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ASSIGNMENT BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE

QUESTIONS FOR CELLS 1. Explain the events that made it possible understand cell structure and function. to observe and

Robert Hooke's microscope. Hooke first described cells in 1665. The invention of the microscope allowed the first view of cells. English physicist and microscopist Robert Hooke (1635–1702) first described cells in 1665. He made thin slices of cork and likened the boxy partitions he observed to the cells (small rooms) in a monastery. The open spaces Hooke observed were empty, but he and others suggested these spaces might be used for fluid transport in living plants. He did not propose, and gave no indication that he believed, that these structures represented the basic unit of living organisms. In 1676 the Dutch microscopist Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) published his observations of single-cell organisms, or "little animalcules" as he called them. It is likely that Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe a red blood cell and a sperm cell. Leeuwenhoek made numerous and detailed observations on his microorganisms, but more than one hundred years passed before a connection was made between the obviously cellular structure of these creatures and the existence of cells in animals or plants.
When cells were first described, what was observed during this initial discovery?
2. 3. 4. 5. Describe what is now known as cell theory. Why are most cells small? Define cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Compare and contrast the function of a solution and a colloid in cell structure. 6. What is a cell membrane? 7. How do materials move through a cell membrane? 8. What are the possible dynamics of cell contents when the osmotic pressure within the cell is not equal to that outside the cell? 9. How do materials move between cells? 10. Described the nucleus: what is it; what is in it; and what is its function? 11. Give a brief description of each of the following structures: a. Endoplasmic reticulum b. Ribosome

and transduction. Cilium l. QUESTIONS FOR REPRODUCTION 1. budding. Mitochondrion f. Vacuole i. Define karyokinesis and cytokinesis. describe all the steps in meiosis. Lysosome e. with the use of labeled diagrams. Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction: What are the benefits and shortcoming of each? . centromere. 9. Define haploid and diploid. using the terms fertilization and zygote. 2. Centriole Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. cloning. Which is less complex and why? 2. Microtubule k. Define the following terms with labeled illustrations. Microfilament j. Define syncytium and coenocyte in terms relating them to cell division. 7. compared to the rest or a cell’s life. Describe. 8. c. Describe what happens during interphase. With carefully labeled illustrations. conjugation. QUESTIONS FOR CELL DIVISION 1. 5. Fat droplet g. Compare and contrast binary fission. transformation. Plastid h. the genetic information must be duplicated before the cell begins to divide. 10. Flagellum m. In both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell division. Why? 3. Cell division is a brief and distinct stage in a cell’s life history. Golgi apparatus d. chromatid. each of the stages in eukaryotic cell division. Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division. Define asexual reproduction and discuss the different type that exist. comparing and contrasting the roles these parts play in different stages of a cell’s life history: chromosome. 6. 4.12.

What is the electron transport chain. Give the precise route that an egg takes from where it is formed to where it become an embryo. How do ATP and ADP differ. Although it has been stated that the oxidation of glucose to pyruvate releases. and where might such an electron transport chain exist? Why? 10. what role do the cytochrome play in this chain. 4.3. How are both glycolysis and Kreb cycle related? 6. What happens during the Kreb cycle? 9. 4. 5. Expand on what happens during this series of reactions. Why are exzymes important in glycolysis? 5. What types of substances can be fed into the respiratory chain of reactions? And what happens to them once they have been fed into this chain of reactions? QUESTIONS FOR PHOTOSYSNTHESIS . is called glycolysis. 7. and why are they important in cellular respiration? 8. Describe anaerobic fermentation. explaining the role it plays in most plants and in some microorganisms. describe a complete menstrual cycle. explain their function. in which glucose is converted to pyruvate. Under what circumstances might cellular respiration occur in the presence of oxygen. List the main human male reproductive structures (internal and external). and when might oxygen be unnecessary? 2. compare and contrast it to other ways cells have to obtain energy. and then the path it takes when the baby is born. 6. QUESTIONS FOR CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1. Integrate anaerobic fermentation into the larger picture. The first series of chemical reactions in cellular respiration. what exactly is meant by term oxidation? 3. energy. Describe with the use of illustrations both types of gametogenesis: spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Give the precise route that sperm takes from where it is formed to where it leaves the body. 7.

There are several kinds of chlorophyll. and even animal skin contain pigments which give them their colors. What are the different photosynthetic pigments and why are there different ones? Pigments are chemical compounds which reflect only certain wavelengths of visible light. they have also found use as research tools. which gives carrots their color. This is the molecule which makes photosynthesis possible. by passing its energized electrons on to molecules which will manufacture sugars. All plants. or in the stroma of the chloroplast. There are three basic classes of pigments. the most important being chlorophyll "a". Flowers. and cyanobacteria which photosynthesize contain chlorophyll "a". algae. orange. They occur only in Cyanobacteria and Rhodophyta. One very visible accessory pigment is fucoxanthin the brown pigment which colors kelps and other brown algae as well as the diatoms. Carotenoids cannot transfer sunlight energy directly to the photosynthetic pathway. The difference between the chlorophylls of these major groups was one of the first clues that they were not as closely related as previously thought. but must pass their absorbed energy to chlorophyll. A second kind of chlorophyll is chlorophyll "b". or yellow pigments. Phycobilins are not only useful to the organisms which use them for soaking up light energy. This makes them appear "colorful". These compounds are composed of two small six-carbon rings connected by a "chain" of carbon atoms. Both pycocyanin and .  Carotenoids are usually red. and must be attached to membranes within the cell. which occurs only in "green algae" and in the plants.  Chlorophylls are greenish pigments which contain a porphyrin ring. and include the familiar compound carotene. they are called accessory pigments. For this reason. Give a brief history of how basic fundamentals of photosynthesis were first discovered. and is found only in the photosynthetic members of the Chromista as well as the dinoflagellates.  Phycobilins are water-soluble pigments. More important than their reflection of light is the ability of pigments to absorb certain wavelengths. and are therefore found in the cytoplasm. As a result. 2. they do not dissolve in water. A third form of chlorophyll which is common is (not surprisingly) called chlorophyll "c".1. corals.

