Cabezas et al.



Brave New World: The Merging of Reality and Fiction Autores: Diego Cabezas Bravo Eduardo Donoso Herrera Marco González Becerra Claudio Valdivia Vallejos

Profesor Guía: Miguel Farías Farías, Ph. D.
Tesis para optar al grado académico de Licenciado en Educación en Inglés y al título profesional de Profesor de Estado en Inglés

Santiago – Chile 2009

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Table of Contents PAGE
Introduction Chapter One: Theoretical Framework 1.1. Education 1.1.2 Miseducation 1.2. Propaganda 1.2.1. The propaganda model 1.3. Pharmacology 1.4. Democratic System Chapter Two: Analysis 2.1. Means of social control 2.1.1. Social Conditioning 2.1.2.Bokanovsky process 2.1.3. Mental Conditioning Soma Hypnopaedia 2.2. Character Analysis 2.2.1. Bernard Marx 2.2.2. Mustapha Mond 2.2.3. Lenina 2.2.4. The Savage (John) Chapter three: Contrastive Analysis 17 25 29 31 31 32 38 40 44 49 51 51 56 58 60 64 1 6 6 8 9

Cabezas et al. 3 3.1. Education 3.2. Propaganda 3.3. Social Systems 3.4. Soma and Pharmacology Chapter four: Conclusion Works cited 73 77 83 65 68 71

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“We don't need no education we don’t need no thought control No dark sarcasm in the classroom Teachers leave them kids alone Hey! Teachers! Leave them kids alone! All in all it's just another brick in the wall. All in all you're just another brick in the wall.” Pink Floyd

"The only thing that interferes with my learning is my education."

"It is a miracle that curiosity survives formal education." Albert Einstein

"Genuine ignorance is profitable because it is likely to be accompanied by humility, curiosity, and open mindedness; whereas ability to repeat catchphrases, can't terms, familiar propositions, gives the conceit of learning and coats the mind with varnish waterproof to new ideas." John Dewey

Cabezas et al. 5 Introduction All human history has been influenced and determined by different social control methods and the cult of shared moral values that have been instilled by the ruling class. In former and current societies, mankind has organized itself according to a moral code that permits order and balance in large human groups. Morality, values, prejudices and ethics are means of controlling human behavior. In some way or another, these concepts affect the will of individuals by suppressing or enhancing different attitudes. Throughout history, social control techniques have taken two distinct forms. One of these forms is through violent means, largely implemented before the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. For instance, slavery, wars, military conquering and racial persecution are classic examples of violent means of social control. On the other hand, the use of corporation-state propaganda, constant social segregation through the educational system, the unrestricted use of pharmaceuticals and the socalled democratic systems of government are the modern ways to achieve the control of individuals in every aspect of their lives. Consequently, throughout history, the ruling class has been in charge of delineating the methods of social control to maintain the status quo in societies. In the Middle Ages, where most people were illiterate, the methods of regulation were carried out by the clergy of the Catholic Church. They were in charge of inculcating moral values, forbidding behaviors and imposing rules in people's lives. All of these methods, to some degree, have been internalized as norms within subsequent societies. However, in the modern age, the purveyors of these same non-violent methods of maintaining the status quo are corporations of self-centered interests that possess dominance over government.

Cabezas et al. 6 Although one of the main objectives of the methods of social control is to prevent individuals from noticing their own condition, there have been intellectuals who have become aware of and exposed these problems explicitly in their literature. A classic example in literature that depicts the relationship between power and people can be traced as far back to Plato's the allegory of the cave, in which Plato tries to demonstrate that people can be deceived in order to believe something that is not, as it is simply explained in the article “The Allegory of the Cave” (Cohen). Another example is Nichollo Machiavelli's The Prince, written in 1513, that states the urgent need to rule over people, no matter how cruel the methods may be. In the twentieth century, other writers can be named: Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 and George Orwell's 1984 and Animal Farm are examples in which the means of control are explicitly violent and aggressive. In the same way, Aldous Huxley's Brave New World also portrays a totalitarian system differing from the texts mentioned in the aggressiveness and violence through which the control methods are presented, the ultimate purpose being the same: social stability. Brave New World (BNW), written by Huxley and published in 1932, has been one of the most influential books in the genre of dystopia, understood as a “state in which the conditions of life are extremely bad as from deprivation or oppression or terror” (“Dystopia”). The book contains a far-sighted appreciation of the future of mankind, specifically in terms of the relationship between the dominant class and members of society in centuries to come. Most of the commentaries about the world portrayed in BNW have condemned the characters' way of life (Huxley, “BNW Monarch Notes”). These lifestyles represent the loss of distinctive human characteristics: feelings, emotions, critical thinking and the attachment of human beings to nature, in favor of structural order and stability within society, where people can be compared to simple cogs in the big social machine.

Cabezas et al. 7 The text of BNW also refers to the severeness of the means of social stability, as well as how they aim towards the preservation of the current society. Some means of social control found in the text are: artificial breeding of human beings, psychological indoctrination, sleep-teaching, electroshocks and mind-altering drugs to shape people's behavior. Because of the extreme explicitness of the means of control and their function, the common reader tends to reject them and react negatively. On the other hand, in the twentieth century, there have been writers and thinkers that have transmitted these same ideas from a non-fictional approach. One of the authors that refers to the relationship between power and social control in the twentieth century, and that will be cited in this thesis, is Noam Chomsky. Chomsky, Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is not only known for his revolutionary generative theory on language, but also for his critical concerns about US foreign policy, international issues and his writings on the state-individual relationship from a libertarian-socialist perspective. Taking into account the literary nature of BNW and the social implications thereof, we have set forth the following thesis statement: the social control techniques presented in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World have dramatic parallels to the social control techniques operating in Western civilizations from the late twentieth century onwards. In order to support our thesis statement, we have set the following objectives: To indentify and describe the ways of social control that are present in BNW To indentify and describe the ways of social control that are present in Western civilizations from the late twentieth century onwards To conduct an analysis of the characters and their relationship to the means of control To carry out a contrastive analysis of the means of control presented in BNW and the ones used in Western civilizations from the late twentieth century onwards

Cabezas et al. 8 To define the parallels drawn between the means of control presented in BNW to those practiced in Western societies, while analyzing the effects on the individual We have conceived of this investigation as an analytical work which takes a text, Brave New World, to a different level of analysis, that of a social-political approach, in order to draw parallels with today's current societies, as it contains several social appreciations beyond a merely literary analysis. This thesis takes into account issues that deal with the way in which social systems are arranged in order to achieve functionality. It will also discuss how this functionality is maintained and which devices of social control are used for such purpose. In the first chapter, we explain the framework in which the analysis is carried out. In other words, we set the boundaries of topics and theoretical approaches that support the study of the text. We also include critical theories that attempt to describe the relationship of power over the masses, taking into account four major subjects: education, propaganda, democracy and pharmacology. All the aforementioned instruments are described by the cited authors as devices designed to keep the population under control. The second chapter consists of an analysis of the text itself, in which we mention and describe the instruments of social control that those in power utilize to achieve their main goal: stability. From a critical perspective, we conclude that these instruments condition human nature. We divide these instruments into two categories: 1) means of social conditioning, specifically the Bokanovsky process, and 2) means of mental conditioning, including the technique of Hypnopaedia and the use of the drug Soma. The second section of this chapter provides a description of BNW's main characters and how they are related to the means of control. In the third chapter, we carry out our contrastive analysis. By means of this analysis, we link the social control mechanisms found in both realities (BNW and Western civilizations from the late

Cabezas et al. 9 twentieth century onwards), drawing parallels and stating the differences that can be observed by contrasting them. We contrast these mechanisms from four perspectives: 1) education as a controlling mechanism, 2) use of propaganda, 3) the social system depicted in each of the aforementioned realities, and 4) the use of Soma and mind-altering drugs as controlling devices.

Cabezas et al. 10 Chapter One: Theoretical Framework In this chapter, we will set the boundaries to analyze the text and the means of social control, along with its counterpart in modern societies. To achieve this, the following sections contain the necessary information to contrast and compare both worlds. Among the authors on which we will base our investigation, we highlight the writings of Noam Chomsky and Francis Fukuyama. The topics we will discuss have been grouped into four major sections: education, propaganda, democratic systems and pharmacology. 1.1 Education Education has been one of the most important methods to integrate people into a civilized society. It is the way by which societies transmit accumulated knowledge to younger generations. The development of societies with simultaneous mobility towards a higher standard of living has been one of the most important characteristics in the last century. Education also helps young people to receive all of the necessary values and codes in order to fit in the social system. However, due to the importance of education in modern societies as a means to overcome underdevelopment, educational systems have been in the limelight of critics. Thus, one of the questions posed to educational systems confronts its basic objective: how does education achieve its goal of social development? Is this goal being achieved?, and under what circumstances? Firstly, it is important to state that educational systems have been analyzed from different social approaches; from political to psychological points of view, education is constantly in the eye of the storm. Some analysts, especially Marxists, are “critical of the educational systems, arguing that it is unfair, and serves to coerce people into accepting their roles in an unequal society” (Chomsky, On Miseducation 1). They see society as the fight among the rich and the poor, and have argued that education is the ideological apparatus of the ruling class to perpetuate the status

Cabezas et al. 11 quo. According to them, education should be a means to liberate people from being under the power of the rich and controlling devices. However, in reality, this type of educational system causes unbalanced social situations and the everlasting fight among classes. Others, however, see society as an organic body, where people are divided into different groups, “each of which performs a task that is necessary to the survival of society as a whole – the organic whole” (Chomsky, On Miseducation 3). To achieve this, educational systems operate in such a way that younger generations internalize this concept, consciously or unconsciously, and agree on being an organic part of the society. This is the functionalist point of view on education; every individual sacrifices part of their individuality to keep the organic society alive; in other words, “they develop a form of social conscience, which Durkheim labels the ‘collective conscience’” (Chomsky, On Miseducation 3). Consequently, the question of how the main objectives of education are achieved is open to many views and theories. On the one hand, there exists the idea that people are all equal in terms of rights and duties, and that educational systems should give the same opportunities to everybody. On the other hand, there is an educational system that, by perpetuating the status quo, maintains the order and balance of the social system. However, in both positions, there is the same effect: younger generations, whether forced or not, accept the perpetuated conditions imposed by the ruling class. Now, the circumstances under which people are educated bring into question the way in which they are taught. According to the humanistic ideal of education, people should be educated in such a way that they continually analyze and criticize the things they are taught. As stated in the article “The Meaning of Education”: “The one real object of education is to leave a man in the condition of continually asking questions” (“The Meaning of Education”). Notwithstanding, there have been critics of educational systems such as John Dewey and, more recently, Noam Chomsky,

Cabezas et al. 12 who claim that current educational systems suppress the ability to think critically, molding people’s minds in order to avoid free thinking and creativity. Aldous Huxley, in his commentary on the work BNW titled Brave New World Revisited, discusses the same ideas on educational systems. He comments that there are two types of education: one that is controlled by propaganda, which is nonsensical and immoral in its efforts to perpetuate the status quo, and another that is compatible with love and freedom. The first type attempts the suppression of critical thinking and denial of the egalitarian values, whereas the latter seeks the emancipation of individuals and the pursuit of critical thinking. As can be seen, education is an issue subject to different commentaries and criticisms; some of them giving credit to what education achieves in modern societies, others criticizing the social situation educational systems create. Bearing in mind these criticisms, Noam Chomsky has coined the term Miseducation, which will be analyzed in the following section. 1.1.2 Miseducation The term education is, as defined by Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, the “discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various non-formal and informal means of socialization (e.g., rural development projects and education through parent-child relationships)” (“Education”). The concept of education cannot be separated from the idea of socialization, due to the fact that education is the main tool that society has to teach individuals how to adjust and how to behave in a manner approved by the group. The term “education” encompasses a systematic device used by society to educate and inculcate the values and needs that a specific society requires. A humanistic conception of the ideal education can be found in the article On Miseducation, where Chomsky highlights John Dewey’s and Bertrand Russell’s concept of an ideal education: “the idea that education is not to be viewed as filling a vessel with water, rather, assisting a flower to grow in its own way” (38).

Cabezas et al. 13 However, taking into account Chomsky’s theories and perspectives, the real educational system does not consider these authors´ views, and it has different and subtle objectives that ordinary people might barely notice. The purpose of traditional education then, according to Chomsky, is to shape and mold people’s minds from the very beginning of their existence, aiming at perpetuating the status quo in favor of the interests of the higher class. In this way, the educational system is meant to indoctrinate; in other words, it encourages people not to question what they learn rather than forming citizens who can be active agents of democracy. The result of this process is an individual who is taught to follow the established rules, to get a good job and not to criticize the small groups that hold the power in their hands. The means that educational systems use to prevent people from thinking critically discourage creativity and independence in the learning process. Gradually, schooling indoctrination causes the capacity of re-thinking and questioning what has been taught to fade, reaching the point of the perpetuation of a passive society with no real participation in power-related affairs. How present these theories on education are in modern societies and what parallels they have with BNW will be analyzed in the following chapters. 1.2 Propaganda Propaganda, according to Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, is defined as a “dissemination of information—facts, arguments, rumors, half-truths, or lies” aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people towards a particular point of view (“propaganda”). This method of social control is applied by the ruling class in order to maintain the status quo. People in government use propaganda to minimize the threat from people who escape from passivity and criticize the current structure of society, thus jeopardizing its continuity. Propaganda is put into

Cabezas et al. 14 operation from the very beginning of people’s socialization process both within and outside of the formal education system through organized programs. To understand how propaganda works, it is important to know that propaganda is the main means of delivering indoctrination. Indoctrination is defined as the teaching of a set of beliefs to someone so thoroughly that they do not accept any other set of beliefs; questioning or criticism is not expected (“indoctrination”), and in contrast with the concept of humanistic education, critical thinking is not encouraged (see Miseducation). It is important to bear in mind that propaganda indoctrinates the masses (or “spectators,” as Chomsky refers to them), and not the rulers. The rulers are indoctrinated in their specialized school, home and community with the values of the private, corporate power to carry out their duty. When we refer to the masses, propaganda and indoctrination are elements that work together and can not be separated from the complex social control machinery. Moreover, propaganda is mainly employed to teach or to disseminate only one point of view, and as such can be considered indoctrination. Propaganda has been used throughout history in many aspects of human relationships, mainly in the political, religious and commercial arenas. According to an article by Roger Boesche, propaganda can be traced as far back as the first reliable evidence about the relationships of power within the human organization. One of the first recordings of its application takes place in the ancient Persian Empire during the coronation of Darius I; within this historical context, writings of Roman philosophers can be considered pro-Roman propaganda. In modern times, propaganda was used in the religious arena to influence the beliefs of indigenous people throughout the colonization process in America, as well as during the split of the Catholic and the Protestant church. During the early twentieth century, propaganda began to be used as a systematic way of controlling the masses, mainly in the World War periods, to hide personal atrocities or to unify the people against one common enemy. In the second part of the twentieth century and at the beginning of the twenty-

Cabezas et al. 15 first century, propaganda has been used mainly in the political arena and in commercial activities to expand the domination of the market (Wikipedia, “propaganda”). The main themes that Chomsky has developed in his research on state-individual dynamics are the concepts of state propaganda and mass media/corporate propaganda. He regards propaganda as a powerful method of social control and manipulation used during the twentieth century onwards to maintain the status quo (On Miseducation 45). He also claims that the use of physical violence carried out by the state, as seen at the beginning of the twentieth century in the US during World War I, was obsolete and did not fit the sleek, modern image that the Western democratic states wanted to display. The accelerated development of mass media since that time has made a significant contribution to a new strategy of social control, a strategy that is less violent, but notoriously more effective at a subconscious level. As Chomsky asserts, “propaganda is to democracy what the bludgeon is to totalitarian state” (Media Control 14-5). The use of slogans is a representative characteristic of propaganda, as Chomsky says the need to create a slogan “that no one is going to be against and everybody is going to be for” is profoundly important in a democracy in order to draw people’s attention from issues that do matter to their lifestyles. Although nobody actually understands the core meaning of the messages, everybody follows them without questioning (“What Makes…” 23). In his book Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda, Chomsky points out that the first modern government maneuver of propaganda was implemented by the Woodrow Wilson administration at the height of World War I. The objective was to make the US citizens involved in a war that, until that time, was exclusively European. The US population had a pacifist vision of the world and had no intention of becoming involved in a war that was not relevant to their interests. However, the government created an agency dedicated exclusively to the dissemination of propaganda and the inculcation of a general hatred towards the German nation.

