to all the words of
(¸,·' ,), e.g. (¯ ¸ ·` , ·).

.· , =`¸|· ¸ _ =`¸| · . _ « = =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
_.` ,, ¸ . _ _ _.` ,`, ¸ .` _ , ¸ ¸ _ ,` , · ¸ . ` ,` · ' ¯ ¸ .` , · ,` , · ¸ . _
.` , · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸` , . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸` _ ¸ ` ·` · _ ¸ ¸ , · . , .` , ·
` ·` · · ¯ , .` , · _ . .` , · ¸ ¸ , · . .` , · · .` , · ¸ ¸ , · . , .` , ·
· ' , ' ¸ . , · ., .` , · _.` _ ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · , .` , .` _ ' . , .` _ '
_ ' _,` .` _ ` ·` · .` ,` , ¸ ¸ .` _ . , ,` .` _ _ ` . , ,` .` _ ,

Analysis

(1) The same changes as ( ·` .`, ¸. ·` · _ ) have occurred in the
active tense of this verb. The other words are affected in
the same way as (,` ·` , · · ).
(2) As an exception to the rule, the rule of ( ¯ ¸. ·) has been
applied to the word (¯ ¸ .` , ·).

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= =·, ¸- _··, ¸|·· - , = ¬ | · . _ «
_` -, ¸ - ,` , · · ,` - _` -`, ¸ ` - , ¸ ¸ - ¯ ¸ ` - · ,` , · · ,` -
` - · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸` - . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸` - ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' _ . , ` - ·
` - · ` ·` · · ¯ , ¸ ¸ - · _ · ` - · ¸ ¸ - · . , ` - · ¸ ¸ - · . ` - ·
· ' , ' ¸ - · ., ` - · . ` - · , _` - ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · . , ` - '
- ' , .` , ` - ' _,` ` - ` ·` · .` ,` , ¸ ¸ ` - . , ,` ` - _ ` . , ,` ` - ,

The verbs of this category are very similar to those of
( _· _ ` ¸ ·` ,, ).
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Exercise 47

(a) List the detailed paradigms (_..´ ,...) of the
following verbs:

, · , _´ , ` ¸ ´` ,
, · , ¸_ · ` ¸ _` ,
, · , _` , ¸ ,
, . , _ ` ¸ ` ,
, ~ , _· , ` ¸ ·` ,

(b) Name the word-forms (_ , .) of the following verbs:

, · , _
, · , ¸ ` ` ¸
, · , ` ¸ ´ ` ,
, . , . ` , ·`
, ~ , ` ,` ` · ¸

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- ,· | , | · . = ¸ = =·, ¸- 3¸¸«- .,«|
_· , , · , ` ¸ , _·` ,`, ¸ ·` , , ¸ · , ,` , · · · ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¯ ¸ ·` , · ,` , · ·, · ,
. ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , _ ·` , · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸ ¸ · , · . , ·` , · _ ` , · ` ·` · · ¯ ,
· · ' , ' ¸ · , · ., ` , · . ` , · , ¸ · , · . ` , · · ` , · ¸ · , · . , ` , · ¸
_·` , ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` , ' , .` , ·` , ' . , ·` , ' .` ,` , ¸ · _, ·` , ` ·` · . , , ·` ,
·` , _ ` . , , ·` , ,

In this category of verbs, the rules of (¸..··) have been
applied to the ( ·.´ ..·) while the rules of ( ¸·.) have
been applied to the (·..´ ¸..·). Most of the paradigms
are similar to those of ( · _ _ ` ,, ` ¸ · ).


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¸| _- _«·|· =,·|·
,,,=· .
_- _«·|· =,·|·
=¸¸-'· . ¸|
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ ` ,`, _· ` ¸ ¸ , _·` ,`, ` ¸ , ¸ ·` , _· ,
` ¸ , ·` ,`, ` ¸ , , , ·` ,`, . , , . , ·` , , · ,
` ¸ ` , ·` ,`, ` ¸ ` , , ` , ·` ,`, . ` , , . ·` , ` , · , ` ,
` ¸ _·` ,` ` ¸ ¸ ·` ,` _ ` ¸ , ·` , ` . · , ` .
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , . , ·` ,` , . , ·` , · ,
` ¸ ¸` , ·` ,`, , ` ¸ ` , ¸ ¸` , ·` ,`, , ` , ¸ ` , ·` , ¸ ¸` , · ,
` ¸ ` ,` _· ` ¸ ¸ ` ,` _· ` ¸ .` , ·` , .` , · ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , . , ·` ,` , . ` , ·` , ` ` , · , `
` ¸ ` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ` , ·` ,` .` , ` , . ` , ·` , ` ,` ` , · , ` ,`
` ¸ ` ¸ ·` ,` ` ¸ ` ¸ ·` ,` ¸` , ¸` , ` , ·` , . ` , · , .
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , . , ·` ,` , . ` , ·` , ` ` , · , `
` ¸ ¸` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ¸` , ·` ,` ¸` , ¸` , ` , ·` , ` ¸` ` , · , ` ¸`
` ¸ ` , ' _· ` ¸ ¸ · ' ` , ' _· ` ¸ · ' ` , ·` , ` . ` , · , ` .
` ¸ ` ,` _· ` ¸ ¸ ` ,` _· ` ¸ ` , ·` , ` , · ,

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,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=·
. , _- _«·|·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ , ·` ,` , ` ¸ , , ` , ·` ,`, ` , ¸,
. , ·` ,` , . , , ` , , ·` ,`, ` , , ,
` , ·` ,` , . ` ¸ , ` , ` , ·` ,`, ` , ` , ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ` , ·` ,` ` , ¸
. , ·` ,` . , ` , , ·` ,` ` , ,
. ` , ·` ,` , . ` , , ` , ¸` , ·` ,`, , ` , ` , ¸
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ` , ·` ,` ` , ¸
. , ·` ,` . , ` , , ·` ,` ` , ,
.` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ` , ·` ,` ` , ` , ` ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ ` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ` , ` ¸
. , ·` ,` . , ` , , ·` ,` ` , ,
. ` , ·` ,` . ` , ` , ·` ,` ¸` , ` , ¸` ,
` ¸ , ·` , ' ` ¸ , · ' ` , ·` , ' ` , · '
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ` , ·` ,` ` , ¸

·,- ., _· ,,·' __.' · . ` ¸ . ` ¸ , . ` ¸ , . ` ¸ , . ` ¸ , ,
. ` ¸ , · ' . ` ¸ ` ¸ ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ ·` ,` , . ` ¸ ,·` ,` ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` , ' . ` ¸ ·` ,` . ` ¸ ·` ,`
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_- ,,,=· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
·` ,` , ` ¸ , ` ¸ , , ·` ,` , ¸ ,
. , ·` ,` , . , , , ·` ,` , , ,
.` , ·` ,` , ` ¸ , ` , ·` ,` , ` , ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` ,` ¸
. , ·` ,` . , , ·` ,` ,
. ` , ·` ,` , ` , , . ¸` , ·` ,` , , ` , ¸
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , · ·` ,` ·
. , ·` ,` . , · , ·` ,` , ·
.` , ·` ,` ` ¸ · ·` ,` ` , ` , ·
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ · ·` ,` ` ¸ ` ¸ ·
. , ·` ,` . , · , ·` ,` , ·
. ` , ·` ,` . ` , · ·` ,` ¸` , ¸` , ·
` ¸ , ·` , ' ` ¸ , · ' ·` , ' · '
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` ,` ¸

·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · . ` ¸ · . ` ¸ · . ` ¸ , · . ` ¸ , . ` ¸ , . `¸ , ,
` ¸ , . ` ¸ , · '
,- ., _· ¸,,- ,·. · · .` , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . .` ,·` ,` , . ` ¸ , ·` ,` ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` , ' . ` ¸ , ·` ,` .
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_- ,,,=· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· _,·|· =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. ` ¸ , ·` ,`, . ` ¸ , , . ·` ,`, . ¸,
. . , ·` ,`, . . , , . , ·` ,`, . , ,
. .` , ·` ,`, . ` ¸ , . ` , ·` ,`, . ` , ,
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , . ·` ,` . ¸
. . , ·` ,` . . , . , ·` ,` . ,
. . ` , ·` ,`, . . ` , , . ¸` , ·` ,`, . , ` , ¸
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , . ·` ,` . ¸
. . , ·` ,` . . , . , ·` ,` . ,
. .` , ·` ,` . ` ¸ . ·` ,` ` , . ` ,
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ . ·` ,` ` ¸ . ¸
. . , ·` ,` . . , . , ·` ,` . ,
. . ` , ·` ,` . . ` , . ·` ,` ¸` , . ¸` ,
. ` ¸ , ·` , ' . ` ¸ , · ' . ·` , ' . · '
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , . ·` ,` . ¸

, _· ,,·' ¸, ·,- . · . . . ` ¸ , , . . ` ¸ , . . ` ¸ , . . ` ¸ ,
. . ` ¸ . . ` ¸ . . ` ¸ , · ' ` ¸ ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ¸, · ` ¸ , ·` ,` . . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . . .` , ·` ,`, . . ` ¸ , ·` ,`, .
` ¸ , ·` ,` . . .` , ·` ,` . . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . . ` ¸ , ·` , ' . .
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-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,=·
,,-«'·
¸-·«|· ,=·
` , · _ · ·` , _ · ¯ ¸ ·` , ¸ · ,
. , ` , · · , ·` , . · ` , ·` , . . , · ,
· ¸ · , · ¸ · , · ' , ·` , .` , · , .` ,
· ` , · · ` , ·` , · · , · ,
. ` , · · ` , ` , · . . , · ,
· ¸ · , · ` , ·` , ` . ` . , · ,
. ` , ·
. . ` , ·
· ' ¸ · ,

Analysis

(1) The (,) of (` ¸.. ,) and all the other verbs has been
deleted due to the rule of (` ·,).
(2) The rule of (` ¸.. ·` ,,) has been applied to the (¸) of
(` ¸ ,).
(3) The imperative ( ·) was constructed from (` ¸.. ). After
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deleting the (__...' ·..···), the last letter which is a
(·· ,-) was deleted. It became ( ·).

- , v , | · . . . - =·, ¸- 3¸¸«- .,«|
, . , ` ¸ , ¸ , ` , · · _` ,`, ¸ ` , , ¸ ¸ , , ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¯ ¸ ` , · ,` , · ·, . ,
` , · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , _ ` , · ` ·` · · ¯ , ¸ ¸ , · . , ` , · _
, · ., ` , · . ` , · , ¸ ¸ , · . ` ,· · ` , · ¸ ¸ , · . , ` , · · ' , ' ¸ ¸` , . ` ¸ ·
_` , ' ` ·` · , ' , .` , ` , ' . , ` , ' _, ` , ` ·` · .` ,` , ¸ ¸ ` , . , , ` , _
` . , , ` , ,

The paradigms of this category is similar to ( _· , ` ¸ , ).

