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Data64 Cyber Capacity Building Program (India

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An initiative of Data64 Techno Solutions Pvt. Ltd. & Asian School of Cyber Laws

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Contents
Introduction....................................................................................................3 1. Cyber Crime & Cyber Security Awareness................................6 1.1 Making children Cyber Smart ...................................................... 7 1.2 Cyber Crime News Network ......................................................... 9 1.3 Cyber Crime Protection Program ............................................... 9 1.4 Workshops ........................................................................................... 9 1.5 Surveys .................................................................................................. 9 1.6 Specialized Publications .............................................................. 10 2. Cyber Crime Control...........................................................................16 2.1 Cyber Crime Helpline ................................................................... 16 2.2 Training Programs......................................................................... 17 2.3 Setting up Cyber Investigation Cells ...................................... 25 2.4 Corporate Crime Control Organization (CCCO) ................. 26 2.5 Assisting Governments in framing cyber related laws ... 28 3. Cyber Standards Development.....................................................31

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4. Research & Development................................................................32 4.1 Development of technological solutions for cyber investigation and forensics................................................................ 32 4.2 Development of the AR64 platform for compliance with India's anti-ragging law ...................................................................... 33 4.3 Upcoming R&D projects .............................................................. 34 5. Centres of Excellence.........................................................................35 6. Information Technology Regulatory Compliance.............37 7. Manpower Building.............................................................................39 7.1. Educational Programs ................................................................. 40 7.2 Data64 Cyber Education Scholarships 2012 - 2015 ........ 48 7.3 Industrial training.......................................................................... 49 7.4 Association of Digital Forensic Investigators (ADFI) ...... 49 8. Cyber Entrepreneurship..................................................................50 9. Recruitment.............................................................................................69

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Introduction
A recent statement in the media aptly summarizes the scenario of cyber security in India: Today, the manpower addressing the cyber security issue is limited. We need 4,00,000 skilled people to address this; currently, we have just about 32,000 skilled people. We need people to address aspects like technology procurement and legal issues, and train the police and the judiciary in understanding the cyber segment1. A study by Symantec Corp2. (Nasdaq: SYMC) calculates the cost of global cybercrime as $114 billion annually. The report additionally finds that: 1. Based on the value victims surveyed placed on time lost due to their cybercrime experiences, an additional $274 billion was lost 2. With 431 million adult victims globally in the past year and at an annual price of $388 billion globally based on financial losses and time lost, cybercrime costs the world significantly
Dr. Gulshan Rai, Director General, I-CERT and GC (Cyber Laws Group Formulation & Enforcement Division) Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Government of India as quoted in Business Standard on Sep 20, 2012 2 Source: www.symantec.com
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more than the global black market in marijuana, cocaine and heroin combined ($288 billion). We have always understood that as the use of technology in our society grows, there will be an massive growth in the need for cyber security. That's what led to the birth of CyberTribe in 1999 - a revolution with a mission to empower the citizens of the world through cyberspace. Cyber Tribe consists of 10 organizations It was in the year 2000 that Asian School of Cyber Laws was born in India, a few months before the landmark Information Technology Act was passed. Then came TechJuris Law Consultants, a dynamic law firm specializing in technology laws, digital evidence, technology contracts and Internet based businesses. As the face of cyber law changed to make it an inseparable part of other facets of law, ASCL Law School emerged introducing students and professionals to the progressive face of financial and corporate law. Very soon, the IT industry witnessed explosive growth. Corporates felt the need for cutting edge consultancy in Digital Evidence Analysis and Incident Response. Thus was born, Data64 Techno Solutions Pvt. Ltd., incubated by Science and Technology Park, a STEP promoted by the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. Led, as we were, in the right direction by social changes, the inclusion of computers in the lives of children brought forth the 4

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need for life skills for youngsters. Republic of Cyberia, a virtual nation for youngsters, created to promote life skills above and beyond conventional education - announced its birth. Association of Digital Forensic Investigators has been created as a member driven organization to develop and design standards and best practices for all areas of digital forensic investigation. Security Standards and Controls Development Organization (SSCDO) has been created to develop and disseminate open source standards for cyber security. Corporate Crime Control Organization (CCCO) has been created to assist the industry in handling corporate crime. Lexcode Regulatory Compliance Technologies Pvt. Ltd. was established in 2011 to develop high-quality technological solutions for legal compliance. Data64 Technologies Pvt. Ltd was established in 2012 to handle all Cyber Tribe operations in Mumbai and Gujarat. This document outlines our efforts so far and future plans to build and sustain India's cyber capacity.

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1. Cyber Crime & Cyber Security Awareness
We have been working to create awareness about cyber crime and cyber security, amongst different segments of the population - children, laymen and professionals. 6

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1.1 Making children Cyber Smart In 2007, 16-year-old Mumbai student Adnan Patrawala was kidnapped by friends he made on social networking site Orkut.com. His kidnappers asked for a ransom of Rs. 2 crore. When the kidnappers (all youngsters themselves) heard on TV that the police were looking for them, they murdered Adnan. This horrifying case highlights the hidden dangers of the Internet. The Internet is a world full of information, friends, fun, education and sports. It is also a world full of drug dealers, porn freaks, cyber stalkers, psychopaths, kidnappers, cyber bullies and even recipes to make bombs! There are several threats that children face online. One of these is cyber bullying, which can lead to depression, substance abuse and even suicide! Another threat is from online buddies who can turn out to be psychopaths, kidnappers or even child molesters! Often children inadvertently give away vital details like their parents' incomes, their address, even credit card information! This information can then be misused by criminals to make illegal purchases and run up huge bills. The Solution is to make children and parents CyberSmart. A CyberSmart person is someone who: + understands the cyber threats facing him and his world + knows how to protect his world from these threats + knows how to efficiently and effectively use cyber technology 7

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We conduct the Cyber Smart Program, under the Republic of Cyberia3, which combines education with entertainment to create edutainment. This program teaches children to become Cyber Smart through cyber games, interactive online activities, animated films and comics, audio visual broadcasts and interactive classroom sessions. We have conducted free "Cyber Smart" seminars and workshops for thousands of school children. These programs were conducted under the Republic of Cyberia project in several schools in Pune and Mumbai including St. Mira’s, Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, St. Joseph’s, Bishop's High School, St. Anne’s, Dhirubhai Ambani International School, Ecole Mondiale World School, Blossoms School, JBCN International School, Hill Spring and SVKM International School. These programs aim to make children CyberSmart so they understand the cyber threats facing them and their family. www.facebook.com/republic.of.cyberia

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The Republic of Cyberia is a virtual nation created to empower children with a 360-degree all-round smart education. 360-degree all-round smart education focuses more on life skills - abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life.

