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INTRODUCTION Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. It is also called Pneumonitis or Bronchopneumonia.

Pneumonia can be a serious threat to our health. Although pneumonia is a special concern for older adults and those with chronic illnesses, it can also strike young, healthy people as well. It is a common illness that affects thousands of people each year in thePhilippines, thus, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. There are many kinds of pneumonia that range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening. In infectious pneumonia, bacteria, viruses, fungi or other organisms attack your lungs, leading to inflammation that makes it hard to breathe. Pneumonia can affect one or both lungs. In the young and healthy, early treatment with antibiotics can cure bacterial pneumonia. The drugs used to fight pneumonia are determined by the germ causing the pneumonia and the judgment of the doctor. It’s best to do everything we can to prevent pneumonia, but if one do get sick, recognizing and treating the disease early offers the best chance for a full recovery. A case with a diagnosis of Pneumonia may catch one’s attention, though the disease is just like an ordinary cough and fever, it can lead to death especially when no intervention or care is done. Since the case is a toddler, an appropriate care has to be done to make the patient’s recovery faster. Treating patients with pneumonia is necessary to prevent its spread to others and make them as another victim of this illness. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY The lungs constitute the largest organ in the respiratory system. They play an important role in respiration, or the process of providing the body with oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. The lungs expand and contract up to 20 times per minute taking in and disposing of those gases. Air that is breathed in is filled with oxygen and goes to the trachea, which branches off into one of two bronchi. Each bronchus enters a lung. There are two lungs, one on each side of the breastbone and protected by the ribs. Each lung is made up of lobes, or sections. There are three lobes in the right lung and two lobes in the left one. The lungs are cone shaped and made of elastic, spongy tissue. Within the lungs, the bronchi branch out into minute pathways that go through the lung tissue. The pathways are called bronchioles, and they end at microscopic air sacs called alveoli. The alveoli are surrounded by capillaries and provide oxygen for the blood in these vessels. The oxygenated blood is then pumped by the heart throughout the body. The alveoli also take in carbon dioxide, which is then exhaled from the body. Inhaling is due to contractions of the diaphragm and of muscles between the ribs. Exhaling results from relaxation of those muscles. Each lung is surrounded by a two-layered membrane, or the pleura, that under normal circumstances has a very, very small amount of fluid between the layers. The fluid allows the membranes to easily slide over each other during breathing. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Blastomyces dermatitidis. psittaci. debility. Other pathogens include anaerobic bacteria. usually developing over days and sometimes accompanied by pleurisy. Predisposing factors include upper respiratory viral infections. chronic obstructive airway disease. The air sacs in the lungs fill with pus and other liquid. trachomatis. heart failure. C. Klebsiella pneumoniae. If there is too little oxygen in your blood. dysphagia. and sputum production. and influenza A and B viruses. This syndrome is commonly caused by bacteria. Weight:10 kgs Religion: Roman Catholic Mother: C.S. including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical strains. . Legionella pneumophila. Chlamydia pneumoniae. Other means include hematogenous or lymphatic dissemination and direct spread from contiguous infections. Bronchial pneumonia (or bronchopneumonia) affects patches throughout both lungs. Aspergillus fumigatus. Pneumonia affects your lungs in two ways. alcoholism. pneumoniae and H. Age: 1 yr. immunocompromise (as in diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure). C. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common.B. age extremes. influenzae. Staphylococcus aureus. Physical examination may detect tachypnea and signs of consolidation. Because of this and spreading infection through the body pneumonia can cause death. Typical symptoms include cough. and other gram-negative bacilli. your body cells can’t work properly. Major pulmonary pathogens in infants and children are viruses: respiratory syncytial virus. such as crackles with bronchial breath sounds. Lobar pneumonia affects a section (lobe) of a lung. Among other agents are higher bacteria including Nocardia and Actinomyces sp. such as S. Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. and rickettsiae. including Histoplasma capsulatum. Of these.C. Patient’s Profile Name: R. NURSING PROFILE a. fever. Oxygen has trouble reaching your blood.B. The usual mechanisms of spread are inhaling droplets small enough to reach the alveoli and aspirating secretions from the upper airways. cigarette smoking. Bacteria are the most common cause of pneumonia. institutionalization. compromised consciousness. Cryptococcus neoformans. Haemophilus influenzae.Pneumonia is a serious infection or inflammation of your lungs.1 mo. fungi. primarily Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). mycobacteria. Coccidioides immitis. and Pneumocystis carinii. parainfluenza virus. and exposure to transmissible agents.