That is. Consumers include all animals and fungi and many protists and bacteria. The light produced by this fluorescence is so distinctive and reliable. animals. Because most autotrophs transform sunlight to make food. and autotrophic bacteria vanished from earth. we call the process they use photosynthesis. Heterotrophs cannot make their own food.are capable of this lifegiving energy transformation. and why? 7. algae. fungi. and tell where they are most likely to come from. How do plants synthesizes carbohydrates? . and release it by emitting light of a very narrow range of wavelengths. How does chlorophyll work? 6. They may consume autotrophs or other heterotrophs or organic molecules from other organisms. For this reason. solar source into the chemical energy in food that powers life. when they are exposed to strong light. Food provides both the energy to do work and the carbon to build bodies. heterotrophs are also known as consumers. but they make enough to support other life as well. 4.plants. What is noncyclic photophosphorylation? 8. they absorb the light energy.phycoerythrin fluoresce at a particular wavelength. Food is chemical energy stored in organic molecules. as autotrophs are also known. Living organisms obtain chemical energy in one of two ways: Autotrophs store chemical energy in carbohydrate food molecules they build themselves. that phycobilins may be used as chemical "tags". 5. Only three groups of organisms . and some bacteria . algae. What is cyclic photophosphorylation? 9. so they must eat or absorb it. 3. Only autotrophs can transform that ultimate. The producers. List some of the most important nutrients to a plant. Almost all other organisms depend absolutely on these three groups for the food they produce. Heterotrophs show great diversity and may appear far more fascinating than producers. All life requires a constant input of energy. Where is chlorophyll usually located. begin food chains which feed all life. Autotrophs make food for their own use. If plants. Describe the differences between autotrophs and heterotrophs. and other heterotrophs would soon disappear as well. But heterotrophs are limited by our utter dependence on those autotrophs that originally made our food.

What are the three basic types of neurons? 5. What is a plant’s photoperiod? 5. What substances are found in skeletal systems? Explain their function. What protective layers envelope the vertebrate brain? 2. How do muscles work antagonistically? 3. and hypoosmotic with regard to the surrounding medium. How are vertebrate brains similar in basic construction? 3. What do the terms forebrain. What are the different methods animals have to cope with nitrogenous wastes? 4. Explain what it means for a cell to be isosmotic. Define myelin sheathing and explain its function. 4. and how are they delivered from where they are produced to their target area? 2. 2.QUESTIONS FOR HOMEOSTASIS 1. Why is ammonia converted into either urea of uric acid in most organisms? 3. 6. What are two groups of plant hormones. How does a nervous impulse pass down a neuron? to QUESTIONS FOR BONES AND MUSCLES 1. What is the function of the pacemaker? . What is the all-or-nothing principle? 7. What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands? 3. What are hormones. Compare the similarities and differences of male and female sex hormones. Shortly after being released. 2. The vertebral column is made of which types of vertebrae? Where are they example of each. Trace the movement of nitrogenous waste removal through a kidney from the renal artery to the ureter. hyperosmotic. Describe how hormones affect diabetes. QUESTIONS FOR BRAIN AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. and hindbrain refer to? 4. and how do they affect plants? 4. 6. midbrain. what normally happens neurotransmitters? 8. QUESTIONS FOR HORMONES 1.

What is the difference between a vitamin and a mineral? 7. Compare and contrast several different types of hearts. How does blood clot? 3. Analyze. What is the role of lipids in one’s diet? 5. Describe muscle contraction and relaxation. Describe the similarities and difference between closed and open circulatory systems. What is the role of the Malphigian tubules. and how do they interact with the circulatory system of what kinds of animals? 4. QUESTIONS FOR THE INTERNAL TRANSPORT OF PLANTS 1. How does heart beat? 4. What are the theories concerning how materials are conducted throughout plants? 3. 3. What is the function of a lymphatic system? QUESTIONS FOR BLOOD 1. 2. What is blood pressure? QUESTIONS FOR NUTRITION 1. 6. 2. 2. and contrast the contents of the blood of a vertebrate and an insect. 6. and how do they work? QUESTIONS FOR CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 1. Why is it necessary for food to be digested? 2. Describe some simple sugars and explain their nutritional value. Follow the entire route of blood through a vertebrarate circulatory system. compare. Why are proteins important in a diet? 4. What are vitamins and why are they important? 6. Explain the fundamentals of the sliding-filament theory. What is the function of the roots.5. Describe the conducting tissues of plants. 5. How does the insect tracheal system affect its circulatory system? 3. What is thought to be the value of fiber in one’s diet? .