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1.2 Cyber Crime News Network The Cyber Crime News Network is a one-stop resource being built for the latest news on cyber crime from around the world. www.facebook.com/cyber.crime.news

1.3 Cyber Crime Protection Program This free course features an eBook to help a person learn about cyber crime protection. On successfully taking a short 20question quiz, the participant can earn an online certificate. www.campus64.com/c2p2

1.4 Workshops We regularly conduct workshops on areas relevant to cyber crime investigation, cyber forensics and cyber security. Some of these workshops are conducted free of charge while for others a nominal fee is levied. www.facebook.com/data64.workshops

1.5 Surveys We will be conducting regular surveys to gauge the real impact of cyber crime on India. The first such survey is titled Nationwide survey on Cyber Crime Awareness amongst school children 9

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and is being conducted across schools in India during October and November, 2012.

1.6 Specialized Publications We regularly publish specialized books and reports. ASCL Computer Crime & Abuse Report (India) is the only study of its kind quoted by the United Nations in its Ecommerce & Development Report (2003). This third edition of the E-Commerce and Development Report, published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, identifies some of the implications that the growth of the digital economy may have for developing countries. Relevant extract from the report: Studies based on reported security incidents assess internal threats as being as severe as external ones. For example, the Asian School of Cyber Laws study Computer Crime and Abuse Report 2001– 02 for India showed that over half of the reported incidents were traced to employees (21 per cent) or former employees (31 per cent). 10

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In the end, the question of IT security at the firm level is much more a managerial problem than a technical one. It has to do with how penetrable the enterprise wants its business processes to be and how risk management is integrated into those processes. Management must decide what balance to strike between the benefits of open, collaborative business processes and the risks that greater exposure entails. The UN Report is available at: www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/ecdr.pdf The ASCL Computer Crime and Abuse Report (2001-02) is available at: www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/report.pdf We were invited to make a presentation on "Indian Legal Position on Cyber Terrorism, Encryption and Preventive Measures", on behalf of the Karnataka Police, for Otto Schily, Interior Minister, Federal Republic of Germany.

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Law enforcement personnel in India and abroad extensively use this unique Cyber Crime Investigation Manual. Times of India, the world’s largest selling English newspaper, referred to the Manual as a “bible for cyber crime detectives”. We also publish the Commentary on Information Technology Act. For all relevant penal sections, the book is structured to cover the: Acts penalized, Punishment, Punishment for attempt, Punishment for abetment, Whether cognizable?, Whether bailable?, Whether compoundable?, Investigation authorities, Relevant court, First appeal lies to, Points for prosecution and Points for defence. Where relevant the book mentions relevant legal provisions of major countries including Canada, USA, Malaysia, Japan, UK and Singapore. This book is an essential resource for all law students, lawyers, judges, law enforcement officials, professionals & academicians who are interested in understanding the Information Technology Act. One of our free online publications titled A to Z of Cyber Crime was downloaded over 6000 times in less than 3 weeks of being posted online. Another one of our free online publications titled Hackers that shook the world has also received a 12

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tremendous response. Some of our research publications: Internet Time Theft & the Indian Law - white paper prepared for the Corps of Detectives, Karnataka Police, September 2001. Legislative Approach to Digital Signatures - paper presented at the First World Congress on Computer Law organized at Ecuador, October, 2001. Legislative Approach to Digital Signatures - paper presented at the International Law Seminar organized by ISIL at New Delhi, India in October, 2001. Indian Legal position on Cyber Terrorism, Encryption and preventive measures on behalf of the Karnataka Police for Otto Schily, Interior Minister, Federal Republic of Germany (30th October , 2001). Defining Cyber Terrorism - paper submitted at the National Seminar on Human Rights and Terrorism on 9 and 10 March 2002 at Nagpur, India. The mathematics of terror - paper submitted at the National Seminar on Human Rights and Terrorism on 9 and 10 March, 2002 at Nagpur, India. Cyber Terrorism in the context of Globalisation - Paper presented at the UGC sponsored National Seminar on “Globalization and Human Rights” held on 7th - 8th September, 2002 at Mumbai, India. 13

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Cyber Terrorism - A Global Perspective – Paper presented at the Second World Congress on Informatics and Law held at Madrid, Spain from 23rd - 27th September, 2002. Internet Draft titled Biometric based Digital Signature scheme – which proposes a method of using biometrics to generate keys for use in digital signature creation and verification. Intellectual property law and cyberspace - presented at the seminar on intellectual property rights conducted by the Department of Civics and Politics, University of Mumbai in 2006. We were part of the Organizing Committee for the World Congress on Informatics and Law at: - Spain (2002) - Cuba (2003) - Peru (2004) World Congress For Informatics And Law II was held in Madrid, Spain in 2002. The Honorary President of the World Congress was His Royal Highness the Prínce of Asturias. World Congress II was the continuation of World Congress I, held in Quito (Equador), 15-18 October 2001, under the auspices of the State of Equator, represented by H.E. Vice President Pedro Pinto, who chaired the inaugural session. 14

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During this Congress, a paper titled Cyber Terrorism in the context of Globalization was presented by Rohas Nagpal, President, Asian School of Cyber Laws. This was one of the first papers in the world that defined the term cyber terrorism. The definition was Cyber terrorism is the premeditated use of disruptive activities, or the threat thereof, in cyber space, with the intention to further social, ideological, religious, political or similar objectives, or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such objectives. The digital version of this paper is at: www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/spain.pdf We will shortly be publishing a special report on 12 years of the Information Technology Act. We also publish posters on cyber law and cyber crime related issues. www.facebook.com/asian.school.of.cyberlaws

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2. Cyber Crime Control

2.1 Cyber Crime Helpline Scheduled to be inaugurated on 17th October, 2012 (also known as Cyber Law Day) this helpline will serve as a friend, philosopher and guide for victims of cyber crime. help@data64.com 16

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2.2 Training Programs We have been conducting training programs for law enforcement, tax enforcement and judiciary on cyber law, cyber crime investigation and cyber forensics. We have conducted training programs on Cyber Crime Investigation, Incident Response and Cyber Forensics for senior Government and Police officials from Malaysia. Extract from an article in the Indian Express dated APRIL 30, 2004 titled Pune beats IT peers in fixing cyber crimes - From corporate America to Mauritius, there is a beeline to ASCL for training: Bangalore may have taken the tag of India's Silicon Valley and Hyderabad would have rechristened itself as cyberabad, but when it comes to fixing the cyber crimes, Pune seems to have taken the lead over its illustrious peers. Pune would not have made it to the global infotech map for its code - writing abilities, but when it comes to tackling cyber crimes, it is the preferred destination even for Corporate America.

