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**Recommended and Reference Texts:
**

(1) Cengel Y.A. and Cimbala J.M.: “Fluid Mechanics: Fundamental and Applications” (McGraw-Hill 2006) E.John Finnemore and Joseph B. Franzini: “Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications” (10th edition), McGraw Hill, 2002. R.W. Fox and A.T. McDonald: “Introduction to Fluid Mechanics” (4th edition), John Wiley & Sons, 1992. K.L. Kumar: “Engineering Fluid Mechanics”. Eurasian Publishing house B. Massey (revised by J Ward-smith): “Mechanics of Fluids”. Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd, c1998. B.R. Munson, D.F. Young and T.H. Okiishi: “Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics” (3rd edition), John Wiley & Sons, 1998. M.C. Potter and D.C. Wiggert: “Mechanics of Fluids” (2nd edition), Prentice-Hall International, 1997 Irving H. Shames: “Mechanics of Fluids” (3rd Edition), McGraw Hill, 1992. Alexander J. Smits: “A Physical Introduction to Fluid Mechanics” (1st edition), John Wiley, 2000. V.L. Streeter, E.B. Wylie and K.W. Bedford: “Fluid Mechanics” (9th edition), McGraw Hill, 1998. F.M. White: “Fluid Mechanics” (7th Edition), McGraw Hill, 2011. A. Jeffrey: “Handbook of Mathematical Formulas and Integration” (2nd Edition), Academic Press, 2000.

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Acknowledgement: Some parts of this course material have been developed with reference to the above textbooks.

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PART 2: Module Outline. (A) (B) (C) (D) Equilibrium of Moving Fluids (in translation and rotation). Dimensional Analysis and Similitude. 3 . Momentum and its Applications. Analysis of Pipe Flow.

there is no change in the motion.e. p – pa = γz = ρgz 4 . Therefore. hydrostatic equation in a uniform velocity of translation remains the same. When the motion is uniform. This follows from Newton second law. and accordingly there is no change in the force. i.Equilibrium of Moving Fluids (A) Statics of Moving System Pa z p Stationary p=pa+ρgz Pa z p V=Constant When the entire continuum is in uniform RECTILINER motion. which states that force is a result of a change in motion. the governing principle of the statics of a fluid in the gravity field remains the same.

(B) Uniform Rectilinear Acceleration z x Liquid at rest z x az a ax dz dx Under constant acceleration p+ ∂p dz ∂z 2 C B p− ∂p dx ∂x 2 A az dz p wt dx ax D p+ ∂p dx ∂x 2 p− ∂p dz ∂z 2 5 .

When a liquid in an open tank is subjected to a constant linear acceleration “a”.1 ∂x 2 ⎠ ⎝ ∂p dx ⎞ ⎛ ⎜p + ⎟dz.dz.1 ∂z 2 ⎠ ⎝ CD AD BC The equation of motion in the x-direction is ∂p dx ⎞ ∂p dx ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎜ p − .dz. the free surface of the fluid (which was horizontally at rest) is inclined at an angle (θ) to the direction of acceleration. the liquid is said to be in a state of relative rest. Consider an elemental fluid particle of dimension dx.1 ∂z 2 ⎠ ⎝ ∂p dz ⎞ ⎛ ⎜p + ⎟dx. as shown above. ⎟dz = ρ(dx. it can be shown that the pressure and the force acting on each surface are Face AB Area dz × 1 dz × 1 dx × 1 dx × 1 Pressure ∂p dx ⎞ ⎛ ⎜p − ⎟ ∂x 2 ⎠ ⎝ ∂p dx ⎞ ⎛ ⎜p + ⎟ ∂x 2 ⎠ ⎝ ∂p dz ⎞ ⎛ ⎜p − ⎟ ∂z 2 ⎠ ⎝ ∂p dz ⎞ ⎛ ⎜p + ⎟ ∂z 2 ⎠ ⎝ Force ∂p dx ⎞ ⎛ ⎜p − ⎟dz.1. Under this condition. The fluid must once and for all stay in that position for the given constant acceleration.1 ∂x 2 ⎠ ⎝ ∂p dz ⎞ ⎛ ⎜p − ⎟dx.1)a x ∂x 2 ⎠ ∂x 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ Simplifying the above equation gives ∂p = −ρa x ∂x (B1) 6 . ⎟dz − ⎜ p + .

