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CHINESEGEOGRAPHICALSCIENCE

Volume15, Number2,pp. !"#$!"%,2005


Science Press, Beijing, China
URBAN TURISMRESEARCH METHDLGY
A Case Study oI Guangdong-Hong Kong-MacaoArea
TAO Wei, ZHONG Wen-hui, HONG Yan
(Sc/oo/ o/ eogco/y ond P/onning, Sun Yo/-Sen |nicecsi/y, uong:/ou 510275, P. R. C/ino)
ABSTRACT: This paper tries to apply a new and more comprehensive method to urban tourism research in an ex-
panded Iield instead oI only partially, unilaterally and separately Iocusing on the city itselI. Taking the urban tourism
oI Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao as an example, it aims at presenting a new spatial system oI urban tourism re-
search and pointing out the new orientation oI urban tourism research in combination oI macro level and micro level,
Irom description to explanation. The meanings oI the spatial Iramework construction Ior urban tourism study are to
make clear how urban tourism studies vary with the changes oI dimensions oI time and space. This is a meaningIul
discussion because it will bring great changes to the using oI literatures, the opening oI research perspectives on ur-
ban tourism and the upgrading oI theories, so as to create a new stage Ior urban tourism study.
KEY WRDS: urban tourism; region; research method; Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao area
CLC number: K928.7 Documentcode:A ArticleID:002-0063(2005)02-073-06
Receiveddate:2005-0-20
Foundationitem:UndertheauspicesoItheNationalNaturalScienceFoundationoIChina(No.402007)
Biography: TAO Wei (97$), Iemale, a native oI Pingdingshan oI Henan Province, associate proIessor, specialized in urban
tourismandtourismplanning.E-mail:arystianscut.edu.cn
1 INTRDUCTIN
UrbantourismisabroadconceptincludingallkindsoI
recreationalactivitiesthattakeplaceincities. Withthe
development oIpost-industrialization, comprehensive
strengthoIcitieshasbeenenhanced, andtheimprove-
ment oI urban environment and the perIection oI all
kinds oI service Iacilities are all great attractions to
tourists, which includes convenient transportation,
Ilourishing economy, superior business and shopping
environment, developed technology and inIormation,
advanced service and entertainment, modern urban
landscape, abundant urban culture and so on. Then
moreandmorepeoplechoosecitiesastourismdestina-
tion. Thetourismbecomes"urbanization". Cities are
becoming the combination oI destination and origin,
and thus they are not only the regional economic, cul-
tural and political centers but also the regional tourism
centers (ZOU and TIAN, 2002).
Europe is the origin place oI urban tourism. Accord-
ing to the comparative research on urban tourism and
urban policy oI eight European cities, which was made
by European Institute Ior Comparative Urban Research
(EURICUR), it is suggested that, due to the lack oI the
tradition oI tourism, most oI the cities are still on a pri-
mary stage oI the tourism development.
Likewise, the study on urban tourism in China is also
on its primary stage nowadays, main oI which concerns
are the economic theory oI urban tourism (demand and
supply) (GRAEFE and VASKE, 987; MYRIAM,
986), the economic, socio-cultural and environmental
impacts oI urban tourism (BARRY, 997;

BERTRAM,
998;

NINA and MARAT, 996), the planning and
management oI urban tourism(CHEN, 996;

LI, 996),
the marketing oI urban tourism (BILL and SHFFIELD,
996), the spatial distribution oI urban tourism Iacilities
(STEPHEN, 985), urban heritage tourism (KEVIN,
996), the typology oI urban tourists (STUART and
ERLET, 998), the statistic system oI urban tourism
(KARL, 2000), and the theory research oI urban
tourism etc. (DOUGLAS, 200). Many subjects, such
as economy, geography, tourism, ecology, sociology,
architecture and planning, psychology and behavior
analysis and so on, have involved in urban tourism re-
search,which makes the urban studies diverse. In con-
clusion, almost all the present achievements on urban
tourism studies Iocus on the city itselI, most oI which
are operational discussion and description argumenta-
tion other than the outstanding studies on theory. Most
oI the studies are separated, isolated and random be-
cause oI lack oI a united theory system.