Cabezas et al. 16 This mobilized the population by giving them a sudden urge to turn against the German Empire and, in their minds, save the world from its domination. Nevertheless, it is the era following World War I that marks a significant change in the way governmental propaganda is disseminated to the masses. For the first time, government was allied with the media and the business world to achieve its indoctrinating objectives. This triple alliance employed the same propaganda methods used during WWI to extinguish the influence of communist ideology; workers' unions, freedom of the press and liberty of political thought from the US public arena (Chomsky, Media Control 8-9). Chomsky also states, in a sarcastic tone, that propaganda is primarily put into place by the intellectual minority in order to save the masses from their ignorance and to guide them in a world that they are too dumb to see for themselves (Media Control 12). At this point in our discussion, it is possible to find similarities with what Huxley asserted more than fifty years beforehand in his essay Brave New World Revisited. Huxley writes that power-seeking individuals regard the majority of people as ignorant; thus, they exploit this perceived ignorance to gradually withdraw the capability of self-government through the use of propaganda. However, the ruling class not only exploits but cultivates the passivity of ignorance because, as Huxley, quoting Thomas Jefferson, asserts “the people who expect to be free and ignorant cannot be and never will [be]” (Chapter IV). In other words, the concepts of freedom and ignorance cannot coexist, and those in power are aware of this. It is impossible to ensure freedom or free thinking without access to information; preventing the population from being informed is the ultimate goal of governmental propaganda. Going back to Chomsky’s Media Control, he describes the use of propaganda with the words of journalist and US liberal democrat Walter Lippmann, who claims that propaganda has revolutionized democracy in modern societies because of its capability to ‘manufacture consent’ or manipulate the will of the people (Media Control 11).

Cabezas et al. 17 Chomsky defines collective relationships in terms of individuals' social class. He discusses three major social groups: the “spectators” or “bewildered herd” (working middle and lower class people), the “specialized class” (the instrumental class) and the “ruling class” (the landowners and businessmen). On one end of the spectrum exists the “bewildered herd,” or the vast majority of the inhabitants of the world who have the function of being the “spectators” in a democracy, not participants in action. These are the common people who can, from time to time, “choose” one of the “responsible men” to be their leader. The bewildered herd, from the aristrocratic point of view, is mentally incapable of comprehending reality and participating meaningfully in a democracy. Subsequent to exercising the right to vote, they become the audience of the system and are immersed into the reality that the privileged men provide them (Chomsky, Media Control 13-4). In the middle of the spectrum we see the “specialized class,” the group that does the thinking, the planning and understands what is needed for the “common welfare.” This group endows themselves with the moral obligation of removing the liberty to freely elect one's leaders from the “spectators.” This liberty is supposedly invested in every individual within a democracy, but it is drastically restricted with the excuse that the ignorant masses could cause trouble and suffering to themselves and to the entire population. This practice is not new in the political arena; in fact, it has been present for hundreds of years (Chomsky, Media Control 11-2). With the increasing influence of democratic systems, more diverse and inclusive visions of governmental participation threatened the small but powerful elite. The former totalitarian governments used explicit violence to impose their will, but as the social order has developed to become more free and democratic, the use of violent methods has become unacceptable. Increased social participation, such as the right to vote regardless of race, gender or religion, jeopardized the elite's hegemonic capacity to control the populace, imparting a sensation that power was slipping

Cabezas et al. 18 out of their hands. This is the point at which propaganda comes into play (Chomsky, Media Control 12). Propaganda has become the perfect tool to prevent the loss of supremacy. The specialized class, the group to which Lippmann belongs, is the group that provides the political, economic, and ideological support to the ruling class by doing the thinking and making the decisions for the bewildered herd (Chomsky, Media Control 13). Finally, there exists the most privileged faction, “the ruling class”. They possess the real power and place the specialized class into a position where they are given some authority as a concession. The ruling class has the economic power and that is what makes Western liberal societies work. The specialized class needs to creep into the circles of power created by the corporate world to assist them to govern. We can appreciate that each class is educated according to what is expected from them. This educational process takes place from a very early age and is carried out by different institutions such as the school, the Church, the media and the government (Chomsky, Media Control 14-5). The main goal of the specialized class is to maintain the bewildered herd restrained inside their secure reality. The biggest menace to the preservation of this reality is the potential that the bewildered herd has to think critically, but due to propagandistic means of control, dissident opinions do not reach mainstream channels of communication to effect real criticism. This is prevented by a kind of propaganda that makes people them feel comfortable sitting on their own in front of the television and desiring the latest products seen on television. The specialized class also seeks to impose “family values,” such as harmony and patriotism, in order to maintain the establishment (Chomsky, Media Control 23). There might be individuals who think critically in every democracy but if they do not act collectively, their efforts for change will undoubtedly fail. Progressive democratic groups that congregate large numbers of people who think autonomously

Cabezas et al. 19 but work collectively, like unions and neighborhood organizations, threaten the status quo by making demands outside of the traditional means of elite-controlled government participation. By participating in objective-oriented collectives, individuals recognize that the demands that they have are shared so that in solidarity they find their motivation to continue struggling. In order to prevent these episodes of critical thinking, the specialized class has created a certain variety of values and common ideals in an effort to prevent solidarity-based collectives. Chomsky exemplifies this with an event that occurred in the 1930's in the US in which people gained the legal right to organize in unions. This created a malfunctioning of the elite-ruled society where the bewildered herd won a legislative battle and entered into the political arena. As it has already been stated, for the specialized class, the common people have to be mere spectators in the political field and not participants in action. But this event ruined this premise (Media Control 19). The propagandist machinery was put into action to segregate and prevent the threatening participation of the spectators by conveying that labor unions and strikes were anti-American and a menace to economic stability. Propaganda is systematically applied at the very beginning of citizens’ lives. It begins with the incorporation of children into the academic system, a system that inculcates the young with its values and sets the boundaries of permitted behaviors. This process of indoctrination through propaganda is not a process carried out overnight, but executed throughout children’s educational process from kindergarten to university and beyond. Notwithstanding, it is naive to believe that this indoctrination through propaganda is constrained to the educational system. As learning occurs not only in the formal system but also in every aspect of life, the specialized class uses all of the available methods to indoctrinate its beliefs. They manipulate the mainstream media to train people, create attractive slogans and impose sets of principles, which according to them, are necessary values to prevent chaos. Notwithstanding, with the advent of mass media, and

Cabezas et al. 20 specifically television, the process has started to operate earlier. The young have become the specific target of the majority of the advertising campaigns which aim to turn them into the gigantic consumers of tomorrow. These consumers will be the foundation of the future markets and the money feeders of its owners who are the real proprietors of the democratic systems. The most outstanding minds of the world are employed to assure our faith in the corporate world view. The specialized class seduces us with attractive illusions to distract our minds from the reality beyond the tube. The propagandist machinery spends billions of dollars every year on advertising campaigns aiming to inflict young’s minds with the values of the free-market, and consequently the values of its owners, the business men. The specialized intellectuals are the ones who create theses campaigns and use the children's vulnerability to expose them to their propaganda enhanced by media technology. The businessmen skip any moral analysis of their advertising apparatus that sell the products directly to the children because their goal is to maximize the profits at any cost, thus maintaining their possession over the market. Chomsky regards society under the domination of the specialized class and the businessmen as a: […] self-imposed totalitarianism, with the bewildered herd marginalized, directed elsewhere, terrified, screaming patriotic slogans, fearing for their lives and admiring with awe the leader who saved them from destruction, while the educated masses goosestep on command and repeat the slogans they're supposed to repeat and the society deteriorates at home (Media Control 58-9). Critical thinking is the biggest threat to the status quo and to the current ruling class supremacy. Propaganda is the most significant instrument to prevent the general population from realizing the potential of governing themselves and being free to dispose of any kind of domination. Man was born to be free and to have the liberty to consciously organize in a social cooperative structure and not to depend on others to coerce his life and, at any case, be restricted by

Cabezas et al. 21 the will of a “superior” man. As Huxley asserts, based on Jefferson's writings, man is a rational animal that possesses an instinctive sense of justice and can only be protected by “moderate powers” elected by their own choice and will (“BNW Revisited”, Chapter IV). 1.2.1 The propaganda model The propaganda model is a theory developed by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky to explain the functioning of the US media and the relationship existing between the elite (ruling class) and the mass media (acting as the specialized class.) In their essay about the book Manufacturing Consent called “The Propaganda Model Revisited”, the authors claim that there are five “filters”, working independently, that automatically select the news. They are: 1. The size, concentrated ownership, owner wealth and profit orientation of the mass media (MM) firms. 2. Advertising as the primary income source of the MM. 3. The MM’s unquestionable reception of the information provided by corporate and state powers. 4. Flak, a term used by the authors to describe the ways the media discipline critical individuals. Flak has two mechanisms of delivery: direct and indirect, to be discussed below. 5. The anti-ideologies filter, which is a tacit agreement among common people to, induced by fear, reject all threatening ideologies to the status quo. To summarize the idea of the propaganda model, Chomsky and Herman describe it as “market-system guided.” These filters of the propaganda model are not a local phenomenon occurring only in the US, but can be applied and observed globally (“The Propaganda Model Revisited”)., concentrated ownership and profit orientation of mass media firms

Cabezas et al. 22 The origins of the first filter, which deals with size, ownership and profit orientation MM firms, date back to the late nineteenth century in Great Britain. Chomsky and Herman affirm that by that time there was an interesting number of alternative press publications and newspapers that successfully reached a working-class audience (Manufacturing Consent 2). The success of these media among the working class was regarded as a major threat by the ruling elites and after a coercive harassment period the elite realized that the most effective way to cope with this situation was to let the free-market control the radical press. The case above serves as a starting point to analyze the development of media in recent years, especially in terms of the size of mass media firms. Technological improvements and the expansion of the free-market, along with press industrialization, have provoked an audience enlargement focus from media owners. As a consequence of greater costs for media production, media entities are conditioned to expand in order to subsist. Thus, the first filter works as a limitation on ownership of media by the aforementioned large size of investment. Regardless of the great amount of media entities (over 25,000), only twenty-four media systems control more than half of the media production in the US, including newspapers, magazines, broadcasting, books and movies (Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent 4). “These twenty-four companies are large, profit-seeking corporations, owned and controlled by very wealthy people” (Herman, “Propaganda Model: A Retrospective”). Most of these media corporations have successfully incorporated themselves into the market. Some of them show profits that go up to billions of dollars, and all of them deal with the pressure of stockholders. This is possible due to the loosening of regulations in terms of media concentration and their control status. Many media-outlets are owned by non-media companies, and it is possible to observe the mechanisms of free-market trends running amok without any constraints in these cases. The most influential media agencies depend on a good relationship with government. The ties and

Cabezas et al. 23 connections built between media controllers and government agents have allowed the media to skip state harassment (the states provide the licenses and franchises for media) and have also resulted in a promiscuous interchange of personnel between regulators and regulated firms. Advertising as the main source of income of mass media firms The large amount of income and profits that many of these companies present year after year is a result of the second filter proposed by Chomsky and Norman: advertising as the main source of income for media companies. Advertising became as a prominent income source in media development at the same time as the working-class press declined. The emergence of advertising came about from the higher costs of media production due to technological breakthroughs. To offset these costs, advertising appeared as an attractive way to cover these expenses. In the context of a free-market world, ad-subsidized media had the advantage to usurp the general audience and weaken the ad-free competition. “In fact, advertising has played a potent role in increasing concentration even among rivals that focus with equal energy on seeking advertising revenue” (Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent 8). The decline of public broadcasting, the increase in corporate power and global reach, and the fusion and centralization of the media have made bottom-line considerations more influential than conveying real information both in the US and abroad (Herman, “Propaganda Model Revisited”). The gradual dependence on advertising income has led mass media firms to assume a rather perverse logic: readers, listeners, viewers are categorized according to their “quality.” An audience has more value if it is thought to have a larger purchasing capacity. In other words, mass media is interested in attracting buying-power audiences. In addition, the working class and alternative media suffer from the political discrimination of advertisers (Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent 10) leaving them at a dramatic disadvantage in relation to their ad-subsidized competition.

Cabezas et al. 24 Moreover, even within mainstream media, advertisers refuse to support programs or articles that might affect their financial interests. The power of advertisers over the media is derived from the fact that they are the subsidizers for their production. This non-declared ownership affects not only news choice but to a greater extent the choice of TV programs and articles. The logic behind this is that advertisers desire to finance programs or shows that do not represent a threat to their interests and give a way to a favorable environment for their business development. This advertising-based media seek to provide a suitable environment to attract funding; in this situation the competition for advertisers has become more intense and the boundaries between editorial and advertising departments have weakened. Advertising has become a normative reference for mass media firms, as an NBC executive posed it: “Television is an advertising-supported medium, and to the extent that support falls out, programming will change” (Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent 10). This financial support is deeply rooted in media activity and conditions their output and performance in all levels, creating a powerful second filter. The mass media's unquestionable reception of the information provided by corporate and state powers The media does not create the news; they are merely the receivers and conveyors of the events that occur in any given day. Moreover, mass media firms require a constant provision of raw material which is elaborated into news reports, mainly due to the news demands and imperative news schedules that these companies must meet (Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent 11). This constant and imperative demand for news material is combined with the technical incapacity of mass media companies to afford to have all the logistic implementation at all places where important events may occur.

