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The raw cotton arrives in the form of large bales.

These are broken open and a worker feeds the cotton into a machine called a "breaker" which gets rid of some of the dirt. The cotton may not be consistent in quality from bale to bale and samples will be taken. From here the cotton goes to a "scutcher". (Operated by a worker also called a scutcher). This machine cleans the cotton of any remaining dirt and separates the fibres. The cotton emerges in the form of thin "blanket" called the "lap". (Think of how "cotton wool" holds itself together). An important quantity is called the "tex" which basically measures the mass per metre. Ideally the tex of the emerging lap should stay more or less the same. The final end product of the mill, the yarn, needs to be of constant quality and character and this is achieved by checking the cotton through all the preceeding stages. One way to achieve this is by blending. The output from several breakers can be fed into the scutcher so that the contents of different bales are being blended to produce a more uniform output. The stress on quality control is something that has changed over the years and what used to be achieved by the experienced eye of the workers now relies more on measurement. LAP TO SLIVER CARDING Here we have two processes: CARDING and DRAWING This is done by a machine called a "card". The fibres are separated more completely and the tex is reduced many times. The output from these machines is more like an untwisted 'rope' than a blanket. Maintenance is done by 'strippers' and 'grinders' according to Tippett but in the census they are generally called 'cardroom hands', 'cardroom operatives'. This is carried out on a machine called a 'draw frame'. This further straightens the fibres. It also combines the output of several carders thus again giving a more uniform product. This combining is referred to as 'doubling'. [Note

DRAWING

This is normally for higher quality fabrics. The output from the first is called 'slubbing' The output from the second is called 'inter'(mediate) The output from the third is 'roving' 'Slubber' and 'rover' are often given as census occupations.e. The process is carried out by 'speed frames' and quite often there are three sets in series. Sometimes drawing is supplemented by 'combing' which gets rid of short fibres. SLIVER TO ROVING Here the yarn is further attenuated — i.that the same term 'doubling' is used to refer to the twisting together of two finished yarns]. Giving the thread strength by adding twist. This involves attenuating (stretching) the yarn to the required tex. He . The term "spinning" is sometimes used to denote this final process in the production of the yarn. The process is very similar to drawing. it is being stretched so that the weight per unit length decreases further. There are two main methods:   ROVING TO YARN (SPINNING) MULE SPINNING RING SPINNING The MULE was originally developed by Samuel Crompton from the "jenny". The output from drawing is a loose untwisted 'rope' of cotton. And winding it on to a bobbin.

The mule operated in two stages. With the early mules the carriage was moved forward by the operators turning a wheel but the invention of the selfacting mule meant that the carriage moved forward itself. doffers.never patented his invention and this must have helped its wide introduction. As the carriages moved forward. In one stage the whole 'front' of the machine (perhaps 100 feet long) moved away from the back part stretching and twisting the thread as it did so. only a narrow gap would be left between them for the spinner to walk between. It would move several feet (say 5 feet). Mules would be placed in lines so that the front of one faced the front of the next. The mules were tended by spinners. Piecers would mend broken threads and doffers would remove the full cops. towards each other. Often they would be men. . Mules could at one time produce much finer yarns than ring frames but as the latter have become more capable the mule has become less used. In stage two the front carriage moved back and at the same time wound the stretched yarn on to a bobbin (or cop). piecers.