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For, the Asian School of Cyber Laws (ASCL) - an institution involved in education, training and consultancy in cyber laws and crime detection has set up its base here. Savour this: Last year, a team of Malaysian government officials undertook training in cyber laws and cyber crime investigation at this institution. That is not all to it. Corporate America followed by its counterparts from the United Kingdom and Hong Kong have all been visiting the city to get trained at ASCL. The digital version of this article is at: www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/malaysia.pdf We have also conducted a high end training program at Accra, Ghana. Former Deputy Minister of Communication Hon. Gideon Kwame Boye Quarcoo was the guest of honour. In May 2011, the Mauritius Bar Association, together with the Association of Magistrates, invited Mr Debasis Nayak, Director, Asian School of Cyber Laws, at the seat of 18

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the Bar Council to provide "an overview of Cyber law in Mauritius with emphasis on evidentiary aspects of cybercrime." In his introductory note, His Honour Patrick Kam Sing, VicePresident of the Inter-mediate Court (Civil Side), laid emphasis on the threat imposed by Cybercrime and the fact that it is difficult to secure a conviction given the transnational nature of such offences. The Monthly Legal Update Newsletter dated June 2011 issued by the Office of the Director Of Public Prosecutions, Mauritius is available in digital form at: www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/mba.pdf We have assisted the Indian Army, various branches of the Indian police and the Central Bureau of Investigation in matters relating to cyber investigation. Some of the relevant reference letters can be downloaded in digital form from: www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/army.pdf www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/cbi.pdf www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/blr.pdf www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/kp.pdf We have conducted training programs on Cyber Crime Investigation, Incident Response and Cyber Forensics for senior Government and Police officials from Mauritius. 19

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We have conducted training programs for income tax officials at the National Academy of Direct Taxes, Nagpur (a Central Institute of the Ministry Of Finance) and its unit at Lucknow the Direct Taxes Regional Training Institute. We have conducted training programs for police officials at the National Police Academy, Hyderabad (which trains officers of the Indian Police Service) and Sher-I-Kashmir Police Academy. We have conducted training programs for bank officials at the National Institute of Bank Management, Pune (an autonomous apex institution set up by the Reserve Bank of India, in consultation with the Government of India). We have conducted training programs for insurance officials at the National Insurance Academy, Pune. We have also conducted training programs for the Securities and Exchange Board of India. We have also conducted training programs for Yashwantrao Chavan Academy of Development Administration (YASHADA), which is the Administrative Training Institute of the Government of Maharashtra.

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We have also conducted training programs for the Vaikunth Mehta National Institute of Cooperative Management (VAMNICOM), an Institution of National Council for Cooperative Training, New Delhi. We have conducted cyber law workshops under the guidance and supervision of the office of the Chairperson, Cyber Appellate Tribunal, New Delhi (established under the Information Technology Act). We have trained employees of Bank of India and HSBC (one of the world's largest banking and financial services organisations). We were invited to conduct a session on cyber security for Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), previously called Institute of Armament Technology (IAT), a Deemed University specializing in Armament Technologies. We have conducted workshops for corporates such as Mahindra British Telecom, National Stock Exchange, Kanbay, Finolex, GCCI, MCCIA, Tata Consultancy Services, Patni Computer Systems, Cognizant, Facor, Thermax, Mastek Limited, CSI, DiPurba Consulting- Malaysia, Microline, Bit- Tech, Datamatics, Growel Softech, Iopsis, VAIDS, Synel, Resonance, Rishabh Software, Seed Infotech, NIIT, Delphi, Concourse, I2IT, IHNS2. We organize CyberAttack - a national conference on cyber crime & security.

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CyberAttack is usually held in India (Delhi, Mumbai, Pune & Hyderabad) as well as Mauritius. Dr. Gulshan Rai, Director General, Indian Computer Emergency Response Team, Government of India inaugurated the 2011 conference at Pune. He also delivered the key note address. We were invited to talk on "International and National Legal Implications of Operations in Cyber Space" at Cyber Security India 2011 - India's Only Dedicated Military Cyber Security Conference. We conducted the world's first online moot court in 2002 adjudged by Hon'ble Ranganath Misra ex-chief Justice of Supreme Court of India, ex-National Human Rights Commission Chairman and ex-Rajya Sabha member. We drafted the compromis, for the Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition, 2002 (USA). It is the world's largest moot court competition, with participants from over 500 law schools in more than 80 countries. Please see: www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/jessup.pdf We are a global leader in training in cyber crime investigation and cyber forensics. Extract from an article titled "Shaolin of Cybercrime fighters" published in Times of India:

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The city seems to be fast becoming the final answer to Asia's quest for low-cost training in cyber-crime. While a five member team of police officials from Mauritius is undergoing a special, month-long course in cyber crime investigation, a few months ago, a four-member state team from Malaysia attended a two-week crash course at the citybased Asian School of Cyber laws (ASCL). Another team from Mauritius is expected soon, said Gaurav Sharma, head of education and consultancy at the ASCL. During the last year alone, around 140 individual and corporate sponsored students from Japan, Korea, China, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong-Kong and Mauritius among other countries have taken correspondence courses from the ASCL, to learn about cyber crimes. In all, 3,000 students took courses from the ASCL so far, of whom 600 are foreigners. In July-August, nearly 150 individual and corporate sponsored students from various Asian countries are expected to train at the institute. Rohas Nagpal, president, ASCL, said his institute offered courses in both cyber crime investigation and cyber laws. 23

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In the last one year, the school has been working closely with the Union ministry of IT and communications. It even helped the ministry frame rules under the IT Act 2000, besides drafting the code of conduct for cyber cafes in the country. Ever since it was founded in 1999 by a group of lawyers working in the field of information security, the ASCL has been assisting law enforcement agencies in India and many Asian countries in the investigation of multi million dollar cyber crimes. These crimes involve cyber terrorism, cyber forgery and attacks on health related IT systems. The $1.5 million Bangalore source code case and the Gian Carla Balestra case of cyber stalking are among the dozens of cases the school has helped crack. In view of the growing use of the internet and various IT initiatives taken up by countries like China, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan and the Philippines, there is a growing need for local officials in these countries to understand the implications and improve their skills in handling related crime, said Sharma. The training programme addresses issues such as investigation of email crimes, hacking attacks, 24

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denial of service attacks, tracking viruses, web jacking and web defacement, network crimes, cyber terrorism and false authentication using digital signatures etc. A special module on ethical hacking is also to be included. The school is also looking at working in the US and Europe as well. Among its future plans is developing best practices in cyber crime investigation for law enforcement agencies and evolving common standards, at least for Asian countries. The digital version of this article is at: www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/shaolin.pdf

2.3 Setting up Cyber Investigation Cells We are the first private organization in the world to offer complete forensic investigation & training services for cellular and mobile communication devices. Our expertise includes iPad & iPhone Forensics, Blackberry Forensics, Android Forensics, Windows Mobile Forensics as well as Symbian Forensics. 25

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To assist law enforcement, tax enforcement as well as common citizens tackle cyber crime, we are establishing cyber investigation cells around the country. We have already established cells at Pune, Mumbai and Ghaziabad.