Cabezas et al. 25 Sourcing the media has become a daily, relevant part of state and corporate activity. The development and increasing relevance of public relations departments find their catalyst in the mentioned necessities of media firms. Official news sources such as government, business corporations and trade groups are regular purveyors of news stories. These sources are considered to be credible; thus the raw material that they provide is prepared, without analysis, as news. “These bureaucracies turn out a large volume of material that meets the demands of news organizations for reliable, schedule flows. Mark Fishman calls this the principle of bureaucratic affinity: only other bureaucracies can satisfy the input needs of a news bureaucracy” (Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent 11). The so-called objectivity principle claimed by media corporations operates as a constraint in news output. Official sources are regarded as credible due to their status and prestige. Consequently, if the media are to be objective, they accept the input without question. Another influencing factor is the cost of news production, which also limits news output. This cost includes material and political cost, as Norman and Chomsky explain it: “taking information from news sources that may be presumed credible reduces investigative expense, whereas material from not so credible sources, or that will elicit criticism and threats, requires careful checking and costly research” (Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent 12). The creation of “expert corps”, grouped in think-tanks and university faculties that have clear affinities with conservatives and are funded principally by the corporate community, has also helped to shape the output in media news production. A significant number of TV and radio shows that deal with political and economic issues are provided with a set of experts willing to give their opinions to the public, while the main purpose is to create a favorable mood towards the corporations' interests.

Cabezas et al. 26 In summary, sourcing the media is undoubtedly a powerful filter. News corporations and other media companies are continuously sourced by specialized public relations offices that provide the media with a steady flow of raw material of news, alleviating the heavy costs of investigative journalism and news research. The other sourcing, experts provision, does not constitute an overwhelming force within the media; however, there is still an interesting number of independent and critical intellectuals that make part of the expert circuit. Flak and the enforcers Thus far, we have explained the ways in which the media are engaged with the establishment. Ownership of the media, advertising, and sourcing appear as undeniable forces in the shaping of media coverage of events in terms of their point of view and selection. However, these forces are not all powerful and may still be subjected to failure. When this occurs, a fourth mechanism is put into action: “flak.” Flak refers to negative responses towards a media statement or program. It may take the form of letters to the editor, phone calls, lawsuits, speeches, bills before congress, and other modes of complaint, threat and punitive action. It may be organized centrally or locally, or it may consist of the entirely independent action of individuals (Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent 16). The flak device may take different forms in reference to its consequences. For example, advertisers may cease their support if they do not consider a statement or program “friendly.” The ability to produce flak, especially flak that is costly and threatening, is related to power (Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent 17), and this flak can be delivered either directly or indirectly. The first includes the use of phone calls, letters or such, directed straight to the media in order to present complaints or simply threaten with retaliation. Indirect flak delivery can be traced from complaints to media constituencies, such as stockholders or executives to the funding

Cabezas et al. 27 and endorsement of complaining advertising. Going even further, the funding of political campaigns and think-tanks related to conservative forces may be used in order to attack the media. Flak, unlike the other filters exposed earlier, is a more direct and explicit way to mold the action of the media. It is meant to discipline the media in order to help create suitable environments for their easy development and to discredit critical opinions by the use of specific advertising. The effects of this filter are clearer on foreign issues: the coverage of news abroad is shaped by the interest of the political and economic elite and dissident voices are disregarded. Anti-ideologies as a control mechanism This final filter, the anti-ideologist principle, is discussed in Norman and Chomsky’s work with the ideology of Anticommunism. Communism represents a threat to the interest of private corporate power and, consequently, has been regarded as the ultimate evil for the Western world since its uprising in the Soviet Union and the triumphs of the revolution in China and Cuba. The abuses that have occurred in China, Cuba and the Soviet Union have contributed to feed this hatred, leading the public to focus on a common enemy. This anti-communist mechanism is used, in Western countries, mainly against those who undertake more liberal positions; the labeling as “communist” is seen as a discredit of their policies. This has led many liberals to a constant demonstration of their anti-communist sentiments. Many times the communist label is thrust upon labor movements and any other social struggle. When this occurs, everybody is forced to take positions behind the anti-communist sentiment or else they might be subjected as anti-patriots or spies of the enemy. US Senator John McCarthy's term in the 1950's is infamous for implementing government-supported witch-hunts during the “Red Scare,” targeting left-winged individuals and celebrating the anti-communist sentiment as a national cause.

Cabezas et al. 28 This anti-communist filter is quite powerful in the sense that it petrifies any kind of criticism and functions in order to maintain the status quo by suppressing dissident views. Although this filter has changed in recent years, mainly due to the fall of the Soviet Block in Europe, it has taken new forms such as the terrorist scare and the green scare. Both of these are very similar mechanisms. In the case of the terrorist scare, the objective is to keep the population under a constant state of fear that has allowed conservatives to limit liberties in the US. In the case of the green scare, direct action taken by environmental and animal rights groups are labeled as terrorist attempts to the private property. The perceived menace of these groups has made the ruling class find new ways to operate in the minds of the population, contributing to the development of pharmacology as an effective supplemental control method (see pharmacology). 1.3 Pharmacology Since early times, human beings have discovered, intentionally or by chance, a wide variety of chemical substances that can alter their mental state. In recent decades, there has been agreement on labeling these substances as drugs. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, a drug is “any chemical substance that affects or alters the functioning of a living thing and the organisms such as bacteria, fungus or viruses, which infect them” (“drug”). It is of common knowledge these days that the concept of drugs has a negative connotation, although the formal definition does not point out any detrimental aspect of these substances. In this investigation, regarding the subject of drugs, it is the long-lasting relationship of human beings with mind-altering drugs that will be taken into account for further analysis. There is enough proof that drugs were used in ancient societies as they have similarly been used in contemporary societies. In an article found at BBC News online, this idea is affirmed: “there is plenty of evidence that humans have sought out so-called psychotropic drugs over

Cabezas et al. 29 millions of years” (“Ancestors Used Drugs to Survive”). For instance, Australian Aborigines consumed the plant “pituri”, which helped them to endure harsh conditions when making desert travels with no food. Another noticeable example illustrated in the same article is the Andean people. They have chewed coca leaves for about 5,000 years to endure activities at high altitude. Furthermore, an interesting archeological discovery has been recently published in the Journal of Archaeological Science, claiming that a chemical substance called “harmine” was found in the hair of two Tiwanaku mummies, an adult and a one-year old baby. According to the National Geographic web site: “Harmine can help humans absorb hallucinogens and may be a powerful antidepressant” (Choi). This recent discovery reflects the habitual and widespread consumption of psychoactive drugs that can be traced as far back as A.D. 1,200. There are certain characteristics about the consumption of mind-altering drugs that have shown to be permanent through the years and should be taken into account. Firstly, the different ways of taking mind-altering drugs have been the same for the past 3,000 years. Some of the most usual ways of drug consumption in history have been orally, inhaled or injected, while its consumption through the skin is relatively new and has mainly been used with synthesized drugs such as LSD. Secondly, as the form in which a drug is consumed changes, the amount of time needed for the drug to reach its effects varies as well. Consequently, the effects also mutate in accordance with the nature of the substance that the individual is dealing with. The physical and psychological reactions produced by the use of drugs strongly vary depending on the chemical substance to be taken. According to Wikipedia, the reactions that drugs cause on a particular human body's systems are the main criteria used to classify them (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System). The following classes, among others, can be distinguished: The Drugs that affect the respiratory system; for example, decongestants, bronchodilators, cough medicine and so on.

Cabezas et al. 30 Secondly, the substances that affect the muscles, bones, and joints such as anabolic steroids, antiinflammatory, muscle relaxants and the like. Thirdly, we have the drugs that deal with infections such as antibiotics, antivirals and vaccines. Finally, we can have the ones that alter the brain and nervous system, which are the drugs that we are going to focus on in this analysis. Examples of these drugs are anesthetics (General, Local: Alcohol as one of the most common), analgesics, mood stabilizers, psycholeptic (anxiolytics, antipsychotics, sedatives, opiacium), psychoanaleptic (Antidepressants as Prozac, Stimulants as alcohol and psychostimulants as LSD, cannabis and peyote). In the same respect, regarding drug classification, the large variety of chemical substances that have been recently discovered or synthesized such as barbiturics, amphetamines and several other pharmaceuticals have increased the spectrum of drugs and their corresponding field of application when we refer to drugs. The reasons and purposes that different human groups may have chosen and may still choose to take mind-altering substances actually differ from one social group to another, and have changed over the centuries. As shown in the article issued by BBC News “Drugs found in Hair of Ancient Andean Mummies,” humans have used drugs to endure difficult climate conditions when little food is available. Another plausible theory claims that people, particularly in difficult environments where the diet was poor, took mind-altering substances to help the brain produce the necessary chemicals needed for it to work properly. As the article goes on, it illustrates, that the nutritional value of some drugs is beneficial at any extent because “100 grams of coca leaf contains more than the US recommended daily intake of calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamins A, B2 and E” (Choi). Taking this plausible theory into account, we can assume that not only recreational or religious purposes have been behind mind-altering drug consumption but also their nutritional value, and thus their commercial value as well.

Cabezas et al. 31 In addition to that, Huxley's Brave New World Revisited provides a historical overview on the human use of drugs. He points out that in early civilizations, the mind-altering substances such as cannabis, peyote, opium and ayahuasca were mostly used with ritualistic purposes. Since almost every preparation was plant-based, consumers had a vision of unity between humans and nature or gods. Not only in ceremonies and special events, but also as everyday products, these chemicals were used as meditation enhancers, entertainment, spiritual-quest inducers, dietary supplements and harsh climate condition stimulants, among others. As Huxley's work implies, modern civilization has changed human life in many respects and perfect functionality has increasingly become crucial as one dominant human characteristic. Because of this, new necessities have risen, changing, in turn, the mind-altering substances to be used and its effects on humans. Self-esteem enhancers, attention-span expanders and inhibitors of disruptive behaviors are some of the examples of the functions that some mind-altering substances, recently developed, seek to address. The accumulation of human experience has had immediate consequences over ordinary people's daily lives. One of the scientific fields that has seen more revolutionary advances, becoming markedly influential since the middle of the twentieth century, is pharmacology. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, pharmacology is a “branch of medicine that deals with the interaction of drugs with the systems and processes of living animals, in particular, the mechanisms of drug action as well as the therapeutic and other uses of the drug” (“pharmacology”). In addition, pharmacology also seeks more effective and efficient ways of administering drugs through clinical research on large numbers of patients. The main aim of psychiatric pharmacology is to find chemicals (mind-altering drugs) able to modify undesired pathological behaviors and prevent unwanted tendencies among the population.

Cabezas et al. 32 Although using drugs to control antisocial behavior may be beneficial for some patients, the consumption of powerful pharmaceuticals, a growing trend in modern society among people with no diagnosed pathological tendencies, may have unknown and detrimental results. Peter Kramer, an American psychiatrist, warns us in his book “Listening to Prozac” about the effects of one of the most consumed antidepressants for people thought to have psychiatric pathologies. Kramer admits that some of his own patients under treatment with Prozac have reported to have felt “better than well” while receiving regular doses of Prozac. This situation led him to define “cosmetic pharmacology” as the unrestricted use of pharmaceuticals by healthy people who actually do not need them, but desire socially-rewarded attitudes and behaviors induced by psychiatric drugs (Kramer). These attitudes are reflected in the ideal of a perfectly even personality: always joyful, willing to learn, goal-oriented, hardworking, and never restless, tired, down or unmotivated. This is an ideal that many people have adopted in the Western civilizations of the late twentieth century onwards. Modern humans have decided, consciously or unconsciously, that taking drugs regularly to improve their performance has become a human need. Human beings have had to face new social requirements; immediateness and perfection are the new paradigms in today's Western civilizations. Similarly, the last decades have seen surprising pharmaceutical discoveries that have managed to address these new paradigms. As an American author, philosopher, political scientist and university professor, Francis Fukuyama addresses technology-revolution topics in his world-wide known work The End of History and the Last Man. The main claim Fukuyama makes in his work is a foreseeing interpretation of human history. He originally affirmed that, after the Cold War, human history had reached an end, claiming that Western neoliberal democracy is the most developed socio-economic system our culture was ever to look up to. However, after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks

Cabezas et al. 33 of September 11 , 2001, Fukuyama corrected himself. He recanted his original thesis, repostulating

that neither history nor man had reached an end. Even though his original predictions failed, Fukuyama still makes some interesting points when referring to the modern use of mind-altering drugs. He mentions two drugs to take note of in the years to come: Prozac, a powerful antidepressant, and Ritalin, a medicine commonly used to treat ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder). Fukuyama argues that human beings might be reaching a post-human phase if they continue administering themselves mind-altering drugs cosmetically. Fukuyama also describes the drawbacks and side-effects that these substances have on people to whom the mind-altering drugs have been prescribed. In conclusion, mind-altering drugs have long been part of the human history, spanning times and cultures. Nevertheless, the late twentieth centrury has seen major changes in the objectives of drug consumption in which pharmaceutical corporations and the mantainance of social status have played a pivotal role. Whereas drugs were once consumed for religious and recreational purposes and to preserve general well-being, the mind-altering chemicals of today point to a new objective: human productivity. In the subsequent chapters, the consequences of the use of mind-altering substances in relation to BNW will be taken into account. 1.4. Democratic System The term democracy, as defined in Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, is “literally, rule by the people. The term is derived from the Greek dēmokratiā, which was coined from dēmos (“people”) and kratos (“rule”) in the middle of the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in some Greek city-states, notably Athens” (“democracy”). However, there are a number of liberal thinkers that have proposed different definitions. Chomsky refers to Dewey's concept of democracy in defining it as a means and not an end to emancipate the individual (On Miseducation 46-7). He

Cabezas et al. 34 also describes democracy as an idea based on liberty, solidarity, a choice of occupation and the ability to participate in the social order. Nonetheless, existing democracies could not possibly be further from Dewey’s conception of democracy. This is why Chomsky has also drawn parallels between totalitarian societies and “democratic systems”. He affirms that through propaganda and the manufacture of consent, democratic societies use the same techniques to control citizens’ behavior as totalitarian regimes. In totalitarian societies, the power belongs to the government, whereas in democracies, the power belongs to corporations that have control over the society. In both social systems, the structural configuration remains the same: the vast majority of the society is powerless to modify the socio-political distribution of power. Meanwhile, it is a reduced elite group that runs and schedules the collective affairs. In Chomsky’s essay What Makes Mainstream Media Mainstream? included in the book You Are Being Lied To, the conclusion is drawn that citizens are expected to be mere spectators and not participants of the political arena, allowing them to vote once every so often, elect people from the elite and then return to their own private lives, giving more importance to leisure activities than political affairs. They must do this, not because they consciously choose to, but because they are compelled to do so by the system's manufactured consent (20-4). All these topics deal to some extent with the way societies control populations. In the next chapter we will analyze the different means of social control in BNW, and how they influence the characters’ lives.

