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Procedia Computer Science 10 (2012) 860 – 865

The 1st International Workshop on Agent-based Mobility, Traﬃc and Transportation Models, Methodologies and Applications

**Agent-based space-time discrete simulation of urban traﬃc including bicycles
**

Jelena Vasic∗, Heather J. Ruskin

School of Computing, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland

Abstract

A cellular automata model for mixed motorised and bicycle traﬃc, with agent-based update rule speciﬁcation, is applied to a 16-node network of one-way roads. The model is for road sharing based on positional discipline, which is common in old city centres such as Dublin’s where dedicated cycling infrastructure is sparse and streets are relatively narrow. A network fundamental diagram is deﬁned and its values derived for a number of simulated scenarios. The fundamental diagram is assessed as a means of network performance quantiﬁcation. With this aim, the eﬀect on network throughput in the model is compared for diﬀerent values of infrastructure properties, such as road length and conﬂict resolution rules, and for diﬀerent agent behaviours with respect to route choice. c 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of [name organizer] Keywords: agents, traﬃc cellular automata, simulation, bicycles, urban networks, network fundamental diagram

1. Introduction Owing to the many present day environment and health-related concerns, the pedal-bicycle as a means of transport is gaining new currency both in the developing and the developed world and the study of traﬃc including this non-motorised modality is becoming a topic of practical interest in transportation science. Investigation of the physical properties of mixed motorised and non-motorised traﬃc requires suitable models that successfully represent diﬀerences in size, behaviour and rules associated with the diﬀerent modes, as well as location speciﬁc properties (for example, the motorised-non-motorised mix in developing countries is usually of a ’diﬀusive nature’, while in developed countries the sharing of infrastructure is realised through physical separation, separate lanes or ’positional discipline’). For investigations that focus on urban traﬃc, including intricacies of cross-ﬂow dynamics at intersections, origin-to-destination routing of individual vehicles and measurements of delay and throughput for numerous dynamically categorised vehicles, a microscopic simulation model is the most straightforward approach. Bicycle only traﬃc and related road capacities have been studied since the 1970s, as detailed in [1], alongside the authors’ cellular automata (CA) model for bicycle-only ﬂows. Another CA model for such

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1877-0509 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2012.06.112

