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RKUD4310K PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

ASSIGNMENT: TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE FROM ISLAMIC CIVILISATION TO THE WEST

INTRODUCTION There are many type of science that flourished during the period of transmission from Dark Ages to Golden Ages of Islamic civilization. There were Mathematics, Optics, Medicine, Psychology, Metaphysics, Logic, Morals and Politics, etc. We would like to emphasize the Islamic origins of modern science and civilization, and the ascendancy of Islamic science and learning in the world for more than 600 years. In the seventh century A.D., the prophet Muhammad (SAW) was sent to the people of Arabia. Within a decade of his death the Muslims had conquered all of the Arabian Peninsula. Within a century, Islam had spread from Al-Andalus in Spain to the borders of China. Islam unified science, theology, and philosophy. Muslims were commanded to study, seek knowledge, and learn and benefit from others' experiences by Allah (SWT) in the holy Quran and by the prophet Muhammad (SAW) in the Sunnah. Thus, this calling has been uphold by the Muslim scholars to gain all the knowledge beyond the boundaries of religion and continent. The routes of transmission happened mainly through the translation of books, trading activity and education. From this routes the knowledge has been integrated and assimilate form both Muslim and Western scholars. Through the history the knowledge was originated from the Greeks and the Muslim scholars was enthusiastic to learn it improvise the knowledge then incorporate it with the Islamic value. Thus the knowledge has been improved than the Greeks and become the reference to other scholars until now.

TYPE OF SCIENCE FLOURISHED IN ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION There are many type of science flourished in Islamic civilization. The way of scholars translate the knowledge make the knowledge firm and state until now. The Islamic Conquests and the establishment of the state were accomplished during the era of the Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs.
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Mathematics. Mathematical research conducted in the Arabic seem to have started at

the beginning of the ninth century. Agebra was introduce by Al-Khawarizmi., the algebraic object is equally a number and a irrational quantity or geometrical magnitude. The science of algebra itself had to be both apodictic and applied. The successor of Al-Khawarizmi undertook in turn the application of arithmetic to algebra, of algebra to arithmetic, of both to trigonometry, of algebra to the Euclidean theory of numbers, of algebra to geometry, and of geometry to algebra. One of the most important chapters about mathematics is that which treats the theory of algebraic equatios. For example, bx=c.2 Optics. Major development of this field, the five hundred-odd years from the early third/ninth century. It is also a period when the domain of the field expanded from a primarily geometrical study of vision, to one into which not just theories of light, mirrors, rainbows and shadows, but also psychology and physiology of visual perception and the application of the study of vision, were integrated as common subjects of investigation. Optics, like most branhes of learning, entered the Islamic world primarily through Greek sources, in this case the Optika of Euclid and Ptolemy.

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Prof. A.Y al-Hassan, Prof Maqbul Ahmed, Prof A.Z Iskandar. The Differner Aspects of Islamic Culture, Science and Technology in islam, Vol 1. Page 167. United Nations educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2001, Lebanon. 2 Page 169

Medicine. Islamic medicine is one of the most famous and best known facets of Islamic civilization, being one of the branches of science in which the Muslims most excelled. By the twelfth century, Muslim physician had produced an enormous library of works: encyclopedias, medical biographies, texts on specialist such as ophthalmology, and guides to medical practice as well as to practitioners. 3With ample opportunities for observing the symptoms caused by small[ox, cholera, and bubonic plaque, physician such as Ibn al-Khatib, a medical pioneer in fourteenth-century continues his studies of epidemics about contagion, which cannot be

achieved by Europian medical writings. 4Islam’s achievement in medical and treatment also included in pharmacology, that testing regarding on composition, dosage, uses, and therapeutics effects of simple and compound drugs to human body and also effect of human body to drugs. Besides that, hospital as we know were first developed in the Islamic world in the eight century, which is supported by caliphs and religious foundations and managed by professional staffs5.
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Astronomy is also one of the established science by Islam. The study is about starlight,

objects such as meteors and comets, planet, and moon. The mathematician Phytagoras described a universe of heavenly motions divided according to degree of noble perfection: lowest was the earth and the sphere beneath the moon; above spread a cosmos framed in a sphere of fixed stars; farthest out was Olympus, and it already indicated, sphere were set neatly within spheres, everything moving in unchanging circles. The wall of cosmos was preserved in order to guard the symbolic meaning which such a walled-in-vision of the cosmos presented to most of mankind.