Chapter Two: Analysis In this chapter, we are going to analyze in-depth the means of social control identified in BNW. This section is divided into two main categories. The first one discusses the social means of control that are present throughout the text. The second part describes the way in which the main

Cabezas et al. 35 characters behave and respond to the manipulation methods in BNW (All references to the book are to the free version of the novel available at 2.1. Means of social control Brave New World’s society takes place in a distant future of social compliance and cultural deprivation. The world has lost the liberty of labor selection and sexual promiscuity is not an isolated issue but a must to induce harmony within the state. Newborn children are artificially created and not a consequence of the expression of love and care between a human male and female. Unions, strikes, sit-ins, riots and social unrest to pursue a better living are the unwanted remains of a chaotic civilization already left behind. The distantly-located society of Huxley has completely eradicated the unnecessary woes of the former social organizations in favor of a more harmonious and balanced social apparatus. No advancement could have been made possible without the social control techniques applied over the entire population of BNW unified in the World State. “Community, Identity and Stability” is the World State motto and the driving force of every single policy taken by the World State controllers. In order to follow this motto and to keep society stable, the heads of the world have carried out several actions that, working together, create a sophisticated social control system. The Bokanovsky process, Soma and Hypnopaedia are some of the most important means of social control in this World State. The advanced and pervasive ways of molding the mind, manufacturing consent and controlling the actions of every inhabitant of the World State have the ultimate aim of maintaining the status quo of society. Moreover, these techniques preserve people in an invariable state of happiness and passivity where no independent feeling outside the current happiness structure is allowed. In BNW, there are two different societies that operate in dissimilar ways. The people from the reservation called Malpais, a place located in New Mexico that reproduces the natural and tribal

Cabezas et al. 36 life conditions and organization, are individuals who are not under any perceptible means of control, but their values and morality resemble those of ancient societies. On the other hand, within the World State, people act under the rule of a totalitarian system with little to no chance to reflect on their situation. In this society, a set of different types of control procedures are applied. The procedures, that are going to be explained and analyzed in the following pages, are: social conditioning (the division of the entire population into a rigid cast system), Bokanovsky Process (the artificial breading of people), and within the mental conditioning system there is Soma (the “happiness” drug) and Hypnopaedia (sleep teaching). 2.1.1. Social Conditioning “Throughout recorded time, and probably since the Neolithic Age, there have been three kinds of people in the world, the High, the Middle, and the Low. They have been subdivided in many ways, they have borne countless different names, and their relative numbers, as well as their attitude towards one another, have varied from age to age, but the essential structure of society has never altered” (Orwell, 1984 233). As we can distinguish in what Orwell stated in his masterpiece 1984, there has never been total equality in any society during human presence on Earth and the foreseeable society of Huxley is not an exception. BNW is not an exception of the social subdivision of people. In its world, there are five social levels called castes among the residents of the World State: Alphas, Betas, Deltas, Gammas and Epsilons. Alphas and Betas are the high class and Deltas, Gammas and Epsilons the low. Previous to the World State, societies had struggled to unify their people in a common objective and a common collective agreement. However, Huxley’s ultramodern society has terminated with the struggle by completely eliminating social mobility and designating each individual to perform a predestined position within one of the castes.

Cabezas et al. 37 The text also portrays that the World State possesses ways of controlling their people before they are even born. The social division is the perfect instrument to sustain the current social structure unaltered and the Bokanovsky Process, together with Hypnopaedia and Soma, are the ideal tools to achieve this inflexible caste arrangement. By dividing people into rigid and unchangeable castes, the controllers make each individual of the state exercise a position with a designated identity and specify an unquestionable job to perform. Each of these castes has their own, unique characteristics, which make every individual behave in a particular way according to the caste to which they belong. The Alphas are the high class citizens, physically well-delineated and mentally well-created. Bernard Marx is a unique kind of Alpha (See Bernard Marx), and Helmholtz and Mustapha Mond are some of the outstanding Alpha characters. Marx and Helmholtz do the specialized jobs where no physical effort is involved and fatigue is reduced to a minimum. The Alphas, as everyone, work short hours and spend most of their time in leisure, such as playing obstacle Golf, going out to the cinema, or taking trips around the world. One might think that because of the long periods of free time and their great mental development, they could be able to produce fine art or philosophy, as the intelligentsia does in our society, but they do not. Mustapha, one of the world controllers who are the heads of the world, explains that the fine arts were sacrificed in favor of stability. He argues that happiness and stability are more important than the magnificence of arts, as he argues in the conversation with the Savage:

“Of course it is,” the Controller agreed. “But that’s the price we have to pay for stability. You’ve got to choose between happiness and what people used to call high art. We’ve sacrificed the high art. We have the feelies and the scent organ

Cabezas et al. 38 instead.” (Huxley, BNW 245). Alphas base their social relationships mainly on sex. The achievement of sexual pleasure is the motivation that is involved in a vast quantity of actions taken by Alpha males. Alpha males get involved in brief affairs with Betas mainly with the excuse that everybody belongs to each other in their society. Moreover, one of the most important Alpha leisure activities is “Orgy Porgy”, which is a sexual orgy where the slogan “everybody belongs to everybody else” takes relevance as an important Hypnopaedia statement. However, this Hypnopaedia statement only has validity among the upper castes because both Alphas and Betas show aversion against lower castes. The other high caste is the Betas. Although a gender differentiation is not made explicit within BNW, there are only female characters among the Betas and only male characters among the Alphas. As such, it appears that the only difference between these two castes is gender. This can be observed in the main Beta characters: Fanny and Lenina. They share similar Alpha characteristics: great mental development, the pursuit of sexual desire, the joy of not being part of the lower caste, the rejection for menial jobs, the tendency to perceive themselves as superior and the bias against people in lower castes. These attitudes are induced by Hypnopaedia (see Mental Conditioning). It is possible to observe the rejection of the inferior castes in a conversation between two Beta females, Fanny and Lenina: “'What a hideous color khaki is,' remarked Lenina, voicing the hypnopædic prejudices of her caste” (Huxley, BNW 64).

On the other extreme of the social division are the lower castes (Gamma, Epsilon and Delta) that do all of the blue-collar jobs. There are no lower caste characters that are fully developed in BNW; no name is stated and no individual characteristics are depicted. Furthermore, they are only taken into consideration as cogs within the gigantic engine of society. However, Mond states that the Bokanovskyfied groups (the lower castes) are the most important faction of their society:

Cabezas et al. 39 “But how useful! I see you don’t like our Bokanovsky Groups; but, I assure you, they’re the foundation on which everything else is built. They’re the gyroscope that stabilizes the rocket plane of state on its unswerving course.” The deep voice thrillingly vibrated; the gesticulating hand implied all space and the onrush of the irresistible machine. (Huxley, BNW 246) Even though they are not considered as being important when discussing single individuals, they are the foundation of society when referring to the whole group. It is essential to point out that the regular Alphas and Betas do not consider them important, but the World Controller, who is fully aware of the social apparatus, is the one who regards them as vital. This evidences the lack of understanding of all the castes to comprehend how the society is formed and and how it works. The main differentiation among the castes is the physical construction. In order to create this physical difference, the lower castes are exposed to physical corruption from the beginning of their creation. This is discussed in a conversation between John “the Savage” and Linda, his mother: “What are chemicals?” he would ask. “Oh, stuff like magnesium salts, and alcohol for keeping the Deltas and Epsilons small and backward, and calcium carbonate for bones, and all that sort of thing.” (Huxley, BNW 141) In this conversation Linda explains what chemicals are, but the interesting point is that her limited knowledge does, in fact, include the chemicals' function of making the lower castes physically deformed. Furthermore, the shortage of oxygen in comparison with the upper caste embryos, the injection of alcohol into the surrogate blood, and the premature halt in tube production are some of the actions carried out by the world controllers in order to generate physically disadvantaged lower castes. One of the greatest differences between low and high castes is the Bokanovsky process that

Cabezas et al. 40 only the lower castes undergo, which consists of cloning thousands of identical individuals from a single ovum (See Bokanovsky Process). The reproduction via cloning aims at creating as many similar individuals as possible. Physical jobs are often made in a production line where no mental effort is required and a great amount of coordination is necessary. Because of this, cloning is needed among the lower castes for them to perfectly fit into a systematic synchronization. Moreover, the clothes worn are the same by each cast, contributing to a very notorious segregation among castes, as announced by a loud speaker in the Elementary Class Consciousness: “Alpha children wear grey. They work much harder than we do, because they’re so frightfully clever. I’m really awfully glad I’m a Beta, because I don’t work so hard. And then we are much better than the Gammas and Deltas. Gammas are stupid. They all wear green, and Delta children wear khaki. Oh no, I don’t want to play with Delta children. And Epsilons are still worse. They’re too stupid to be able …” (Huxley, BNW 29) Thus, as one can note, almost every aspect of natural life is put aside in order to create a perfect socially segregated system. The lower castes, as stated by the voice through the loudspeaker, are mentally deficient. Because of this deficiency in comparison with upper castes, the sleep teaching or indoctrination is more effectively carried out on them. On the other hand, the higher castes have a more stimulated and developed brain and are, from the very beginning, biologically predestined to be mentally superior, making sleep teaching harder to penetrate in the long term. Because of the higher mental structure of some of the Alpha individuals, Bernard and Helmholtz present some characteristics such as discontentment about the social order (explained in depth in the character analysis section) that the reader may consider as a rebellion against the system. This potential threat has already been considered, and any Stater that shows any kind of rejection or persistent criticism of the current

Cabezas et al. 41 system is exiled to an island where they are no longer a threat to stability. In the following quote, there is a description of what happens to someone that does not follow the World State principles: He’s being sent to an island. That’s to say, he’s being sent to a place where he’ll meet the most interesting set of men and women to be found anywhere in the world. All the people who, for one reason or another, have got too selfconsciously individual to fit into community-life. All the people who aren’t satisfied with orthodoxy, who’ve got independent ideas of their own. (Huxley, BNW 252) This island is not thoroughly described. It is only explained as the place where all the people who express any kind of rejection or criticism towards their society, are “asked” to go to. It is depicted as a place where the critical thinker can fully develop his or her curiosity and individuality. Alphas are the only inhabitants of this distant place because they are the only individuals capable of analytic and original thinking. The ultimate aim of cloning is to standardize the human production in order to eliminate physiological differences and to purge any possibility of comparison among the citizens that would lead to possible social disconformities, which are always a threat to social stability. A great physical differentiation is only likely to be found between different castes because the members of the same castes share similar corporeal characteristics since they possess similar occupations within society. The bodily dissimilarity among the five different castes does not produce the social separation per se, but is the perfect complement to psychological manipulation, which will be discussed later on. People in the World State are oppressed and are malleable pieces on the big board in the game of controllers. We, as readers, find ourselves desiring the uprising and liberation of the World

Cabezas et al. 42 State’s citizens from the controlled stability to gain their freedom. However, this uprising is impossible because of the standardization of World Staters into five castes. First, the standardization process of each caste in both the breeding tubes and, then, sleep teaching contributes to eliminating any possible comparison with a different government or any other lifestyle outside the World State system. By eradicating the comparison with any other world, any mass revolution or collective discontent is practically impossible. As Orwell states in 1984, “The masses never revolt of their own accord, and they never revolt merely because they are oppressed” (Huxley, BNW 261). Indeed, as long as they are not permitted to have standards of comparison, they are never even aware that they are oppressed. 2.1.2. Bokanovsky process The artificial breeding production of human beings is an outstanding characteristic of the World State civilization. The concepts of mother and father as we know them have been eliminated from people’s minds and the idea of family is a fading shadow of an ancient social system. Reproduction has been replaced by human mass production in large scales, and test tube incubation is the more efficient way of creating human beings. Artificial breeding is the most notorious and explicit control system present in this dystopian civilization. During the gestation period the embryos travel in bottles along a factory and they are conditioned by the state to belong to one of the five castes. This non-natural procreation process dehumanizes the individuals that are born or “created” within the “conditioning centers” where the new individuals are incubated. In addition to the previous explanation of the controlled breeding process, the lower castes suffer a more extreme means of control: the mass production and standardization of individuals by cloning. With this process, the production of human beings is similar to a chain process of production. The Bokanovsky process, as the cloning procedure is called, is well-explained and

Cabezas et al. 43 contrasted with the reproduction process of the upper castes. In chapter one of BNW, there is a description: “one egg, one embryo, one adult-normality. But a bokanovskyfied egg will bud, will proliferate, will divide. From eight to ninety-six human beings grow where only one grew before … the principle of mass production at least applied to biology“(Huxley, BNW 6). The main justification of this procedure is the preservation of the status quo and the stability in the society. As the Director of Hatchery and Conditioning (D.H.C.) states “Bokanovsky’s Process is one of the major instruments of social stability!”(Huxley, BNW 7). The cloning process makes a single ovum divide and produce hundreds of identical twins that eventually will work in a production line or in any kind of job where everybody has almost the same task to perform and where the natural, spontaneous socialization behavior is suppressed by the inexistence of diverse ways of thinking or looking. The suppression of individual physical appearance is the first step taken towards the complete suppression of any kind of personal or distinctive feature. The standardization of behavior and appearance is meant to achieve the World Controllers' desire of stability, which is thought to be the key to a perfect and happy society. As the D.H.C. declares, “that is the secret of happiness and virtue-liking what you’ve got to do. All conditioning aims at that: making people like their inescapable social destiny” (Huxley, BNW 16). The conditioning is not concentrated on the individual but on achieving happiness within society. The most important issue in BNW is not to fulfill individual happiness by doing what one wants to do, but be happy with what one is forced to do in favor of stability. 2.1.3. Mental Conditioning Conditioning exists at two levels, mental and physical. Although they are both complementary, it is mental conditioning that brings the finest and more distinctive characteristics into individuals. Therefore, mental conditioning represents the perfecting stage of upright citizens’

Cabezas et al. 44 formation. As the D.H.C. explains in chapter 2, wordless conditioning is crude and useless to inculcate more complex behaviors. Consequently, Hypnopaedia provides the moral values, the prejudices, the socializing manners and all conceptions conveyed through language. Hypnopaedia, or sleep teaching, consists of the periodical and never-ending repetition of slogans, mottos, or facts that are displayed over children while they sleep. The idea of nonindividuality is constantly reinforced, and all the feelings of solitude that naturally haunt humans are then eradicated. An example of this mental conditioning technique involving fear of death can be found when Linda is dying in the hospital. A group of children are playing hunt-the-zipper on the other side of the room, while the nurse waits for Linda to get closer to death. The children are then called and given a dose of caffeine, and they are around Linda’s bed while intense patchouli discharges are released from time to time to positively condition the scene. Linda is surrounded with children that are observing her while she passes away, and when she finally does die, the children are invited to have a cup of chocolate. This trivialization of death seeks to make it look like any routine event in human life. Children are constantly conditioned by means of Pavlovian techniques, to hold subliminal conceptions about the world surrounding them. The Neo-Pavlovian Conditioning Rooms serve the purpose of conditioning citizens’ minds by using electroshocks to condition children’s attitude towards a given situation or object. In this sense, citizens’ behavior is portrayed as mechanical and absolutely predictable, where each class presents uniform features in terms of their manners. The non-individuality principle takes form in the conducts of the citizens. As mentioned above, children are subjected to sleep teaching or Hypnopaedia in order to inculcate moral patterns to the individuals; in the case of adults, there is a reinforcement of the slogans displayed to create a sense of class among the individuals. Mottos are repeated at the workplace and during citizens' leisure time, mainly in the form of music, and the songs contain