integrating equation (B2) gives p = −ρ(a z + g )z + f ( x ) + c 2 (B4) where f(x) is a term containing only x.Similarly. ⎟dx − ⎜ p + .dz. equation (B5) becomes p = −[ρa x x + ρ(a z + g )z ] + p o 7 (B6) . z=0. and c2 is a constant Now equations (B3) and (B4) are compatible only if p = −[ρa x x + ρ(a z + g )z ] + c 3 (B5) where c3 is a new constant which depends on boundary condition Substituting the boundary condition (at x=0. and c1 is a constant Similarly.dz. ⎟dx − ρg(dx. p=po.1)a z ∂z 2 ⎠ ∂z 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ Expanding and simplifying the above equation gives − ∂p = ρ(a z + g ) ∂z (B2) Integrate equation (B1) gives. p = −ρa x x + f (z) + c 1 (B3) where f(z) is a term containing only z. the equation of motion in the z-direction is ∂p dz ⎞ ∂p dz ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎜ p − .1) = ρ(dx.) into equation (B5) gives c3 = po Therefore.

To find the slope of the free surface. we substitute p=po into equation (B6) which leads to ax dz (B7) tan θ = =− dx az + g po IS OB AR S θ a IS OB AR S po θ a A Large Open Cylinder A Small Closed Cylinder It can be shown that the lines of constant pressure. which are also called ISOBARS are parallel to the free surface. 8 .

and we obtain p = −[ρax + ρgz] + p o The inclination of the free surface to the direction of the acceleration is given by tan θ = − a g 9 . az=0 into equation (B6).θ ax = a For a simple case of acceleration along the x-axis only. substitute ax=a.

It is also important in the design of a fuel system of an airplane.Applications: This type of analysis is important in the design of a tank-truck where brakes may be applied abruptly or a tank car for a railway. Tank truck Acknowledgement: Wikimedia Tank car of railway Acknowledgement: China Railway 10 .

(C) Uniform Spin of Liquid in a Container When a body of fluid rotates uniformly without relative motion between different elements of the fluid in a container. ∂r 2 p− ∂p dz . even in a real fluid. frictional forces) exist. ∂r 2 r dr dθ p p p+ ∂p dr . ∂z 2 uθ r dr dr p ∂p dr p− . Under this condition. ∂r 2 11 . the fluid is said to undergo a solid-body type rotation. ∂z 2 zo z r dr dz dz o p− ∂p dr . there is no relative motion between fluid particles and thus no shear forces (i.e. the term “Forced Vortex” has also been used. ω p+ ∂p dz . Once steady conditions are established. each particle moves in a circle. Because an external torque is required to start the motion. ∂r 2 p dr/2 p+ Wt ∂p dr .

Equation of motion of the fluid element in the radial (r) direction may be written as ∂p dr ⎞ dθ ∂p dr ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 2 ⎜p − ⎟ rdθdz − ⎜ p + ⎟(r + dr )(dθ. The velocity of a typical element of dimension δr.r + dr ⎟ + pdr = −ω2 ρr 2 dr ∂r 2 ∂r 2 ∂r 2 ⎠ ⎝ ∂p ∂p dr dr = −ω2 ρr 2 dr dr.r − ∂r ∂r 2 pr − − Simplifying the above equation leads to ∂p = ω 2 rρ ∂r (C1) 12 . dz at a radial distance r from the axis of rotation is u=uθ=ωr The acceleration of the same element is given by rω2 in a radially inward direction.dz ) + 2 pdr dz = −ω r (ρrdθ dz dr ) ∂r 2 ⎠ ∂r 2 ⎠ 2 ⎝ ⎝ or ∂p dr ⎞ ∂p dr ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 2 2 ⎜p − ⎟r − ⎜ p + ⎟(r + dr ) + pdr = −ω ρr dr ∂r 2 ⎠ ⎝ ∂r 2 ⎠ ⎝ ∂p dr ⎞ ∂p dr ∂p dr ⎛ . rδθ.Consider a mass of liquid in a container subjected to a constant rotation (ω).r − ⎜ pr + pdr + .