Address: Valenzuela City b. (+) DOB. chicken. clear BS. watery to greenish (+) nasal discharge Tx: Disudrin OD Loviscol OD Few hrs PTA . Activities of Daily Living Sleeping mostly at night and during afternoon Usually wakes up early in the morning (5AM) to be milkfed. any food given to her) Active. (-) retractions. responsive BM (1-2 times a day) Urinates in her diaper (more than 4 times a day) Likes to play with those around her g. History of Present Illness 2 days PTA – (+) cough (+) nasal congestion.3 C (+) difficulty of breathing (+) vomiting. Past Illness (-) asthma (-) allergies e. IE: T = 38. vomits ingested milk .3C. Chief Complaint: Fever st Date of Admission: 1 admission Hospital Number: 060000086199 c.(+) fever. CR= 122’s. (-) cyanosis. Digestive: food aversion. 1 episode Tx: Paracetamol Sought consultation at ER: Rx=BPN. (+) wheezes. RR= 30’s (+) TPC SCE. Family History PMHx: (+) asthma (mother) f. Eats a lot (hotdogs. Salbutamol neb. Review of Systems Neuromuscular: weakness of muscles Integumentary: (-) cyanosis Respiratory: tavhypnea. (+) coarse crackles. crackers. (-) edema d. Tmax= 39.

unobstructed airway . bronchodilators. maximum lung excursion auscultating patient’s chest rationale: to monitor for the presence of abnormal breath sounds provide chest and back clapping with vibration rationale: chest physiotheraphy facilitates the loosening of secretions considering that the patient is an infant. rationale: to establish rapport. with slight flexion rationale: to provide patent. secondary to bronchoconstriction. antibiotics fight infection DEPENDENT  . and has developed a strong stranger anxiety as manifested by “white coat syndrome” . anti pyretics alleviate fever.DRUG STUDY View NCP NURSING ACTIONS INDEPENDENT     positioning of the patient with head on mid line. anti pyretics and anti biotics rationale: bronchodilators decrease airway resistance. and gain the patients trust administer due medications as ordered by the physician. it is a nursing action to play with the patient.

8).. Get plenty of rest. paracetamol drugs prn every 4hours (Temp  Take the entire course of any prescribed medications. Vitan secure consent for admission and management. and pneumonia in an. Adequate rest is important to maintain progress toward full recovery and to avoid relapse.g.given ½ vial 375mg every 8hours. It’s important to have the doctor monitor his progress. 11/22/06 Continue management and refer. which is usually spread from person to person by droplet nuclei through the air. 11/20/06 For urinalysis. placing patient on TPN prn rationale: to compensate for fluid and nutritional losses during vomiting COLLABORATIVE  assist respiratory therapist in performing nebulization of the patient rationale: nebulization is a favourable route of administering bronchodilators and aid in expectorating secretions. These germs enter one’s body when he touch his eyes or rub his nose. a person can help protect others by wearing a face mask and always coughing into a tissue. Relapses can be far more serious than the first attack. DISCHARGE PLANNING (Ventolin 1 nebule) every 6 hours. Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) Case StudyINTRODUCTION Pulmonary tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by slow.. smoke). The hands come in daily contact with germs that can cause pneumonia. The lung is. 2. May have diet for age with strict aspiration precaution.continue management. Myobacterium tuberculosis. .        Related Nursing Articles 1. otherwise the pneumonia may recur.. Washing hands thoroughly and often can help reduce the risk. nebulize 37. May not reinsert IVF. TPR every shift then record. his lungs may still be infected. Nursing Care Plan – Community Acquired PneumoniaPneumonia is inflammation of the terminal airways and alveoli caused by acute infection by various agents. 11/21/06 Continue cefuroxine and nebulizer every 6 hours. Try to stay away from anyone with a compromised immune system. hospital or nursing home acquired (nosocomial).growing bacteria that resembles a fungus. Drink lots of fluids. Encourage the guardians to wash patient’s hands. IVF to follow D5 0. hence patient’s breathing PHYSICIAN’S ORDER SHEET 11/19/06 Admit patient to ROC under the service of Dr. Even though the patient feels better. especially water. Tell guardians to avoid exposing the patient to an environment with too much pollution (e. Give supportive treatment. Liquids will keep patient from becoming dehydrated and help loosen mucus in the lungs. Proper diet and oxygen to increase oxygen in the blood when needed. revise Cefuroxine IV to Cefuroxine 500mg via deep Intramuscular BID. IVF D5 0. Protect others from infection. After a patient’s temperature returns to normal.3NaCl 500cc to run at 6263mgtts/min.May give paracetamol 125mg 1supp/rectum if oral paracetamol is not tolerated.3 NaCl 500 at SR (62-63mgtt/m Use zinacef brand of cefuroxine 750mg. medication must be continued according to the doctor’s instructions. Pneumonia can be divided into three groups: community acquired. When that isn’t possible. Smoking damages one’s lungs’ natural defenses against respiratory infections. Keep all of follow-up appointments..

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