The → symbol represents the transform of the vehicle’s velocity from vi to its value at the next time-step. that is. is dealt with in [8]. allowing for motorcycles and three-wheelers. both space continuous models [3. summarising work done to date and outlining related future work. or the‘lateral interference’ type of interaction. vi → vi + 1 Slowing: if vLi < vi . both between cyclists and pedestrians. The eﬀect that vehicles moving side-by-side have on each other. An early model of a network fundamental diagram was developed in [14]. The basic movements are based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg (Na-Sch) traﬃc cellular automata (CA) model [19]. steps 1-3 are performed on all the vehicles in the system and then step 4 is applied to all vehicles. 5] and CA models [6. These describe the theoretical models and their veriﬁcation using real-world data. vLi = min(vMAX . Section 5 concludes the paper. 3. A similar modiﬁcation is made to a CA model in [9]. deal with a similar problem to that of pedal-bicycle inclusion. vi → di Randomisation: with probability pR . is described in [2]. In contrast. vi → vi − 1 Vehicle motion: each vehicle is advanced vi cells where vi is the ith vehicle’s velocity. This paper gives a summary of the simulation model in Section 2. 16. to their right. All vehicles always move on a one-dimensional lattice of cells. While simple. di is the number of empty cells between the ith vehicle and the vehicle ahead of it. Model Description The model used for the simulations is that described in [18]. the latter are models for motorised heterogeneous traﬃc that. the Na-Sch model diverges from straightforward CA if vMAX > 1. since higher velocities require non-immediate cell neighbourhoods and complex update rules that are more readily expressed from .g. 7. 7] have been developed. vMAX is the maximal velocity achievable by the vehicle and pR is the randomisation parameter. Ruskin / Procedia Computer Science 10 (2012) 860 – 865 861 ﬂows. During simulation. [13]) as its basic building block and expands on the rules for velocity update to include network navigation. 17]. A two-dimensional optimal velocity model is used in [12] for the interactions between left-turning bicycles and straight-going cars. associated dynamics and bicycle interaction with motorised vehicles. Such a case is studied in [10]. 2. The concept and its study was revived recently in [15.5m for the length of a cell and 1s for a time step. Here the conﬂicts between vehicles on the intersecting ﬂows is resolved by using a sequential sub-grouping of updates within a synchronous model. ‘Cross-ﬂow’ interactions are instances of motorised and bicycle ﬂows crossing each other. the updates are made in parallel. while Section 4 presents the simulation results. The variables are dimensionless (length is in cells. our model provides a mechanism for whole-network simulation of mixed traﬃc. following the Na-Sch update rules. The eﬀect of speciﬁc types of interactions between bicycles and motorised traﬃc have also been studied by a number of authors. explains the derivation of the fundamental diagram from simulation data in Section 3. It uses a traﬃc CA model (e. While the former are speciﬁcally bicycle-inclusive. We deﬁne a network fundamental diagram in terms of measurements that can be taken during simulations. In [11] that same scenario is investigated with the cellular automaton model of [2]. 2. using multiple occupancy of a single cell by cyclists. and use this for the comparison of diﬀerent conﬁgurations of the sample network. For heterogeneous traﬃc. 4. and between motorised vehicles and bicycles. where interference of bicycles with the adjacent car ﬂow is expressed through a higher probability of cars slowing down in the face of ‘friction’ or ‘blockage’ caused by the bicycles. velocity in cells per time-step).g. especially where the two ﬂows initially belong to the same road. di ) is the velocity limiting value for the ith vehicle. 4. with some modiﬁcations to allow for the eﬀect of cars and bicycles sharing relatively narrow roads.Jelena Vasic and Heather J. Acceleration: if vi < vLi . but are assigned real-world equivalents e. The Na-Sch rules can be expressed in the following form: 1. The literature on bicycle-inclusive traﬃc models largely deals with isolated aspects of that mode’s integration into the wider traﬃc picture. where a logit model is suggested for the derivation of right-turning car ﬂows as a function of the rate of bicycle ﬂow arriving alongside the cars. Here an optimal velocity model is modiﬁed to account for this interference. interactions at intersections and network navigation.