2.4 Corporate Crime Control Organization (CCCO) Corporate Crime Control Organization (CCCO) is a nodal body formed with the specific objective of minimizing the impact of corporate crimes on business organizations. CCCO is an autonomous, self - regulatory body aimed at addressing corporate concerns relating to corporate crimes using a multipronged approach. With the cost of corporate crimes spiraling upwards, whether due to financial frauds like Enron and Satyam or due to corporate cyber crimes, corporate crimes pose a financial risk business organizations can no longer ignore. It was, thus, imperative that an attempt to control corporate crimes be made through a cohesive effort by bringing industry, academia, government and the individual together. CCCO is such an attempt. CCCO aims to bring about business awareness, develop industry specific controls, foster innovative thought, publish statistics, tap and promote human resources, provide support, conduct programs and bring together diverse interest groups under a common platform to combat corporate crimes. CCCO plans to form sub-groups to understand and address specific crime areas encompassing securities frauds, embezzlements, 26

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accounting frauds, intellectual property thefts, cyber crimes and restrictive and anti-competitive trade practices. The Mission of CCCO is to Create, prescribe and adopt practices, procedures and processes to prevent corporate crimes and to provide timely support to embattled corporate organizations. The Objectives of CCCO: 1. Be the nodal body for coprorate organizations looking for support in addressing corporate crime incidents 2. Create a talent pool of experts which can be tapped by corproate organizations during time critical events 3. Create a database of industry wise incidents and their responses to help tackle any future incident in corporate organizations 4. Build capacity in corporate organizations to fight corporate crimes through customized sensitization and training programs 5. Provide an ideating platform for discussing innovative solutions to prevent corporate crime incidents 6. Provide a unified platform for advocating reforms in governmental mechanisms to reduce corporate crimes 7. Provide a mutually beneficial networking platform for common interest groups

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2.5 Assisting Governments in framing cyber related laws We have assisted the Government of India in framing draft rules and regulations under the Information Technology Act and drafting model rules for the functioning of Cyber Cafes and drafting the Information Age Crimes Act. We have assisted the Controller of Certifying Authorities in drafting regulations relating to the recognition of foreign certifying authorities. We have also provided academic support to the National Consultation meeting on Enforcement of Cyber Law held at New Delhi on 31st January 2010. This meeting was organized by National Project Committee on Enforcement of Cyber Law (Supreme Court of India) in association with Cyber Appellate Tribunal, Ministry of Communication & Information Technology, Department of Information Technology, Government of India and National Legal Services Authority (NALSA). A public interest litigation filed by our students led to the appointment of Adjudicating Officers to decide the fate of cyber crime cases. The Bombay high court directed the Union government to expedite the process of appointing enforcement authorities as 28

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per the information technology (IT) Act, 2000, so that aggrieved persons can get their grievances settled. The Bombay High Court bench comprising Chief Justice A.P. Shah and Justice Ranjana Desai gave this order while hearing a public interest litigation (PIL) filed by Nupur Jain and other students of Asian School of Cyber Laws. Vishal Kumar, Director (Academics), Asian School of Cyber Laws was a member of Sub-group on E-Security under working group on Information Technology Sector for the formulation of the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012 -17) Government of India., New Delhi – India Department of Information Technology, as per the recommendation of Working Group on Information Technology Sector has constituted a Sub Group on E- Security on 14th July 2011 to make the recommendations on various policy matters related to E-Security area for formulation of the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012 -2017). Extract of letter from S Lakshinarayanan, IAS, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Communications and IT, Government of India : As you are already associated with this department's activity of 'Framing draft rules and regulations under Information Technology Act 2000' and Information Age Crimes Act' you are aware of Government of India's IT Act 2000 and the various steps taken to formulate rules and regulations to curb cyber crime, anti national activities etc., especially through Internet, Cyber Cafe's spread over in several metros, cities and towns. 29

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It is felt that the expertise of your institution on the subject could benefit the Government of India for formulating a national level model of rules and regulations. The digital version of this letter is at: www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/mit.pdf Also see: www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/rs.pdf www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/dit.pdf www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/sc.pdf www.asianlaws.org/aboutus/ao.pdf

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3. Cyber Standards Development

We have established the Security Standards & Controls Development Organisation to develop and design standards and controls relating to cyber crime investigation, cyber forensics and information security.

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4. Research & Development
4.1 Development of technological solutions for cyber investigation and forensics We developed the world’s smallest cyber crime investigation device code-named pCHIP. This Portable Mega Investigation & Forensic Solution is delivered in two versions – on a USB device and on a micro SD card. It was released in August, 2010 by Hon’ble Justice Rajesh Tandon, who was then the Chairperson, Cyber Appellate Tribunal, New Delhi. pCHIP runs from a USB drive / micro SD card without installation on the suspect PC. It captures relevant volatile evidence from a live (switched on) computer. It has an extremely easy-to-use interface and provides detailed reports. 32

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Some of the features of pCHIP are: 1. The pCHIP retrieves crucial volatile digital evidence from the suspect computer and generates 38 reports at the click of a button. 2. The pCHIP can detect and list password protected & encrypted files on a suspect computer. It can also attack and crack hundreds of types of passwords. 3. At the click of a button, the pCHIP can generate a report containing the details of every USB device ever connected to the suspect computer. The pCHIP can clone and image disks and also recover deleted data. We have developed dx64, a Cyber Warfare Early Warning System. dx64 facilitates real-time, open exchange of data from entities about how and when cyber attacks have affected their systems. This data is analyzed to provide early-warning of cyber attacks that could bring down critical infrastructure. 4.2 Development of the AR64 platform for compliance with India's anti-ragging law We have launched a massive national level program to make Indian colleges ragging free. The various anti-ragging laws in India include: 1. Guidelines issued by the Supreme Court of India in the case of Vishwa Jagriti Mission through President v/s Central Government through Cabinet Secretary. 33

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2. Guidelines issued by the Supreme Court of India in the case of University of Kerala v/s Council, Principals' Colleges, Kerala and Others. 3. Recommendations made in the Raghavan Committee Report 4. Regulations issued by the University Grants Commission. Manual compliance with the stringent anti-ragging laws would not only be extremely time-consuming but also would require a lot of people and expense. To enable colleges to comply with the anti-ragging laws, we have developed AR-64, a cutting edge technological solution that automates the anti-ragging legal compliance process. 4.3 Upcoming R&D projects Our upcoming Research & Development projects include: 1. Indigenization of cyber techniques and processes 2. Developing best practices for cell forensics 3. Development of the moodstatus.me platform 5. Development of the global-ID platform

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5. Centres of Excellence
A Data64 Center of Excellence aims at equipping the community to tackle cyber crime by: 1. Developing a Crisis Management Plan for countering cyber attacks and cyber terrorism in the region. 2. Developing an action agenda to enable comprehensive cyber security policy compliance

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3. Developing a mechanism for audit and assessment of security posture of critical sector organisations in the region. 4. Developing an action agenda to conduct cyber security drills to assess the preparedness of organisations to resist and mitigate cyber attacks. 5. Developing an action agenda to support implementation of the Information Technology Act in the region. 6.. Developing an action agenda to support implementation of Public Key Infrastructure and promote use of Digital Signatures in the region. 7. Developing an action agenda to promote education, training, research & development activities in relevant areas of cyber law, cyber security, cyber crime investigation and cyber forensics. 8. Developing an action agenda to create necessary cyber security awareness through formal and informal programmes. 9. Developing an infrastructure in terms of technology and human resources to facilitate in solving cyber crime and digital evidence related cases for the law enforcement, corporate sector and general public. We have already established Data64 Centers of Excellence at: Bhatinda, Bhopal, Chennai, Ghaziabad, Hyderabad and Kolkata.