Cabezas et al. 45 hypnopaedic lyrics with scarce reflexive content. All of these means are used to preserve and reinforce the success of children’s sleep teaching. Citizens themselves reinforce this conditioning by repeating the mottos among them. The World State’s intentions are not only depicted through observable, on-going methods, but also through the constant omission of the idea of family and history. Family does not exist because humans are now decanted; they do not reproduce themselves viviparously anymore so the basic unit of society, the family, becomes unnecessary. Thus the concept finds no context to its understanding and reproduction. It is even grotesque and the simple fact of saying “father” and, even more, “mother” causes visible and serious discomfort to the individuals. Other lexical items, such as “home”, are not part of the lexis in the World State language. The inexistence of family as a social unit forces the World Controllers to promote promiscuity as a means of social cohesion, suppressing any deeper interpersonal relationships. Citizens are conditioned to uphold promiscuity and detachment in their interpersonal relationships: “everyone belongs to everyone else” claims this society when a shade of questioning of this principle arises. Apart from preserving social cohesion, promiscuity is one example of the way in which citizens are deprived from their feelings. When sexual desire appears citizens must immediately satisfy this desire in order to avoid the emergence of negative feelings such as anger, frustration or any other feeling that might affect the stability. Besides the maintenance of social stability, it is also important to keep the productive machine constantly functioning. Therefore, children are conditioned depending on each social class; to develop first an overwhelming desire to work and secondly, to praise consumption and to develop a despise for natural spaces. They are though at the same time conditioned to feel the need to visit those spaces in order to consume transport: Patiently the D.H.C. explained. If the children were made

Cabezas et al. 46 to scream at the sight of a rose, that was on grounds of high economic policy. Not so very long ago (a century or thereabouts), Gammas, Deltas, even Epsilons, had been conditioned to like flowers–flowers in particular and wild nature in general. The idea was to make them want to be going out into the country at every available opportunity, and so compel them to consume transport. And didn’t they consume transport?” asked the student. “Quite a lot,” the D.H.C. replied. “But nothing else.” Primroses and landscapes, he pointed out, have one grave defect: they are gratuitous. A love of nature keeps no factories busy. (Huxley, BNW 23) This mental conditioning allows the World State to keep the economy functioning at a high level and, at the same time, to keep citizens focused on their labor. It is interesting to note that even citizen’s leisure time is completely controlled; their fondness for traveling and go to the movies or feelies is imposed through conditioning which accounts for the total intromission of the state regarding the citizens’ behavior. There is no plausible written evidence of historical events, only of those events that support World State’s procedures are available, for example the worshipping of Ford’s personality as a deity. Mustapha Mond claims that human history is a display of feelings taking over sanity; consequently history is dispensable for this modern society. A society that aims at stability can not afford to preserve threatening memories that can affect that stability: Mother, monogamy, romance. High spurts the fountain; fierce and foamy the wild jet. The urge has but a single outlet.

Cabezas et al. 47 My love, my baby. No wonder these poor pre-moderns were mad and wicked and miserable. Their world didn’t allow them to take things easily, didn’t allow them to be sane, virtuous, happy. What with mothers and lovers, what with the prohibitions they were not conditioned to obey, what with the temptations and the lonely remorses, what with all the diseases and the endless isolating pain, what with the uncertainties and the poverty–they were forced to feel strongly. And feeling strongly (and strongly, what was more, in solitude, in hopelessly individual isolation), how could they be stable? (Huxley, BNW 44) Mental conditioning is one of the main devices used over citizens in order to control them; conditioning allows the World State to have predictable behaviors to expect from citizens and thus keep the status quo. By means of Hypnopaedia and propaganda citizens are compelled to perform a number of activities that do not necessarily meet their personal interests, and that is because the same conditioning has suppressed any sense of individuality among the citizens. Individuals’ minds in BNW are described as a sort of tabula rasa in which the World State places its interests. Despite this totalitarian situation, citizens seem to be somehow aware of their condition within society, especially those belonging to the upper castes. This is explained in terms of their responsibility to maintain the institutions that assume control of society, the main tasks of Alphas are applying and perfecting the conditioning means present in BNW society and also the indoctrination of the castes. Soma “…Christianity without tears–that’s what soma is.”” (Huxley, BNW 265)

Cabezas et al. 48 Soma is a mind altering drug utilized by people in the World State. This drug is freely distributed among citizens with the aim of controlling people’s actions, behaviors and minds. Soma can provide individuals with instantaneous “happiness” and is capable of driving them out of human misery. Staters differ from the previous generations to large extents. The conundrums that have puzzled humans throughout history do not seem to strike Staters’ minds; the constant questioning about death, the seeking of transcendental purposes in life, the inquiries about divinity and religion, the questioning of the moral validity for an income-based social division are part of an obscure past which Staters are not willing to revive. The discovery, production and later free distribution of a perfect drug with no visible negative side effects are some of the most significant achievements made by the World State. According to Mustapha Mond, the miraculous effects soma has over the population are always positive; the shared perception that people can forget their preoccupations whenever they feel overwhelmed and set themselves free from that remaining and bothering human essence is always a wished state of mind. Soma is described in the following passage: For a start, soma is a very one-dimensional euphoriant. It gives rise to only a shallow, unempathetic and intellectually uninteresting well-being. […………………………………………………………….……………………..] It doesn't in any way promote personal growth. Instead, soma provides a mindless, inauthentic "imbecile happiness" - a vacuous escapism which makes people comfortable with their lack of freedom. The drug heightens suggestibility, leaving its users vulnerable to government propaganda. Soma is a narcotic that raises "a quite impenetrable wall between the actual universe and their minds." (“Brave New World? A defense of a paradiseengineering”)

Cabezas et al. 49 Soma is described as a narcotic such as morphine and cocaine, but in the World State society the consumption of such a drug is not illegal. The consumption of soma is totally legal and socially encouraged at all levels, it is delivered freely at work by the State as it can be appreciated in the following quotation: “Soma distribution!” shouted a loud voice. “In good order, please. Hurry up there.” A door had been opened, a table and chair carried into the vestibule. The voice was that of a jaunty young Alpha, who had entered carrying a black iron cash-box. A murmur of satisfaction went up from the expectant twins. (Huxley, BNW 232) Soma is the perfect drug; soma can help when the individual is down, tired, inquisitive, or just because he or she needs to be happier than average. This drug is highly consumed by World State people. They use it as if it were something common and essential to their lives, like a basic necessity. The degree of addiction is so huge that they can not stop consuming it and see soma as something not out of the routine: Landing on the roof of Henry’s forty-story apartment house in Westminster, they went straight down to the dininghall. There, in a loud and cheerful company, they ate an excellent meal. Soma was served with the coffee. Lenina took two half-gramme tablets and Henry three. (Huxley, BNW 78) Something as simple as drinking coffee is directly related with soma, which means that the drug is included as part of the culture in everyday routine. From this description, it can be observed that soma is included at “coffee time” as something trivial. One can see how this drug has limited their lives. People are addicted to it and they do not notice to what extent they are deprived from other things that life can give them. They are captivated by this substance that controls their actions, emotions and intellect and does not permit them to think and act freely. Whenever a

Cabezas et al. 50 character tends to give place in their mind to free thinking or the World Staters get a sense of liberation from the detachment of their feelings, the characters are always driven by the controlling forces of society and finally feel the necessity to take soma. Due to the anesthetic property that soma has, people do not ask the fundamental questions that have haunted our civilization nor do they feel interested in looking for answers in religion, politics or philosophy. These topics are suppressed for the World Staters in order to control their actions and thoughts, but mainly the World State offers soma to discourage threatening questions that can lead to a crisis in the regime. This perfect drug does not allow people to think by themselves; instead, soma leads them to live in a constantly unreal world. Every time people feel down and emotionally unbalanced, they consume this drug; as stated throughout the text, soma is for everybody: “…there is always soma, delicious soma, half a gramme for a half-holiday, a gramme for a week-end, two grammes for a trip to the gorgeous East, three for a dark eternity on the moon….” (Huxley, BNW 56-7). Throughout BNW, this drug is used by Staters to hide their emotions, or to escape from reality; characters are well aware of what this drug produces, though it makes them not to be aware of what happens around. Furthermore, in BNW the social pressure that forces the subjects to take the drug is tremendous. If any individual within the World State at some point wants to make a change or wishes to act alternatively to an event because they think they are doing wrong, people in his or her social circle will advise them to forget those ideas and consume soma. In Chapter six, Bernard Marx invites Lenina to a pleasure trip by helicopter. Lenina assumes Bernard is taking her to a World State-like fun place, but instead he takes her to a quiet place in the middle of the wilderness. Bernard, intuitively, thinks a quiet place is a more adequate place to take somebody you need to open your heart to and speak your mind:

Cabezas et al. 51 On their way back across the Channel, Bernard insisted on stopping his propeller and hovering on his helicopter screws within a hundred feet of the waves. The weather had taken a change for the worse; a south-westerly wind had sprung up, the sky was cloudy. “Look,” he commanded. “But it’s horrible,” said Lenina, shrinking back from the window. She was appalled by the rushing emptiness of the night, by the black foam-flecked water heaving beneath them, by the pale face of the moon, so haggard and distracted among the hastening clouds. “Let’s turn on the radio. Quick!” (Huxley, BNW 94) In that moment Bernard Marx asks Lenina about freedom and the pursue of happiness. Marx asks Lenina if she wishes she were free. Lenina immediately declares she already is and that she is free to have the most wonderful time. She does not need to think critically about it. She even thinks that it is an irrelevant and strange subject to talk about: “I don’t understand anything,” she said with decision, determined to preserve her incomprehension intact. “Nothing. Least of all,” she continued in another tone “why you don’t take soma when you have these dreadful ideas of yours. You’d forget all about them. And instead of feeling miserable, you’d be jolly. So jolly,” (Huxley, BNW 96) Another example of social pressure against rebellious behaviors and the consequently pressure to take soma can be seen in chapter three; Bernard Marx is at work in the Hypnopaedia section and he has two colleagues who like to tease him because of his peculiar personality: “He does look glum,” said the Assistant Predestinator, pointing at Bernard Marx.” “Let’s bait him.” [……………………………………………………………………………………]

Cabezas et al. 52 “Glum, Marx, glum.” The clap on the shoulder made him start, look up. It brute Henry Foster. “What you need is a gramme of soma.” [……………………………………………………………………………………] “Ford, I should like to kill him!” But all he did was to say, “No, thank you,” and fend off the proffered tube of tablets. “Take a holiday from reality whenever you like, and come back without so much as a headache or a mythology.” “Take it,” insisted Henry Foster, “take it.” (Huxley, BNW 55) It can be appreciated that there are always acquaintances, at least one person, who worries about you being “happy” all the time. The feeling that sadness or critical opinions cause instability among “happy” people, can easily be perceived in the text since the characters tend to worry too much about unhappy Staters, but the reasons do not seem to be really amiable and sympathetic at all. The reason why “happy” Staters want to have an influence over unstable people is clear. Faithful Staters do not want to feel unrest, they are afraid of feeling, afraid of thinking, terrified about being human. The ideal of oblivion when critical thoughts haunt the characters is pursued by all World Staters and the sensation that you can be driven away from those ideas by taking soma, which immediately leaves you in an uninterested “happy” state of mind, is also in the mind of all World Staters. Soma is the ultimate social control method without apparent negative side effects. World controllers realized alcohol, among other legal drugs, and violent ways of containing people had negative effects over the population, so the arrival of soma came to be the real solution to struggle against human undesirable features. Hypnopaedia was that

Cabezas et al. 53 Normally, sleeping is seen as an activity for recovering the energy from a tiring day of activities, or a relaxing moment, or even a time for leisure. It is associated also to a moment where individuals’ bodies are not working, and all the senses are off. However, one of our senses, hearing is always active, even when we are sleeping. As a result of this, Huxley portrays in the text a way in which societies can take advantage of the rest of the individuals, introducing favorable commands and mottos for the development and growth of the society; this means is called Hypnopaedia. The principle of Hypnopaedia is to control people’s minds, to control the civilized society by sleep teaching. In BNW, this consists of introducing different commands to people, mainly children, while they are dreaming. The subliminal suggestions made through these techniques seem to operate only on the moral education (27), and the people get these assumptions as facts. Through this form of control, the civilized society is segregated into segments of Alphas, Betas, Deltas, Gammas and Epsilons. Hypnopaedia divides people by suggesting them not only how to behave with other people, but also to despise other castes. In the second chapter of the text, there is a description of a Hypnopaedia recording where all the different social divisions except Betas are criticized by reasons that do not seem right to the reader. This indicates that from the very beginning of their existence, children are conditioned to behave and act accordingly to the caste they are born in and there’s no possibility to interact with other castes because of the strong psychological reinforcements people receive. Hypnopaedia also suppresses real human relationships for good social stability. Throughout the text, a Hypnopaedian motto that says “every one belongs to every one else” is presented. However, this just involves the right social cohesion to make the whole society work correctly. By showing the suppression of real human relationships, the author presents a society that seems to

Cabezas et al. 54 work well, but where nobody is actually in contact with no one else. By Hypnopaedian procedures, the understanding of feelings and emotions is affected, if not suppressed. This is one of the reasons why the main civilized characters cannot comprehend a different lifestyle, such as the Savage’s. The principle behind Hypnopaedia was firstly found in the case of a Polish-speaking boy who after listening to a radio broadcast in English was able to recite it by heart. Although he could repeat all he had heard, he was not able to comprehend the real message. The Polish-speaking boy case shows the beginning of Hypnopaedia. This technique is applied in order to make people internalize beliefs, moral values and adequate behaviors towards the prosperity and development of the World State. Hypnopaedia makes Staters be unable to realize what they are taught. We appreciate an example of the origins and applications of this technique as mentioned by the D.H.C. in the following passage: While the child was asleep, a broadcast programme from London suddenly started to come through; and the next morning, to the astonishment of his crash and crash (the more daring of the boys ventured to grin at one another), Little Reuben woke up repeating word for word a long lecture by that curious old writer (“one of the very few whose works have been permitted to come down to us”), George Bernard Shaw, who was speaking, according to a well-authenticated tradition, about his own genius. To Little Reuben’s wink and snigger, this lecture was, of course, perfectly incomprehensible and, imagining that their child had suddenly gone mad, they sent for a doctor. He, fortunately, understood English, recognized the discourse as that which Shaw had broadcasted the previous evening, realized the significance of what had happened, and sent a letter to the medical press about it. “The principle of sleep-teaching, or hypnopædia, had been discovered.” The D.H.C. made an impressive pause. (Huxley, BNW 25-6)

Cabezas et al. 55 Through Hypnopaedia, the social system appears to function according to what is expected, although the Hypnopaedian principle does not work in isolation. Hypnopaedia by itself is a very effective way to keep every individual acting accordingly to the World State, but this is achieved by a web of different devices of control that, together, shape people’s attitudes and eliminate to the minimum the chances of getting involved into subversion. 2.2. Character Analysis 2.2.1. Bernard Marx Among the Alphas, Bernard Marx stands out. Bernard is presented as an Alpha-plus scientist and psychologist. At the beginning of the novel, Bernard is the main character, though his presence diminishes as the story develops; he is portrayed as someone that does not fit into society, but operates within the system anyway. According to the World State organization, Alphas are the most perfect human beings on Earth, in terms of mental and physical development. However, Bernard is a singular individual among the Alphas, for he suffered a malfunctioning during the Bokanovsky process, due to a wrongly administrated dose of alcohol, a substance that is not administrated to Alphas. He is not very tall (a basic characteristic to Alpha-plus) and he does not represent the beauty of his class, because of this he feels he is despised and looked down upon. This is shown in a dialogue with Benito Hoover: Benito stared after him. "What can be the matter with the fellow?" he wondered, and, shaking his head, decided that the story about the alcohol having been put into the poor chap's blood-surrogate must be true. "Touched his brain, I suppose." (Huxley, BNW 62) For this reason, Bernard Marx shows dissatisfaction with the position he has, and envies the ones that are “perfect”. This is the reason why he demonstrates attitudes that are not according to the establishment and the rules of the World State. For example, in his view on personal relationships, he despises the way in which Henry Foster and the Assistant Predestinator refer to