The development oI urban tourism will aIIect not
!"# $%& ()#*+ $%,--.& )#*+ /0,
! Broad Guangzhou includes Guangzhou and surrounding cities such as Zhaoqing, Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan etc., and these
surroundingcitieshavecloserelationshipwith Guangzhou in many ways as policy, economy and culture.
only the industrial structure and economy development
oI the city itselI, but also the whole region that the ur-
ban tourism depends on. The relationship between ur-
ban tourism and site, district, city, region, nation in-
cludes many Iactors, such as demand, supply, develop-
ment, marketing, planning, organization, operation and
impacts evaluation and so on, as suggested by DOU-
GLAS (2001). Sothispapertriestoapplyanewand
morecomprehensive method tourban tourism research
inanexpandedIieldinsteadoIonlypartially,unilateral-
lyandseparatelyIocusingonthecityitselI.

2 URBAN OURISM RESEARCH: A REGIONAL


PERSPECIVE
RegionisoneoIthekeyconceptsingeography.Onone
hand, it is an objectively existing geographic unit,
whichhasadeIinedplaceandcommonnaturalandcul-
turalcharacteristics. AsEDGAR(1990) said: "Accord-
ing to description, analysis, management, planning or
makingpolicies, regionisdeemedasauseIulregional
unity". Ontheotherhand, regionisasubjectivecon-
struction, asLEWIS(1963) suggested: "Geographicre-
gionisthebasepartoIrealityandthetransIormationoI
thecomplexityoItheobservedIacts".Sothecomplete
concept oIgeographicregionisthecombinationoIob-
jectiveenvironmentandsubjectiveconstruction.
Theso-called regionalperspective istostudy the de-
velopment oI urban tourism Irom a regional sense in
short.Theregionhereisnotmerelythegeographic,ad-
ministrative or economic area but the comprehensive
regional space that urban tourism depends on. Urban
tourismisnotseparated, soitmustdependonthesup-
portoIregioninessential. TakingadeIinedareaasan
example, cityistheresidentialareathatiswelldevel-
opedwithconcentratedeconomicandculturalactivities
andallkindsoIharmoniouslydevelopedindustries.Ac-
cordingtotheresearchoItourists'behavior, touristsal-
ways travel in a node and circularity route and make
"the minimum oI play time to all travel time" (CEN
andBAO, 1988). Thisrequiresallthecitiesinthere-
gion connect and cooperate together so as to Iorm a
completesystemwithanintegratedproperty.Forexam-
ple,theChangjiang(Yangtze)Riverdelta,theZhujiang
(Pearl)RiverDeltaandtheBohaiSearimareaarethe
topthreeindustrialareaswithdensepopulation,well-
developedeconomyandalotoIcities. Tourismhasex-
periencedIastdevelopment inthesethreeareassoasto
provide good economic and cultural backgrounds Ior
developingurbantourism. Regionandurbantourism
areverycloserelated,whichmakesthebroadand Iar-
reachingbackgroundIorurbantourismresearchIroma
regionalperspective.Meanwhile,IoradeIinedcity, the
regionthatitdependsonisitsmostdirecttouristsorigin
hinterland. BasedontheresearchoItourists'behavior,
tourist market decreases as the distance increases Iol-
lowingthe"attenuationbydistance"rule. Thisrequires
thecityintheregiontohaveadeIiniteconsciousnessoI
theregion, understandtheregionalmarketandprovide
correspondingurbantourismproducts.
Comparedwiththepreviousresearchmethods,there-
gional perspective oI urban tourism research views ur-
bantourisminabroaderregionalcontextotherthanthe
cityitselI. Inthespatialaspect, thiswillchangethetra-
ditional way oI research to regardcity as the main ob-
ject, and giveproper attention tothespace thaturban
tourismdependson. ConsideringtheIactorsrelevantto
urbantourism, regionalperspectivecheckstherelation
betweensupplyanddemand, development approaches,
promotionstrategies,planningconcepts,structureoIor-
ganizations, controloIoperation, andevaluationoIim-
pactsandsoonaccordingtothechangingpatternsoIre-
gionsthemselves. Thiswillreplacethetraditionalsim-
pleanalysisconcerningonlyasingleunitbyaspatially
dynamic development concept that views the regional
urbantourism development asacontinuously changing
process.Inconclusion,themajorconcernoItheregion-
alperspective is the geographic spaces, which have
commoneconomicandculturalcharacteristics, aswell
as the growing and developing background oI urban
tourism.Inanotherword,itisabroaderdimension.