and c is a constant Integrate equation (C2) gives p = −ρgz + f ( r ) + c1 (C4) where f(r) is a term containing only r. we let p=po (C6) 13 .rdθ) − ρg(dr.dz ) = 0 ⎜p − ⎟(dr.In the z-direction ∂p dz ⎞ ∂p dz ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟(dr.rdθ) − ⎜ p + ∂z 2 ⎠ ∂z 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ∂p = −ρ g ∂z Integrate equation (C1) gives r2 p=ω ρ + f (z) + c 2 2 (C2) (C3) where f(z) is a term containing only z. it can be shown that c2= po+ρg zo Therefore. equation (C5) becomes 1 p = −ρg(z − z o ) + ρω2 r 2 + p o 2 To find the equation of the free surface.rdθ. z=zo and p = po (reference pressure). and c1 is a constant Equations (C3) and (C4) are compatible only if r2 p = −ρgz + ω ρ + c2 2 2 (C5) At r=0.

equation (C6) becomes 1 0 = −ρg(z − z o ) + ρω2 r 2 2 z= 1 2 2 ω r + zo 2g (C7) which is a PARABOLOID OF REVOLUTION (see figure below) ISOBARS Original fluid level before rotation Zmax α Zo (i. Zmin) Z1 R Isobars in Rotating Cylinder with Liquid The slope of the liquid level at any radius r is given by dz 2rω2 rω2 = = = tan α dr 2g g 14 .Therefore.e.

Applications: A centrifugal pump and a centrifuge make use of this principle. Here. an enclosed mass of water is whirled rapidly to create the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet. Acknowledgement: Encyclopedia Britannica Acknowledgement: ITT Corporation Centrifugal pump 15 .

ω 1 Initial State 2 3 4 5 6 7 Increasing Rotational Speed (Open Container) Tall Cylinder: No spillage of fluid 16 .

ω 1 Initial State 2 3 4 5 6 7 Increasing Rotational Speed (Open Container) Short cylinder: Spillage of fluid 17 .

ω 1 Initial State 2 3 4 5 6 7 Increasing Rotational Speed (Closed Container) 18 .

000(0.35 m3 of water is acted upon by a force F of 100 N. the acceleration of the tank is given by ax = F 100 = = 0.279 = −0.35) g From equation (B7) tan θ = a dz =− x dx az + g = − 0. What is θ when the free surface of the water assumes a fixed orientation? θ F=100N From Newton’s Second Law.8 Therefore θ=-1.279 m / s 2 M 80 + 1.Examples: (a) A tank weighing 80 N and containing 0.63o 19 .0284 0 + 9.

the equation of the free surface z= 1 2 2 ω r + zo 2g Boundary Condition: r=0.(b) A tank of water is rotating at an angular speed of ω radian/sec. z ω=0 300mm 1 2 ω (0. z=0. At what speed must the cylinder be rotating before the water spills over the top? z ω 300mm 200mm r 500mm From equation (C7).3 = From conservation of mass.25) 2 + z o 2g (1) z ω 200mm Paraboloid Vol A 500mm = 300mm r Vol B 500mm zo r (A) (B) 20 .3 m 0.25 m.

3 = 1 2 ω (0.1 2g ω=7.25) 2 (0.25) 2 (0.0393= π(.0295+0.0982=0.25) (0.25) 2 (0.0393 m3 Volume B = π(.1 Substituting into equation (1).0982zo zo=0.3) .3) - 1 2 π(0.25) (0.3) -volume of paraboloid 1 = π(.25) 2 (0. we get 0.25) 2 (0.( Area of base) x height 2 1 2 = π(.Volume A=Volume B Volume A = π(.25) 2 + 0.3 − z o ) 2 ( ) Therefore.3 − z o ) 2 ( ) 0.0589-0.π(0.2) = 0.0098/0.3) .0393=0.92 rad/sec 21 . 0.

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