_=| · . = ¸ = =·, ¸- .¸¸«- .,«|
¸, ~ , =, ' , ~ ` ¸ ¸, =`, ¸ , ~ , ¸ , ~ ,` , · ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¯ ¸ , = · ,` , · ' , ~
, = · ` ·` · ` ` , = , = . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , , ~ ¸ ¸ ` ·` · · ¯ , ¸ , = · ., , = ·
, = · ¸ · . , = · , ¸ , = · . , = · · , = · ¸ ,= · ., , = · ., , =
` ·` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · · ' , ' ¸ , = · ¸, ~ ' ~ ' , .` , , ~ ' ., , ~ ' .` ,` , ¸ ,
_,` , ~ ` ·` · , ~ . ,,` , ~ ¸ ` . ,,` , ~ ,

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·· , · - , | · . ,·-··, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
_ ` - ¸ ¸ . .` -` · ,` , · . ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` -, . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , . ` - ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · '
` -` · ` ·` · ` ` , = . ` - _

·· , · - , | · . ,·-··, =·, ¸- _··, ¸|··
_ ` - ¸ ` -`, ¸ ` ` - ' , ¸ . .` -` · ,` , · . ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` -, _ ,` , · . ` - ¸
` -` · _ ` - ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` -` · ` ·` · ` ` , = . ` - . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , . _

·· · - , | · . ,·-·, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
_ ` · ' ` · ¸ ` ¸ ` ·`, · ` ·`, ¸ ` · ' , ¸ ¸` ·` · ,` , · . _ ` · ¸ · ` ·` · ,` , · . _ ` ·` · ` ,` · '
` , = ¸` ·` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸` · ' ` ·` · ` ·` · ` _

- , « .·| · . ¸,-«· =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
_` · · , ` ` ¸` `, _` `, ¸` ` , ´ , ` · ,` , ' ` · ,` , · · , ` _
' ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , ` ·` · ` ,` · ' _

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¸,-«· =·, ¸- _··, ¸|·· - , « ··| · .
_ `, ¸ , ´ ¸ ` · ,` , · · , ` ¸ `, _ ` · ,` , · · , _ ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · '
` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` ¸ ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , _

- , , «·| · . ¸,-«· =·, ¸- .¸¸«- .,«|
¸` , · , , ` ¸` , `, ` , `, ¸` , · , ´ , ` · ,` , · · ¸ ' , ` · ,` , · ·, , ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · '
' , ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , · ¸

· v· - « | · . -·-·«- =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
· _ ·`, ¸ ` , · , ¸ ¸ ·` · ,` , · · . ·` · ` ¸ ·`, _ ·` · ·` · ,` , · · . _ ` ,` · '
·` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸ ·` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ · ` ·` · _

· ·-· ¸ « | · . -·-·«- =·, ¸- _··, ¸|··
· _ _ · ,`, ¸ ·` ,` _ , ¸ · ,` · ,` , · · · ,` · ` ¸ · ,`, _ · ,` · ,` , · · · ,` · _ ` ,` · '
` ·` · · ,` · ` ·` · ` ` , = · ,` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , · _ _

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_· -·| · . ¸-«· =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
· _ · `, ¸ ` ·` , ¸ · ` · ,` , · , · ` ¸ · , _ · ` · ,` , · , · _ ` ·` · ` ,` · '
. ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ · · ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸ · _

The (,) of the verbal noun ( _..·) changed to (¸) due to
rule no. 16. In (,..-, _..·, ·..-) it is deleted due to
(¸¯ _-).


_ | ·-·| · . ¸ -·«· =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
· _ · , _ ` , · , · ¸ · . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ · ` ·` · ` ,` ·' ¸ ¸ · ` · ,
· ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = _
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Exercise 48

(a) List the detailed paradigms (_..´ ,...) of the
following verbs:
, · , _· , ` ¸ ,
, · , ` -, ¸ , - _,
, · , _, ¸ ,
, . , , ¸ _ , ` ¸ ,
, ~ , _.` , ' ` ¸ .` ,`,

(b) Name the word-forms (_ , .) of the following verbs:

, · , ` ¸` · ,`
, · , ¸ _ ,` ` ¸
, · , ` , ` ,
, . , ` ¸, ,
, ~ , ` ¸ , ,` ¸


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Combination of (_,,·) and (¸··)

¸=· =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ =,-|¸ ·«|· _,«,-
` ,` ,, ¸¯ ¸,, ¸ ·· ,·. ¸` ,` , · ,,· .` , ' ¸¯`, ¸`, ¸ ¸ ¯ ,,· .` , ' ¸
¸` , . ··

The paradigms of this verb are similar to those of ( ¸` , , ¸ ·).
The rules of (_,,·) have to be applied to the (·,·) while the
rules of (¸··) apply to the (,). Wherever there is a conflict of
the two, the rules of (¸··) will be given preference. For
example, ( ¸` ,` ,,) was originally ( ¸` , ',). It required the rule of
(` ¸ ' _) to change the (·,·) to (.), whereas the rules of (¸··)
required the transferring of the harakah to the preceding letter.
Preference was awarded to the latter.

Similarly, ( ¸` ,` , ') was originally ( ¸` , . '). The rule of ( ¸ ·¯)
required changing the (·,·) to (.). However, the rule of
(¸··) of transferring the harakah was preferred. It became
( ¸` ,` , '). Thereafter, the second hamzah was changed to (,) due to
the rule of (` · · , '). It became ( ¸` ,` , ').

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=¸= =·, ¸- _··, =,-|¸ ·«|· _,«,-
` ¯ ,,· `, ' ` ` , ·, ·¯ , ` ·¯`, `, ¸ ¸ ·· ,·. ` ` , · · ,,· `, ' ¸,, ` · ··
` · .

This (.,) is similar to (` _` , , _ ,). The above-mentioned rule has
to be considered here as well. Consequently, in the word (` ` , ·,),
the rule of (` _` , ,) is given preference to the rule of (` ¸ _). The rule
of ( ·` ') applies to (` ` , ').

¸=· =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··¸ ·«|· _,«,-
'`, ¸ ' , ¸ ¸¯ ,,· , ' ` , ', . ' _ ¸,, ¸` , ' ·· ,·. ¯ , ' · ,,· , '
¸ ' . ··

The rules of (_,,·) apply to the hamzah while the rules of
(¸·) apply to the (,).

«|· _,«,- =¸= =·, ¸- _··, ¸|··¸ ·
_ ' ' , ¸ .¯ ,,· ,` ¸ ` ¸ ', _ '`, ¸ .`, ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ ¸ ' · ,,· ,` ¸
. ' . ·· ¸,,

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This paradigm is similar to ( _· _ ` ¸ ·` ,, ).

_·· =·, ¸- _··, ¸|··¸ ·«|· _,«,-
_, ', _, ' ' , ¸ .¯ ,,· . , ¸ '`, ¸ , _, .`, ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ ¸ , ' · ,,· . , ¸
. ' . ·· ¸,,

=¸= =·, ¸- .¸¸«- .,«|¸ ·«|· _,«,-
¸, ' ` ¸ , ', ¸, '`, ¸ , ' , ¸ ,¯ ,,· ', ' ,`, ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ ¸ , ' · ,,· ', '
, ' . ·· ¸,,

=¸= =·, ¸- ,··-¸ _-|· _,«,-
· ' , ` · ¸ ·· ,·. ` ·` ,` ,` , · ,,· · ' , ` · '` ,`, ` , , ` , ,,· · ' , ` ·,
` · . ·· ¸,,

_·· =·, ¸- _··, ¸|··¸ _-|· _,«,-
¸,, ¸ ' _ ` _ ¸,`, ¸ ` _ , ¸ . _ ,,· ·,` , _ ·· ,·. ¯ ¸ ` , · ,,· ·,` ,` _
· ·· ,= , . ·· ¸,, '` , ¸ '` , · ·· ·., ¸ . , · ., '` , · ¸
, · ., '` , · .¯` , · ·¯` , · ¸.` _ ' ·· ¸,. ¸··', ' ¸ , ¸ . _ ' ., .` _ '
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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` ,` _ ·· .,', .` , '` _ ' ¸ '` _ . ,,` ,` _ ¸ ` . ,,` ,` _ ,

As mentioned previously, the rule of ( ¸ ·` ,) is compulsory in the
verbs of this (.,). Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of
this verb. Since it is a very common verb and many rules have
been applied to it, it should be thoroughly learnt.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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_«·|· =,·|·
. ¸| _-
,,,=·
_«·|· =,·|·
. ¸| _-
=¸¸-'·
g_·='·
=· ,,,
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ `, ¸, ` ¸ , ¸, ¸,`, ,, ¸ ¸ ` _ ' _ ¸
` ¸ , ,`, ` ¸ , ,, , ,`, . , ,, . , ` _ , ' _
` ¸ ` , ,`, ` ¸ ` , ,, ` , ,`, . ` , ,, . ` ,` _ ` , ' _ ` ,
` ¸ ` ¸, ` ¸ ¸, ` ¸, , ¸ , ` _ ` . ' _ ` .
` ¸ , ,` ` ¸ , , ., ,` , , . , ` _ ' _
` ¸ ¸`, ,`, , ` ¸ `, , ¸ ¸`, ,`, , `, , ¸ ` , ` _ ¸ ¸`, ' _
` ¸ ` ¸, ` ¸ ¸, ` ¸, ¸, .` , ` _ .`, ' _
` ¸ , ,` ` ¸ , , ., ,` , , . ` , ` _ ` `, ' _ `
` ¸ ,` ` , ` ¸ ` , , ,` .` , ` , , . ` , ` _ ` ,` `, ' _ ` ,`
` ¸ ,` ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ¸ , ,` ¸`, ¸`, , ` , ` _ . `, ' _ .
` ¸ , ,` ` ¸ , , ., ,` , , . ` , ` _ ` `, ' _ `
` ¸ ,` ¸`, ` ¸ , ¸`, ,` ¸`, ¸`, , ` , ` _ ` ¸` `, ' _ ` ¸`
` ¸ _ ' ¸ ` ¸ _ ' ¸ _ ' ¸ ¸_ ' ` , ` _ ` . `, ' _ ` .
` ¸ ,` ¸ ` ¸ , ¸ ,` ¸ , ¸ ` , ` _ `, ' _

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=·
. , _- _«·|·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸, ,` , ` ¸, , , ` , ,`, ` , ,,
., ,` , ., , , ` , , ,`, ` , , ,,
.` , ,` , .` , , , ` , ` , ,`, ` , ` , ,,
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, , ` , ,` ` , ,
., ,` ., , ` , , ,` ` , , ,
. `, ,` , . `, , , ` , ¸`, ,`, , ` , `, , ¸
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, , ` , ,` ` , ,
., ,` ., , ` , , ,` ` , , ,
.` , ,` .` , , ` , ,` ` , ` , ` , ,
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, , ` , ,` ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ,
., ,` ., , ` , , ,` ` , , ,
. `, ,` . `, , ` , ,` ¸`, ` , ¸`, ,
` ¸, _ ' ` ¸, _ ' ` , ' _ ` , _ '
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, , ` , ,` ` , ,
·,- ., _· ,,·' __.' · , , , .` , , . ` ¸, , . ` ¸, , . .` , , , . ` ¸
` ¸, , . ` ¸, _ ' . ` ¸, , .
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · . .` , ,` . ` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, ,` . .` , ,` , . ` ¸, ,` ,
` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, _ ' . ` ¸, ,`
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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,,,=· ¸-v·
.,·|· _- -·,«·|·
=¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
,,,=· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` ¸, ,` , ` ¸, , , ,` , , ,
., ,` , ., , , , ,` , , , ,
.` , ,` , .` , , , ` , ,` , , , ` ,
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, , ,` ,
., ,` , ., , ,` , ,
. `, ,` , . `, , , ¸`, ,` , , `, , ¸
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, _ ,` _
., ,` ., _ , ,` , _
.` , ,` .` , _ ,` ` , ` , _
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, _ ,` ` ¸ ` ¸ _
., ,` ., _ , ,` _ ,
. `, ,` . `, _ ,` ¸`, ¸`, _
` ¸, _ ' ` ¸, _ ' ' _ _ '
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, , ,` ,
·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · ` ¸, _ . .` , _ . ` ¸, _ . ` ¸, , . .` , , , . ` ¸, , ,
` ¸, , . ` ¸, _ ' .
,·. ·,- ., _· ¸,,- · . .` , ,` . ` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, ,` . .` , ,` , . ` ¸, ,` ,
` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, _ ' . ` ¸, ,`
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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,,,=· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
,,,=· _,·|· =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. ` ¸, ,`, . ` ¸, ,, . `, , . ,,
. ., ,`, . ., ,, . , ,`, . , ,,
. .` , ,`, . .` , ,, . ` , ,`, . ` , ,,
. ` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, , . ,` . ,
. ., ,` . ., , . , ,` . , ,
. . `, ,`, . . `, ,, . ¸`, ,`, . , `, , ¸
. ` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, , . ,` . ,
. ., ,` . ., , . , ,` . , ,
. .` , ,` . .` , , . ,` ` , . ` , ,
. ` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, , . ,` ` ¸ . ` ¸ ,
. ., ,` . , , . . , ,` . , ,
. . `, ,` . . `, , . ,` ¸`, . ¸`, ,
. ` ¸, _ ' . ` ¸, _ ' . _ ' . _ '
. ` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, , . ,` . ,
·,- ., _· ,,·' ¸, · . . . ` ¸, ,, . . .` , ,, , . . ` ¸, . ` ¸, ,
. . . .` , , . . ` ¸, , . . ` ¸, _ ' ` ¸, ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ¸, · . . ` ¸, ,` . . ` ¸, ,` . . .` , ,`, . . ` ¸, ,`, .
` ¸, ,` . . ` ¸, _ ' . . ` ¸, ,` . . .` , ,`
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,=· ,,-«'· ¸-·«|· ,=·
'` , · ¸ · '` , ¸ · ¯ ¸ ` , ¸ . _
. , ` , · · , '` , . · ` , ` , . . , _
· ¸ . , · ¸ . , · ' , ` , .` , ` , _ .` ,
·¯` , · · ` , ` , · · , _
. ¯` , · · ` , ` , . . , _
· ¸ . , · ` , ` , ` . ` . , _
¯` , · .
. '¯` , ·
· ' ¸ ,

