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Comparison between I- and NA-Adjectives

What is an adjective? 1. Noun Modifiers – It takes the basic form, and precedes noun(s). 2. Predicates – Predicates to a sentence (giving a property to the subject) – where the adjective takes the verb position of the sentence, possibly requiring a copula.

I- Adjectives
1. The first group is the い adjectives, which always end in the vowel “I.” • Known as true adjectives. 2. These adjectives are a specialized class of verbs, each with a meaning of “to be [some property].” • Adjectival verbs - They blend the properties of adjectives and nouns. 3. Functions. • When an I-adjective is placed in front of a noun, it modifies the noun directly. • When placed at the end of the sentence, it becomes a predicate. I-Adjective as a Modifier おおきい やま。 I-Adjective as a Predicate. やま は おおきい。

A big mountain.

The mountain is big.

4. When using an I-adjective for the predicate function in formal speech, add “です” afterward to make the sentence polite. • This is one of the cases where です is not actually a copula, since the adjective already includes the meaning “to be.” ‘I-Adjectives’ (as predicates) can function, and conjugate like verbs. (Verbs act as predicates, that typically express action, state, and relation between two things and that may be inflected for tense, aspect, voice, mood, and agreement/objective.) Informal Present Negative Past Past Negative Formal Replace the final ~ I with ~ku nai Replace the final ~ I with ~katta Replace the final ~ I with ~ ku nakatta

Add ~desu to all of the informal forms. Negative Past Negative Replace ~I with ~ku arimasen. Add ~deshita to ~ku arimasen.

NA- Adjectives
1. The second group, the な adjectives, are followed by a variety of endings. • • Use the suffix な when directly modifying nouns. Use the copula だ/です when used to predicate a sentence. Na-Adjective as a Predicate. はな は きれい だ。

Na-Adjective as a Modifier きれい な はな。

A pretty flower. 2. In formal speech, “だ ” in the predicate is replace by “です”. •

The flower is pretty.

The result of this is that in formal speech, both い- and な- adjectives will be followed by “です” in the predicate position though the reasons in each case are different.

3. Just as with nouns, だ or です change form to express the past tense, negative, and affirmative. Informal (Plain) Present Present Negative だ じゃない Formal (Polite) です じゃないです じゃありません でわない Past Past Negative だった じゃなかった でわありません でした じゃなかったです じゃありませんでした でわなかった でわありませんでした

4. The root of な adjective also functions as a adjectival nouns. • They are not considered adjectives, because they are formed by nouns. • Noun(s) that functions as an adjective by taking the suffix な. o In comparison, regular nouns function as an adjective by taking the particle の. とくべつ な Special () とくべつ Specialty