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Chapter 4 DC Biasing–BJTs

Biasing g

Biasing: The DC voltages applied to a transistor in order to turn it on so that it can amplify the AC signal.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky

Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.

Operating Point p g

The DC input establishes an operating or quiescent point called the Q-point point.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky

Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.

The Three States of Operation p • Active or Linear Region Operation Base–Emitter junction is forward biased Base–Collector junction is reverse biased j • Cutoff Region Operation Base–Emitter junction is reverse biased B E itt j ti i bi d • Saturation Region Operation Base–Emitter junction is forward biased j Base–Collector junction is forward biased Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. 10/e Robert L. . New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. Upper Saddle River.

DC Biasing Circuits g • • • • • Fixed-bias circuit Emitter-stabilized bias circuit Collector-emitter Collector emitter loop Voltage divider bias circuit DC bias with voltage feedback Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. . New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. 10/e Robert L. Upper Saddle River.

New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.Fixed Bias Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. 10/e Robert L. Inc. Upper Saddle River. . Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.

Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. .The Base-Emitter Loop Basep From Kirchhoff’s voltage law: +VCC – IBRB – VBE = 0 V Solving for base current: IB = V CC − V BE RB Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. 10/e Robert L.

Upper Saddle River. Inc. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. 10/e Robert L.CollectorCollector-Emitter Loop p Collector current: I C = βI B From Kirchhoff s voltage law: Kirchhoff’s VCE = VCC − I C R C C Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. . Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.

. Inc.Saturation When th t Wh the transistor is operating in saturation. current it i ti i t ti t through the transistor is at its maximum possible value. V CC RC I Csat = VCE ≅ 0 V Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Upper Saddle River. 10/e Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.

Upper Saddle River.Load Line Analysis The end points of the load line are: ICsat IC = VCC / RC VCE = 0 V VCEcutoff VCE = VCC IC = 0 mA The Q-point is the operating point: • where the value of RB sets the value of IB • that sets the values of VCE and IC Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. 10/e Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. . New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc.

10/e Robert L.Circuit Values Affect the Q-Point Q- more … Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. . Inc. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.

Inc.Circuit Values Affect the Q-Point Q- more … Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. 10/e Robert L. .

Circuit Values Affect the Q-Point Q- Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. . Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. Inc. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. 10/e Robert L. Upper Saddle River.

New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Upper Saddle River. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.EmitterEmitter-Stabilized Bias Circuit Adding a resistor (RE) to the emitter circuit stabilizes the bias circuit. 10/e Robert L. .

10/e Robert L.BaseBase-Emitter Loop From Kirchhoff’s voltage law: + VCC . New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.VBE .I E R E = 0 Since IE = (β + 1)IB: VCC .I B R B .(β + 1)I B R E = 0 ) Solving for IB: IB = VCC . Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.I E R E . Inc.VBE R B + (β + 1)R E Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. . Upper Saddle River.

. 10/e Robert L. Upper Saddle River. Inc.CollectorCollector-Emitter Loop From Kirchhoff’s voltage law: I R +V +I R −V =0 E E CE C C CC Since IE ≅ IC: VCE = VCC – I C (R C + R E ) Also: VE = I E R E VC = VCE + VE = VCC . Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.I C R C VB = VCC – I R R B = VBE + VE Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.

Upper Saddle River.Improved Biased Stability Stability refers to a circuit condition in which the currents and voltages will remain fairly constant over a wide range of temperatures and transistor Beta (β) values. Adding RE to the emitter improves the stability of a transistor. 10/e Robert L. . Inc. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.

VCEcutoff: VCE = VCC I C = 0 mA ICsat: VCE = 0 V IC = VCC RC + RE Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory.Saturation Level The endpoints can be determined from the load line. 10/e Robert L. Upper Saddle River. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky .

Voltage Divider Bias This is a very stable bias circuit. Upper Saddle River. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Inc. The Th currents and t d voltages are nearly independent of any variations in β. . 10/e Robert L.

Inc. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.Approximate Analysis Where IB << I1 and I1 ≅ I2 : VB = R 2 VCC R1 + R 2 Where βRE > 10R2: VE IE = RE VE = VB − VBE From Kirchhoff’s voltage law: VCE = VCC − I C R C − I E R E IE ≅ IC VCE = V CC −I C (R C + R E ) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. . 10/e Robert L. Upper Saddle River. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.

Inc. 10/e Robert L.Voltage Divider Bias Analysis Transistor Saturation Level V CC I Csat = I Cmax = RC + RE Load Line Analysis Cutoff: VCE = VCC I C = 0mA Saturation: VCC IC = RC + RE VCE = 0V Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. . Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River.

Inc. In this bias i it I thi bi circuit the Q-point is only slightly dependent on the transistor beta. Upper Saddle River. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. β. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. .DC Bias with Voltage Feedback Another way to improve the stability of a bias circuit is to add a feedback path from collector to base. 10/e Robert L.

the loop equation becomes: VCC – β I B R C − I B R B − VBE − β I B R E = 0 Solving for IB: IB = VCC − VBE R B + β(R C + R E ) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.BaseBase-Emitter Loop From Kirchhoff’s voltage law: VCC – I ′ R C – I B R B – VBE – I E R E = 0 C Where IB << IC: I' = I + I ≅ I C C B C Knowing IC = βIB and IE ≅ IC. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. 10/e Robert L. . Inc.

10/e Robert L. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. . Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.CollectorCollector-Emitter Loop Applying Kirchoff’s voltage law: IE + VCE + I’CRC – VCC = 0 Since I′C ≅ IC and IC = βIB: I′ IC(RC + RE) + VCE – VCC =0 Solving for VCE: g VCE = VCC – IC(RC + RE) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Inc. Upper Saddle River.

Inc.BaseBase-Emitter Bias Analysis Transistor Saturation Level V CC I Csat = I Cmax = RC + RE Load Line Analysis Cutoff: Saturation: V CC I = C R +R C E VCE = VCC I C = 0 mA VCE = 0 V Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. 10/e Robert L. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. .

New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. 10/e Robert L.Transistor Switching Networks Transistors with only the DC source applied can be used as electronic switches. Inc. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. .

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky . New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. Upper Saddle River. 10/e Robert L.Switching Circuit Calculations g Saturation current: I Csat = VCC RC To ensure saturation: IB > I Csat β dc EmitterEmitter-collector resistance at saturation and cutoff: R sat = VCEsat IC t Csat R cutoff = VCC I CEO Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.

Inc. . New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.Switching Time Transistor switching times: t on = t r + t d t off = t s + t f Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. 10/e Robert L. Upper Saddle River.

7 V for silicon transistors – VCE ≅ 25% to 75% of VCC Test for opens and shorts with an ohmmeter. Test the solder joints. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. Test the transistor with a transistor tester or a curve tracer.Troubleshooting Hints • Approximate voltages pp g – VBE ≅ . • • • • Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. . Upper Saddle River. Inc. tracer Note that the load or the next stage affects the transistor operation. 10/e Robert L.

10/e Robert L. . The only difference is that the currents are fl i in the opposite direction. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. Inc.PNP Transistors The analysis for pnp transistor biasing circuits is the same as that for npn transistor circuits. h flowing i h i di i Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory.