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Subhas Chandra Bose's political views


Subhas Chandra Bose's political views
Subhas Chandra Bose's political views were in support of complete freedom for India at the earliest, whereas most of the Congress Committee wanted it in phases, through a Dominion status.[1] Even though Bose and Gandhi had differing ideologies, the latter called Bose the "Prince among the Patriots" in 1942. Bose admired Gandhi, recognising his importance as a symbol of Indian Bose with Gandhi in 1938 Nationalism; he called him "The Father of Our Nation" in a radio broadcast from Rangoon in 1944, in which he stated that "I am convinced that if we do desire freedom we must be prepared to wade through blood",[2] a statement somewhat at odds with Gandhi's philosophy of non-violence. Thus, although they shared the goal of an Independent India, by 1939 the two had become divided over the strategy which should be used to achieve Indian Independence, and to some degree the form which the post-Independence state should take: Gandhi was hostile to industrialisation, whilst Bose saw it as the only route to making India strong and self-sufficient (in this he may have been influenced, like many other Indian intellectuals of the time, by reports of the success of the Soviet five-year plans). Nehru disagreed with Gandhi on this point as well, though not over the tactics of protest.

the country was internally more ripe for a revolution than ever before and that the coming international crisis would give India an opportunity for achieving her emancipation. pointing out that the Japanese had claimed right of conquest in Manchuria and would do so in India. Bose had organized and led protest marches against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. and was in danger of being turned into a puppet ruler like Pu-yi. and massacres of Malayan Chinese in Singapore where he spent most of the War.. and of China itself in 1938.. and annulment of democratic institutions in Nazi Germany. Nirad C. including India.[6] Bose's judgment in allying with the Japanese has been questioned. saying that while Britain was allegedly fighting for the freedom of the European nations under Nazi control. the last Chinese Emperor in Manchukuo. rather than on the battlefield. he would have been in a weak position. In 1943 Rash Behari Bose had urged this on him during his last visit to Subhas Bose in Singapore. however. he demanded giving the British Government a six-month deadline for granting independence and of launching a mass civil disobedience movement if it failed to do so. In 1937 he published an article attacking Japanese Imperialism in the Far East. Anton Pelinka and Leonard Gordon have remarked that Bose's skills were best illustrated at the negotiating table.[7] Nevertheless. when he was Congress president. Chaudhuri. as Subhash Chandra Bose and Jinnah of Muslim many argue that he would have been unable to ensure an independent League seen here together India had he ridden to power on Japanese bayonets. after he fled to Germany in 1941 and offered Hitler an alliance. Bose's tenure as Congress Party President (1938-39) did not reflect any particular Netaji addressing the nation anti-democratic or authoritarian attributes. He criticized the British during World War II. It may be observed that along with Nehru.". He believed that ".[4] He also. whilst Quit India had shown that this would not be accepted by the Indian Nation. although he betrayed some admiration for other aspects of the Japanese regime. it would not grant independence to its own colonies. and thought they could be used in building an independent India.Subhas Chandra Bose's political views 2 Bose was accused of 'collaborating' with the Axis. At the Tripura Congress session of 1939. Bose also seems to have ignored the appalling treatment meted out by the Japanese to the Asian inhabitants of the lands they conquered as part of the Greater East Asian Co-prosperity sphere.[3] Bose's earlier correspondence (prior to 1939) also reflects his deep disapproval of the racist practices of. which is rare in human history.[5] Nevertheless. given the INA's overwhelming dependence on Japanese military support. expressed admiration for the authoritarian methods (though not the racial ideologies) which he saw in Italy and Germany during the 1930s. which included the forcible recruitment of labour from the overseas Indian population to build projects such as the Burma Railway.[8] .