Analysis
(1) The verb ( , ¸, ) was originally (` ¸ '` ,,). The rule of ( ¸ ·` ,) is
first applied after which the (¸) is changed to (.) due to rule
no. 7. This change applies to all the word-forms except the dual
form in which only the rule of ( ¸ ·` ,) applies. In the plural
masculine forms and the singular second person feminine, the
(.) is deleted due to (¸¯ _-).
(2) In words like ( , ` ¸ ¸, ), no visible change has taken place
because the (.) does not accept any harakah.
(3) The (.) is deleted from words like ( ,, ` , ) because of the
(` , ).
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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(4) In words like (` ¸, , , ), the (¸) reverts in place of the (.)
because the latter cannot accept a harakah. The (·, .,)
requires a (·-·) before it.
(5) In ( .` , , , ), due to (¸¯ _-) between the (,) and the
(.), and the (,) is not a (··). Therefore a (·.) is rendered to it
to indicate the deletion of the (,).
(6) The imperative ( _) is constructed from ( ¸, ). After deleting
the (__.' ····), the (.) is deleted from the end. It becomes
( _).
(7) The imperative (` ¸, _) was originally ( _). The (·· ,-)
which was deleted due to a (.·,) now reverts. However, the
(.) was not capable of upholding a harakah. Hence, the (¸)
which changed into (.) reverts so that it can carry the (·-·)
which the (·, .,) requires before it. It becomes (` ¸, _). In ( .` , _)
and (` ¸, _), the (,) and (¸) are rendered a dammah and kasrah
respectively because they are not (··). A harakah is not
permissible on a (··). The dammah indicates the deletion of the
(,) from the original while the kasrah indicates the deletion of a
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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(¸).

=¸= =·, ¸- _··, =,-|¸ ;:|· _,«,-
·· ,·. _` , - · ,,· ·` , - · . -`, _` , - , ¸ . - ,,· ·` , - · _` , -, . -
_ - _` , - · ·· ,= _ - . ·· ¸,,

(1) The remainder of the paradigm is similar to (_` , , _ , ).
(2) The verb ( . , . ) which is (¸, ,-', ·· _,,·) can
be from (_- .,) or (_· .,). A letter from the (·,- ,,-)
is present in the (·´ ·.). The (·,¯) of the (¸.' ¸·) is
not visible. In the verbs before ( ¸ · ), the (¸) was changed to
(.). The original of the (.) could therefore be either ( ¸
·_,´·) or (·-,· ¸). The question arises as to why the verbs
from ( ¸ · ) till ( · ) have been rendered a kasrah. The answer to
this is that if this verb is from (_- .,), the kasrah of the ( .·
·´) indicates the kasrah of the ( ¸· ·´ ). If this verb is
from (_· .,), the kasrah of the (·´ .·) indicates the
deleted (¸) as in ( ¸` · ,).
(3) In the imperative ( _ -) and the words affected by (·,-) like
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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( _ -, ` , ), the hamzah can be changed to (¸). In ( ' ) and ( ` ,
' ,), the hamzah can be read as an (.). The (·· ,-) will
however remain and not be deleted because the hamzah is a root
letter. In (·· _,,·) the (·´ ·.) is not deleted.
(4) The hamzah of ( _` , - ·) and ( · ·` , ·) cannot be changed to (¸)
and then (···¸) be applied because the (¸) is an original letter.
Therefore the rule of ( ,=- ·· ) cannot be applied here as this is not
a (·_ ··).
(5) The (¸) of ( _, - ·) and similar words is not changed to a
hamzah because it is a root letter. The rule of (` , - ·) only applies
to a (·_ ,) or ( ¸ ·_ ).

Exercise 49
(a) List the detailed paradigms (_..´ ,...) of the
following verbs:
, · , ' _, ', _,
, · , ¸ ' , ` ¸ ,,
, · , ' =, _ ~ ,
, . , '` _ ' ¸ ` ¸ ` ,`,
, ~ , ¸· ', ¸ · '
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 286
The Rules of (.·.·)

Rule 1
If there are two letters of the same type ( ¸.-·) or they
are similar (._..·) and the first is (¸¯..), it will be
assimilated into the second letter. That is, (·..··¸) will be
applied.
This rule applies whether the letters are in the same word
or in two separate words.

Examples of (···¸) in the same word
i. ` ·` · ¯ · (Example of [¸-·] letters, that is “·”)
ii. ` ·` ¯ (Example of [¸-·] letters, that is “·”)
iii. ` , .` · ` ,' · (Example of [¸,_....·]
letters, that is “·” and “.”)

In the case of ( ¸,_.·), the first letter is changed into the second
letter before (···¸) is applied. In the above example, (·) is changed
to (.) first, and then the two (.)’s are assimilated. However, the (·)
is still written, although not pronounced.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 287
Examples of (···¸) in two words

, ` . · · ¸ ` , ` . · · ¸
· ` ,` ¯ , ` , . ` ,` ¯ ` , ` , . ·

Exception

In two words, if the first word is a (·` ·)
1
, the letters will not be
assimilated, that is, (···¸) will not be applied.

Example
¸ ·` ,, ` _ ·

However, if the ( ·` .·) is in the same word, ( ·.··¸) will be
applied.

Example
` ¸`, , · ¯ ¸ , ·

ν ν ν ν ν

1
A ( · .·) is either a (,) preceded by a ( ·` ..), a (¸) preceded by a ( ·,.¯) or
a (.) preceded by a (·-·)
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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¸` ,' ¸· ·
·,-·
1
st
letter
·,-·
2
nd

letter
¸` ,' ¸· ·
·,-·
Rule 2
If two letters of the same type are ( ·,.-·), and the letter
preceding the first (¸` ,' ¸· ·) is also ( ·,.-·), the first letter
will be made (¸¯) and then the two letters will be assimilated,
that is, (···¸) will be applied.

Example
· . · ` . · · ` ·







_ , · _` , · ` , ·


However, if a noun (,¸) has a (·¯,-) on the ( ·.´ ¸·), the
letters will not be assimilated. In this case, (···¸) will not apply.

·,-·
1
st
letter

·,-·
2
nd

letter
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Example
` _ ,
` _` ,`
ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 3
If the letter preceding the first ( ¸` ,' ¸.· ·) is ( ¸¯.) and not a
(·` ·), the (·¯,-) of the first letter will be given to its preceding letter
and then (···¸) will be applied.

Example

` ·` ` , ` ·` ` , ' ` ,


` _ , , ` _` , , ' , , (.,. .,)
` ¸ .` ·, ` ¸` . ·, ' ¸ ·, (_- .,)

Exception
This rule does not apply to the words of (¸-·).
(¸` ,' ¸· ·) preceding letter

¸` ,' ¸· ·
(¸ ,') first letter

(¸) second letter
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Example
. - (No change is made.)

ν ν ν ν ν

Rule 4

If the preceding letter is a (·` ..·), without transferring the
( ·.¯,-), the first letter will be made ( ¸¯.) and both will
be assimilated, that is, (···¸) will be applied.

Examples

_. - - (,,·· _.· ¸··) of (··· .,)
_ - - ` - - _ ` _ -
· ·` ,` · (¸,,- _.· ¸··) of (··· .,)

· ·` ,` · ·` ·` ,` · ` ·` ,` ·

ν ν ν ν ν
·` · 1st

2nd

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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Rule 5

If after applying (·..··¸), there is a (...·,-pause) due to
( ,.·'), or there is a ( ·,.-), the following are permissible in
the second letter:

i. ·-· – because it is the lightest letter (.¯,- .-').
ii. ¯ ·, – whenever any (¸¯) letter is rendered a harakah, it is
rendered a kasrah. The rule is ( ,` ´ , ·` ,` - ·` ,` - ·¸ ` ¸¯).
iii. · ' : ···¸ – (no ···¸ takes place).

Example
The (··,. ,·') of (' , , ` , ·) is:
` , · . ` , · . , · ¸ ` _
If the preceding letter ( ¸` ,' ¸.· ·) is ( ·,..·), then ( ·..)
is also permissible.

Example

` ` , ` , . ` ` , ` , . ' ` , ` , . , ` , ` ·` `


When the final letter has (.,´), either because of a suffix, or
because it is in the jussive case (·,- ·-) or it is the imperative
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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(,·.), the two letters must be written separately, e.g. ( ` · ·) and
(` ·` ` · ').
When the final letter is (·,-·) – it is vowelled – the two are
coalesced.
18
This does not apply to the (_.·) – verbal noun,
where the (.) interposes between the two final letters, e.g.
(` · ` · ¸).

Exercise 50

(1) Which rule has been applied to the word (` ¸.. ~) and
how?
(2) Explain the rule applied in the word ( .` , ´` ` ¸ ).
(3) Analyse the rule applied in the word (' .` ,).
(4) Apply rule no. 4 to the word ( · · _).
(5) What are the different ways of reading the imperative
singular form of the following words?

, · , ` ¸ ~
, · , ` ¸ ·
, · , `


18
joined and made into one.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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¸=· =·, ¸- .-·=-
· ,,· ' · ' `, ` ` · , ¯ · · ,,· ' · ' ` , ` · ' ` · ` ` · ` ` · ·· ,·. ` ·` ,` `
¯ · ·· ,= ` ·` ` . ' ` . ` ` . `` . ·· ¸,, ` ·` ` · '
` · ` · ' · · . ` · ·` · ' · · .` · ¯ · ·· ·., ' · · .` ·
¸··', ` `, · · . · ` · ' · · ' , .` ,' · ' .` · ' ' · ' ·· ¸,.
¸` ` · ·· .,', ` .,` ` · , ` · ` · .,` ` ·

Analysis
(1) Rule no. 2 has been applied to (` ·).
(2) In the words (` ` ·), (' ` ,) and (' `,), rule no. 3 has been
applied.
(3) Rule no. 4 has been applied to (¯ · ·), (' · ·) and (' · · ').
(4) In the imperative and prohibition (¸,, ,·.), rule no. 5 has
been applied.

Hereunder follows the detailed paradigms of this verb.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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_«·|· =,·|·
. ¸| _-
,,,=·
_«·|· =,·|·
. ¸| _-
=¸¸-'·
'· g_·=
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ ` `, ` ¸ ` ` , ' `, ' ` , ` ` · ` ·
` ¸ ` `, ` ¸ ` ` , ` `, . ` ` , . ` ` · ` ·
` ¸ ` ,' `, ` ¸ ` ,' ` , ` ,' `, . ` ,' ` , . ' ` · ` , ' · ` ,
` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ` ` ' ` ' ` ` ` · ` . ` · ` .
` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ` ` ` ` . ` ` . ` ` · ` ·
` ¸ .` · ` `, ` ¸ .` ·` ` , .` · ` `, .` ·` ` , .` · ` · .` · ·
` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ` ` ' ` ' ` .` · ` · .` · ·
` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ` ` ` ` . ` ` . ` · ` · ` ` · · `
` ¸ ` ,' ` ` ¸ ` ,' ` .` ,' ` .` ,' ` ` · ` · ` ,` ` · · ` ,`
` ¸ ` ¸` ` ` ¸ ` ¸` ` ¸`,` ` ¸`,` ` ` · ` · . ` · · .
` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ` ` ` ` . ` ` . ` · ` · ` ` · · `
` ¸ .` · ` ` ` ¸ .` ·` ` .` · ` ` .` ·` ` ` · ` · ` ¸` ` · · ` ¸`
` ¸ ` · ' ` ¸ ` ` · ' ' · ' ' ` · ' ` · ` · ` . ` · · ` .
` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ` ` ' ` ' ` ` · ` · ` · ·