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6. Information Technology Regulatory Compliance
The Information Technology Act and its allied rules, regulations, orders etc impose several obligations on corporates. Failure to comply with these obligations may be penalized with imprisonment, fines and compensation. 37

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We have developed the ita64 suite of technological solutions for facilitating Information Technology Act compliance. ita64 comprises the following 2 modules: 1. priv64, a cutting edge technological solution that automates the data privacy legal compliance process for 100% compliance with India's data privacy laws 2. cert64, for 100% compliance with CERT and other reporting requirements.

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7. Manpower Building
India needs 4,00,000 skilled people to address cyber security. As against this, the current availability is of just about 32,000 skilled people. Skilled people are needed to address aspects like technology procurement and legal issues, and train the police and the judiciary in understanding the cyber segment. 39

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7.1. Educational Programs We have been conducting educational programs with leading educational institutions: Government Law College, Mumbai The Government Law College, founded in 1855, is the oldest law school in Asia and enjoys a pre-eminent national and international reputation for excellence. GLC has had the privilege of guidance from eminent legal luminaries such as Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Lokmanya Tilak, Justice M.C.Chagla, Nani Palkhivala and several others who have adorned benches of the Supreme Court of India and the Bombay High Court. St. Xavier's College, Mumbai St. Xavier's College, Mumbai has been awarded A+ rating in the reaccreditation by NAAC and has also been ranked among the top 10 colleges in India by India Today, Outlook and such other magazines. The UGC has awarded St. Xavier's, the "College with a Potential for Excellence" award in 2006.

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However, the faculty believe that it is the life the students lead and their contribution to humanity that are their best accolades. Gujarat Forensic Science University The Gujarat Forensic Science Universities endeavours to enhance the quality of education by encouraging interaction at a nation as well as at an international level. The University signed an MoU with Directorate of Forensic Science, Govt. of Gujarat to jointly promote academic learning, research & development programs. They have entered into an MoU with a number of foreign universities, the University of Florida being one of them. They set up Pilot Project for setting up model DNA database unit and Development of new methodology for the analysis of pirated CD-DVD and received sanction for the same from the Government. Chanakya National Law University This University was established in order to promote legal awareness in the community, which 41

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lead to the realization of goals embodied in the Constitution of India. Dr. Priya Darshini, Assistant Professor, Chanakya National Law University, Patna has been honoured with the Shiksha Rattan Puruskar, 2011 for the outstanding achievements in the field of Education. Her name has also been incorporated for the Best Citizens of India Award-2011. Vaikunth Mehta National Institute for Co-operative Management (VAMNICOM) is an Institution of National Council for Cooperative Training, New Delhi. Bharati Vidyapeeth University, New Law College, Pune Bharati Vidyapeeth’s New Law College has been accredited with “A” Grade by NAAC. New Law College is ranked 10th amongst 913 colleges by OUTLOOK in the June 2010 issue. The international collaboration with universities in UK, USA and other countries provides the academic opportunity to the students to excel in career at an international level which ensures optimal growth.

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Dr. Mukund Sarda, Principal and Dean Law Faculty, was Invited by the Oxford University to deliver a lecture on "Media and Law" on the 18th March 2009. The Indian Law Society (ILS) Law College ILS Law College was accredited the A+ level by NAAC. Its ranked amongst the top ten law colleges in the country by the India-Today ORG MARG survey and its library is rated among India's best with over 45,000 books, journals and hundred periodicals. Kerela Law Academy KLA is the only institution from Kerala to get selected to represent India in the prestigious Philip C Jessup International Moot Court Competition, held at Washington D.C, USA five times- in 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999 &, 2000. It was also selected to represent India in the prestigious Louis M Brown International Client Counseling Competition. They have also conducted on a regular basis a National Client Counseling Competition for testing the client interviewing skills of the law students at the national level since 2000. 43

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They also host the third oldest national moot court competition in India. V.M Salgaocar College of Law is Goa's leading law college. Whitefield Business School Whitefield Business School is a registered tertiary education provider, duly approved by the Tertiary Education Commission and Mauritius Qualifications Authority.

DiPurba DiPurba is a leading provider of education and training services to the Government of Malaysia. Gopaldas Jhamatmal Advani Law College Established in 1977, GJ Advani Law College is ranked amongst the top 20 Law Colleges in India by India Today.

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K.P.B Hinduja College of Commerce K.P.B Hinduja College of Commerce is ranked amongst the top Commerce Colleges in Mumbai and 11th amongst Commerce College all over India today. Kishinchand Chellaram Law College Established in 1955, K. C. Law College is ranked amongst the top 20 Law Colleges in India by India Today. IILM Business School IILM UBS was established in 1996, with the mandate of providing management education of the highest quality. IILM collaborated with University of Bradford in 1996 to offer undergraduate courses in the area of Management which follows the same program structure as the University of Bradford. There is a regular bilateral faculty and staff exchange between the School of Management, University of Bradford and IILMUBS for academic and administrative purposes. 45

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St. Teresa’s College St.Teresa's College envisions a life-oriented education that empowers women through a humanizing and liberative process. The institution was awarded the Rev. Fr. Theo Mathias award for innovative college educators for the year 2009 instituted by the All India Association for Christian Higher Education. The R. Sankar award for the best college in the state of Kerala for the academic year 1998-1999 awarded in 2005. The institution has thrice been given this honour They were also awarded the Best College Award by Xavier Board of Higher Education in the year 2008. MVP Samaj's Law College is a leading Nasik based law college.

New Law Academy, Pune is a leading Pune based law college.

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NS Soti Law College is a leading Sangli based law college. Ismailsaheb Mulla Law College is a leading Satara based law college.

Dr. Ambedkar College is a leading Nagpur based college.

SBK Law College is a leading Ratnagiri based law college. Shahaji Law College is a leading Kolhapur based law college. Central India College of Law is a leading Nagpur based law college.

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We have conducted workshops for educational institutions such as Banaras Hindu University, ILS Law College, Government Law College (Mumbai), Nagpur University, Bangalore Institute of Legal Studies, Bharti Vidyapeeth University, Sri Venkateswara University, Surendra Nath Law College, M.G.Kashi Vidyapith University, Hazra Law College (Kolkata), Jogeshchandra Choudhoury Law College, Jadhavpur University, YC Law College, Amravati College of Management, Amravati University, V.M. Salgaocar Law College.