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Howard R. Turner, Science in Medieval Islam: an Illustrated Introduction. Library of Congress Cataloging, 1995, st United states of America. 1 edition, pg 137 4 Pg 138 5 Page 141 6 Pg 60

THE SCHOLARS WHO CONTRIBUTED IN THE TRANSMISSION OF SCIENCE

In the seventh century A.D., the prophet Muhammad (SAW) was sent to the people of Arabia. Within a decade of his death the Muslims had conquered all of the Arabian peninsula. Within a century, Islam had spread from Al-Andalus in Spain to the borders of China. Islam unified science, theology, and philosophy. Muslims were commanded to study, seek knowledge, and learn and benefit from others' experiences by Allah (SWT) in the holy Quran and by the prophet Muhammad (SAW) in the Sunnah. It was this that inspired the Muslims to great heights in sciences, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, philosophy, art and architecture. Muslim scholars began obtaining Greek treatises and started their study and translation into Arabic a few centuries after the Hijrah (622 A.D.) They critically analyzed, corrected and supplemented substantially the Greek science and philosophy. After this period began what is known as the Golden Age of Islam, which lasted for over two centuries. It is here we find many of the great scientists of Islam who literally left behind hundreds and thousands of books on the various branches of science.

Abu Ali al-Hussain Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina, universally known as Avicinna (980-1037), alone wrote 246 books, including Kitab-al Shifa (The Book of Healing) consisting of 20 volumes and Al- Qanun fit Tibb (The Canons of Medicine) . The Qanun was the chief guide for medical science in the West from the twelfth to the seventeenth century. Dr. William Osler, who wrote The Evolution of Modern Science, remarks "The Qanun has remained a medical Bible for a longer period than any other work".7 Containing over a million words, it surveyed the entire medical knowledge available from ancient and Muslim sources, and including his own original contributions. Ibn Sina's original contributions included such advances such as recognition of the contagious nature of phtisis and tuberculosis; distribution of diseases by water and soil and the interaction between psychology and health. Also, the book described over 760 drugs and became the most authentic of its era. Ibn Sina was also the first to describe meningitis and made rich contributions to anatomy, gynaecology and child health.

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (865-925 AD), known as Rhazes, was one of the most creative Muslim doctors and probably second only to Ibn Sina in his accomplishments. He was born at Ray, Iran and became a student of Hunayn ibn Ishaq and later a student of Ali ibn
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Rabban. He wrote over 200 books, including Kitabal-Mansuri, ten volumes on Greek medicine, and al-Hawi, an encyclopedia of medicine in 20 volumes. In al-Hawi, he included each medical subject's information available from Greek and Arab sources and then added his own remarks based on his experience and views. He classified substances as vegetable, animal or mineral while other alchemists divided them into "bodies", "souls" and "spirits". He also conducted research on smallpox and measles and was the first to introduce the use of alcohol for medical purposes. A distinctive feature to his medical system was that he greatly favored cure through correct and regulated food intake. This was combined with his emphasis on the influence of psychological factors on health. He also tried proposed remedies first on animals in order to evaluate their effects and side effects and the first to use opium for anesthesia. Another great physician who soon followed was al-Razi was Abul Qasim al-Zahrawi (963-1013 AD) who is known as Albucasisto the West. A famous surgeon in his time, at the court of Caliph al- Hakam II, students and patients flocked to him from the Muslim world and Europe. He wrote the medical encyclopedia al-Tasrif li man ajaz an-il-talif, which contained 30 sections of surgical knowledge and illustrations of 200 surgical instruments, most of which he designed himself. The Encyclopedia was not only a standard for physicians, but even five centuries later it was being used as the standard textbook on surgery in universities in Europe. He also performed many delicate operations such as Cesareans and was also the first to use silk thread for stitching wounds. Abu al-Hassan al Haitham (965-1039 AD) was one of the most eminent physicists, whose contribution to optics and the scientific method were great. Originally from Basra, he went to Egypt where he was asked to find ways of controlling the flood of the Nile. Being unsuccessful in this, he feigned madness until the death of Caliph al-Hakim. He wrote treatises such as Kital al-Manzir on light, worked with mirrors and lenses, reflection, refraction, and magnifying and burning glasses. He discussed the propagation of light and colors, optic illusions and opposed the view of Euclid and Ptolemy that the eye sent out visual rays. He contradicted Ptolemy's and Euclid's theory of vision that objects are seen by rays of light emanating from the eyes. According to Haitham, the rays originated in the object of vision and not in the eye. Through this kind of extensive research on optics, he has been considered the father of modern Optics. Haitham also studied the phenomena of sunrise and sunset and explained rainbows through the principle of reflection. He was known for the earliest use of the camera obscura as well.