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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· ,,,=· g_·='
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=·
. , _- _«·|·
=¸¸-'·
.` ` , .` ` , ` , ` `, ` , ` ` ,
.` ` , .` ` , ` , ` `, ` , ` ` ,
.' ` , .' ` , ` , ' `, ` , ` , ` ,' ` ,
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ` ` , ` `
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ` ` , ` `
. ` · ` ` , . ` ·` ` , ` , .` · ` `, ` , .` ·` ` ,
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ` ` , ` `
` .` .` ` ` , ` ` ` , ` `
.' ` .' ` ` , ` ,' ` ` , ` ,' `
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ¸` ` ` , ` ¸` `
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ` ` , ` `
. ` · ` ` . ` ·` ` ` , .` · ` ` ` , .` ·` `
. · ' .` ` · ' ` , ` · ' ` , ` ` · '
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ` ` , ` `
·,- ., _· ,,·' __.' · . .` ` . .` ` . .' ` , . .` ` ,
.` ` . .' ` .` ` . .` ` · ' .
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · . .` ` . .` ` . .' ` , . .` ` ,
.` ` . .` · ' . .` ` . .' `
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 296

,,,=· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
,,,=· ¸-v· ¸-v· =¸¸-'·
.` ` , .` ` , ` ` , ` ` ,
.` ` , .` ` , ` ` , ` ` ,
.' ` , .' ` , ` ,' ` , ` ,' ` ,
.` ` .` ` ` ` ` `
.` ` .` ` ` ` ` `
. ` · ` ` , . ` ·` ` , .` · ` ` , .` ·` ` ,
.` ` .` ` · ` ` ` ` ·
.` ` .` ` · ` ` ` ` ·
.' ` .' ` · ` ,' ` ` ,' ` ·
.` ` .` ` · ` ¸` ` ` ¸` ` ·
.` ` .` ` · ` ` ` ` ·
. ` · ` ` . ` ·` ` · ' .` · ` ` .` ·` ` · '
. · ' .` ` · ' ` · ' ` ` · '
.` ` .` ` ` ` ` `
·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · ' ` · . .` ` · . .` ` . .' ` , . .` ` , . .
.` ` . .` ` · ' . .` ` ·
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ,·. · .' ` . .` ` . .` ` . .' ` , . .` ` ,
.` ` . .` · ' . .` ` .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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,,,=· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
· _,·|· ,,,= =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. .` `, . .` ` , . ` `, . ` ` ,
. .` `, . .` ` , . ` `, . ` ` ,
. .' `, . .' ` , . ` ,' `, . ` ,' ` ,
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ` . ` `
. ` .` . .` ` . ` ` . ` `
. . ` · ` `, . . ` ·` ` , . .` · ` `, . .` ·` ` ,
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ` . ` `
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ` . ` `
. .' ` . .' ` . ` ,' ` . ` ,' `
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ¸` ` . ` ¸` `
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ` . ` `
. . ` · ` ` . . ` ·` ` . .` · ` ` . .` ·` `
. . · ' . .` ` · ' . ` · ' . ` ` · '
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ` . ` `
·,- ., _· ,,·' ¸, · . . . .` ` , . . .' ` , . . .` ` .` `
. . . . .' ` . . .` ` . . .` ` · ' .` `
_· ¸,,- ¸, ·,- ., · .` ` . . .` ` . . .' `, . . .` `, .
.` ` . . .` · ' . . .` ` . . .' ` . .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,,-«'· ,=· ¸-·«|· ,=·
¯ · ¯ · ` ·` ,` ` · ¯ · ·
.` · .` · ·` ,` ` · . .` · ·
' · · ' · · ` ·` ,` ` · .` , ' · · .` ,
·` · · ·` ,` ` · ·` · ·
. ` · ·` ,` ` · . . ` · ·
' · · ·` ,` ` · ` . ` .` · ·
` · ` ·
. · ` ·
` `, · ·

Analysis
(1) From ( .` · ·) till the end, no ( ¸ ··· ) of the first (·) applies
because the second radical is (¸¯).
(2) However, from (` .` · ·) onwards, (···¸) applies because the
(·) and (.) are (_,-' .,,·) – close in source of
pronunciation.
(3) Rule no. 5 has been applied to (` ` , ` , ) etc.
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Exercise 51

(1) Conjugate the following verbs in detail:

, · , ' .` , ` .
, · , ' ¸ =, ` ¸ ~
, · , ' .` ,, ` . ·
, . , ' . , ` .
, ~ , ' . ´, ` . ¯


(2) What is the word-form (··,.) of the following words:

, · , .` , ,
, · , .` ·` ` . ` ,
, · , ` ¸ ` ¸` ,
, . , ` ¸' ` ,
, ~ , ` _` ·

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=¸= =·, ¸- .-·=-
` , . ` , . ·· ¸,, ` _ , · ¸ ` , · ` , · ·· ,·. ¯ _ · ,,· _ , · ' , , ` , ·
¯ , · ·· ,= ` _ , .

_r =·, ¸- .-·=-
, ` ¸ · · ' ¸ `, ` ¸` · , ¯ ¸ · ,,· ' · ' ¸ ·· ,·. ` ¸,` ` · ,,· '
,= ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ . ` ¸ . ·· ¸,, ` ¸ ` · ¸ ` ¸ · ` ¸ ·
¯ ¸ · ··

,·-··, =·, ¸- .-·=-
,,· _ , =` . ¸ ' , =` .`, ` , =` . ' , ¯ , =` .` · ,,· _ , =` . ¸ ' , =` ., ` , =` . ¸
¸ ` , =` . ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ , =` .` · . ` , =` . . ·· ¸,, ` _ , =` . ¸ ` , =` .
¯ , =` .` · ·· ,= ` _ , =` . . ` , =` .

In this (.,), the ( ¸.· ,), ( ¸,.·' ,.) and ( ,.
,..=) have become similar in form but the original of
the ( ¸.· ,.) was ( ¸.· _,.´·) while the ( ,.
¸,·' ) and (,= ,) was ( _,· ¸· ).

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,·-«·, =·, ¸- .-·=-
¸,, ` · ` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` ` ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ ` ` · ,,· · ` ¸ ' ` , ` ` ¸
¯ ` ` · ·· ,= ` · ` . ` ` . ` ` . ··

,·-«·=, =·, ¸- .-·=-
` ¸ ` _ , ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ , ` ` · ,,· _ , ` ¸ ' , ` , ` ,
¯ , ` ` · ·· ,= ` _ , ` . ` , ` . ` , ` . ·· ¸,,


,·-·, =·, ¸- .-·=-
¸ ' `, ` · ' , ¯ ` · ,,· · ` · ¸ ' `, ` · ' ` · ' ·· ,·. ¯ ` · ,,· · ` ·
¯ ` · ·· ,= ` · ` ` . ` ` . ` ` . ·· ¸,, ` · ` · ' ` · '

¸,-«· =·, ¸- .-·=-
` ·` -` · ,,· `, ` - ` ·` -`, ·` ` - , ` ·` -`· ,,· `, ` - ` ·` -`, ·` -
¸,, ` ·` - ·· ,·. ` ·` -` · ·· ,= ` ·` -` . ··

¸-«· =·, ¸- .-·=-
,,· - ` . - `, . ` -` , ` . - ` · ,,· - ` . - , . -
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·· ,= ` . - . ·· ¸,, ` . - ·· ,·. ` . - ` ·
` . - ` ·

The rules of (·..··¸) have not been applied in these two
paradigms.

-·-·«- =·, ¸- .-·=-
¯ _ -` · ,,· ·` - -` · ' _ -`, ` _` ,` - , ¯ _ -` · ,,· ·` - -` · ' _ -`, ` _ -
. ` _ -` . ` _ -` . ·· ¸,, ` _ - - ` _ - ` _ - ·· ,·.
¯ _ -` · ·· ,= ` _ - -`

Wherever ( ·.··¸) has been applied in this ( ..,), it is due
to rule no. 4.

=·, ¸- .-·=- ¸-·«·
¯ · . ` · ,,· ·` · . ' · . `, ` ·` ,` .` , ¯ ·. ` · ,,· ·` · . ' · . , ` · .
. . ` · . . ·· ¸,, ` · · . ` · . ` · . ·· ,·. . ` ·
¯ · . ` · ·· ,= ` · · .

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A Combination of (.·.·), (_,,·) and (¸··)

¸=· =·, ¸- .-·=-¸ ·«|· _,«,-
' · ' ` · ' ` · ' ·· ,·. ` ·` ,` · ' · ,,· · · · ¸ '· '`, ` · ' , ¯ ·¯ ,,· · · · ¸ ' ·` ,, ` · '
. ` · ' . ·· ¸,, ` ,` ·` , ' ¯ · ' · ·· ,= ` ,` · ' . ' · ' . ` · '

Analysis
(1) The rules of (_,..,·) apply to the hamzah while the
rules of ( .·..·) apply to the doubled letters ( ¸.-·).
At the time of conflict, the rules of ( .·..·) will be given
preference.
(2) In the word (' ·` ,..,), the rule of (` ¸ ' _) was not applied.
Rather the rule of (' ` ,) was given preference.
(3) After applying (·..··¸) to the word (' ·` , '), the rule of
(` · · , ') was applied whereby the hamzah changed to (,). It
becomes (' ·` , ').

··- _r =·, ¸- .-·=-¸ ,
` · `, ¸ ` · , ` · , ·· ,·. ` ·` ,` ·` , · ,,· ' ·` , '· ,`, ` ·` , , ¯ · , ,,· ' ·` , ' · ,, ` · ,
' · , · .` · , · ¯ · , · ·· ,= ` · ·` , . ` ·, . ` · , . ·· ¸,,
·` · , · ' · , · .` · , · ¯ · , · ·· ·., ` `, · , · . · ` , · ` · ` , · ' · , · . ` · , ·
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` ·` , ·· .,', ' · , ' , .` ,' · , ' .` · , ' ' · , ' ·· ¸,. ¸··', ¸
` .,` ·` , , ` · ·` , .,` ·` ,

Analysis
(1) The rules of (.·...·) apply to the doubled letters
( ¸.-·) while the rules of ( ¸.··) apply to the (,). At the
time of conflict, the rules of (.·...·) will be given
preference.
(2) In the word (¯ · , ·), the rule of ( ¸··) required the (,) to be
changed to (¸) while the rule of (.·.·) requires the
transferring of the harakah of the first (·) to the (,). The latter
has been given preference.


_r =·, ¸- .-·=-¸ ,··-
·· ,·. ¯ , ` ,` · ,,· · `, ¸ ' , ` ,`, ` ,` ` , ' , ¯ , ` ,` · ,,· · `, ¸ ' , ', ` , `, ¸
` , ' . ·· ¸,, ` , `, ¸ ` , `, ¸ ` , `, ¸ ¯ , ` ,` · ·· ,= ` , ' . ` , ' .

If there is a ( ¸¯. .,.) in one word followed any of the
letters of ( .,.·,,) in another word, ( ·.··¸) will be applied
to the (¸¯ .,).
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Examples
( :` ,` _ ` ¸ ·), (` ` ), (` . ·` ,`, ` ¸ ·), ( ` ` , . _ ` ,` , -` _ ) and
(¸ , ¯ · ` ¸` · - .). (The tanwīn is a nūn sākin in reality).
If the letters are in one word, (·..··¸) will not apply, e.g.
( ,` ` ·), ( . ,` .).

The (¸) of the definite article (¸) becomes assimilated in
the (·,- ,,-), e.g. ( , ¸` ` ).
The (·,- ,,-) are:
( . . ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ _ _ · · . ¸ )
It is not assimilated in the remaining letters of the
alphabet, e.g. ( , ,)
The remaining letters are called (·,,· ,,-).

Exercise 52

(1) Conjugate the following verbs in detail:
, · , · ' ¸ ·, ` ¸
, · , ¸ =, ¸ ~
, · , ` ¸ ~ ¸
, . , ` , ,` - ¸ ¸
, ~ , _` , ·
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Special Meanings of Each (.,)
.,,. .,.-

The (·,.-) refers to the extra meaning of a verb besides its
literal meaning, e.g. ( _ ,` - ') means to expel. The verb is
transitive. Here (·,.-) refers to the latter meaning, namely that
of being transitive.
The vastness of the Arabic language can be estimated from the
(.,.-) due to the fact that one verb can have so many
different shades of meaning merely by using the verb in different
categories (.,,').

The (-,=·-) of (¸=· =·,)

( · ·` ·) – to mention a verb after (··· .,) to show that one
object overpowers another, e.g. (` ·` ` . - · ¸` -` , ` ¸ . -) – The
man disputed with me and I overcame him in the dispute.

The (-,=·-) of (=¸= =·,)

The (·,.-) of this category is also ( · ·` ·) on condition it is
either (¸··), (¸, ,-') or (¸, ¸·).
Example:
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(` ·' ` · , · ` ` , _ ` ¸ · ,) – I and Rashīd made a mutual promise
and I was predominant in the promise.