7.2 Data64 Cyber Education Scholarships 2012 - 2015 The Data64 Cyber Education Scholarships 2012 - 2015 which will provide scholarship for the following professional programs: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ASCL Certified Cyber Crime Investigator ASCL Certified Digital Evidence Analyst ASCL Certified Digital Forensic Investigator Diploma in Cyber Law with a special paper on International Cyber Crime Law PG Program in Cyber Crime Prosecution & Defence Cyber Law for Police Officers Advanced Program in International Cyber Laws Advanced Executive Program in IT Act Audit & Compliance Advanced Executive Program in Cyber Security Advanced Executive Program in Cyber Security, Audit & Compliance 48

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Eligibility: Category 1: Students studying Computer Engineering / Computer Science / Law at the graduate or post graduate level e.g. B.E., B.Tech, B.Sc, BCA, LLB, M.Tech, LLM etc with no current backlogs. Category 2: Serving / retired officers of the Indian police, military and other law enforcement agencies 60% of the scholarships are reserved for female candidates.

7.3 Industrial training We will be providing industrial training in cyber investigation, forensics and security (ranging from 4 weeks to 6 months duration) to Engineering students. The training will be provided in Mumbai, Pune, Ghaziabad, Chandigarh, Bhatinda, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Chennai. The training will also be available in Virtual mode for students who cannot travel to these cities.

7.4 Association of Digital Forensic Investigators (ADFI) Association of Digital Forensic Investigators (ADFI) is a member driven organization that facilitates research and development in Digital Forensic Investigation.

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8. Cyber Entrepreneurship
Introduction Ancient India was at the forefront of trade and commerce. There is evidence of trade between the two great ancient civilizations of the world, India and Egypt. The Indus Valley Civilization, in existence between 3300 – 1700 BCE, was extensively dependant on trade. Subsequently, the Magadha, Kalinga and Maurya empires had established trade links from Java, Sumatra and Borneo in Southeast Asia to Greece and other countries in Europe, trading in spices, fine cloth, ivory, sugar, indigo and diamonds, among others. The entrepreneurial skills of Indians which had made India self-sustaining and rich continued right up to the time of colonization by the British, around the mid eighteenth century. With the British east India Company and later, the British 50

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Crown, came economic plunder and exploitation of India on a scale never seen before. With heavy duties on exports and imports, the British throttled entrepreneurship in India. The aim was to make India a country of servants and clerks, primarily to serve their political and economic ambitions. The education policies created by the British killed imagination, creativity and enterprise in most Indians.4 The entrepreneur in the rest was snuffed out by a regime of licenses, quotas and permits, legacies of which last till today. The regime was primarily built to smother any independent economic activity by an Indian. As we move to the present, we see the result of the last remnants of their education policies, which we have been trying to reform since Independence. Such policies have resulted in an emphasis on general education. The result is a huge number of educated unemployed who are mostly unemployable, as they have not learnt any skill which can earn them a living.5

4 “Industrially speaking, India was deliberately kept in ignorance. She only produces basic necessities, made by hand. The Indians would be incapable, for example, of making a motor-car, a rifle, a clock..... etc... Care is taken to avoid technical and industrial training. This rule, observed throughout India, aims to stop India from becoming an industrial country capable of competing with England” – From “How a Nation Is Exploited – The British Empire in Burma”, by E.A. Blair (Essays and other Works by George Orwell), published by Le Progrès Civique, May 4, 1929). 5 “In India, the emphasis has been on general education, with vocational education at the receiving end. This has resulted in large

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The Indian government has woken up to this fact and is trying to devise policies and schemes aimed at reducing unemployment. However, it is a difficult task since resources are finite and the government alone may not have the means to create employment for such a large number of people. We believe that there is a need to look beyond traditional means of employment creation to solve this problem. One way of looking at it would be to create employers instead of employees, possibly by focusing more on creating selfemployment opportunities. In the present context, information technology offers a unique way of creating a possible solution to achieve this. It is possible to use information technology and the Internet to create small, self-sustaining financial eco-systems using a minimum of financial and infrastructural resources. We believe that the cyber world can give birth to a new breed of cyber entrepreneurs6, who can utilize the immense possibilities offered by the World Wide Web to become free from the need

number of educated people remaining unemployed. This phenomenon has now been recognised by the planners and hence there is a greater thrust on vocationalisation of education.” – Dr. Vijay P. Goel (Deputy Director General, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India) in Technical And Vocational Education And Training (Tvet) System\In India For Sustainable Development 6 Founders of companies like Yahoo, Google and Facebook have exemplified and expanded this concept to create global corporations employing thousands of people

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for employment. Rather, employment for others.

this

new

breed

can

create

At Data64, we envision such a breed of cyber entrepreneurs, who will substantially alleviate the burden on public resources being used to create employment opportunities for the unemployed. This document outlines how, through proper education and training, such a vision can be turned into reality. It outlines a practical, working model of fulfilling that vision. The Problem Battling a huge population, which now stands at over 1.2 billion, the government of India is hard pressed to provide employment opportunities to its people. Numerous public policies and schemes have been devised to tackle unemployment. In a multicultural, multi-ethnic, multilingual and pluralistic country like India, creating employment for every work-able citizen has its own unique set of problems. Unemployment and poverty are fundamental challenges that require careful planning and honest execution. In the beginning, governmental policies veered towards creating public enterprises that looked upon creating employment as a social responsibility irrespective of profits, seemingly a paradox which did not withstand the test of time. Perhaps, the creation of socio economic policies had something to do with alignment of the thinking of early policy makers 53

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with Keynesian economics.7 However, the fiscal crisis in 1991 finally led to liberalization and private participation on a large scale in every sector was witnessed. Interesting to note is the contribution of the services sector in India’s GDP, which rose to 54.6% in 2004-05.8 Despite this, there is no notable growth of employment in the services sector, which at the same time is peculiar and disturbing. Peculiar because it is not proportional and disturbing because it points to the fact that education in India does not necessarily guarantee jobs. The complexity of the unemployment problem is further compounded by the growth of the informal sector9 and discrimination in the job market. Government policies and reforms tend to focus on this sector since this is the sector that is most visible in terms of economic disparity. Legislations like the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act and the

“I conceive, therefore, that a somewhat comprehensive socialisation of investment will prove the only means of securing an approximation to full employment; though need not exclude all manner of compromises and of devices by which public authority will co-operate with private initiative” – Keynes, 1936 (Quoted in the India Labour Market Report 2008, published by the Adeco Institute, England and the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India) See Appendix –1 8 Page 4, India Labour Market Report, 2008 9 Informal sectors are characterized by (i) size of employment units which are below a specific level of employment and/or (ii) nonregistration of either the units or the employees in those units – As mentioned in ILO Report (15th International Conference of Labour Statisticians) Geneva, 1993 available at http://www.wiego.org/about_ie/definitionsAndTheories.php
7

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Unorganized Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008 are focused on the informal sector and create some semblance of a social blanket, primarily for manual, unskilled labor. For semi-skilled labour in the formal sector, like factories or industrial establishments, there are a host of social security legislations that ensure protection of legal rights. Our focus, however, is on the sector which is not a beneficiary of these policies. A sector which is literate but is unable to secure employment. Discrimination in the job market affects this sector the most. In India, caste, gender and religion play a major part in job discrimination. The following exercise10 shows evidence of discrimination in the private sector: Discrimination in the Indian Private Sector: Empirical Evidence

One of the interesting recent studies that carried out a field experiment to seek evidence on discrimination in Indian job market has important findings. The study analyzed responses to job applications sent to private sector firms to uncover the effect of caste and religious affiliations in the process of job market selection. Three responses were sent to each call-as an upper caste Hindu, as a Dalit and as a Muslim.