Thus. NV is the number of vehicles in the network and NRC is the number of road cells in the network. which does not have to have knowledge of the network topology details but only of the constructs and how to navigate them. the road stretches constitute the largest part of the network. This makes for a clear model and easily maintainable implementation in the form of a conﬁgurable framework. qoutD is the ﬂow of vehicles out of the network due to reaching their destination within the network. First. The heterogeneity of size is supported by using lattices with diﬀerently sized cells for diﬀerent types of vehicles. and a model that is. An impinged cell is either occupied or overlaps with another occupied cell.75m in the real world.862 Jelena Vasic and Heather J. aﬀect the dynamics of vehicle movement and are incorporated into the Na-Sch model using two mechanisms. Ruskin / Procedia Computer Science 10 (2012) 860 – 865 the point of view of the vehicle. The value of NGLeq is calculated to approximate the number of grid-lines that a regular grid-type network with the same number of links as the traﬃc network at hand would have and we calculate it as: NGLeq = 2 NL /2 (3) . in most cases. The deﬁnition of the network space using this limited number of constructs allows for the speciﬁcation of a corresponding agent. rather than over cells. corresponding to 3. di . Network Fundamental Diagram Derivation The fundamental diagram (FD) is a widely accepted means of characterising traﬃc ﬂow dynamics and is parameterised by properties of infrastructure and driving conditions. di is now deﬁned as the number of unimpinged cells ahead of the vehicle. The network fundamental diagram must be deﬁned in terms of measurable quantities that reﬂect the state of the entire network. 3. the agents always move along a one-dimensional lattice. except the ﬁrst one. vTLi . Cells at intersections are not taken into account: while heavy overlapping in those parts of the network would make it diﬃcult to precisely include the cells. rather than the cell. strictly speaking. The divergence construct is used at network navigation level and the agents’ routing algorithm is deﬁned in terms of directions chosen at these points of track branching. We derive the network’s global density as the average cell occupancy: ρ = NV /NRC (1) where ρ denotes the network-wide vehicle density. a bicycle cell is half the length of a car cell. For the ﬂow we use a single-lane equivalent ﬂow derived from all network ﬂows: (2) q = (qoutC + qoutD )/(NGLeq ∗ NLavg ) where qoutC is the ﬂow of vehicles out of the network through connectors (since the simulated network is. where vCLi is the velocity limit arising from the proximity of a conﬂict with another track. Second. not self contained but is a ’slice’ of a larger network). the velocity limiting value is calculated as vLi = min(vMAX . in either direction. because of which the vehicle must slow down to inspect whether the conﬂict is resolved (this may be a yield sign or a red traﬃc light). In our model. by allowing overlap between the tracks and using a number of network spatial model constructs: divergences (places where a track diverges into two or more tracks). for example the track of a bicycle and the track of a car sharing a narrow road). These velocity limits are properties of the agent rather than externally imposed limits. turns (a curve in the road that is acute enough to require a vehicle to slow down is noted in the model) and road sharing (tracks that run beside each other on a road. This implies simulation-time iteration across vehicles. It can be deﬁned for a point in a road as the diagram of traﬃc ﬂow values (y-axis) against the corresponding average vehicle densities at that point on the road (x-axis). These diﬀerently sized onedimensional lattices (or tracks) are put together to form a network. the distance to the vehicle ahead. vCLi . a space-discrete agent-based model rather than a CA one. vTLi is the velocity limit imposed by a turn (as vehicles must slow down to turn) and vBLi is the velocity limit on a car that is driving alongside a bicycle on a narrow road. The network spatial model constructs listed above. conﬂicts (places where tracks join or run across each other). NGLeq is the number of equivalent grid lines and NLavg is the average number of lanes in the network links. vBLi ).

4. Right: a schematic representation of the simulated network. The nodes are numbered 11. i. E2. starting at S1. as a group. the four insertion probability values thus deﬁned each vary from 0. S2. while car tracks are shown in gray.. D) The turning to reach west from south or north from east is achieved in one of three ways: (1) a single turning point is taken ﬁxed by starting point. have either (1) north or (2) west as their destination (this gives 24 = 16 combinations).e.5 except at the last node. which is set for a simulation instance. S2 etc... BEW and CEW. The simulation parameters are: vMAX for cars is 3 and for bicycles is 2. must yield to vehicles moving from south to north. the length of each simulation is 100000 time-steps. . all BSN share the same probability of insertion. the random number that determines whether the insertion will occur is re-calculated for each entrance. 12 and so on and the entrances to the network are marked S1. Left: spatial model of intersection of two one-way streets. 1. where the vehicles starting at points E1. a two single-lane road intersection model and simulation space consisting of such intersections. south-north moving cars (CSN). where turning is dictated by destination combinations. (2) a single turning point is taken by each vehicle. Ruskin / Procedia Computer Science 10 (2012) 860 – 865 863 where NL is the number of links in the traﬃc network.1.0 to 0. from the 4096 values for q and ρ. which at 1s a time-step is equivalent to about 28h in real-life. vehicles starting at S3 turn at node 23 etc. but this does not aﬀect its generality. E) Finally. Network fundamental diagrams were derived for each value set of parameters A-D. east-west moving bicycles (BEW) and east-west moving cars (CEW) can each. where the vehicles moving from south to north. but are controlled by a yield rule which can be (1) right-hand-side RHS. resulting in 84 = 4096 simulation runs for each combination of parameters A-D described above.. In our model NLavg represents the average number of tracks. calculated as explained in Section 3. Individual cells for south-west and east-north bicycle tracks are all diﬀerently hatched. must yield to vehicles moving from east to west or (2) left-hand-side LHS. The model is for left-hand traﬃc. S2. the same applies for all CSN. so vehicles starting at S4 turn at node 14. S3 and S4 with the same probability. pR = 0. B) The links in the network are (1) 50(100) car(bicycle) cells long or (2) 200(400) car(bicycle) cells long. rather than real-life lanes. but the probabilities of turning at the nodes are such as to evenly distribute over all nodes the number of turns taking place in the network and (3) random turning with probability 0. C) South-north moving bicycles (BSN). connected by road stretches. this means that a bicycle is inserted at S1. simulation instances ran for all combinations of the following parameter values: A) The intersections are unsignalised. are shown in Figure 1. however. E2 etc.1. Simulation Results As an example.7 with step 0. Fig. a 16-node one-way street grid with open boundary conditions.Jelena Vasic and Heather J. or eﬀective lanes in a network link. and E1.