3 CASE SUDY
3.1 Location of Study Area
The Guangdong-ong Kong-Macao (Yue-Gang-Ao)
area mentioned in this paper means "the Broad Zhu-
jiangRiverDelta"thatincludesongKongandMacao
special administrative regions as well as the Zhujiang
RiverDeltaarea. AsilluminatedinFig. 1, wecantake
theEnglishletter"A"todescribethespatialrelationship
among these cities in the "the Broad Zhujiang River
Delta"asIollowing: thepeakisthebroadGuangzhou
!
that is on the north edge oI the Zhujiang River Delta,
thepointontheleItisMacao, which islocatedtothe
westoItheZhujiangRiverentranceinthesouthernChi-
na, thepointontherightisongKongthatislocated
on the shore oI the South China Sea and to the east oI
!"#
Urban ourismResearchMethodology ACase StudyoIGuangdong-HongKong-Macao Area
Table1PresentsituationoIthetourismdevelopmentoIGuangdong-HongKong-Macaoarea
Regionorcity LiIecycleoItour-
ismdevelopment
Advantage Problem
HongKong Maturity International tourismcenteraswellasthe most popu-
lartourismdestinationinAsiawithintersectionoIori-
entaland western culture, developed urban services,
Iast development, and the honors oI "moving city",
"shopping paradise" and "city oI dainty Iood"
Straitness oI space, shortage oI natural resources,
weakness oI central position in Iinancing
Macao Maturity Resort Ior leisure and vacation as well as international
tourism gambling city, with the intersection oI Chinese
traditional cultureandPortuguese culture, and Euro-
peancharacteristic construction, and quiet and com-
Iort,beautiIullandscape
Resort Ior leisure and vacation as well as interna-
tionaltourismgamblingcity, withtheintersection
oI Chinese traditional culture and Portuguese cul-
ture, andEuropeancharacteristicconstruction, and
quietandcomIort,beautiIullandscape
Zhujiang River
Delta
Growing VastterritoryandbeautiIulmountainsandrivers, lots
oI placesoI interests, resorts and historic sites, and
abundanttourismresources, anduniquearchitectures,
culturesandarts,customs,daintyIoodsaswellasspe-
ciallocalproducts
Requiringtoextendinternationalmarketandinter-
national tourism, and changethe situation oI the
resourcesstagnation, and improve the urban ser-
viceindustry
Fig.1SketchoIregionstructureoI
Guangdong-HongKong-Macao
theentranceoItheZhujiangRiver,therightpointoIthe
horiontallineisShenhen, andtheleItoneisZhuhai
(HUANG,2003).
3.2 Preent Situation of Tourim Development
Thetourism industryin Yue-Gang-Aoareahasexperi-
enced a very Iast development due to the abundant
tourismresources, superiorlocationandtransportation
conditions, outstanding tourism images (Table 1) and
goodcooperationhistory(Table2).Accordingtostatis-
tics, Guangdongportreceived55.63!10
6
touristsIrom
Hong Kong at an increasing rate oI 8.7 compared
with last year, and received 18.04 !10
6
tourists Irom
Macao at a increasing rate oI 18 compared with last
year. In2002, therewere3.124!10
6
tourists IromChi-
nesemainlandtoHongKongand2.347!10
6
tourists to
MacaothroughtheGuangdongport. Chinesemainland
has been the main tourists origin Ior Hong Kong and
Macao.SoGuangdong,HongKongandMacaoarevery
closely related as they have been tourists' origins and
destinationseachother.
Viewing Irom the tourism industries oI the broad
ZhujiangRiver Delta, thecomprehensive cooperation
oI tourism industries oI Guangdong, Hong Kong and
Macaohasplayedaparticulargreatroleontheeconom-
icgrowthandamalgamationoIthesethreeareas. They
have achieved the cooperation oI the whole area in
tourists' origin, market and tourism resources. They
havereasonableindustrystructure, thecomprehensive
industry layout up and down and detailed market seg-
mentation. ItisbecauseoItheadvantageoIgeography
andculture that Guangdonghasbeenthe province that
receivesthemostoIinboundtourists(especiallytourists
IromHongKongandMacao) Ioryears, alsothereare
millions oI tourists Irom Chinese mainland to Hong
KongandMacao, whichactivatethetourismandeco-
nomic developmentoI these two areas. Meanwhile, as
international tourist cities, Hong Kong and Macao
transIer quite a number oI international tourists to
GuangdongProvince, especiallythecitiesintheZhu-
jiang River Delta and even the Iarther hinterland
(YANG,2003).