Cabezas et al. 56 having sex with Lenina. They talk about her superficially, without taking into consideration her intellectually nor affectively as if she were just a piece of meat. Marx also reflects on this issue by condemning Lenina’s self image: “And what makes it worse, she tlainks (sic) of herself as meat” (Huxley, BNW 55). Regarding the attitudes that Bernard has towards the social control means, he seems to act reluctantly. This is portrayed in his refusal to take soma as everybody else does. In many ways he shows he is an outcast. He refuses to be part of the normal community leisure activities that the world state possesses, like sports and orgy-porgy (sexual encounter where everybody has sex with everybody). His refusal to take part in uncontrolled sexual affairs is also another reason to be looked down; he has developed a slight attachment for Lenina. This behavior is so unusual that causes surprise. He is lonely and sad, but he prefers being this way than any other: “I'd rather be myself. Myself and nasty. Not somebody else, however jolly” (Huxley, BNW 94). In this quote Marx defies the principle of non-individuality; he claims that he will be happier not being on drugs than being on soma. He recognizes his bad behavior, his unpleasant attitudes, but still he thinks that is better than being somebody else, someone according to the canon. In the first chapters Bernard is portrayed as an outlaw, a rebel who does not fit into this perfect society. The main reason for this is his physical appearance; intellectually he is clearly an Alpha occupying a crucial position within the World State, however his look does not represent his caste. Therefore Marx is seen, and more importantly he sees himself, as an outcast. Bernard Marx has also a bad reputation at work and this is combined with his non-existing sex life in a world where every one belongs to every one else. Marx does not enjoy the available carnal pleasures in the society. At some point he also questions the world state motto; he no longer believes in that “slogan”, and he starts to reflect on the effects that state-sponsored sleep teaching has over society and his own life. He thinks that no social stability, as the World state motto claims (Community, Identity,

Cabezas et al. 57 Stability) can be achieved if there is not individual stability. Here the reasons why he refuses to take soma arise. In a way, it is possible to say that what Bernard really wants is to be unhappy, miserable, he wants to be free. He wants to decide by himself, though he does not state it clearly. Although Bernard shows in certain aspects of his lifestyle his denial and refusal for a closely controlled society, he never gets to really become aware of his situation. He and the rest of the Alphas up to the Epsilons have had to live so long immersed in such a reality that they hardly get to understand what is wrong. Throughout the plot Bernard states criticisms towards society, though these criticisms do not go deep into the core issues dealing with a controlled society, it is somewhat clear that Bernard is at least dissatisfied with reality, yet unsatisfied as he is, he pretends to find satisfaction within the world state; in a way, Marx attempts to change the world so he can fit easily into it. He is portrayed as a rebellious character who justifies his unfitness by criticizing the World State values, as a self-defense mechanism. His conflict with society is rather an inner conflict where he hides his insecurity behind a curtain of criticism. In the first part of BNW, we see that Marx has doubts about the world he lives in. However, this is not accurately right. In the second part of the text, and after he introduces the Savage to the civilized world, Marx’s behavior and thoughts change altogether. In chapter eleven, he reveals his personality. This happens when he is accepted by the society in which he lives. He is now taken as a celebrity for being the only one that knows the Savage, and thus becomes promiscuous and outgoing (Huxley, BNW 171). He had previously criticized this way of life, for he felt the emptiness of it, the lack of a deeper emotional connection but at this point of the story he embraces the World State’s paradigms. Another demonstration of Bernard’s real world ignorance is when Mustapha warns to exile him to an island where all the people that criticize their world are sent. Bernard’s reply to this is a desperate pleading not to go there, for he enjoys the life that he currently lives (Huxley, BNW 251). This is clear evidence that Bernard finally fits in the World State,

Cabezas et al. 58 because, at this point, he is no longer an outcast. Bernard is constantly writing reports to Mond about the Savage’s life and behavior. He portrays his criticisms with the idea of taking the most suitable features of the Savage in order to improve World State society. Bernard Marx’s conversations with his friend Helmholtz Watson are an evidence of the awkwardness of Marx’s personality. When Bernard finally achieves the recognition he had been seeking for, Watson criticizes his new promiscuous and outgoing behavior. Unlike the rest, Bernard shows negative feelings when he introduces the Savage to Watson. Both the Savage and Helmholtz rapidly engage in a deep friendship where they show each other their literary interests: “Helmholtz and the Savage took to one another at once. So cordially indeed that Bernard felt a sharp pang of jealousy. In all these weeks he had never come to so close an intimacy with the Savage as Helmholtz immediately achieved” (Huxley, BNW 200). Bernard is somehow drifted out of the picture and shows an envious and furious personality; he even thinks about taking revenge for this. Undoubtedly, Bernard’s inability to fit in leads him to present unusual features in relation to the rest of society; in a world where everybody is happy and always satisfied. Bernard is one of the few who feels diminished and unpleasant with his life “I want to look at the sea in peace,” he said. “One can’t even look with that beastly noise going on.” “But it’s lovely. And I don’t want to look.” “But I do,” he insisted. “It makes me feel as though …” he hesitated, searching for words with which to express himself, “as though I were more me, if you see what I mean. More on my own, not so completely a part of something else. Not just a cell in the social body. Doesn’t it make you feel like that, Lenina?”. (Huxley, BNW, 95) At some point he appears as someone criticizing the social order in the World State; his attitudes towards the means of control are many times a critique, unlike the rest of the citizens he

Cabezas et al. 59 seems to spend time thinking about these issues which gives him a strange reputation in London. He is also very critical about the way in which children are brought up and states the need to improve and refine the conditioning methods for a better social order. Regarding his attitudes towards soma, Bernard Marx, as stated above, rejects taking soma for he considers his hardships and frustrations as something to deal with and not something to escape from. This makes Bernard a real outcast. However, when he felt jealous for the relationship of the Savage and his only friend Watson he takes soma to repress this negative feeling. In general, Bernard Marx shows a refusal for the means by which the World State displays its control over citizens, yet this refusal, expressed in criticisms, is only a reflection of his own personal conflict with the social order, and when he finds himself in a privileged situation, after introducing the Savage, he reconciles himself with society and performs the same activities that he has previously criticized. Bernard’s ambiguity is a reflection of critical and subversive individuals who, once in positions of power, accommodate themselves in order to be functional to the system. 2.2.2. Mustapha Mond Mustapha Mond is a former scientist and one of the ten controllers of the World State. He is depicted as an extremely intelligent character that is totally aware of the social control system within his futuristic society. Mond shows a thorough knowledge about their social apparatus and the reasons for the rigidly stratified system. He knows about the mental and physical manipulation that, he himself, and his fellow citizens undergo. Mustapha, as one of the world controllers, is mainly in charge of the creation and inculcation of moral laws that maintain social compliance and conformity. He and the other nine World Controllers dominate every aspect of the World Staters life and approve or disapprove any behavior. To be a World controller is the highest position that a World Stater can get to or be chosen to belong to in the BNW society. There are ten world controllers in the entire planet and Mustapha is

Cabezas et al. 60 the one in charge of Eastern Europe. He is an ex-scientist who renounced to his former vocation after being discovered performing forbidden scientific experiments. Scientific experiments are not allowed and any new scientific development out of their current system is seen as a potential threat to the World State. This civilization is based on scientific development which can be seen in every aspect of people’s lives. However, it reached the highest acceptable level of advance and any new scientific discovery is forbidden. This is evidently seen in what is declared by Mustapha: “Every change is a menace to stability… Every discovery in pure science is potentially subversive; even science must sometimes be treated as a possible enemy” (Huxley, BNW 250). In this quote, it is clear the dependence people have on the scientific tools but preserving social stability is more important than welcoming useful and real science. Mond was asked to choose between being exiled to “the island” and continue with the illicit experiments or being sent to a training program to become a world controller. He chose to be a controller and not be a menace to society. While Mond is teaching students at the Hatchery Center, he makes the following statement: “No civilization without social stability. No social stability without individual stability”(Huxley, BNW 44-5). He is emotionally committed to this motto because he surrendered his passion, his vocation, his freedom in order to maintain stability. He has endowed himself with a moral obligation to maintain society rolling in the right track. He reassures his decision of giving up science and freedom by stating one time after another the disadvantages and inferiority of the previous structure of society, as seen in the following: “The Nine Years’ War, the great Economic Collapse. There was a choice between World Control and destruction” (Huxley, BNW 51), and “What’s the point of truth or beauty or knowledge when the anthrax bombs are popping all around you?” (Huxley, BNW 254). He was taught to believe in the unimportance of freedom of will in comparison with stability as the most necessary conditions for a perfect civilization.

Cabezas et al. 61 “There must be men to tend them, men as steady as the wheels upon their axles, sane men, obedient men, stable in contentment” (Huxley, BNW 45). In this passage, Mustapha tells Lenina about his own capacity to manipulate people and reassures his role as a controller by telling that every man needs someone to tell him what to do and what to think. A man necessitates being both obedient in order to belong to a stable society and cooperative in order to feel happy as part of the perfect and complete entity that is a society. Mond is depicted as an independent minded person who reads Shakespeare and the Bible. However, Mond was conditioned not to take into consideration any object or idea that can cause a misbalance in society, considering culture and beauty as useless tools of distraction. Every former generation has fought to unify the entire society around the common aim of creating a stable and joyful society. This has been futile as happiness and stability are subjective matters that have not had the same connotation for every individual. The advanced society of Mustapha has achieved the union of society by inculcating in the mind of the citizens a common suitable happiness. 2.2.3. Lenina The characters’ relationship with the methods of control slightly varies from one to another. Lenina is not the exception to the general rule when it comes to the vulnerability and acceptance of the social control methods such as Hypnopaedia, soma and propaganda. Lenina at first seems a model citizen who obediently complies to the World Staters' society. Comfort, pleasure and materialism are the most important values for all the population, and Lenina does not seem to be an exception. As the novel progresses, a more conflicted character appears and the conflicts she has to undergo reflect her situation. It is appreciated at the beginning of the text that Lenina seems to be worried about the principles of the society which she lives in. Although Lenina follows all the rules of the civilized people, she has unconsciously been going out

Cabezas et al. 62 exclusively with Henry Foster for four months, a behavior that is firmly condemned by Fanny, her friend, because of her lack of promiscuity (Huxley, BNW 17-8). Lenina went under Hypnopedia just like everybody in the World State and one promiscuity-oriented motto is widely recognized to be fundamental in their civilization “Every one belongs to every one else”. Although, as Bernard Marx reflects, sixty-two thousand four hundred repetitions make one truth, there are possibilities for the individuals to think freely and out of the norm. Lenina represents the potentiality to think and act beyond what she has been taught and this is encouraged by the relationships she keeps with two other conflicted characters, Bernard Marx and John the Savage. Her exposure to a new set of values, portrayed by the Savage, is an exceptional chance to experience a different reality, but Lenina fails in understanding that there could be other visions of the world. Lenina's relationship with Bernard Marx and The Savage comes into conflict due to the way Staters sexually interact with each other. Despite this, Bernard and the Savage have an idealistic and romantic vision of sex. However, Lenina does not fit perfectly in the society where she lives, but she is definitely permeable to the great majority of the World State’s propaganda. Lenina’s behavior is not exemplary in all respects and this abnormal behavior is a prelude of the subsequent events to take place. After Lenina's conversation with Fanny, she meekly decides to meet Bernard Marx. Lenina's action shows that even though she may unconsciously have some notions about what a real and permanent human relationship consists of, she does not comprehend it well; that is why she obeys and accepts the social principles and pressures of the civilized society to be promiscuous again. Bernard Marx also plays an important role in Lenina’s development throughout the story. This does not happen because of the changes that Bernard produces in her, but because of the profound questions that Bernard shares with her. In chapter six, there is a conversation between Lenina and Bernard, where Marx starts talking about being unique and “not just a cell in the social

Cabezas et al. 63 body” (Huxley, BNW 36). Despite the efforts to understand Bernard’s ideas, Lenina is unable to comprehend any word of what he says, defining his thoughts as “the most awful things” (Huxley, BNW 37). The conversation goes on until Bernard finally gives up and takes soma (Huxley, BNW 37). This dialogue pictures the difficulty of the civilized characters to understand other ways of thinking. For Lenina, the idea that happiness can be attained by being unique is impossible to assimilate. This is due to the fact that she was educated and brainwashed to behave correctly within the civilized society. Lenina never thinks about living without soma; in this respect, she is one of the most committed Staters. Soma for World Staters is much more than a simple drug, it is almost their religion. Whenever World Staters feel troubled they look for relief in soma. Lenina strongly relies on this drug. She never questions herself about taking soma so often and she, as most of the characters, advises others to take it. One could argue that the techniques of control work at an unconscious level. However, Lenina does demonstrate that she is aware in some way of the control procedures because she works as a nurse in the conditioning centre, so she should be conscious of them. The various methods of social control are not perceived as such because of the daily relationship the population has with them. They happen to be so rutinary that they do not perceive any controlling force in them. At the end Lenina just represents the uncommon potentiality of the World Staters to rebel their conditioned lives and their inability to cope with it because of the inexistence of feelings in every Stater. 2.2.4. The Savage (John) The Savage is one of the most important characters in BNW. He is the person that brings conflict to the rest of the characters. The characteristic that makes him unique is that he was born outside the complex and intricate life of the structured London society. Actually, he was born in

Cabezas et al. 64 Malpais, the reservation where individuals are “more humans” than the ones in London. This means that the people at Malpais have more human behaviors (they have mother, father and family) than the people in the World State. Concerning the Savage’s behavior, John seems always puzzled by the attitudes and behaviors the rest of the civilized people have towards him. He feels intrigued by the way that the World State operates, why they need to take soma to feel comfortable with themselves, and, especially, by the way Lenina interacts with him. However, it seems that the Savage does recognize some characteristics in the World State, probably because of his mother’s influence (Linda). This can be seen in Bernard’s report to Mustapha: “"The Savage," wrote Bernard in his report to Mustapha Mond, "shows surprisingly little astonishment at, or awe of, civilized inventions. This is partly due, no doubt, to the fact that he has heard them talked about by the woman Linda, his m–––." (Huxley, BNW 173). Interestingly, we see here yet another means of control, through language, as Staters are not allowed to even utter (write or speak) the words that convey meanings from a past social order. Although the Savage interacts with the people in the World State, it seems that he does not fit in that society. We can see that John reacts reluctantly to people of the state and the means of control, being soma the main one (see soma section). This is something very important to pay attention to because the way that John reacts to the consumption of soma is very strict, due to the fact that he just feels it is not proper to consume such a thing, as stated in Bernard’s report: “"The Savage," wrote Bernard, "refuses to take soma, and seems much distressed because of the woman Linda, his m–––,…” (Huxley, BNW 175). The Savage reacts to the World State and the means of control disapprovingly. He also has serious inquiries about how and why the World State is ruled and conditioned in such way by the controllers. He manifests that he just does not feel comfortable in the world he was sent to, though

