# APPENDIX A

CLASSROOM TEST OF SCIENTIFIC REASONING (CTSR)
Table A(1): Breakdown of thinking skills for CTSR test

Thinking patterns
Conservation of i) weight and ii) volume Proportional thinking Identification and control of variables Probabilistic thinking Correlational thinking Combinatorial thinking
TOTAL

Item (CTSR- Post-Test)
1 2 3,4 5, 6 7,8 9, 10 11 , 12 12

CLASSROOM TEST OF SCIENTIFIC REASONING
1. Suppose you are given two clay balls of equal size and shape. The two clay balls also weigh the same. One ball is flattened into a pancake-shaped piece. Which of these statements is correct? A. The pancake-shaped piece weighs more than the ball. B. The two pieces still weigh the same. C. The ball weighs more than the pancake-shaped piece.

BECAUSE 1. the flattened piece covers a large area. 2. the ball pushes down more on one spot. 3. when something is flattened it loses weight. 4. clay has not been added or taken away. 5. when something is flattened it gains weigh.

the marbles are the same size. Glass marble Steel marble Cylinder 1 Cylinder 2 FIGURE A When the glass marble is put into Cylinder 1. The cylinders are identical in size and shape. Figure A shows two cylinders filled to the same level with water. To a higher level than it did in Cylinder 1 C. the marbles are made of different materilas. Also shown in Figure A are two marbles.2. The marbles are the same size but the steel one is much heavier than the glass one. 2. the glass marble creates less pressure. 5. 3. one glass and one steel. If we put the steel marble into cylinder 2. . the steel marble is heavier than the glass marble. the steel marble will sink faster. the water will rise A. To a lower level than it did in Cylinder 1 BECAUSE 1. To the same level as it did in Cylinder 1 B. 4. it sinks to the bottom and the water level rises to the 6 th mark.

3. 2. How high would this water rise if it were poured into the empty narrow cylinder? A. 4. To about 10. 3. BECAUSE 1. the second cylinder is narrower. 5. To about 12. C. it goes up 3 in the narrow for every 2 in the wide. 4th mark FIGURE B (i) FIGURE B (ii) 6th mark Both cylinders are emptied (not shown) and water is poured into the wide cylinder up to the 6th mark. The cylinders have equally spaced marks on them. To about 9. To about 8. so it will go up 2 more again. This water rises to the 6th mark when poured into the narrow cylinder (see Figure B(ii)). Figure B(i) shows a wide and a narrow cylinder. one must actually pour the water and observe to find out. . None of these answers is correct. B. it went up 2 more before. Water is poured into the wide cylinder up to the 4th mark (see Figure B(i)). the answer can not be determined with the information given. D. E.

A 5 unit weight is attached to the end of String 3. 2. To about 7½ B. 5. the answer can not be determined with the information given. String 2 is shorter. How high would this water rise if it were poured into the empty wide cylinder? A.4. The three strings have metal weights attached to their ends. None of these answers is correct. To about 9 C. 3. 4. String 1 dan string 3 are the same length. A 10 unit weight is attached to the end of string 1. To about 8 D. One must actually pour the water and observe to find out. To about 7 1/3 E. you subtract 2 from the wide for every 3 from the narrow. The Strings (and attached weights) can be swung back and forth and the time it takes to make a swing can be timed. Water is now poured into the narrow cylinder (described in item 3 above) up to the 11th mark. Figure C shows 3 strings hanging from a bar. the ratios must stay the same. A 10 unit weight is also attached to the end of string 2. FIGURE C . BECAUSE 1. it was 2 less before so it will be 2 less again. 5.

Suppose you want to find out whether the length of the string has an effect on the time it takes to swing back and forth. Only one string All three strings 2 and 3 1 and 3 1 and 2 BECAUSE 1. the weights should be different. In a second experiment. 5. so you can tell if weights make a difference. 2. 3. 2 dan 3 E. to make all possible comparisons the weights differ. the length of the strings should be different. D. Which strings would you use to find out? A. string 3 saja BECAUSE: 1. . only the lengths differ. string 1 dan 2 B. string 1 dan 3 C. 2. suppose you wanted to find out whether the amout of weight attached to the end of a string has an effect on the time it takes for a string to swing back and forth. 6. 4. you must use the longest strings. string 2 dan 3 D. C. the length of the strings should be same. B. Which of the strings would you use to find out? A. string 1. E. The weights should be same. you must compare strings with both light and heavy weights.