the plots are all in the free-ﬂow section of the fundamental diagram. RHS rule Fig. The surprising result is that the scatter of the all vehicle type diagrams (Figures 2e and f) does not depend noticeably on any 12 x Quad-Core Xeon E5430 2. RHS rule c) bicycles only. Network fundamental diagram for the 16-node one-way street grid with open boundary conditions.66GHz (2x6MB L2 Cache. Link length is 50 car cells (100 bicycle cells). Figure 2 shows the fundamental diagrams derived for the case of no turning in the network and link length of 50 car (100 bicycle) cells. In the case with 50(100) car(bicycle) cell road stretches. the mix of bicycles and cars reduces velocities as compared with those for each vehicle type alone. While due to memory considerations there is a limit on the size of network that can be simulated eﬃciently in a single node.864 Jelena Vasic and Heather J. 1333MHz FSB) . Ruskin / Procedia Computer Science 10 (2012) 860 – 865 a) cars only. which is expected. All vehicles move straight only. RHS rule e) all vehicles. 2. parallel processing would enable real-time simulation of urban networks. LHS rule d) bicycles only. Because open boundary conditions were used. LHS rule b) cars only. Both with the RHS and LHS rule. LHS rule f) all vehicles. 2000 simulation runs of the described scenario were performed on average by an 8-core processing node1 in a 24 hour period.