The (-,=·-) of (_r =·,)

This (.,) most often has verbs which have the meaning of
illnesses, grief, joy, colours, defects or physical forms, e.g. ( , )
– to become ill.
( . , -) – to be grieved.
( _ , ·) – to become happy.
( _ ¯) – to be blackish.
( _ , ·) – to be one-eyed.
( _ ,) – to have broad eyebrows.
This (.,) is mostly intransitive.

The (-,=·-) of (;¸· =·,)

This (.,) is always intransitive. It refers to the natural qualities
of a person that are of a permanent nature or a temporary nature
achieved by experience.
Examples: ( ¸` -) – to be handsome, ( _` ·) – to be ugly,
( · ·) – to have understanding,

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The Derived Categories

The ( ,.- · ) of (¸·· .,)

(1) ( - , = - ·) – to make an intransitive verb transitive and if it is
already transitive, to make it doubly transitive, e.g.
( ¸ , ) – to descend, ( ¸ ,` ') – to send down;
( _ ) – to hear, ( _ ` ') – to make someone hear.

(2) (¸ , , = · ) – to make the doer (¸··) or the object (¸,··)
obtain the root (-'·) of the verbal noun (_.·) from which the
verb is formed, e.g. ( ¸` ·` ` . ¯ ,` ') – I provided the shoe with
shoelaces. The (-'· - root) is (` · , ) meaning shoelaces.
( , ') - to bear fruit. The (-'·) is (` , ) meaning fruit.

(3) (` ¸ , ¸ - ·) – to take the object to the place of the noun (-'·),
e.g. (` ·` ` · , ') – I took it to the place of selling, that is the market.
The (-'·) is (_,,).

(4) ( .· = - ¸) – to find something described with the (-'·), e.g.
(` ·` -` , ') – I found him to be stingy; ( ¯ ' ` ·` ` · , ) - I found him to be
noble; (` ·' ` ` - ') – I found him to be praiseworthy.
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(5) (= - | « |· . · = ) – to remove the (-'·) from something. This
is of two types:
[1] if the verb is intransitive, the (-'·) will be removed from
the doer e.g. ( · ' ¸` -` , ) – the man removed oppression from
himself, that is, he was just.
[2] if the verb is transitive, the (-'·) will be removed from the
object e.g. ( ¸` -` , ¸` , · ` .`, · ') –I removed dirt from the eye of
the man.

(6) ( - | « |· ·· = - , = ) – the doer gives the object the (-'·), e.g.
( . ´ ` .` =` · ') – I gave the dog a bone.

(7) ( g , · ,) – the doer reaches the (-'·) or enters it, e.g. ( _ ` . '
¸` -` ,) – the man reached in the morning; ( ¸` -` , · ,` · ') – the
man reached Iraq.

(8) ( · _ ¸ ¸ , =) – It has three meanings:
[1] to become the possessor of the (-'·), e.g. ( · , . ') –
the cow became one with milk.
[2] the doer becomes the possessor of something that is described
by the (-'·), that is, it has the quality of the (-'·), e.g. ( . ,` - '
¸` -` ,) – the man became the owner of mangy
19
camels.

19
A skin disease affecting hairy animals that causes an itch.
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[3] the doer becomes the possessor of something in the place or
time of the (-'·), e.g. ( ·` . · ,` - ') – the goat bore offspring
in the autumn season.

(9) (` 3· « ¬ · = ,) – the doer becomes entitled to the (-'·), e.g.
(` ` · ` . - ,` _ ') – Hind was entitled to be married.

(10) ( - · , · , -) – the doer reaches at the time of the (-'·), e.g.
(` _` _` , .` - ') –the crop was ready to be harvested.

(11) ( - - |· , -) – the meaning of the (-'·) is strengthened, either
by making the act more final or making it more intense and wider
in application, e.g. ( ¸` -` , ') – the date palm bore much fruit;
(` _` ' . , ` ') – the morning became very bright.

(12) ( ·· = · , ,) – the verb is initially used from (¸··¸ .,). This
can be of two types: either the verb is not used in its root form
(·,-), e.g. ( ¸ ·` _ ') - to hasten; or the verb is used in the root form
but for another meaning, e.g. ( ` ' ¸ ) – to fear while the root form
( ¸ ) means to be compassionate.

(13) ( - « ·· , -) – to be synonymous with another verb, e.g.
(¸ -` · ' , ¸` , ¸ - ·) – both mean: the night spread.
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(14) ( - - ¸· = -) – to mention a verb after another verb to indicate
the fact that the object has accepted the effect of the doer, e.g.
( , ` , ' · ` ·` ` ,` ,) – I gave him glad tidings so he became happy.

(15) ( - , . ·) - making a relationship of something to the (-'·),
e.g. ( ¸` -` , ` .` , ¯ ') – I made a relationship of disbelief to the
man.

(16) (` ;· ¸ | ,) – to make a transitive verb intransitive, e.g.
( = ` , -) – Sālim praised Allâh. (` , ` - ') – Sālim was
praiseworthy.

The (=·,=·-) of (¸,-«· =·,)

(1) (-,=-·) – Example: ( ¸` -` , ' .` ` · ·) - I made the man sit.

(2) (.·=) – Example: ( · , ¯ ` .` ,` ·) - I removed the peel of
the fruit.

(3) (_,=·) – Example: ( _` ¸` - ·) – He placed spices in the
pot.

(4) (·_¸_=) – Example: (` , -` _` , ) – The tree bloomed.

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(5) (g,·,) – Example: ( , · ¸ · ` . = ¸` ·) – The students
reached the depths of knowledge.
( ,` , -) – He came into the tent.

(6) (--|·,-) – This is of three types:
Intensity in the verb, e.g. ( ` , ` ¸` , -) – The student roamed a
lot.
Intensity in the doer, e.g. ( ¸ , , . ` , ·) – Many camels died.
Intensity in the object, e.g. ( . ,` , ' . ·) – She locked many
doors.

(7) (-,.·) – Example: ( ¸` -` , ` . ` ·) – I made a relationship of
transgression to the man.

(8) (` ¸· , | ,) – to make something don the (-'·), e.g.
( ¸ , ` . -) – I draped the horse with a horse cloth.
20


(9) ( = , · ¬ ·) – to join the (-'·) to something, e.g. ( ` .` ` · ·
.` ,` ) – I applied gold to the sword.

(10) ( ¸ , , ¬ ·) – to make something into the (-'·) or similar to
the (-'·), e.g. ( ¸` -` , ,` . ) – He converted the man into a

20
A cloth used to cover animals to protect them from the cold.
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Christian; ( . ·` , ` .` ` , -) – I made the sheet like a tent.

(11) (` ¸ = |) – to abbreviate a sentence and express it by means of
a single verb, e.g. ( ¸ ·) – to say ‘Lâ ilâha illallâh’; ( _` ) - to
say ‘Subhānallâh’.

(12) ( - « ·· , -) – to have a similar meaning as (·,-), (¸··¸ .,)
and (¸` · .,).
Examples: (` ·` ` , , ` ·` ` ,` ) – I gave him a date.
( , ` ', ,` ) – The date dried out.
( ¸` , , ¸` , ) – He used the shield.

(13) (··=·,,) – Example: (` ·` ` ¯) – I spoke to him. This meaning
is new in (¸,· .,) because the (·,-) of the verb means to
injure.

The (=·,=·-) of (-·-·«- =·,)

(1) ( - · _· = -) – the relation or application of the act to another
person, e.g. ( . ¯) – to write; ( . ¯) – to write to someone, that
is, to correspond.

(2) ( - « ·· , -) – to have the same meaning as (·,-), (¸··¸ .,),
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


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(¸· .,) and (¸,· .,).
Examples: ( , , , · ) – He travelled.
(` ·' ` ·` , ' , ` ·' ` · ,) – I distanced him.
( _·· . ` -` , , ) – The two men abused one another.
(` ·` ` · ., _` ,` ` . · .) – I doubled the thing.

(3) (` ¸ , , = ·) – e.g. ( = · · · ·,·· · = :·- ¸' ) – May Allâh
grant you well-being.

(4) ( ·· = · , ·) – e.g. ( ·` ` · · ¸ ·) – He bore this hardship. The
(·,-) which is ( · ,` ·) means to be hard-hearted.

The (=·,=·-) of (,·-··, =·,)

(1) ( .· ¬`· ,) – This is of four types.
(a) to make the (-'·), e.g. ( , - ` - ¸) – He made a hole.
(b) to hold, take or choose the (-'·), e.g. ( . ` - ¸) – He held
the side.
(c) to make the object into the (-'·), e.g. ( ·` ¸ · ¸) –
He made the sheep into food.
(d) to hold the object in the (-'·), e.g. (` · . ` · ¸) – He held it
in his armpit.

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(2) (` =¸ = ·) – to attempt to achieve an act, e.g. ( . ¯ ¸) – He
attempted to earn wealth.

(3) (` ¸ , , ¬ ·) – to do an act for oneself, e.g. ( ,` , · ¸ ¯ ¸) – He
measured the barley for himself.

(4) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: (` , · · ` ·` ` ·) – I made him grieve, so
he began grieving.

(5) ( - « ·· , -) – Examples: ( _ ,, _ ` , ¸) – It became bright.
( , -` - ', , - ` - ') – He entered Hijāz.
(¸` · , , ¸ ` _ ¸) – He donned the sheet.
( . - , . ` -` , , . ` -¸) – The two men disputed among
themselves.
( , - ' ` ¸, , - `, ¸) – He sought a rental.

(6) ( ·· = · , ,) – This is of two types.
(a) there is no (·,-), e.g. ( · ` , ¸) – to slaughter a hungry goat.
(b) the (·,-) has a different meaning, e.g. ( , ` ¸) – He
kissed the stone, ( , ) – He was safe.

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The (=·,=·-) of (,·-«·, =·,)

(1) (` ; ¸ ¸ |) – to be intransitive, e.g. ( , ´` ¸) – It broke.

(2) (` _ : -) – to perceive something with the senses, that is, the
acts are related to the external limbs.

(3) ( - - ¸· = -) – Examples: ( , ´` · ` ·` ` , ¯) – I broke it, so it
broke.
( ¸ ·` · . ` . · ') – I locked the door and so it was locked.

(4) ( - « ·· , -) – Example: ( ·· , - -` ¸ , -` - ' ¸ ) - He reached Hijâz.
This meaning is seldom used.

(5) ( ·· = · , ,) – Example: ( ¸ =` ¸) – He went away. ( ¸ ~) – to be
cheerful.

The (=·,=·-) of (,:-·, =·,)

(1) (` ; ¸ ¸ |) , ( - - |· , -), ( . , |) - colours and (` . , -) – defects.
Examples: (` , ` - ¸) – It became very red.
( ¸ ,` - ¸) – He became one-eyed.
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The (=·,=·-) of (¸-«· =·,)

(1) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( _ = · ` ·` ` · = ·) – I cut it into pieces and
so it became pieces.

(2) (` . · ´ ·) – to think or to represent oneself to have a certain
quality or status, e.g. ( ,` . ) – He represented himself as having
patience.

(3) (` .· ¬ ·) – to refrain from the (-'·), e.g. ( .` , - ) – He
refrained from sin.

(4) (` ¸ , |) – to don the (-'·), e.g. ( ,` - ) – He wore a ring.

(5) ( ¸« - ·) – Example: ( ¸` · ) – He used the oil.

(6) ( .· ¬`· ,) – This is of four types.
(a) to make the (-'·), e.g. (` .` ` , - ) – I made the tent.
(b) to hold, take or choose the (-'·), e.g. ( .` - ) – He held
the side.
(c) To make the object into the (-'·), e.g. ( , - - ` , ) –
He used the stone as a pillow.
(d) To hold the object in the (-'·), e.g. (¸ ` . ` , ' ) – He
held the child in his armpit.

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(7) (` _ , _ = ·) – to do an act slowly and several times. This is then
of two types.
(a) It is possible to achieve the act once but the doer does it
slowly, e.g. ( _` , - ) – He drank in sips.
(b) It is not generally possible to achieve the act once, e.g.
( .¯` , - ) – He memorized the Qur’ân a little at a
time.

(8) ( ,, ¬ ·) – to become the (-'·) or similar to the (-'·),
e.g. ( ,` . ) – He became a Christian; ( ,` - ) – He became like the
ocean.

(9) ( · _ ¸ ¸ , =) – Example: ( ¸` , ) – He became wealthy.