Publicly at least. and to some extent. did all this necessarily stem from the activities of Bose and the INA. it would have been at the cost of an Allied defeat in the Second World War.[14] Judith Brown argues that the Mutiny of the Indian Navy was a minor factor in the British decision to leave compared to domestic political pressure. and even Churchill recognised that the offer of independence made by the Cripps Mission in 1942 could not now be withdrawn. the 1942 Cripps mission's offer of full independence after the war could be considered the point at which the British departure became inevitable. in the immediate aftermath of the war.[9] Had either of the alliances he forged during the war resulted in Indian independence in the manner he envisaged. who were not only aggressive Powers. By 1946 over 50% of the members of the Indian Civil Service were Indians. he didn't care who he had to approach for assistance. Congress had secured political concessions from the British in the form of elected Provincial Assemblies. patriotism is second to none".[17] and he was moved to proclaim after Bose's disappearance that he was a "prince among patriots" . and an agreement that the British taxpayer would foot the bill for Indian re-armament.. albeit at the expense of the partition of the country along communal lines. but also dangerous Powers.[11] Although it was rejected by Congress at the time.[15] In this interpretation concerns over the loyalty of the military were only one factor amongst many amidst the general breakdown in authority: nor. a price that some Indians would argue is too high: Gandhi himself.. he announced that "I am honestly convinced that the British Government will never recognise India's demand for independence".[13]. and the breakdown of almost all networks of support and collaboration brought about by thirty years of Congress agitation. that by allying himself with the Japanese and the Germans.Subhas Chandra Bose's political views Bose has been branded as a fascist in some quarters. American hostility to any continuation of the Raj. said that Bose had been "foolish in imagining. Statues of Netaji and Gandhiji at a center in Guntur. to Bose's achievement in integrating women and men from all the regions and religions of India in the Indian National Army. Nirad Chaudhuri considered it a backhanded tribute to Bose that the Congress tricolor and the Muslim League green flag flew together for the last time during the mutiny of the Indian navy in Bombay unleashed in 1946 partly at anger within the Navy at the trial of INA officers by the British.[18] Bose wanted freedom for India at the earliest opportunity. Even before 1939. in particular. and domestic political pressure on the Labour Government also made British withdrawal more likely.[12] Britain's weakness after the war. Gandhi himself wrote that Bose's ".[10] The alternative of non-violent protest within India espoused by Gandhi and the rest of Congress ultimately led to British withdrawal. it could be argued. Others believe that Bose had clearly expressed his belief that democracy was the best option for India.a reference. Bose never believed that this would happen unless they were driven out by force: as late as 1944.[19] 3 . three years prior to Independence. he could get Indian freedom".[16] Bose was considered a patriot even by some of his rivals in the Congress. The prospect of communalism infecting the armed forces worried the British just as much.