Cabezas et al. 65 it has some beautiful things, as shown in the following quote: “Of course,” the Savage went on to admit, “there are some very nice things. All that music in the air, for instance.…” (Huxley, BNW 243) It looks as if the Savage is the only one who is able to react and rebel against the World State because he has lived outside of it. Regarding the way that the Savage feels about the variety of means of social control, it is evident that he is the only one, among the characters in the text, with the boldness and strongmindedness to defy the stable World State created by The World Controllers. This is demonstrated again by the discussion with Mustapha. However, the Savage finally fails in attempting to change the order in which things are imposed in the World State. He can not reform the World State because the system was meant not to be altered by any outer agent. Although the Savage was the only one who was free from the means of social control, and thus conditioning, he was also conditioned by other subtler means, which provoked his suicide. He feels that sex is an association of pain and suffering, due to the experiences that he lived in Malpais and sees love as something impossible to be stained by sex. These conditionings make the Savage not to develop the hero potential that he possesses, turning his fate into an inevitable tragedy and incomprehensible death. The end of this character is a clear victory by the World state over the desire for the former ways of society, portrayed with the ideals and beliefs of John the Savage. The suicide of the Savage at the end of the text represents the death of the ideals and dreams of a free society, the concept of family and free thinking. Moreover, this death contains also symbolic connotations. The suicide of the savage represents the auto-segregation of the society he despises, which does not mean that the order of the social system is altered by any chance. On the one hand, this means that the libertarian dreams of people can never be sold by anything; on the other, this suicide embodies the constant supremacy of the status quo over revolutionary ideas. In conclusion, the Savage’s death represents

Cabezas et al. 66 the disappearance of the substantial things of a “real world”, as stated here: ““But I don’t want comfort. I want God, I want poetry, I want real danger, I want freedom, I want goodness. I want sin”” (Huxley, BNW 267). According to the analysis of the characters we selected, we appreciate that all actions carried out by World Staters are shaped by social control methods. The influence that the world state has over the characters sometimes vary in intensity but it still remains consistent throughout their lives, and it is a determining force in the characters’ minds and actions. The existence of an outcast character in this perfect world helps us to notice flaws in the system. The Savage and his interest for the fine arts makes us reflect on the importance of artistic disciplines. He demonstrates his taste for Shakespeare when conversing with Mustapha Mond: “But why is it prohibited?” asked the Savage. In the excitement of meeting a man who had read Shakespeare he had momentarily forgotten everything else. The Controller shrugged his shoulders. “Because it’s old; that’s the chief reason. We haven’t any use for old things here.” “Even when they’re beautiful?” “Particularly when they’re beautiful. Beauty’s attractive, and we don’t want people to be attracted by old things. We want them to like the new ones.” (Huxley, BNW 243) The transmission of emotions through art is one of the highest human activities that provide intellectual and emotional pleasure. However, the Savage finds himself in a new society where these joys, far from being discouraged, are neglected. In summary, the basis of the World State denies the human nature.

Cabezas et al. 67 Chapter three: Contrastive Analysis The objective of this chapter is to contrast the social control methods in BNW with the current ones in the Western post Cold War societies. In order to demonstrate the similarities and contrasts, in both societies, and their means of social control, we have selected the following topics: propaganda, pharmacology, social systems and education, as defined in the theoretical framework. Therefore, we will show that both societies possess similarities, with slight differences. The predictions about the human future that the Huxleyan world portrays, far from being obsolete, are quite pertinent and realistic in various aspects. For example, if these predictions are to be compared to the ones presented in Orwell's 1984, one may conclude that the predictions introduced by BNW, despite it was written twenty years before 1984, are much more plausible to occur in the future due to the direction that human history has taken. 1984 makes, among others, two interesting predictions to be considered. Firstly, the rising of totalitarian systems and the consequent dominance of humans by violent and repressive means. Secondly, we observe the dominance of the telescreen as the almighty state-controlling surveillance device and the monopoly of mass media. The turn that history took twenty years ago with the downfall of the Soviet Block, made these predictions fade away. Violent totalitarian systems are no longer a reality, at least, in the Western hemisphere, taking into account the Americas and Europe. Although there may be many concerns about the moral value and accuracy of the concept of democracy spread in The Americas, Europe and Oceania, the distinctive aspects of a totalitarian system do not seem to be present in Western political systems. On the other hand, the irruption of the Internet as a mass media has made room for wider visions for the interpretations of news; a large number of individuals participate in delivering information. This causes the modification of the center-periphery model. However, the application of technology to our lives may have

Cabezas et al. 68 drawbacks too. For instance, the surveillance systems, such as closed circuit television (CCTV) have spread astonishingly the last decades in some countries. A case study reveals that the average Londoner is caught about 300 times on camera a day (Greengerger). Indeed, this clearly reminds us of Orwell’s “the big brother is watching you”. Thus, here rises the question about people's right to privacy against people's right to security. It is interesting to note that all these predictions were made, at least, 50 years ago and all of them still have certain relevance. 3.1. Education "All around the country, teachers are giving our children a diet of intellectual poison.” (“On Target”). In the theoretical framework, we explain that education is the way by which societies inculcate individuals in the values and behaviors societies require. However, education is not a simple means to only make people acquire information but is the key to the ultimate goal of it: free thinking. It is hard to believe that the concept of education is used in current societies with the idea of indoctrination, more than of free thinking. However, this phenomenon does occur in Western societies. Noam Chomsky states that individuals in the US, for instance, and as a symbol of Western societies, are not educated to be conscious of current affairs but to be concerned about other minor and unimportant issues. Consequently, BNW portrays several ideas concerning education as a means of control. Education in BNW is useful to control the masses by indoctrinating them and making them behave in such a manner that they are not aware of how the world is governed nor the way they are controlled. In fact, education plays the role of delivering roles to people, without giving them the chance to choose what they really want to perform in the World State. In this sense, BNW makes an outstanding irony of the subtle purposes and objectives of the educational systems in Western societies. Such determinism can also be appreciated in the Chilean education system, as year after

Cabezas et al. 69 year we read about how the results in university entrance tests, now called PSU (prueba de seleccion universitaria) perpetuates the social division between rich and poor; between those who can have access to a better education and those coming from low social economic backgrounds, whose education does not meet any quality standards. Data provided by the Chilean newspaper El Mercurio shows undeniable evidence of the breach between rich secondary students and poor ones. In the analysis, 94% of the students who come from private schools (of restricted access due to the high fees) obtained the minimum score for entering university, whereas only 54% of students from state schools (the vast majority) could achieve such objective (“Solo Cinco Comunas”). Another interesting point to contrast in the two societies is the struggle for a good position in the social order as one of the driving forces that guide the efforts of people. If someone gets good results in the educational system, he may get a good job, be respected and honored. If someone fails, he is destined to take low rank jobs and be looked down upon by the rest of the people. Notwithstanding, this driving force is not present in the World State of BNW. Citizens of the World State are mere mechanized parts of the social system, who do not battle for a good place in society, and see everybody as someone important for the welfare of the social equilibrium. Another phenomenon that takes place in most Western societies is classism. While people are in higher social positions, they isolate themselves from the rest of the society, despising the role of minor classes. This is an outcome of the achievements obtained by people in educational systems. The higher the achievements someone obtains in the formal educational systems, the lower the possibility of socializing with lower social classes. We can attest to this by looking at the urban distribution in cities like Santiago, where the high and the low socioeconomic classes are sharply isolated from one another in areas that do not allow any intermixing. Some have referred to this phenomenon as the “ghettoization” of modern societies. Taking as an example the results obtained by Chilean students in the PSU test again, we appreciate that just five areas of Santiago concentrate

Cabezas et al. 70 the best results in the test; most of them from just one big sector of the city, which is the wealthiest one (“Solo Cinco Comunas”). In the text, this classism is present in a more subtle way. Although people have sympathy and respect for everybody else’s job, they just socialize with the members of their corresponding social class. As we can see, education sets the kernel of the codes and values in a given society. Democracy is another term that is generally used by Western educational systems to set the boundaries of societies. One might think that, by doing this, education is not really depriving the free thinking and free will of people. However, what really happens is that people’s attention and concern are deviated from the way the specialized class conducts the democratic governments. What education does in Western civilizations, along with propaganda, is “trying to divert people” (Chomsky, “What Makes” 20). In other words, it is used to deflect people’s interests to minor and less important ones. In fact, the term democracy is not even applied in its original meaning. In a democratic system of government, the majority of the people have the chance to choose what they want and what they do not, thus exercising their free will. But, in most Western societies, a vast number of people do not even vote. For instance, in Chile, according to Servicio Electoral (institution in charge of registering voters and supervising elections), 2,400,000 people out of 10,444,605 in 2002 had not registered to vote (“Estadisticas relevantes”). The so called democracy is then just a mere control of the higher social classes over the “diverted” ones. And to achieve this purpose, education plays a crucial role in Western societies, as the means of control in the text do. We can see this in BNW in many ways: the repetition of mottos and dogmas while sleeping, the contemplation of dead people by children to suppress fear from it or the association between flowers and pain to shape children’s minds at an early stage. In conclusion, if we look critically at education in today’s society and compare it to the system used in BNW, we could see that it does have subtle purposes and objectives behind the

Cabezas et al. 71 explicit ones. Chomsky describes this process by saying that “There are all sorts of filtering devices to get rid of people who are a pain in the neck and think independently” (“What Makes” 21). And education, along with some other means of control that will be analyzed and contrasted in the following sections, is an ineludible stage for all people. 3.2. Propaganda In this section, we discuss how close and similar are post Cold War propaganda and propaganda in the futuristic BNW society, represented by sleep teaching, slogans and repetition of dogmas. These two propagandas, in which common people are indoctrinated, converted or influenced in favor of a common point of view, are not completely equal in shape but have the same underlying driving force and aim at the same target. Our lifestyles are controlled and planned down to the smallest details by people in power, requiring a never-ending attention and care to maintain the society in a stable progress towards, according to them, an increasingly improved quality of life. We intend to prove that propaganda in both worlds aims at influencing the desires and opinions of the majority of the population in order to preserve the status quo. Both propaganda and sleep teaching are important instruments to manipulate people’s desires. The first is in the zenith of its dominance in the 21st century and the second is one of the main tools of the World State controllers to constrain the citizens from independent thoughts and desires of liberty. The two consist of a constant indoctrination into a particular point of view and the permanent inculcation of the feeling that any form of society or behavior outside the current one is a threat to their own people. These indoctrinating methods are imposed by the ruling class to the masses (the world controllers or oligarchies, depending on which world is analyzed). Hypnopaedia has the same structure as propaganda; a series of messages that inculcate values and beliefs selected by the ruling class but delivered in a different manner (sleep teaching).

Cabezas et al. 72 In BNW, society is dominated by the world’s controllers, a small group of people. The controllers are what is known as oligarchy in the current societies and what Chomsky denominates “specialized class” in democratic systems. As the specialized class, the world controllers consider themselves with the moral duty of protecting the vast majority of people from unhappiness and instability. The controllers impose their will, what they consider to be the perfect society, by means of an extensive period of indoctrination since the decantation period. These days, this control can easily be demonstrated by the monopoly the US has in the UN through the vetoing prerogative. In appearance, the UN is said to be a democratic world organization founded on the Declaration of Human Rights, the organization (and the world at large) is manipulated by the interests of the US and its allies, who have created a parallel organization (G8) to exert more (economic) power on the world’s affairs. This domination was clearly exerted in the Iraq weapons of mass destruction issue (WMD) where every single expert of the U.N stated in the report “Iraq: U.N. Inspections for Weapons of Mass Destruction” that there were no proves that the Iraq government was in possession of mass destruction weapons so far. Taking no account of the “democratic” decision of the U.N of no intervening in Iraq, the U.S and its allies (G8 and Others) attacked Iraq on March 20th, 2003, killing thousands of its citizens based on suppositions and conjectures. Kenneth Roth, executive director of Human Rights Watch, said that the U.S and U.K could not justify the war as a humanitarian intervention and that the atrocities that occurred previously in Iraq should have been stopped with diplomatic and economic pressure and not through war. Moreover, he declared that "The dominant justification for the war - WMD - seems to be fading away"(MacAskill). “No civilization without stability. No social stability without individual stability”(Huxley, BNW 44-5). This motto, the world state’s, follows almost exactly Chomsky’s premise regarding propaganda that says it creates slogans that “no one is going to be against and everybody is going to be for” (Chomsky, “What Makes” 23). However, nobody really knows what it means because

Cabezas et al. 73 the message is presented in a subtle misleading way so as to draw people's attention away from the questions that do matter. This BNW sleep teaching slogan is a never-ending circle which, as every other Hypnopaedia statement, none of the BNW citizens knows what it means and they just repeat it as a catchy advertising song with no apparent significant meaning, same as we constantly see on 21st century television. Today the mass mainstream media (MMM) create reality and, unless people are shown what is really going on, they would never wake up from the lies and tricks that the government and the big corporations have chosen to be the ultimate truth. We have stated so far that the big corporations either own the MMM or control their agenda and editorial opinion through the money invested in the advertising which feeds its capital. Now that we know that MMM are neither objective nor independent, a question comes to mind: Do the MMM really affect or control the public opinion and influence people’s behaviors as it does the Hipnopaedia in BNW society? It is possible to find the answer to this question in The Influence and Effects of Mass Media, a book written by Denis McQuail. He states that “the mass media do have important consequences for individuals, for institutions and for society and culture” and also that “Mass media are very costeffective as a means of communication in society; they are also fast, flexible and relatively easy to plan and control” (20). We can infer from these statements that the MMM are effective and can surely affect people. Chomsky states that the only solution to escape from the high classes’ domination is critical thinking and the organization of individuals to create a real force against the people in power. On the other hand, in the world of Huxley the controllers are the ones who manipulate the reality to their will. They built a society that works as a big machine that obstructs any kind of differences or individual thinking. 3.3. Social Systems

Cabezas et al. 74 As we can see in the text of BNW, society is completely ruled by the state, which is, at the same time, governed by a predestined elite of people called “the world controllers”. This elite runs the state without any opposition from the lower castes, thanks to the means of control that are displayed over the people. A common reader of BNW might find the means of control shocking and violent, without realizing that very similar procedures are used over citizens of current democratic countries. The difference is that these means of control take different names and forms and, most importantly, they are deployed in a less violent and explicit way. According to Chomsky, the so called liberal democracies are just a euphemism to refer to governments that are supported by subconscious and manufactured consent of the masses. As explained in the theoretical framework, democratic governments use means of control, which can vary in form, but not in their main purpose: to maintain the status quo and the power of the elite. In BNW the state, for instance, uses sleep teaching (Hypnopaedia) to inculcate in the subjects the acceptance of their given social position without any questions. In this sense, 21st century Western states utilize controlling devices which, as stated above, vary in the form, less explicit and invasive, yet with a similar purpose: to control the citizens in a way that they can not think critically. States normally apply filter devices to shake off those who think independently and are not affected by the enormous display of propaganda made by the state; this point is illustrated more deeply in the propaganda model section. In BNW, the most successful and most utilized method is Hypnopaedia, along with other methods such as the use of soma. On the other hand, 21st century Western states usually turn to the use of propaganda as the main method to control the population and build society as they wish. An example of this is the extensive propagandistic campaign against communism after World War II (Cold War). During this period, Western states developed an ideological offensive against communism by means of the media available those years, such as television, radio and newspapers. This offensive included the exaltation of the capitalist system as