Asgaininggreateconomicadvantage,thetourismde-
velopment oI Yue-Gang-Ao area also shows another
Iact that with the strengthening oI opening oI home
tourismmarketandinternationalcooperationaIterjoin-
ingWTO, Ioreigncapitaltourismindustries, which
have powerIul Iinancing and complete marketing net-
works,havegraduallyenteredhomemarketsandshow-
edgreatcompetitiveadvantagesonbusinesstourismand
outboundtourism, thereIorebroughtnewpressuresand
challengesontourismindustryoIYue-Gang-Aoarea.
3.2.1 Weken/ng af camprt/re geagrphy drn-
tges
Geographic Iactors have been the greatest advantages
IorYue-Gang-AotourismareaIoralongtime.Thanks
"#$
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to the dvantage oIgeographicloction, theZhujiang
River Delta attracts numbers oI tourists Irom Hong
Kong,MacaoandTaiwan,eventheSoutheastAsiaand
Europeand America. And HongKong and Macao,as
internationalcities, caterIoranumberoIinternational
businesstourists.ButwiththeIoreigncapitalmanuIac-
ture's moving northward and the Iormation oI new man-
uIacture belt at JiangsuandtheChangjiang (Yangtze)
River Delta, Hong Kong'spositionastheIinancingcen-
ter decreases and the number oI international business
touristshasbeendecreasingearbear.Instead,Iami-
lvisitorshavebeenthemaintouristsoIthesethreear-
eas.TheweakeningoIgeographicadvantagesresultsin
thelackoIregionalcompetitiveness.
3.2.2 V/c/as cyc/e f /ncmpact /nner stractare
Sincethe1980s,theeconomiccooperationoI Yue-
Gang-Ao area is Iounded on spontaneous interactive
baseatalowlevel. Thestagnation, malIunction and
misgovernment oI inIormation result in the vicious c-
clesinmanaspects,suchasreconstructionoIresour-
ces,unIavorableccleoIIundsandsoon.Soacommon
problemIacingallcitiesoIYue-Gang-Aoareaishowto
change the present situation to attain the collective eI-
Iect oI tourism development in Yue-Gang-Ao area and
increase the comprehensive attractiveness oI the whole
areaandachievethegoaloIsustainabledevelopmentoI
tourism.
3.3 Reginal Perspective f Turism Develpment
Asthe earliest and mostmature tourism area oIChina,
Yue-Gang-Aoareahasmaturetourismcooperation and
high extent oI attracting and utilizing Ioreign capital.
ThereIore,thereisstillgreatpotentialIortourismcoop-
erationinYue-Gang-Aoarea.
3.3.1 Strengthen/ng attract/reness f symb/ resarces
The opening oI Disne World in Hong Kong in 2005,
theplanningoI"OrientalMonteCarlo"gamblingcitin
MacaoandthedevelopmentoIcitiesclusterintheZhu-
jiang River Delta will constitute the new smbol re-
sources oI Yue-Gang-Ao area. The Disne World oI
HongKongisthe main project oIurban tourism image
construction oIHongKongas"MovingCit"intheIu-
ture, whichistouseDisne'sIamiliarandIriendlim-
ages to attract Iamil vocation and recreation tourists.
With the opening polic oI tourism in Guangdong
Province and the building oI Hong Kong-Zhuhai
-Macao Bridge in the Iuture, Hong Kong will attract
more andmore touristsIromthe Zhujiang River Delta,
especiall the white-collars oI Guangzhou and Shen-
zhen. MacaoisIamousIoritsgamblingindustrandis
oneoIthetopIourgamblingcitiesintheworld. Since
openingoIgamblingright, introducing intothecompe-
tition sstem and building up the new image oI gam-
blingcit, Macaodevelopscomprehensivetourismb
openingtourismthatmainlIacestoIamil'sshorttime
recreationortakingaholida.Nolandresourcesrestric-
tion in Guangdong and abundant resources in the Zhu-
jiangRiverDeltaaswellasthenewlburgeoningcities
belt,makethesupplementoItourismresourcesoIHong
KongandMacaoandconstitutethesmbolresourcesoI
the Zhujiang River Delta together the new image oI
"Iamilholida"recreationarea.
3.3.2 Great ptent/a/ f tar/sts markets
TheZhujiangRiverDeltaownsgreatpotentialoIpopu-
lation resources. There are 38.477 !10
6
citizens in
Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Huizhou, Dongguan
andZhongshan together. Meanwhile, the eight cities
makeuptheclusteroIcitiespossessingthemost deve-
loped econom and the highest living level, adding
Hong Kongand Macao in, all these citiesleadto the
bloomingtourismconsumptionoIthisarea.Withthe
subscriptionoI1234%5 673,38&7 905:,%54-&; "550,<%-
8%,: =%:>%%, 1-&,%4% ?0&,20,@ 0,@ )3,< A3,<
(CEPA), thepeopleoIChinesemainlandwerepermit-
tedtogotoHongKongIortourism. Atthesametime
the implement oI 24-hour opening oI the customs in-
creases the inbound and outbound eIIectiveness oI the
tourists Irom Chinese mainland. The subscription oI
CEPApredicatesanewhistoricaldevelopment stageoI
tourismcorporationoIYue-Gang-Aoarea. Thetourist
originexchange,cooperationandtherecurrentdevelop-
mentoIYue-Gang-Ao areawillalsoplaagreaterpart
inactivatingtheeconomoIthesethree areas. There-
Iore,Yue-Gang-Aoareawillkeepitssuperioritaslong
as the innovate new production and maintain the
wholeattractivenessoItheregion.
Table2Inboundtouristandrevenuein2001
No. Cit Internationaltourismrevenue(!10
6
US$) Increasingrate() Inboundtourist(!10
6
) Increasingrate()
1
2
3
4
5
HongKong
Macao
Guangzhou
Shenzhen
Zhuhai
7808.00
2160.00
1651.68
1510.56
433.80
9.4
9.5
9.7
6.6
10.1
14.0750
11.5300
4.4237
4.2387
1.0991
7.8
12.2
5.1
6.6
12.8
"#$
Urban ourismResearchMethodology ACase StudyoIGuangdong-HongKong-Macao Area
!"!"! #$%&()(*+ ), -)..&-*(/0 1/2 2(3%&3(/0 *)$(3*3
1/2 41*&(1.3
There is a developed transportation networks among
Guangdong,HongKongandMacao.Theyhavethebest
transportation conditions in landway as well as water-
way in China. Recently the tourism transport oI the
western part oIGuangdongProvince has beenalso im-
proved.Thereareseveralexcellentdeep-waterharbors,
highwaynetworks and Iive large international airports,
whichmakeupthesuperiorityoIcollectinganddispers-
ingtouristsandmaterialsoIthethreecities. Especially
GuangzhouandHongKong, which work asthe gate-
waysandhubsoIthisarea,playgreatpartinorganizing
domesticandinternationaltouristsandmaterials.