Cellular automata model for heterogeneous traﬃc. J Adv Transport 43 (2009) 321–345. Mallikarjuna. B. J. G. [10] Z. Science 204 (1979) 148–151. G. V. M. [6] P. As detailed bicycle ﬂow data is scarce. I. Herman. Gao. Modeling the interaction between motorized vehicle and bicycle by using cellular automata model. The RHS rule produces slightly better results. they have a better chance of ’getting in’ when there is a window in the priority ﬂow. B. Xu. Zhao. A. C. Geroliminis. A probable cause of the diﬀerence is the fact that with the RHS rule it is the cars in the yielding ﬂow that are ’exposed’ to the priority ﬂow ﬁrst and because they are faster. Prigogine. Su. calibration and validation of the model will be performed using a whole-network sensitivity analysis approach with focus on the eﬀects of interactions and topology. Dhingra. 5. M. Z. China. which were positioned exclusively at network boundaries in the case presented in this paper. [12] D. A two-ﬂuid approach to town traﬃc.Jelena Vasic and Heather J. S. rather than on the isolated-ﬂow dynamics of mixed bicycles and motorised traﬃc. Y. R. Cellular automata simulation of traﬃc including cars and bicycles. Vasic. Properties of a well-deﬁned macroscopic fundamental diagram for urban traﬃc. in: Proceedings of the 11th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems Beijing. Sun. K. Multi-value cellular automata model for mixed bicycle ﬂow. Y. Physica A 391 (2012) 2720–2729. October 12-15. Int J Mod Phys C 21 (2010) 159 – 176. Ming. [13] S. Hossain. Int J Mod Phys C 20 (2009) 209 – 222. [16] D. [9] S. Seattle. WA. McDonald. Conclusion In this paper we have presented a space-discrete. W. Maini. H. Xie. Transport Res Rec 1674 (1999) 86–93. Li. Rao. Zhao. LHS). Cheng. Gao. [14] R. X. bicycle and pedestrian. Xue. Characteristics of mixed traﬃc ﬂow with non-motorized vehicles and motorized vehicles at an unsignalized intersection. as listed above) except the conﬂict resolution rule (RHS vs. A model of potential capacity of right turn movement at signalized intersections under mixed traﬃc conditions. Nagel. L. A dynamic model for the heterogeneous traﬃc ﬂow consisting of car. Y. 2008. Y. Zhang. Eur Phys J B 56 (2007) 247–252. Daganzo. Schreckenberg. Egyh´ ziov´ . Eur Phys J B 70 (2009) 229–241. Z. A network fundamental diagram measurement and derivation method for the simulation model has been deﬁned and used to produce some basic network fundamental diagrams for a relatively simple simulation scenario. Geroliminis. with traﬃc breaking down in some cases. Transport Res Rec 1678 (1999) 234–241. 2008. [15] N. H. especially in relation to the presence of other vehicle types in the network. which would require a more elaborate update model. Maerivoet. [18] J. M. X. T. X. Heterogeneous traﬃc ﬂow modelling for an arterial using grid based approach. X. agent-based microscopic simulation model for heterogeneous traﬃc including bicycles. Yao. D. Li. Tang. J. D. Gould. June 24-27. References [1] G. in: Proceedings of the 3rd Urban Street Symposium. K. Gundaliya. I. Ruskin / Procedia Computer Science 10 (2012) 860 – 865 865 parameter (A-D. A ca model for intrusion conﬂicts simulation in vehicles-bicycles laminar traﬃc ﬂow. while with the LHS rule the scatter is greater. Development of a computer simulation model of mixed motor vehicle and bicycle traﬃc on an urban a a road network. [4] A. Y. [7] C. Y. [11] X. G. E. R. [19] K. A cellular automaton model for freeway traﬃc. J. De Moor. Phys Rep 419 (2005) 1–64. Jia. applicable to arbitrary network topologies. Cellular automata models of road traﬃc. Y. J. M. Existence of urban-scale macroscopic fundamental diagrams: Some experimental ﬁndings. 2007. [5] S. J Adv Transport 42 (2008) 467–491. with consistently greater ﬂows with increase of densities. Shang. Gao. [8] T. . Kuan. Q. Helbing. Modeling heterogeneous traﬃc ﬂow. Derivation of a fundamental diagram for urban traﬃc ﬂow. Modeling bicycle facility operation. Further work will include the investigation of more realistic scenarios in terms of network shape and size and of origins and destinations of traﬃc in the network. F. Transport Res Rec 2140 (2009) 157–164. Ruskin. Y. Faghri. Jiang. Li. Karner. Mathew. Jia. Huang. H. H. Physica A 388 (2009) 2041–2050. Modelling of traﬃc operations in urban networks of developing countries: a computer aided simulation approach. [2] B. L. Z. Khan. Comput Environ Urban Syst 22 (1998) 465 – 483. The ultimate aim is to investigate methods for assessing network conﬁgurations and parameters and how they perform for individual vehicle types. The diﬀerence between the network fundamental diagrams produced by the two rules can be seen by comparing Figures 2e and f. Transport Res B 42 (2008) 759 – 770. P. P. J Phys I 2 (1992) 2221–2229. [17] N. 2007. Transport Res B 45 (2011) 605 – 617. [3] M. Y.

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