10

Page 19, India Labour Market Report, 2008 (Sourced from Thorat and Attewell (2007), “The Legacy of Social Exclusion” Economic & Political Weekly, 42 (41): 4141-4145)

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The identities were differentiated only by the names on the application, which otherwise were similar in all other respects. The companies chosen were securities and investment companies; pharmaceutical and medical sales; computer sales, support and IT services; manufacturing; accounting firms, automobiles sales and financing; marketing and mass media; agriculture sales; construction and banking. The study found that job applicants with a Dalit or Muslim name were less likely to have a positive application outcome than equally qualified persons with a high caste Hindu name.

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Education does not result in better employment in case of SC/ST men11: In general there is a negative relation between combined effects of SC/ST status and education on employment opportunities in case of men. SC men suffer a disadvantage in regular salaried jobs if they have post-primary education. With higher education since SCs do not get access to salaried employment, they usually crowd into casual labour or stay out of labour force if they can afford to (Emphasis supplied). In case of SC/ST women, however, the likelihood of getting better employment increases with education. Higher Education does not result in better employment in case of minorities12: Post-primary education has evident negative effect in case of Muslim men in terms of employment. Thus higher education does not lead entry to higher end jobs in case of minorities (Das, 2008). Once, such (higher educated) people stay out of the labour force, they add to the numbers of the educated unemployed. Statistics apart, a functional democratic government must cater to the basic needs of its people to be successful. It must

Page 19, India Labour Market Report, 2008 (Sourced from Das, M. B. (2006), “Do Traditional Axes of Exclusion Affect Labour Market Outcomes in India?” ) Social Development, Discussion Paper No. 97, Washington DC: World Bank 12 Page 21, India Labour Market Report, 2008 (Sourced from Das, M. B. (2008), “Minority Status and Labour Market Outcomes: Does India Have Minority Enclaves?”) Sustainable development, Working Paper 4653, World Bank
11

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provide, at the minimum, a means of livelihood to its citizens. However, as mentioned, the government has finite resources at its disposal and for an ever increasing population, the gap between available resources for providing employment and the demand for employment keeps widening despite numerous schemes to bridge it. It may be for this reason that this issue has been enshrined as a non-enforceable Directive Principle under the Indian Constitution13 rather than a legally enforceable one. In such a scenario, entrepreneurship and/or self – employment seems an encouraging concept. But entrepreneurship in India comes with its own set of issues.

13

Articles 39 and 41, Constitution of India

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Entrepreneurship in India Entrepreneurship in India has a number of issues dependant on cultural and social ethos of the country. For example, the caste system favours entrepreneurship among the Vaishyas since that is the group that has traditionally been bestowed with commercial activities. The most successful entrepreneurs of India have been the ones which have had social support for such activities. Thus, Baniyas, Marwaris, Kutchis, Parsees and Chellars have had generations of successful entrepreneurs and businessmen. Of course, modernity has eased the effect of the caste system on entrepreneurial activity, especially with new business models made possible by the advent of Information and Communications Technology(ICT). Entrepreneurship is also affected by the issue of capital availability and finance. Traditional entrepreneurial activity has always required some amount of seed capital beyond the investing capacity of the entrepreneur. Raising of capital by an entrepreneur, especially with no proven track record, in a conservative country like India, is relatively difficult. Although, the recent forays by venture capitalists and angel investors have made it a little easier to access capital for financing a business idea, the phenomenon is mostly restricted to metropolises or 1st and 2nd tier cities in India. Also, this funding is available to business ventures which show potential and are not concerned with training a person to be an entrepreneur. Hence, they can only touch upon but not substantially affect the core issue of educated unemployment which concerns us. 59

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Also, the aforementioned British influenced regulations and policies for bringing a business organization into existence have put India at 134 out of 183 economies which were evaluated for ease of doing business around.14 For a country of India’s size and stature, such a low ranking is rather disappointing and a telling indicator of how difficult entrepreneurship can be. The Solution Current trends in information technology and the Internet have revolutionized old business and created new businesses. Business organizations like BPO firms, banks, insurance companies, certifying authorities, hospitals, auditing firms and organizations of similar nature have either been revolutionized or created by information technology. The Internet has made it possible to have entire businesses based on it and usher in a cyber financial ecosystem that is entirely dependant on networks of computers15. From a being merely a facilitator in communication, it is evolving into a phenomenon without which modern life seems impossible.

Source http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/india, maintained by the World Bank Group. 15 The traditional concept of computers is also undergoing a sea change with the introduction of communication devices like smart phones that are at the same time computing devices as well as cellular phones.
14

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By 2009, the number of Internet users had risen to 71 million.16 This in itself may seem an insignificant number when compared to India’s huge population of more than a billion but assumes much greater significance when we realize that these 71 million must be from among the educated class. Also, convergence between data and voice brings out an interesting fact, that the Internet can be accessed from mobile phones. By the end of 2010, 766 million people in India were thought to have access to mobile phones.17 Realizing the massive impact this can have on governance, central and state governments are already actively pursuing electronic governance projects for ushering in an era of transparency, efficiency and accessibility to government functions. Already, several successful e-governance projects have been executed across the country and many more are being planned and under execution.18 Governance is only one aspect of the uses of ICT. Commerce is another. ICT has the potential to create myriads of business opportunities if harnessed properly. Electronic commerce (ecommerce), a reality today, is increasing at a fast pace:

16Source

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/infotech/internet/indianinternet-users-grow-to-71-million-imrb/articleshow/5703745.cms 17 Source http://www.businessworld.in/bw/2010_09_30_ICT_Penetration_In_Indi a.html 18 For a list such of projects, see http://www.egovindia.org/egovportals.html

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•Gaming: In 2010, Rs 575 crore market is projected for console-based gaming. Mobile gaming is expected to be at Rs 812.5 crores. •Online Shopping: eCommerce market in India is expected to be worth Rs 9500 crores, out of which market for online shopping is worth Rs 1300 crore. •Online Advertising: Online advertisement industry grew to Rs 3250 million in India, accounting for 38% growth rate in 20082009. The growth rate for the year 2009-2010 is expected to be 32% which amounts to Rs 4300 million.19 The coming into force of the Information Technology Act 2000, to provide a legal framework to electronic commerce suggests the seriousness with which the government views this particular mode of commerce. We are of the opinion that electronic commerce holds the key to the country’s educated unemployment problem. We firmly believe that properly exploited, e-commerce has the potential to create viable self-employment models. The people who may exploit e-commerce for self-employment, we refer to as cyber entrepreneurs. With learning made possible through our e-learning platform, we outline how a cyber entrepreneur will be able to create

Source http://www.indiareports.com/articles/Overview_of_the_eCommerce_Industry_in_India.as px
19

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businesses for himself and possibly others with minimum investment and support. The Cyber Entrepreneur 1. Enabling businesses e-commerce for shops and small

Today every small businessman understands the power of ecommerce. For example, a corner grocery store owner can service his customers by getting orders on SMS. SMS is nonintrusive and saves him from spending his time on the phone when he can utilize the same time to service more customers. A cyber entrepreneur can facilitate such a setup for a small fee. Gradually, when the same shopkeeper realizes that it may be more convenient to have a website which would be more attractive to his customers and widen his customer base, a cyber entrepreneur can book his domain name, do web hosting and create the website for him. He can then not only charge a fee for such services but also earn a commission from being a reseller. He can earn from each activity in this value chain that he will be creating, viz., domain booking, webhosting, actual website creation, setting up the email service and enabling e-commerce on the site. Additionally, he can charge an annual maintenance fee for the website he creates.