(10) ( - « ·· , -) – to have the same meaning as the (·` ,-), ( .,
¸··¸) and (¸· .,). Examples: ( ¸ · , ¸` ) – He accepted.
( ,` - ', ` - , ) – He remained awake.
( _ ,` - ` , _` , - ) – He sought a need.

(11) ( ·· = · , ,) – This is of two types. Either there is no (·,-) or
there is a (·,-) but it has a different meaning.
Examples: ( ¸` ) – He stood in the sun.
( , ´ ) – He spoke. ( , ¯) – to injure.
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The (=·,=·-) of (¸ -·«· =·,)

(1) (` = _· = ·) – This is similar to (·¯_·) of (··· .,).
However, the difference between the two is that in (··· .,),
one is mentioned as the doer (¸··) while the other is mentioned
as the object (¸,··) while in (¸· .,), both are mentioned
as doers but in reality each one is the doer as well as the object,
e.g. ( -`, _ , . -` , · , . ) – Rayhân and Farhân abused each
other.

(2) ( ¸ , , ¬ ·) – to simulate a state or status or representing oneself
to have it, e.g. ( ¸ _ ) – He pretended to be sick.

(3) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( · · ` ·' ` · ,) – I distanced him so he
was at a distance.

(4) ( - « ·· , -) – Examples: ( · · _·· ¸ · ) – to be high;
( ¸ `, ' _·· ¸ · , ) – to enter the right side.

(5) ( ·· = · , ,) – Example: ( · _ ) – Allâh is most blessed.
( · , ,) – The camel sat.

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The (=·,=·-) of (,·-«·=, =·,)

(1) (` . · |) – To seek the (-'·), e.g. ( = ` .` , ` · ` ¸) – I sought
forgiveness from Allâh.

(2) ( ` 3· « ¬ · = , ¸| - |· , | ) – to be entitled to the (-'·), e.g. ( _ ·` , ` ¸
` .` , ·) – The clothing was entitled to a patch.

(3) ( - - ¸· = -) – ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( · ` · ` ·` ` · ') – I made him
stand, so he stood up.

(4) ( .· = - ¸) – Example: (` ·` ` · , ´ ` ¸) – I found him to be noble.

(5) ( .· , . -) – to regard something as being described by the
(-'·), e.g. (` ·` ` ` - ` ¸) – I thought him to be good.

The difference between ( . ` - ,) and ( . ` -) is that there is
certainty in the former and doubt in the latter.

(6) ( ,, ¬ ·) – to become the (-'·) or to become similar to the
(-'·), e.g. (` ¸` , = , -` - ` ¸) – The mud became a stone.

(7) ( .· ¬`· ,) – Example: ( ` · ¸ ~` , ` ¸) – He made India his
homeland.
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(8) (` ¸ = |) – to abbreviate a phrase, e.g. ( _ -` , ` ¸) – to say ( · ` ¸
.` ,` · - _ ·` , ¸ ` ¸ ,).

(9) (,·-··, ¸ ¸-«· ¸ ,·-·· ¸ .¸= - « ·· , -) – Examples: ( ` , ` ¸
` , ·,) – to settle down, ( . - ' , . - ` ¸) – to reply, ( , , ´ ` ¸
,` ´ ) – to be arrogant, (, . ` · ¸, , .` · ` ¸ ) – to resist a temptation.

(10) ( ·· = · , ,) – Example: ( · · , ¸ · , - ' ` ¸) – He leaned over
the pillow.

The (=·,=·-) of (,·-,-·, =·,)

(1) (` ; ¸ ¸ |) – This verb is mostly intransitive. Sometimes it can be
transitive, e.g. (` ·` ` , ` , ` - ¸) – I regarded it as sweet.

(2) ( - - |· , -) – Example: (` ¸` _ ' . ` , ` · ¸) – The land became
full of grass.

(3) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: (¸ ` , · ` ·` ` , ) – I wrapped it so it was
wrapped.

(4) ( - « ·· , -) – Example: (` ·` ` , ` - ` ¸ , ` ·` ` , ` , ` - ¸) – I thought it to be
sweet.

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The (=·,=·-) of (,:,-·, =·,)

Like (¸···¸ .,), this category also has the following four
meaning patterns:
(` ; ¸ ¸ |) , ( - - |· , -), ( . , |) and (` . , -)
Examples: (` . ,` ¸) – It became very white.
( ¸ ,` - ¸) – He became one-eyed.


The ( =·- =·, ) of (,·,-·, =·,)

(1) ( - - |· , -) – Example: ( ·` , ` - ¸) – He ran very fast.

This category is (. .·), that is, a word which has no (¸.')
origin nor something similar to the origin.

There are two differences between (..·¸) and (.,¸). It is a
condition for (..·¸) that it must not be used in (·,- ¸·).
For (.,¸), this is not a condition. Secondly, it is a condition for
(..·¸) to be free of letters of (·-¸) and extra letters brought
for a particular meaning (_· _ ,-).
An example of a letter of (·-¸) is the (¸) of the verb ( ¸ ` )
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which was increased to bring this verb onto the scale of ( _ ,` - ·).
An example of a letter of (_· _ ,-) is the hamzah of
( · , ¯ ') which was added to the verb to render it transitive.


The (=·,=·-) of ( - · · - · =·,)

This category has many meaning patterns some of which are:
(1) (` ¸ = |) – Example: ( ¸ ` ,) – He recited ‘Bismillâh…’.

(2) (` ¸· , | ,) – Example: (` ·` ` · ·` , ,) – I made him don a burqa’.

(3) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( ¸ , = · · ¸` , ¸ , = ·) – The night hid
his sight so it became hidden.
This category is used mostly as (_,-.) and (.·.·) and
sometimes as (_,,·), e.g. ( ¸ , _), ( ¸ ,` ,).

The (=·,=·-) of ( ¸ · - « · =·,)

(1) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( _ ,` - · ` ·` ` - ,` - ·) – I rolled it so it
began rolling.

(2) (=·=·|,) – Example: ( ¸ ,` , ) – He walked conceitedly.

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(3) ( - « ·· , -) – Example: ( , ·` · _·· , ·` · ) – He screamed.

The (=·,=·-) of (,:·-·, =·,)

(1) (` ; ¸ ¸ |) – Example: ( , -` ,` - ¸) – to gather.

(2) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( , -` · · ` ·` ` , -` · ) – I made his blood
flow and so it began flowing.

The (.,.-) of (¸ ··¸ .,)

(1) (` ; ¸ ¸ |) – Example: (` , · · ¸) – to shudder.

(2) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( . ' ~ · ` ·` ` '` ~) – I pacified him so he
was calmed.

(3) (=·=·|,) – Example: (` ,` -` ` , , ¯ ¸) – The star shone.

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Application of the Special Meanings

Quote 1:
( ¸` , ·` ,` · ,` · ¸ ` · ' ` ¸ · ` ` - ) – excerpt from ( ¸,.'
¸)
Translation: “All praises are due to Allâh who raised the status of
all the believers.”
Teacher: What special meaning of (¸··¸ .,) is found in the
verb (¸ ` · ')?
Student: The meaning of (·,·) – to be transitive is found in this
verb because the (·,-) of this verb is ( · ·) which means to be
high. This is intransitive. When it was taken to (¸··¸ .,), it
became transitive, having the meaning of ‘raising’.


Quote 2:
( ·`, , _ · _ , ¸ · , ,` ¯ .` , ¸,· · , · ,` , ´` _ · ) – excerpt from
(¸_,)
Translation: “When he sees the Ka’bah, he should say ‘Allâhu
Akbar’ and ‘Lâ-ilâha illallâh’...”
Teacher: What special meaning of (¸,· .,) is found in the
verb ( ,` ¯) and ( ¸ ·)?
Student: The meaning of (,.·) – to abbreviate - is found in this
verb.

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Quote 3:
( ¸` , ¯ · ·` ¸ · ·` . . .¸ ,) – excerpt from (¸_,)
Translation: “If he wants, he can give charity to six poor
persons...”
Teacher: What special meaning of (¸` · .,) is found in the
verb ( ·` . )?
Student: The meaning of (.,¸) is found in this verb because the
(·,-) is ( · .) which means ‘to speak the truth’.

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Challenging Words

A few difficult verbs of the Holy Qur’ân and other verbs will be
mentioned here because the purpose of learning morphology and
syntax is to understand the meaning of the glorious Qur’ân. An
explanation of these verbs generally refreshes one’s knowledge
of morphology.

The verbs will be written according to their pronunciation and
not according to their Qur’ânic script so that the student can
exercise his mind in trying to figure out the original word. In the
analysis, the correct written form of the word will be provided.




Analysis: This is the imperative (,·') of the verb (¸·,), the
(··,.) being (,.- ,¯· _~). The original word was (
` ¸ ` , ` ), from the (.,) of (¸··¸). It was constructed from the
word ( .` , ` ) which was originally ( .` ,` , ` ). The (·.) of the
(¸) was transferred to the preceding letter after deleting its
harakah. Due to (¸¯ _-), the (¸) which was then
changed to (,) was deleted. Due to the entry of the (), the ( ·,·
¸.,) of (` , ` ¸) was deleted. The final (.) is not (.,·¸ .,)
but (·,·, .,) which enters the end of a verb between the verb
and the (,´· ¸) to protect it from receiving a (·,¯). It was
· .` , `
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originally (` ¸ ` , ` ·). The (,´· ¸) was deleted and the (·,¯)
of the (·,·, .,) was sufficed upon. This occurs very often.
Due to a (.·,), the (·,¯) is also not pronounced. It becomes
( .` , ` ·).




Analysis: This is similar to ( .` , ` .. ·). The original word
was ( ` ¸ ` ,.` ·` _ ). It is the imperative of the verb ( .. · _),
the (.,) being (_-). It is written as ( .` ,` ·` _ ·).

Most often confusion arises in verbs where (.·,) or (·,-)
occurs, a (·,·, .,) is added to the end of the word and (.·,)
is made on the (.,) after deleting the (,´· ¸). The student is
perplexed to find a (.,·¸ .,) in spite of (.·,) or (·,-)
whereas the (.,) is ( ,·, ., · ).

Similarly, a verb can sound confusing when the (¸., ·,·) is
deleted from the middle of a sentence, especially when a student
is asked to identify the verb by joining the words and reading
them to him, e.g. in the verse ( ` ¸ ` ,` `, ', ` ¸ · -` _ ·` · =` ) to
.` ,` ·` , ·
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read it as (` ¸ · -` ,` ), in (` ,` ` ` · ` ¸` ,', ',), to read the verb as
(` ,` ` ` ·` ), in (` ,` · -` _ ¸` , ·), to read the verb as (` ,` · -` , ) and in ( ` . _
.` ,` · -` _), to read the verb as ( .` ,` · -` , ,).

When ( ·) or ( .) enter the perfect tense of those verbs having
(¸., ·,·), the alifs of the ( ·) and ( .) are also not pronounced
just as the (¸., ·,·) is not pronounced. The verbs therefore
sound confusing when read as ( . ` - ·), ( , = ` ·), ( ` , - ) and
( · _` ,` ` ·). This confusion is intensified in (¸· .,) because
the entry of (.) creates the word (` ¸ ) while the entry of (·)
creates the word (` ¸ ·). The same rule applies to the word
( ¸` , ` , ` - ·). Besides being the (,¯· _~) of (¸,·' ,) from
( ¸` , ` -), it can also be (.· .,· _~), the tense being ( ¸
¸· ¸,,- ¸.') from (¸·,··¸ .,).
Similarly, the word ( ¸` ,` ,` ,` . ·) is from (¸·,··¸ .,).




Analysis: It was originally ( · ` ,` ' _` · ), the word-form being ( _~
,.- ,¯·), the tense (.·' ,,·' ¸.'). It is ( _,,·
` ,` ' _` ·
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··) from (¸· ·¸ .,). It was (` ,` ' _` · ). Due to the entry of the
(), the (¸., ·,·) is deleted.


Analysis: This verb is (.· ,¯· _~), the tense being ( ¸.'
.·' ,,·') from (¸· .,). The (¸) of emphasis entered
the verb, thereby deleting the (¸., ·,·).




Analysis: Due to the entry of ( ·,.¸ ·,.·), the ( ·,.·
¸...,) was deleted. The original word was ( .` , ` · ..` ¸)
from (¸·¸ .,).