3 out of 6 pieces are red. What are the chances that the piece is red? A. all 6 pieces are identical in size and shape. only 1 piece of the 6 in the bag is picked. 3. three pieces are red (labeled M) and three are yellow (labeled K) as shown in Figure D. however. 4. only the smallest weights should be tested. 7. 1 chance out of 6 1 chance out of 3 1 chance out of 2 1 chance out of 1 can not be determined K K BECAUSE: 1. 5. E. All strings and their weights should be tested against all others. only 1 red piece can be picked out of the 3 red pieces. Different lengths with different weights should be tested. . 4.3. M M M K FIGURE D Suppose someone reaches into the bag (without looking) and pulls out one piece. there is no way to tell which piece will be picked. 5. D. 2. The six pieces are identical in size and shape. C. Six square pieces of wood are put into a cloth bag and mixed about. B.

two yellow round pieces. 15 chances out of 21 E. and three blue round pieces are also put into the bag. Can not be determined B. 1 chance out of 2 BECAUSE: 1. 15 of the 21 pieces are red or blue. M K B M K B M K B K B B FIGURE E Suppose someone reaches into the bag (without looking and without feeling for a particular shape piece) and pulls out one piece (Figure E). 4. only 1 of the 21 pieces is picked out of the bag. and 5 blue square pieces are put into a cloth bag. 2. What are the chances that the piece is red round or blue round piece? A. . 3 red square pieces of wood. All the pieces are then mixed about. there is no way to tell which piece will be picked.8. 1 of the 2 shapes is round. 3. 4 yellow square pieces. 5. 1 chance out of 21 D. 1 of every 3 pieces is a red or blue round piece. In a second experiment. 1 chance out of 3 C. 4 red round pieces.

Appears to be a link Appears not to be a link Can not make a reasonable guess. FIGURE F Do you think there is a link between the size of the mice and the color of their tails? A. . 3. 5. C. there are some of each kind of mouse. He discovered that all of them were either fat or thin. So he captured all of the mice in one part of his field and observed them. there may be a genetic link between mouse size and tail color. 4. BECAUSE: 1. as the mice grew fatter. their tails become darker. B. This made him wonder if there might be a link between the size of the mice and the color of their tails. most of the fat mice have black tails while most of the thin mice have white tails. Below are the mice that he captured (Figure F). all of them had either black tails or white tails. Also. Pak Abu was observing the mice that live in his field. there were not enough mice captured. 2.9.

5. This made the fisherman wonder if there was a relation between the size of the fish and the width of their stripes. 12/28 of the fish have wide strips and 16/28 of the fish have narrow strips. 3. 7 of the fish are big and 21 are small. . B. 4. The fish in the drawing (Figure G) were caught by a fisherman. 2. and others had narrow stripes. who noticed that some of the fish were big and some were small. Also some had wide stripes. Not all big fish have wide strips and not all small fish have narrow strips. Big fish and small fish can have either wide or narrow strips.10. FIGURE G Do you think there is a relation between the size of the fish and the width of their stripes? A. Yes No BECAUSE: 1. 3/7 of the big fish and 9/21 of the small fish have wide strips.

and Samiah. There are 3 kinds of meat: chicken (C). A cook wanted to prepare lunch for his owner.11. Chong and Daniel (SCD). long beans (L) and lady’s fingers (F). beef (B) and mutton (M). STUDENT COUNCIL Form 4 Form 5 Jais (J) Daniel (D) Anita (A) Martina (M) Chong (C) Goh (G) TABLE 1 A three member committee is to be formed with one person from each grade. Form 3 Thomas (T) Samiah (S) Kassim (K) . List all other possible ways that the lunch consists of one meat and one vegetable. SCD. C – K. One possible combination is chicken-kailan (C-K). Three students from Form Three. All possible combinations must be considered before a decision can be made. List all other possible combinations in the spaces provided. Form Four. 12. TJD. Jais and Daniel (TJD). and Form Five were elected to the student council as listed in Table 1. and 3 kinds of vegetables: kailan (K). Two possible combinations are Thomas.