archive. pp. R.. No. 4 (Dec.. Retrieved 19 July 2012. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.. pp. 135 [18] Bose. [10] Nirad C. htm). in/ e-magazine/ Orissareview/ jan2004/ englishpdf/ chapter1. with all our admiration for Japan. One only has to consider the repeated invasions of Europe by Mongols. archive. andaman. org/ book/ app-m/ textm.. html) [19] Sen. andaman. the prospect of transferred power. 1972-78). S. nic. Sugata . the Huns.) The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia Vol. and other Asiatic races to understand the strength of my argument. In September he argued that simply on administrative grounds the raj could not last more than 18 months. He was also head of a government whose very mechanisms for daily administration were breaking down. 351 [11] Keith Jeffery "The Second World War" The Oxford History of the British Empire Vol. 1953). 26. org/ book/ app-m/ textm. From World War II to the Present (Cambridge) 1999 p8 [9] Roy. 328 [13] "Father of Our Nation" (Address to Mahatma Gandhi over the Rangoon Radio on 6th July 1944) The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Edited by Sisir K Bose & Sugata Bose (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1997 p301 [14] Nirad C. org/ ) I am gay. IV The Twentieth Century (Oxford University Press) 1999 p312 [12] Judith Brown Modern India. and looking back over 1946 he noted in late October. The strains of war. p. A.not only in the military but also in the economic sphere.. The origins of an Asian Democracy (Oxford University Press) 1994 pp325-30 On page 326 she writes "By 1946 the British knew their network of Indian allies in their various services was a fast-weakening support and instrument of their rule. Bose & Sugata Bose (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1997 p155 [5] Sen. 349-350 [15] Judith Brown Modern India.. Economic and Political Philosophy of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose (http:/ / web. Herr Hitler has talked of the destiny of white races to rule over the rest of the world. com/ itihaas/ fullstory. C. pdf) on 10 April 2009.A. [6] The Congress Resigns (http:/ / www. She is determined to drive out the Western powers from the Far East. archive. 1953)." [16] Brown Modern India p325 [17] Gandhi. Harper Forgotten Armies.Maximum Leader. But the historical fact is that up till now the Asiatics have dominated Europe more than have the Europeans dominated Asia. 25th March 1936 "Today I regret that I have to return to India with the conviction that the new nationalism of Germany is not only narrow and selfish but arrogant. the Arabs (Moors). nic. Chaudhuri "Subhas Chandra Bose-His Legacy and Legend" Pacific Affairs Vol. and the communal conflict had eroded efficiency and morale. archive. com/ congress-ministry-resign. Volume LXXXIII. Bose & Sugata Bose (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1997 p190 [4] Bose to Dr. Bayly & T. The Origins of an Asian Democracy 2nd Edition (Oxford) 1994 pp293-316. Badgastein. From webarchive (http:/ / www.Itihas.The new racial philosophy which has a very weak scientific foundation stands for the glorification of the white races in general and the German race in particular.and rightly so .M. com/ itoday/ millennium/ 100people/ bose. htm). without humiliating another proud. Subhas Chandra Bose 1897-1945 (http:/ / web. Chaudhuri "Subhas Chandra Bose-His Legacy and Legend" Pacific Affairs Vol.Subhas Chandra Bose's political views 4 Notes [1] Subhas Chandra Bose (http:/ / sify. without dismembering the Chinese Republic. Thierfelder of the Deutsche Academie. and now threatened ultimately loyalty to the raj itself. (2004). Orissa Review. India Today (http:/ / www. Navajivan Trust. Kurhaus Hochland. S. Her reawakening at the dawn of the present century sent a thrill throughout our Continent. indhistory. . 1999. org/ web/ 20050305012751/ http:/ / [7] C.sify. org/ web/ 20090410034236/ http:/ / orissagov. 26. Archived from the original (http:/ / orissagov. Subhas Chandra Bose 1897-1945 (http:/ / web. Government of India. 4 (Dec. and they will not last long. cultured and ancient race? No. org/ web/ 20050305012751/ http:/ / www. Nair An Indian Freedom Fighter in Japan (New Delhi) 1985 p230 [8] Nicholas Tarling (Ed. . indhistory. the Turks. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi (Ahmedabad: The Publications Division. The recent speech of Herr Hitler in Munich gives the essence of Nazi philosophy. URL accessed on 7 April 2006 [2] "Father of Our Nation" (Address to Mahatma Gandhi over the Rangoon Radio on 6th July 1944) The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Edited by Sisir K Bose & Sugata Bose (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1997 pp301-2 [3] "Japan's Role in the Far East" (originally published in the Modern Review in October 1937): "Japan has done great things for herself and for Asia. org/ book/ app-m/ textm. From webarchive (http:/ / www. where such admiration is due. pdf). 7-8. 'Our time in India is limited and our power to control events is almost gone. She is extremely sensitive . The Fall of British Asia 1941-5 (London) 2004 p327. html). We have only prestige and previous momentum to trade on. II part 2.about her self-respect as an Asiatic race. archive. in/ e-magazine/ Orissareview/ jan2004/ englishpdf/ chapter1. andaman. pp. org/ ) of this URL (http:/ / www. Social. Japan has shattered the white man's prestige in the Far East and has put all the Western imperialist powers on the defensive ." The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Edited by Sisir K. But could not all this have been achieved without Imperialism. No. our whole heart goes out to China in her hour of trial" The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Edited by Sisir K. Wavell was in no doubt that he was not only presiding over an imperial edifice which must be dismantled or collapse.. htm).. php?id=13401417). Mohandas K.

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