Analysis: This was originally ( .` ,` , · = ). It is ( ,¯.· _.~
,..-), the tense being ( ,,.·· __..·). One (.) was
deleted according to the rule of (¸· .,).

` ,' . `
.` , ` · ` '
.` ,` , · =
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Analysis: This is from the verb (` ¸ '.. ), ( ...,· ..-,
..·), the tense being ( ,,.·· ,.·'). It is ( _,.,· .
¸, ¸·,). Due to the (,), the (¸) became (¸¯).

After (,), it is compulsory ( . ,,-,) to make the ( ,.·. ·.)
sâkin. The compulsion is due to excessive usage. After
(), it is permissible to do so ( _,-).





Analysis: This verb is from ( ., ¸·· ). It is ( ,¯· -,
.·), the tense being (.·· ,,·· __.·). It was originally
(` ¸ ` ,). Due to the jussive mood (·,- ·-), the (¸) at the end is
deleted. A pronoun (_.) was then attached to the verb which
created the scale of ( ¸ · ·) – ( · ). Therefore the (·) became
(¸¯) as the Arabs tend to make the scale of ( ¸ · ·) into ( ¸` · ·) as
in (` . ¯). It is pronounced (` .` ¯).
. ' ,
· ` , ,
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Analysis: This is the imperative ( _` _ ') of (¸·· .,), the word-
form being (,.- ,¯· -,). The pronoun was added to the
end of the verb making it ( · -` _ '). In the Qur’ân, after this word,
the words (` · - ' ,) appear. Therefore the form of ( ¸ · ·) – ( , , -)
was formed, similar to ( ¸ , ¸). The Arabs make the middle letter of
such scales also (¸¯). Consequently, the (·) became (¸¯).
It becomes (` · -` _ ').




Analysis: This verb is similar to (` , · _), the word-form being
(.· ,¯· _~) of the verb (¸ . ·). The tense is ( ¸.'
,,·'). It was succeeded by a (.=· ,- ,,). The rule of
assimilation (···) was applied. Therefore it became
(` ,` ¯` , ` , . ·).



Analysis: The verb is (' ¸` ) with ( . ') attached to it. The word-
` · -` _ '
` , . ·
` ¸` ` '
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form is (,´· _~) while the tense is (,,·· __.·). Because
of ( . ') it is in the accusative case (.. ·-). It is from ( .,
,.) like (' ` ). Assimilation of both the nûns has taken place.





Analysis: The verb is (` ¸` ` ), the word-from being ( .,· _~
,.-), the tense being (.·' ,,·' ¸.'). It is from ( .,
,.) like (` ¸` ·). The ( ., ·,·, ) and (,´· ¸) have been
attached to the end.






Analysis: From the verb (¸¯ _), this is the (,.- .,· -,)
word-form with the tense being (.·· ,,·· __.·). It is
(¸, ¸·, ¸· _,,·). It was originally ( ¸`, , ). Due to the
(·, .,), the (.,· .,) was deleted. The (¸), not being a
(··), was rendered a (·,¯).
` ¸ ` ` `
` ¸, , ` · ¸
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Analysis: From the verb ( ¸ ,. ), this is the ( ,¯.· .-,
,.-) word-form while the tense is ( ,,.·' ¸.' ¸
, _..·). A (·,... ·,..·) and (,) have been attached
before the verb, changing it into the jussive mood ( ·..-
·,-).





Analysis: This is the (¸· ,) of the verb (¸ ·), from the
(.,. .,). It was originally ( ¸` , , ·). Changes occurred in the
word just as in ( ¸` , · _).
A second possibility is that it could be the imperative of
(` ¸ `, ¸ ·) from ( ·.·· ..,), the word-form being ( _.~
,.- .,·).
It could also be (,.- .,· -,) of the same (.,). A ( .,
·,·,) and (,´· ¸) are attached to the end of the word. The
(,´· ¸) was deleted and the (·,¯) of the (·,·, .,) was
, ` , '
¸` , ·
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deleted due to (.·,).

The verb is not difficult to distinguish but sometimes when a
word has a similar form in another language, confusion can arise.
This word means carpet in Urdu and Persian and could perhaps
cause confusion.





Analysis: This verb was originally (` ¸ ` ,,) from (¸·· .,),
the word-form being (.· ,¯· -,) and the tense ( __.·
¸· ,,··). The rule of (¸·· .,) has been applied to it.





Analysis: From (¸·· .,), it was originally ( .` ,` . ` -,), the
word-form being (.· ,¯· _~) and the tense ( __.·
,,··). The rule of (¸·· .,) has been applied to it.

` ¸` ,,
.` ,` ` . -,
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Analysis: It is (.· ,¯· -,) from (¸·· .,), the tense
being (,,·' ¸.'). It was originally ( · ¸ , ´ ). The rule of
(¸·· .,) has been applied to it.




Analysis: From (¸·· .,), it is ( ,..- ,¯.· _.~), the
tense being (,,·· __.·). It was originally ( .` ,` , · ` ).




Analysis: This is the verbal noun ( ¸.,· _..·) of ( ..,
¸.··), originally being ( ` ,. - ` ,` ·). It can also be the ( ,.
¸,·') or (,= ,).
, ¯` · ,
.` ,` ·`
- ·` ,` · ` ,
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Analysis: From (¸·· .,), this is the (.· ,¯· -,)
word-form, the tense being (.·.' ¸,,- ¸.'). It was
originally (` , =` . ' ` ¸ ·). The (¸., ·,·) was deleted because of
the precedence of the (). The (.,) of the word (` ¸ ·) was
rendered a (·,¯) according to the rule ( ·` ,` - ·` ,` - ·¸ ¸¯
,´,). The (.) of (¸··) was changed to ().





Analysis: This was (` ,` ` _ , =` . ·). From (¸·· .,), this is the
(,.- ,¯· _~) word-form, the tense being ( ¸,,- ¸.'
.·.'). The (¸., ·,·) was deleted because of the
precedence of the (·). The (.) of the (·) is not pronounced
due to (¸¯ _-).
` , =` . ·
` ,` ` _ , =` . ·
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Analysis: It was originally ( ¸ · ` ,` · = ` ). It is (.· ,¯· _~)
from the (¸· .,), the tense being (,,·' ¸.').The
(.) of (¸·) was deleted.





Analysis: It was originally (` _ = ` ) from (¸· .,). The
(.) of (¸·) was deleted.



Analysis: It was originally (` ¸ · ` ) on the scale of (` ¸ · ) with
(·,- .,). It is (,´· _~) from (_· .,). Sometimes the
(·,- .,) is written in the form of tanwîn.





Analysis: It was originally ( ` ¸. ·` ) like ( ` ¸. ·` , ), from ( ..,
.,..). It is permissible to delete the (¸) from the end of a
` ,` · =` ·
` _ =` ` ,
· `
_`
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word that is (¸·).




Analysis: This was originally (` ,` `, ' _) like (` ,` · ·). When a
pronoun is added to (` ,` ), an extra (,) is first added to the verb
after the (·). This rule applies to (` ,` ), (` ,` ·) and (` , ¯) when
suffixed by a (_.).
Sometimes a (·¯ ¸) is suffixed to a verb that is ( · -, , .
,.-) when a pronoun is attached to it, e.g. the words of a
hadîth, ( ·` ,` ` - , ·` , ' , · ` , ).





Analysis: The verb is (` · , ` ) from ( ., ¸·· ). A (·,. ·,·)
is prefixed to the verb and the pronoun (·) is suffixed to it.
Subsequently a second pronoun (` , ¯) is attached to the verb,
thereby requiring a (,) and making the (·,.· ·).
` ,` ·` ,` ` `, ' _ ` ·
·` ,` ´` · , ` '
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Analysis: This is like the verb ( -), the word-form being ( _~
,´·) and the tense (,,·' ¸.'). The question that arises
here is that the (__.·) of this verb is used (¸· ·,.·) in the
Qur’ân. Consequently, the (¸.') supposed to be ( ` ` ·) like
( ·) because the word-form is ( . ,., , ). The scholars of tafsîr
have answered this objection by stating that this verb is used both
on the scale of (_, _-) and (,., ,.). In the Qur’ân, the
(¸.') is used from ( ., _- ) and the (__.·) from (,.).





Analysis: The verb is ( · ` . - ` ) from (¸· .,), the word-
form being (.· .,· -,) and the tense ( ¸.'
,,·').The (¸., ·,·) was deleted because of the
precedence of the (). Because the (.) is succeeded by a (.), it
is pronounced as a (·).
` ·
` . - ` ·
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Analysis: This verb was originally ( ¸` ·) from ( ., ¸,· ).
The final doubled letter was changed to a (·· ,-). The
Arabs often do this.






Analysis: It was originally (` ,` = ·) from (_- .,). The word-
form is (,.- ,¯· _~) and the tense is ( ,,·' ¸.' ).
Sometimes the Arabs delete one of the doubled letters. In this
case, the first (¸) was deleted. Sometimes it is pronounced
(` ,` = ·) after transferring the harakah of the first (¸) to the ().





Analysis: According to some scholars, this verb was originally
( .` _ , · ¸). According to the previously mentioned rule, the first (_)
was deleted after transferring its harakah. No need remained for
the (¸., ·,·). Therefore it was deleted. The word ( .` , ·)
remains.
,,` ·
` ,` = ·
.` , ·
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Analysis: This is the ( ,· -, ,.- . ) of ( ¸ , ¸ ,) from the
( ., .,. ). It is (.·.·). It was originally (` ¸ ` , ¸). The rule
of assimilation applies. Similar to this is the word (` ¸ ·).






Analysis: First Possibility: It is the (__.·) of (.¯) in the
accusative case (.. ·-).

Second Possibility: It is ( ., ,,·· __.· .· ,¯· _~
·,,·) of (.,. .,). It was originally ( .` ,` , ¯` ,,). The rule of
(` ·,) first applies to delete the (,). Then the rules of (` ,` ·` ,) and
(` , ` ,`,) apply to change it to ( ` , ´, . ).

Third Possibility: It is ( ., ,,·' ¸.' .· .,· _~
·,,·) from (·` ,¯). Its paradigm of the perfect tense ( ¸.'
,,·') is as follows:
` ¸ ,
.` , ´,
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(_ . , ´, , ´, ` . , ´, ` , ´, , ´, , ´,)





Analysis: First Possibility: Besides the common verb (` , ·) from
(,. .,), this is made up of two words (_· ,) and (` , ). The
former is (·,,· ., ,,·' ¸.' .· ,¯· -,) from
(.,.) while the latter is ( ., ,,·' ,·. ,.- ,¯· _~
.,,·) from (_- .,).

Second Possibility: The verb is ( ¸ , · ,). It is ( .· ,¯· _~
·,,· ., ,,·' ¸.') from the (··· .,). It was
originally (` , , · ,). The rule of (¸,,) was applied whereby the
harakah of the (,) was transferred to the (·) and the (,) was
changed to (.). It became (` , · ,).





Analysis: From (¸···¸ .,), this is ( ¸.' .· ,¯· ·,·
,,·'), the verbal noun being (` · , ¯ , ¯ ¸). It was originally
` , · ,
¯ ¯ ¯
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( ¯ , ¯ , ¯ ¸) like ( ` ,` , ¸). The rule of (¸,,) was applied. The
(¸., ·,·) was subsequently deleted due to the subsequent
letter being (·,-·). It became ( ¯ ¯ ¯).





Analysis: This is from the verb (` ¸ , ¸ · ,) from the (.,. .,).
It is (·,,· ., ,.- .,· _~). The paradigm of the
imperative is as follows:
( · , · ` ¸ · ` ,` · , · · ¸` , )





Analysis: This is from the verb (` ,` ,` ., ¸ , .). It is ( ,´· _~
¸, ¸· ,,·· __.·). It was originally (` ¸` ,` . ). The rule
of (,·,) was applied and the (¸) was changed to (,).






Analysis: This is from the verb (` ¸ _` , ¸ _ ·). It is ( ,¯· _~
¸` , ·
` ,` ,` .
·` ,` _ ·
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¸· ,). It was originally ( .` ,`, _ ·). The rule of (,·,) was
applied and the (¸) was changed to (,). One (,) was then
deleted. It became ( .` ,` _ ·). When (··.¸) was applied to the
pronoun ( ·), the (.) was deleted.





Analysis: From the verb (` ¸ ,` ,, ¸ , _), this is the verbal noun in
the singular form. It is (.,,· .,) from the (.,. .,). It
was originally (,` , _). The (,) was changed to (¸) and
assimilated. It became (', _).





