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UNIT-I 1. An optical fiber has a numerical aperture of 0.20 and a cladding refractive index of 1.59. Determine: (a) the acceptance angle for the fiber in water which has a refractive index of 1.33; (b) the critical angle at the core–cladding interface. 2. A multimode step index fiber has a relative refractive index difference of 1% and a core refractive index of 1.5. The number of modes propagating at a wavelength of 1.3 µm is 1100. Estimate the diameter of the fiber core. 3. The relative refractive index difference between the core axis and the cladding of a graded index fiber is 0.7% when the refractive index at the core axis is 1.45. Estimate values for the numerical aperture of the fiber. 4. A graded index fiber with a parabolic index profile supports the propagation of 742 guided modes. The fiber has a numerical aperture in air of 0.3 and a core diameter of 70 µm. Determine the wavelength of the light propagating in the fiber. Further estimate the maximum diameter of the fiber which gives single-mode operation at the same wavelength. UNIT-II 5. When the mean optical power launched into an 8 km length of fiber is 120µW, the mean optical power at the fiber output is 3 µW. Determine: (a) the overall signal attenuation or loss in decibels through the fiber assuming there are no connectors or splices; (b) the signal attenuation per kilometer for the fiber. (c) the overall signal attenuation for a 10 km optical link using the same fiber with splices at 1 km intervals, each giving an attenuation of 1 dB. 6. A long single-mode optical fiber has an attenuation of 0.5 dB/ km when operating at a wavelength of 1.3µm. The fiber core diameter is 6 µm and the laser source bandwidth is 600 MHz. Compare the threshold optical powers for stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering within the fiber at the wavelength specified. 7. A glass fiber exhibits material dispersion given by |λ2(d2n1/dλ2) | of 0.025. Determine the material dispersion parameter at a wavelength of 0.85 μm, and estimate the rms pulse broadening per kilometer for a good LED source with an rms spectral width of 20 nm at this wavelength. 8. Two step index fibers exhibit the following parameters: (a) a multimode fiber with a core refractive index of 1.500, a relative refractive index difference of 3% and an operating wavelength of 0.82 µm; (b) an 8 µm core diameter single-mode fiber with a core refractive index the same as (a), a relative refractive index difference of 0.3% and an operating wavelength of 1.55 µm. Estimate the critical radius of curvature at which large bending losses occur in both cases.