4 ESTABISHMENT OF URBAN TOURISM RE-


SEARCH METHODOOGY
Inconclusion, wepresentaspatialresearchingIrame-
workIorurbantourismasFig. 2. Thehorizontalaxis
means all kinds oI exterior relationships oI urban
tourismstudy, inotherwords, theevolvementrelation-
shipIrommacrotomicrodimension; theverticalaxis
means all kinds oI interior relationships within urban
tourismresearch, inotherwords, thestudyoIallkinds
oIdeIiniteimpactIactors(supplyanddemand,develop-
mentroute, promoting strategy, planningconcepts, or-
ganizingmodels, operating and controlling, impacts e-
valuationandsoon), related to deIinite urban theme
parks, urban recreation business district, large sports
and exposition and so on). The "region-city"horizontal
axisandthe"theme-Iactor"verticalaxisseparatethere-
searchsystemintoIourdiIIerentquadrants. Theyare
city-Iactor researchsystem, region-Iactorresearchsys-
tem,region-themeresearchsystemandcity-themere-
searchsystem.TheyarediIIerentIromeachotherin
keyresearchpoints. City-Iactor !) andcity-theme
")takethecityasthebasicstudycell,anddoresearch
about the impacts Iactors and their developing Iorms
withinthecity, whicharepopularresearchmethodsa-
mongpresentstudies.Region-Iactor#)andregion-
theme $) doresearchabouttheimpactsIactorsand
theirdevelopingIormsinaregionbackground,whichis
alsothepointwepresenttostudyurbantourismIroma
regionalperspective.Asawhole,thesystem$ Iocuses
onmacroresearchanddescriptionresearch.Mosturban
tourism studies in geography belong to this kind oI re-
search. ButanalyzingIromthedevelopingtrends, the
combination oI system $ and system ! will be the
newesttrendoIurbantourismstudies. Inotherwords,
theneworientationoIurbantourismresearchisincom-
binationoImacrolevelandmicrolevel, Iromdescrip-
tiontoexplanation.
ThemeaningoIconstructionoIthespatialIramework
Ior urban tourism study is to make clear how urban
tourism studiesvarywiththechangesoIdimensions oI
time and space. We conIirm that this is a meaningIul
discussionbecauseitwillbringgreatchangestotheus-
ingoIliteratures, theopeningoIresearchperspectives
onurbantourismandtheupgradingoItheories, thus
can create a new research stage Ior urban tourism
study.