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Every computer user, at the minimum, requires some minimum software to run his computer, e.g., an operating system, some basic application software like word processors, spreadsheets and an anti-virus software. A cyber entrepreneur, by learning to create his own website can become a reseller of software, domain names, webhosting space or any other such product available commercially. He earns by making a commission on a copy of every software application, selling a domain name or a webhosting package.

3. Becoming a Cyber Investigator Cyber crimes have assumed menacing proportions today and threaten to tear, in the immediate future, the very social fabric in which we live. Computer networks make it possible for an offender to commit a cyber crime without being physically present at the scene of the crime. Statistics on cyber crime published by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) of India for the year 2008 lists 164 cases of malicious activities related to electronic information (destruction, deletion or alteration of data and computer source code) registered with the Indian law enforcement agencies, making these the largest category of cyber crimes in India for that year. The report also cites 105 cases of obscene publication/transmission in electronic form registered in 2008. In the same year, 134 cases were registered for computer 64

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related frauds and cheating resulting in financial loss to the victims. In this context, a press release by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States also assumes significance. The FBI has established an Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) to receive, develop and refer cyber crime complaints to local, state, federal, and international law enforcement agencies. The FBI notes in the said press release that since the beginning of its operations in May 2000 to June 11 2007, it took the IC3 seven years to receive its one millionth complaint. However, it took half that time to receive the two millionth complaint. According to the FBI, the IC3 has referred 757,016 criminal complaints to law enforcement around the globe. The total reported loss from these referrals is approximately $1.7 billion, with an average loss of more than $500 per complaint. This is indicative of how cyber crimes are charting an upward course in the crime graphs. Cyber crimes, often being technically complex to commit, there is an urgent need for imparting basic training and sensitization on the modus operandi of various cyber crimes and their investigation to law enforcement agencies. Otherwise, it may prove difficult to investigate such crimes properly and bring the criminals to book. Building such capacity among the law enforcement will take substantial time and effort by the government. A cyber entrepreneur can fill the gap between requirement and present 65

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capacity by helping law enforcement in investigation and can charge a fee for his services. Further, for cyber incidents/cases involving individuals or organizations who may not want to approach law enforcement, the cyber entrepreneur can conduct private investigation of a professional nature to solve the case.

4. Providing expert testimony in a Court of Law in cyber crime cases Extending his services further, a cyber entrepreneur can, on adequate training, analyze digital evidence and provide expert testimony in courts in cyber crime cases on receiving appropriate fees. This is an urgent need as a majority of law enforcement officers, at present, are not trained to analyze digital evidence. Each police station can have several cyber entrepreneurs in their panel so that at any given point of time, at least one such expert is available to conduct digital evidence analysis when needed and provide expert testimony in a court of law.

5. Teaching The need of the hour, looking at the current trend in cyber frauds, cyber solicitation of children, identity thefts is to make children, teenagers and the common man using the Internet of its potential threats. This would substantially reduce the 66

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probability of the said class of people falling prey to cyber criminals. A cyber entrepreneur can teach and sensitize the said class of people in his local area about the cyber security, Internet safety and several other issues. He can approach schools and colleges, most of which would be requiring such expertise but hard pressed to usually find it. He can then conduct classes on these subjects for a fee. The above are only some of the avenues which are open to a cyber entrepreneur. There are numerous such avenues open to a cyber entrepreneur which can not only provide him with selfemployment but also provide employment for others, the scale of his operations limited only by his entrepreneurial ability and his zeal. Role of Data64 The role of Data64 would be primarily to facilitate such entrepreneurship by developing appropriate educational and training programs for prospective cyber entrepreneurs which can be delivered across the country using its e-learning platform. Data64 personnel, being experts in all of the areas mentioned above among others, will design such courses which every person in the country can access with a computer and Internet connection. The courses will be designed in a manner which will be easy to comprehend by any person understanding English and having a user level knowledge of computers. The 67

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courses can even be optimized to be delivered through a mobile phone. Gradually, such courses would also be made available in local languages making the opportunity available to every literate person across India. The courses would be designed to train the educated unemployed to become cyber entrepreneurs.

Government Support A cyber entrepreneur needs to invest in training, a computer, some software programs and an Internet connection to start his business. Most prospective cyber entrepreneurs would be able to garner funds for this on their own. For those who cannot, the government can formulate policies directing banks to release term loans for such entrepreneurship. The potential of the cyber entrepreneurship concept is such that banks can rest assured of repayment within the stipulated time. With the government planning to provide broadband services to all cities, towns and villages in the country within the next few years, it would be feasible to extend this scheme to every district in India, every small town where the educated unemployed can take advantage of such a scheme. It would thus appear that creating 1, 00, 00, 000 cyber entrepreneurs by the year 2020 is a modest target, if at all.

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9. Recruitment
To implement the Data64 Cyber Capacity Building Program (India), we are recruiting skilled professionals. The following is a broad outline of vacancies for 2013. For details please download the Job Description - 2013 document from: www.facebook.com/data64.in
Job title Digital Forensic Analyst Digital Evidence Analyst Cryptographic Application Developer Forensic Application Developer Web Developer System Administrator (Linux & Windows) Moodle Administrator Cyber Crime Analyst Ethical Hacker Annual CTC Rs 10 lakh Rs 4 lakh Rs 4 lakh Rs 4 lakh Rs 3.15 lakh Rs 3.15 lakh Rs 3.15 lakh Rs 2.1 lakh Rs 1.8 lakh

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Contact us

Pune
6th Floor, Pride Senate, Behind Sigma House, Senapati Bapat Road, Pune - 411016. India Contact Numbers (020) 25667148 (020) 40033365 (020) 65206029

Mumbai
7 Vaswani Mansions, Opp. H.R. College, Dinshaw Wachha Road, Churchgate, Mumbai - 400020 India Contact Numbers 9594996366 9594996363 9594996364 (022) 22814502 (022) 22814503 (022) 66300223

Delhi (Liaison Office)
15th Floor, EROS Corporate Tower, Nehru Place, New Delhi - 110019 India Contact Numbers 09212227459 08800677554 08800644557