Cabezas et al. 75 the best possible economic arrangement; also many intellectuals with left-wing tendencies were discredited. This was possible due to a coordinated state effort in order to preserve the status quo, using subtle but effective control mechanisms. These means are applied by states over people from the early stages of citizens’ lives. To be successful, this control implemented towards citizens must start at an early point, when schools appear as the handiest and most appropriate place to manufacture consent. Mass media is also a way of diverting people from the affairs of real concern. (Chomsky, “What Makes” 20). In this context, Chomsky refers to the way in which the propaganda portrays an image that promotes family values despite the fact that states and the corporate world have encouraged both parents to become workers, producing the gradual breakdown of the family as it is conceived in Western societies. Here, the logic announced by Chomsky and described in the theoretical framework, by which the state creates a slogan that everybody is for, results in an inconsistency as the slogan promotes a reality that does not correspond with that of the subject under promotion, in this case the family. This fact contains a slight similarity to the situation portrayed in the novel. As it is described in the World State, the Bokanovsky process is the only way by which people are brought to life, and this simply means the suppression of the notion of the family in the World State. Its purpose is not only the suppression of family as a social unit ,but also its absolute disappearance from the citizens’ minds. Despite this similarity, it is clear in BNW that the propagandistic aims of the World State in terms of the social arrangement in the novel totally concords with the view of the World Controllers. It would seem quite obvious, a priori, that there are radical differences between BNW and 21st century Western societies, as the lack of a democratic government, the unalterable system of social castes and the constant and invasive intromission of the state in citizens’ private affairs do not correspond to the idea of a liberal democratic society nowadays. However, we have provided

Cabezas et al. 76 evidence for the existence of control methods that in today’s societies are similar to the ones in BNW, especially the use of education and propaganda as means of social control. As explained earlier, the term democracy involves, in the context of 21st century Western liberal states, a rather undemocratic reality, as states are normally run by an elite, which is supported by corporate power and leaves the public out of participation to design public policy. This group is “the class of citizens who have to take some active role in running general affairs. That is the specialized class. They are the people who analyze, execute, make decisions, and run things in the political, economic, and ideological systems. Chomsky says that “That's a small percentage of the population” (Media Control 10). Likewise, the World State is controlled and run by a small group of citizens belonging to the Alpha caste, a specialized class that assumes the role of applying the controlling devices over the citizens. No main difference is found in this sense, and it is also worth observing how power is conceived following top-down logic, the elite running the states and the public in an easy obedience. This may be explained in the case of the society depicted in the text in terms of the intellectual incapacity of the citizens, notably in the case of the inferior castes, to criticize the system; Bernard Marx, one who represents a critical point of view, is rapidly controlled by the world controllers and his words find no resonance within the rest of the citizens, if we can call them citizens. 3.4. Soma and Pharmacology One of the most accurate predictions made in BNW does not have to do with political systems or war-based economies but with the use of pharmaceuticals as everyday products rather than supplemental medicine for treatments. The last four decades have seen incredible discoveries of remedies and an immense interest in the development of mind-altering-based medicine, mainly in the fields of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, to modify a series of individuals' undesirable behaviors. All the research and experiments that have been conducted to obtain such goals are

Cabezas et al. 77 grouped under the name of Pharmacology. We can see notable parallels between some of the most widespread drugs produced by pharmacology such as Prozac and Ritalin and the mind-altering drug named soma used in BNW. Nobody could deny the immediate stabilizing effects that mind-altering drugs have on patients with severe medical conditions. However, there is uncertainty about the long term side effects these drugs might have. Professor Martha Farah, a psychologist and expert in the field, declared to the Scotsman web site that these drugs may permanently change the way the brain works, perceiving major changes in our personalities (Bayer and McBeth). Although there are credited voices that warn us about the serious dangers which the intaking of attention-spanners may lead to, many healthy people still regularly take them. The ethical arguments held by experts when it comes to people without medical records who take pharmaceuticals to enhance their performance to feel “better than well” remain very controversial. Similarly, the same tendency is appreciated in the Huxleyan society where physiologically healthy World Staters take soma indistinctively to deal with anxiety, sadness, social pressure or even life's most trivial problems. In BNW, World Staters are afflicted, with some variations, by the same doubts, emotions and misery that affect human beings in our current society, and the best way World Staters have found to hide or get away from these unpleasant feelings is by taking soma, the government-sponsored drug. Coincidentally, 21st century humans have come up with their own soma, all legal and at handreach: both Prozac and Ritalin are supplied worldwide by pharmaceutical companies. This is how the fictional soma finds two complementary parallels in other mind-altering drugs that definitely play alike roles. Prozac is basically prescribed for depression and deals with sadness and frustration. Ritalin, in turn, calms down hyperactivity and induces powerful concentration. Human beings have been able to synthesize mood-altering drugs that can help individuals to successfully deal with problems derived from a modern lifestyle.

Cabezas et al. 78 “Cosmetic pharmacology”, a term coined by Peter Kramer in 1993 in his book “Listening to Prozac,” refers to the tendency found in healthy patients to consume pharmaceuticals to cope with demanding tasks is in vogue in some developed countries, mainly the US and the UK. Therefore, the reasons why and the situations in which people consume pharmaceuticals such as Prozac or Ritalin without professional prescription do not essentially vary from the ones of the World Staters. Both World Staters and today’s citizens look forward to feeling better than well and succeed in their social requirements. Let us take Ritalin, a prescription-only drug used to treat ADHD (Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) patients that has, since 1990, increased in consumption. Among its new consumers we can find people who have found out the enhancing effects that this mind-altering drug has, even on regular individuals not diagnosed with ADHD. Various articles have been issued about this phenomenon. For example, BBC News Online has recently declared that there is a growing trend among stressed-out British college students to take Ritalin in order to either succeed at an important test or have all-night study sessions. The article goes on explaining how relatively easy is to get hold of “vitamin R” on British campuses. One Oxford anonymous student declares: “If you can get hold of it you are going to do it obviously because it gives you an unfair advantage" (“Exam students”). Furthermore, CNN also highlights that despite some US college students use it because it helps them cope with academically demanding Universities, there are others who use Ritalin because it helps you get your things done at work. Some workers want to get more done at work or simply cope with today's fast-paced lifestyle which reflects the reasons that some of them might have to consume the so-called drug RBall (Ciampa). There are even reports of parents buying on-line “smart drugs”, Ritalin among other anti-hyperactivity medicines, and giving them to their school children when they have to go through exam periods in order to succeed (“Parents Accused”).

Cabezas et al. 79 Taking into account the documented examples of groups who take these pharmaceuticals (as a phenomenon that might be explained due to the widespread household acceptance of this drug in developed countries), we can notice that Ritalin is not only popular among British and American students but also among students from developing countries like Chile. Although it has not popped out in the media yet, the use of Ritalin by small groups of students who aim at performing better is no news among college students from highly demanding institutions.

Chapter four: Conclusion Our reflections after this analysis are that, on the one hand, the outcomes of the social control instruments are amazingly similar to the ones in Brave New World. For instance, BNW’s governmental system shows a simile with modern societies. Current liberal democracies, as

Cabezas et al. 80 explained in previous sections of this investigation, are not democratic; instead they are rather antidemocratic because of the restrictions in terms of social participation imposed on the vast majority. Most democracies have failed to uphold the views and hopes of the majority, because the ruling class manipulates the social system for their own benefit, and it is actually not the common people who define and decide their own fate as it should be in a democracy. On the other hand, capitalism moves people towards consumerism and the misguidance of people's attention to minor interests, leading them to social segregation and putting them outside of the democratic system. Since the ending of the Socialist Block, Western States have based their policies on liberal democracy and economies on capitalism. These parameters have shaped the distribution of individuals within societies into social classes. For late 20th century societies, the different categories of division are determined by a hierarchical distribution of the population based on their income. This hierarchy is made up through selective filters and gate-keeping mechanisms: education and knowledge, cultural background, race and sex, among others. BNW also shows a shocking and, at first sight, quite different social model. This model, in functional terms, works perfectly in order to preserve stability. To achieve this, however, the most distinctive human features have been erased. Family as the social basic unit, feelings, emotions and the concepts of love and frustration are just disturbances to the social order and were the cause of suffering and wars in former years of human civilization. Notwithstanding, the means used to preserve the stability of the society contain similar connections to the ones in modern societies. The use, at a psychological level, of Propaganda, formal Education and physiological and mental control through drugs, appear in both worlds as evidence of the existence of a ruling class aimed at controlling the other classes. Another interesting issue that came up was the fact that BNW states an irrevocable confrontation between the freedom of individuals and the stability of society. Unless there is

Cabezas et al. 81 stability in society, society can not work perfectly. And the only way to achieve this is by the suppression of the free will and liberty of individuals. Taking this assumption as a fact, modern societies are in constant struggle to preserve the balance among classes. Whenever a problem arises, such as the ones that Bernard’s and Watson’s cases portray, where individuals on a massive scale complain about a given situation, the specialized class attacks the problem with propaganda and the spread of misinformation. In worse cases, the response is by physical repression of the individuals. After closely scrutinizing BNW, we have come to the following conclusions: a. Education is the main social system for transferring cultural codes and moral values to future generations where free and critical thinking should be the most important objectives. Most educational systems, however, present quite the opposite situation, where education aims at the repetition of specific information rather than the analysis of this data. b. Propaganda serves the same objectives as Hipnopaedia; its aim is to constrain critical and individual thinking. Critical thinking is eradicated from society through propaganda in mainstream mass media which are in charge of segregating and getting rid of judgmental questioning that come from individuals in ordinary everyday learning spheres. Propaganda in both worlds, Huxley’s futuristic world and current 21st century societies, follows an identical purpose: to eliminate the threat of critical thinking which can lead to general disapproval and social unrest. c. The world controllers and the specialized class are the ones who control their respective societies according to their will. They impose their view of a perfect social organization, putting aside common people’s opinions. The general welfare is thought to be the ultimate aim of their deeds; however, their deeds are nothing more than a desperate set of measures to assure their power and their dominance over the population. Furthermore, the two high classes have identical reasons not to include the general population in decision-making processes; the “dangerous situation” and

Cabezas et al. 82 “disorder” that common people can cause if they govern and decide what to do with their lives by themselves. d. The common reader might think that the way of indoctrinating the World Staters through sleep teaching is shocking and inhumane, and that this is a reality they would never suffer nor accept for themselves. However, we are also under a constant indoctrination, through mass media, advertising campaigns, political gatherings and word-of-mouth propaganda that is even more pervasive and stronger than in BNW. e. Pharmaceuticals have progressively been used to modify disruptive or unwanted behaviors in recent decades. The tendency to take drugs to avoid simple modern life problems, and not pathologies, is booming among the population, no matter age, race or social class. This trend is virtually making people act like world staters, there is no strict regulation for the prescription of powerful mind-altering drugs (Prozac and Ritalin) and the social perception of these drugs, far from being negative, is condescending and permissive despite their documented negative side effects. f. Throughout the work, the explicitness of the control techniques is clearly portrayed in the main characters. Lenina, Bernard, and Helmholtz are unable to realize or become more aware of other points of view such as the Savages', because of the strong conditioning that they received during childhood (just as every other person in the World State). The impossibility to accept different points of view illustrate that manipulation methods within World State society are completely effective in terms of turning citizens into beings with no will. Besides, the World State makes use of a pyramidal type of organization, where the lower parts of this pyramid have no direct participation in the social affairs. g. All these issues in the fiction world of BNW are closely related to what is happening in modern societies. Most people (the herd) do not understand what is happening around them

Cabezas et al. 83 because of the use of similar mechanisms of control. There are some who try to rebel against this pressure, but they are silenced by the ones who own the power. The manipulation methods operate explicitly in BNW. Each procedure does not work in isolation, but in a net of techniques to dominate World Staters. All these control principles have one target: to avoid social unrest. In addition, and by means of this investigation, we now understand the real implications of the word democracy. As Chilean young men we see that the use of the term “democracy” or “democratic” often does not correspond to its real meaning. The lack of participation in liberal democracies along with people’s increasing tendency to draw apart from the political discussion, which leads to their absence during election periods, constitute a very dark picture for the sustainability of democracy. In order to develop a “democratic democracy”, it is absolutely necessary to incorporate a larger number of organizations and citizens into public policy design. With the conclusion of the investigation, some questions that were not fully answered come up for further analysis: Is it really necessary for societies to preserve the status quo, disregarding people’s opportunities? Is BNW really a visionary interpretation of the human future rather than pure fiction, with no basis on reality? How valid for societies is the suppression of individuality in favor of the welfare of the social system? Undoubtedly, BNW exemplifies a world that most readers might not think possible to take place at all. However, through the analysis of the dynamics of control and propaganda from a Chomskyan point of view, it is possible to observe how both worlds (real and fictional) operate under the same logics. This means that both worlds are constructed with the existence of a State, which is run by elites, whose purpose is to utilize the state as a means of controlling and setting the scenario for their desired aims. In the case of BNW, the aim is rather clear: to preserve social stability to maintain social structure unaltered. A similar aim might be deduced from democratic

Cabezas et al. 84 Western societies, in which the state is a functional propaganda agency that helps to create the conditions for the business class to operate. As four young men about to become professionals in the field of English language teaching, the analysis has proved to be motivational and constructive for our future performance. This investigation allows us to face the task of education as part of a liberating process, rather than just filling people in with information. As teachers of a foreign language, there is a misconception of the educational role we have. In a nutshell, it is understood that we just teach “English”, without any influence in more relevant topics. However, this vision can be changed with new perspectives by which students can broaden their conceptions of what is happening in the current world and get to know the different points of view of a given subject through the learning of a foreign language. By doing this, students not only learn a new language in a natural way, but also can become aware of the problems and discussions present in the world. This investigation also awakened our awareness and motivated us to pursue critical thinking as a lifestyle. Our perception of propaganda as a widely used mechanism to manufacture consent among the masses has changed dramatically through the research we did on this issue. We had not paid much attention to what was behind the editorial of a given TV channel, radio station, newspaper or any other type of corporate mass media, but now we are more concerned about the political and economic interests the different mass media corporations may have, which definitely affects the contents and the way of delivering information. We also became aware there were intentions behind the selection of news we are exposed to; something that the vast majority of the population do not realize that is actually happening. Regarding the theme of drugs and pharmacology, the tendency that we were able to appreciate is the continuous and progressive consumption of legal drugs in order to diminish unwanted behaviors. We condemn this tendency of the social order, for the negative aspects of

Cabezas et al. 85 human behavior are essential to our nature. We also believe that it negatively affects the way human beings interact and live in a given social system, for it limits independent and free thinking.

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