Analysis: First Possibility: It is the imperative (,·') of ( ¸ ' ), the
word-form being (,.- ,¯· _~) with a pronoun ( ) attached
to it.

Second Possibility: It is from the verb (` , ` , , ). It is ( _~
¸,, ¸· ,,·' ¸.' ,´·).

', _
` ,
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Analysis: This is the imperative (,·') of (` . .), the word-form
being (,.- .,· -,) of (··· .,). It was originally
(` ¸ , .). The rule of (···¸) was applied.






Analysis: From the (¸ ···¸ .,), this is the (.· ,¯· -,).
It was originally (` . _ ,` . ¸) like (` , · · ¸).The rule of (¸,,) was
applied. It becomes ( ¸ ` . _ .). The (¸., ·,·) is deleted. It
becomes (` . _ .).





Analysis: This was (` ¸ ` _ ' ` , ), from the (_· .,). It is ( -,
¸, ¸·, ¸· _,,· , _· ¸ ,´·). The rule of (¸·)
was applied. Due to the (··_- ,), the (·· ,-) is deleted
from the end. It becomes ( .` _ ' ` , ). Subsequently, the rule of
` ¸` , .
` . _ .
,
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(¸,,) is applied and the hamzas are deleted. It becomes ( , ).





Analysis: From the (¸···¸), this is ( ¸.' .· ,¯· -,
., ,,·' ·,,· ). It was originally ( ¸ ,` ` , ¸) like (¸,,¸).
The rule of (¸,) is first applied whereby the (,) changes to
(.) and then the rule of (··,·) to change the (,) to (¸).





Analysis: From the (··· .,), this is ( ,·' ,.- ,¯· -,
,_ ,,·· .·.· ·,- ¸· ). It is like ( ¸ , _).






Analysis: This is the ( ·,- ¸·,_ ,,·· ,·' ,.- ,¯· -,
.,,· .,) from the (··· .,). It was originally (` ¸ ,` , ·` ) like
(` _ ,` - ` ). The rule of (,·,) was first applied, followed by
¸ `, ¸
` · ,` · '
,` , ·
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deleting the (.) when constructing the imperative (,·'). The
(·· ,-) was finally deleted from the end. It becomes ( ,` , ·).





Analysis: From the (_- .,), this is the ( ,·' ,.- ,¯· -,
.,,· ., ,,··), the verb being (¸ , , ¸ , ). It was
originally ( , ¸) like ( ¸` - ¸). The harakah of the (,) is transferred
to the (¸) and the (,) is changed to (.). The (¸., ·,·) is
no more required. It becomes ( .).





Analysis: From the (.,. .,), this is the ( .· .,· _~
¸, ,-', _,,· ,,·' ¸.'), the verb being ( ` ¸`, ,, .¯
`, '). It was originally ( ¸` ¸) like ( ¸` · ,). The rule of (···¸) is
applied. It becomes ( . ¸). The paradigm of (,,·' ¸.') is as
follows:
( ` ¸ .` ¸ ` ,` ` ¸ ` ` ¸ .` ¸ . ¸ ¯ `. ¯ ` ,` ¯ ¯ .¯ ` ¸ ` .` ¸ ` ¸` ` ¸ ` )
.
. ¸
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 349



Analysis: From the (.,. .,), this is the ( __.' ,´· _~
.·.· ,,·'), the verb being ( . ,, . '). It was originally
(` ¸ ' ) like (` . ,` . ). The rule of (···¸) is applied to the (.). It
becomes ( . , ). Then (·,~, . ¸) is inserted before the verb ( . ¸
. , ). The rule of (···¸) is again applied because the two nûns are
adjacent to each other while the final nûn becomes (.,.·). It
becomes ( . ¸ . ¸).





Analysis: It is ( ¸.' .· ,¯· -, ,,· ¸·,_ ,,·'
¸· _,,·) from (¸ · · · ¸ .,). The verb is (` . _ '` . ¸) like
(` , · · ¸). The harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the
preceding letter while the (¸., ·,·) is deleted. It becomes
(` . , .).
. ¸ . ¸
` . , .
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 350




Analysis: This is the ( · _,,· ¸,. , ,¯· ·, ) from
(_- .,). It was originally ( . . '). The rule of (¸·¯) is
applied and the end is read as sākin due to (.·,).



Analysis: This word was originally ( ¸` ·). There were three
sîns together which caused the word to become heavy in
pronunciation. Therefore the third (¸) was changed to (¸)
which then changed to (.). The same rule applies to the word
(¸` . ) which was originally ( ¸` . ).





Analysis: This word was originally (` ¸` ,). The third (¸) was
changed to (¸) which then changed to (.) due to the rule of
( ¸ ·). When (··_- ,) entered the verb, the (·· ,-) was
deleted from the end. A (·) was added for (.·,).
. ¯
,,` ·
` ·` , ` ,
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 351




Analysis: It is ( ¸· _,,· ,,·' ¸.' .· ,¯· ·,·)
from ( ¸ ., ¸ ·` · · ). The verb is ( _ ` ·` - ¸) like ( -` ,` - ¸). The
harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the preceding letter while
the (¸., ·,·) is deleted. It becomes ( _ ` -).






Analysis: It is ( ¸· _,,· ¸,,- ¸.' .· ,¯· -,
, ¸, ¸· ) from (¸ ·` · · ¸ .,). The verb is ( ¸ -` · ¯ ') like
( , -` ` ,` - '). The harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the
preceding letter while the (¸., ·,·) is deleted. Waqf is made
at the end. It becomes (` ¸ -` ¯).





Analysis: It is ( , ¸,, ¸· ,,·' ¸.' .· ,¯· - )
from (··· .,). The verb was ( , ). The rule of (¸ ·` `,) was
_ ` -
` ¸ -` ¯
_
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 352
applied to change it to ( _ ).






Analysis: It is ( ¸, ¸· ,,·' ¸.' .· ,¯· -,
¸·,,, ¸-·) from (··· .,). The verb was ( · ¸,` _ ). The rule
of (¸·) was applied to change it to ( ¸` _ ·).





Analysis: It is ( ¸,, ,-' ,,·· ,·' ,.- .,· -,)
from (,. .,). The paradigm of this verb is ( .` , · ¸` ,` , ¸ ·).
The paradigm of the (,·') is as follows:
( ` ,` · .` ,` · ¸` · ¸ ` · .` ,` · ` ¸ ` ,` · ` , )





Analysis: Besides the common verb ( . · ` . ,` , ), there is a
second possibility. It could be ( ., ,,·' ¸.' ,´· -,
¸` _ ·
` ¸ ` ,` ·
` .` ,` ,
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 353
· ,, · ) from (·,¯ .,). The paradigm of this verb is ( ` ,` ` ,, ,` ,
,` ,). The paradigm of the (,,·' ¸.') is as follows:
( ` , ,` , ` . ,` , ` ,` , ,` , ,` , ` , ` , . ` , ` , . ` , ` , ` ` , ` , ` ,` ` , .
` , ` , ` , ` ` , ` , ` ¸` ` , ` , ` . ` , )





Analysis: This is the ( ,-' ,,·' ¸.' .· ,¯· -,
¸,,) from the (¸··¸ .,). It was originally (` ¸`, ,`,). A (·) was
added between the first and second letter against the rule ( ·-
¸,).



` ¸`, ,` ,`,
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 354
Appendix A

Morphology or Etymology?

What is the subject of ( ,.. ,.·) called in English? Is it
Morphology or Etymology? Firstly, let us examine the
definitions of both these terms in the light of contemporary
works.

The following definition of Morphology appears in “The
Oxford Companion to the English Language”.

“In linguistics, the study of the structure of words as
opposed to syntax, the study of the arrangement of words
in the higher units of phrases, clauses, and sentences. The
two major branches are inflectional morphology (the study
of inflections) and lexical morphology (the study of word-
formation).”
21

The following has been mentioned under the term,
‘syntax’:
“The ways in which components of words are combined
into words are studied in morphology, and syntax and
morphology together are generally regarded as the major
constituents of grammar, although in one of its uses,
grammar is strictly synonymous with syntax and excludes
morphology.”
22


We find the following definition in Websters Dictionary:
“2 a: a study and description of word-formation in a
language including inflection, derivation, and
compounding – distinguished from syntax.
B: the system of word-forming elements and processes in

21
The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 670, 1992.
22
Ibid, p. 1016.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 355
a language.”
23


Encyclopaedia Britannica has the following definition:
“In philology, morphology is that branch of grammar
which examines the forms of words as well as the
principles of word-formation and inflection.”
24


The following definition is found in the World Book:
“Morphology: the study of the formation and structure of
words.”
25


As for Etymology, the following are some of the
definitions one may come across:

“Etymology: Both the study of the history of words and a
statement of the origin and history of a word, including
changes in its form and meaning.”
26


“…that branch of linguistic science which is devoted to
determining the origin of words.”
27


Websters Dictionary provides the following definition:
“The history, often including the pre-history of a linguistic
form (as a word or morpheme) as shown by tracing its
phonetic graphic, and semantic development since its
earliest recorded occurrence in the language where it is
found, by tracing the course of its transmission from one
language to another by analysing it into the component
parts from which it was put together, by identifying its
cognates in other languages or by tracing it and its

23
Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1470,.
24
Encyclopaedia Britannica vol. 15 p. 818.
25
World Book vol.18, p. 518, 1992.
26
The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 384, 1992.
27
Colliers Encyclopedia vol. 9 p. 378, 1971; Encyclopaedia
Britannica vol. 8 p. 804.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 356
cognates back to a common ancestral form in a recorded
or assumed ancestral language.
28


The World Book states:
“Etymology is the study of the origins and development of
words.”
29


In Encyclopaedia Britannica, we find the following
definition:
“…that part of linguistics which is concerned with the
origin or derivation of words.”
30


The Students Encyclopedia states:
“… the study of the origins and history of words.”
31


The Universal Standard Encyclopedia has the following:
“… that branch of philology which deals with the origin
and derivation of words, and with the comparison of
words in different members of the same language
group.”
32


Under the word, ‘morphology’ in Al-Mughni-Al-Akbar, an
English to Arabic dictionary, the meaning is given as ( ,.·
,...) while under the entry ‘etymology’, the meaning
provided is (·¸ ,·).
33


In the An-Nafees English to Arabic Dictionary, under

28
Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 1, p. 782.
29
World Book, vol. 18 p. 518.
30
Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 8 p. 804.
31
Students Encyclopaedia, vol. 6 p. 456, 1970.
32
Universal Standard Encyclopedia, vol. 8 p. 2930, 1956.
33
Al-Mughni Al-Akbar, Hasan S. Karmi, p. 826 & p. 402, 1997.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 357
morphology, we find the term (,... ,..·) while under
etymology, we find the term (.´ ¸,.' ,·).
34


In the Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic,
under the entry (,... ,..·), we find the following:
“morphology (gram.).”
35


These definitions clearly indicate that Etymology deals
with the history of words whereas Morphology deals with
the subject of word-formation. Hence the most appropriate
term for ( ,.. ,.·) would be Morphology and not
Etymology as has been erroneously used in some books.



34
An-Nafees, Madgi Wahbah, p. 868 & p. 381, 2000.
35
Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic P.513, Third
Edition 1976.
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 358
Bibliography

¸, .· ·,- _' ··¸ .,,. ¸ ·,.' _, .,='
¸,´ .,
¸,_ _,· ·· _,, _,_
- ¸· _, ¸, - ¸, ¸,, _=. .··¸ ,,·' ¸, ¸
¸¯_,
·· ¸, = · ¸, ¸- :· ¸, ·,' _¸ :' _.,'
¸_..
,- ¸ .,¯· .·~, ,· ~' _,¯ ,.,
¸,·- ~' ·· ,. ¸· ¸ ,·
·,·· ¸, ¸· ¸, ~' _, _,_. _,·
·,,,· ¸··. .,,. ,-·· _- .,=' _
.· ¸· .,, _· ¸- _,¯ ,., ,-
~' ·,· _' ··,. ,·
¸· ,·.' - ¸_ ··,. ,· _, ¸ ¸,,
¸_,·· ¸- - .,' ,,,· ,.
.- _ · .,' , ·· ¯ _,·
~' ·· .,' ,. ,·
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


Page 359
,. .¯ ¸,,· ¸~, · ·-
¸- ·,, · .,' ,. ·_¸ _, ,. _··


<,´ _ _· = _., = - ,

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