4.1 Combination of Macroscopic and Microscopic


Researches
Besides the research on city itselI, the relationship oI
the cities in a region and the connection between city
andtheregionaretwocluesthatcannotbeignored.Re-
gionality is one oI the basic characteristics oI urban
tourism. Theurbantourisminitstruemeaningshould
betheamalgamation oIthecharacteristics oIeacharea
Irom the macro regional perspective through recogniz-
ing,analyzingandconcludingallthecharacteristicsand
learning Irom others' advantages to oIIset own disad-
vantages. ThereIore, regionalperspectiveisareason-
able and realistic way to carry out urban tourism stud-
ies.
It is the relationship between main body and mul-
ti-Iactorsthatregionalperspectiveemphasizes. Inother
words,ittakesmoreproIoundanalysisandIurtheraIIir-
mation on the basis oIawareness oIthe common char-
acteroIurbantourismdevelopments.Thethreemega-
polises belts including the Changjiang River Delta
megapolisbelt,theZhujiangRiverDeltamegapolisbelt
andthemegapolisbeltaroundtheBohaiSeaaregrow-
ingbiggerandbigger.ThedevelopmentoIurbantour-
ism oI these three areas is getting more mature. All
mentionedabovemakecertainmacrourbantourismre-
gionsobjectively.
Fig.2SpatialsystemoIstudyonurbantourism
!""
T10 !ei Zh0NC !en-/ui h0NC Yon
All ths rgions hav thir own charactristics and
dvloping routs in tourism dvlopmnt, and distin-
guishd ach othr. It is not hard to suppos that iI w
can study urban tourism in th typical rgions in China
according to th Iour systms mntiond abov,andin-
vstigatthirspatialstructursandcomparwithach
othraswll, wwillralizthdvlopmntoIurban
tourism Irom a macro prspctiv. This will not only
hlpustoundrstandthrgionalcharactristicsanddi-
vrsitisoIurbantourisminChina, andIurthrtox-
plain ach rgion's individuality, but also dpn our
comprhnsiv and concrt undrstanding oI urban
tourism dvlopmnt.

4.2 Trasformatio from Descriptio to Explaatio
Bcaus oI th lack oI indpndnt principl Iram-
work, rcntly th study oI urban tourism is Iragmntary
and scattrd and stays on a dscriptiv stag, which r-
sults in th lack oI unitd concpts, amphibolous char-
actristics, mass oI rsarching objctivs and divrs
mthods oI urban tourism study. This rvals that w
should turn th ky point oI urban tourism study to basic
thoris and pay much attntion to th background oI
thoris. RgionisthcommonbasisoImanythoris
and practics. W can gt rid oI all kinds oI xtrior
phnomnatosarchthbasicthorisoIurbantourism
dirctlyIromthrgionalprspctiv.
Fromamormacrorgionalprspctiv,wmaygt
somnwundrstandingabouturbantourism, Iorx-
ampl, how to maintain th charactristics oI urban
tourism, How to nhanc th attractivnss oI urban
tourism.WmaynotndtobdIindintothnatural
andculturaltourismrsourcsoIachcity. Aslongas
wdonotsparatwiththmatrixoIrgion,wcanin-
hrit and dvlop th connotation oI rgional tourism
undrthnwliIstylandnwtchnologytoconstruct
aspcialatmosphroIurbantourism, inwhichurban
tourismwillxprincamorcomprhnsiv, much
Iurthrandmormacrodvlopmnt.
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