Al-Kindi (d. 873 AD) considered the first philosopher of the Arabs, also contributed to Physics, Optics, reflection of light, specific weights, tides and metallurgy.

Muslims also made discoveries in Chemistry by discovering many new substances such as potash, nitrate of silver, corrosive sublimate and nitrate and sulfuric acid as well as improving methods for evaporation, filtration, sublimation, calcination, melting, distillation, and crystallization. Jabir, otherwise known as the father of Arab alchemy contributed in the fields of PharmacologyandToxicology. Al-Biruni was the first known writer to identify certain geological facts, such as the formation of sedimentary rocks and the great geological changes that happened in the past. He was also the founder of geodesy and wrote and improved upon the methods of measuring longitudes, latitudes, heights of mountains and the diameter of the earth. Between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries the major works of Islamic scientists were translated into Latin in Spain, Sicily and Italy. Muslim scientists like Ibn Sina and al-Razi became household names in the West. Islamic medicine led the way for European medicine. Works in chemistry written in Latin used an extensive Arabic vocabulary because there was no Latin vocabulary in this field. The contributions of early Islam so rich, so voluminous and so varied that it defies this brief descriptive survey. These Muslims drew from their pre-Islamic traditions, plus those of the civilizations they came into contact with and they absorbed what went with their beliefs and rejected what did not. Over the centuries they continued to develop and partake in the pursuit of knowledge with no hesitation.

THE MAJOR CHANNEL OF TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE The transmission of knowledge from the Islamic Civilizations to the West happened through several routes such as translation of books, education and trading. This route gives a big impact to the transmission of knowledge as the vast and extensive source of knowledge pertaining to the golden age of the Abbasid and Ottoman Empire. i) TRANSLATION OF BOOKS First major channel of transmission is through translation of books. The great Muslim philosophers such as Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406), Ibn Sina (Avicenna, d. 1037), Ibn Rushd (Averroes,

d. 1198), al-Farabi and al-Ghazali translated the works of earlier Greek philosophers and added their own significant contributions to the original works of the Greeks.8 The translation effort began serious under the reign of the second Abbasid caliph, alMansur (754-75). He sent ambassador to the Byzantine emperor requesting mathematical texts and received in response a copy of Euclid's Elements. This effort was done under the founder of Bait al-Hikmah or House of Wisdom, named Al-Ma'mun. Bait al-Hikmah which was staffed with salaried Muslim and Christian scholars. Muslim scholars generally were concerned to understand, codify, correct, and, most importantly, assimilate the learning of the ancients to the conceptual framework of Islam. The greatest of these scholars were Al-Farabi where he has compiled his book of Catalog of Sciences that had a tremendous effect on the curricular of medieval universities. From this improvisation and translation process the Western were able to benefit from them. This process then continued with further translation to other philosopher that assimilate and incorporated both worldview in their works such as St. Thomas Aquinas, the founder of Catholic naturalism, developed his views of Aristotle through the translation of Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes). From this translation process all of these great philosophers produced an enriched knowledge that we are able to obtain this present day. Some of the works that has been mentioned in the history is the great books of ‘Canon’, encyclopedia of diseases written by Ibn-Sina which gives significant contribution in medical sciences. The book was taught for seven hundred years in the Western world. ii) TRADE AND COMMERCE Secondly is through trade and commerce where the Arabs is well known for its trade routes that gather many people from the Mediterranean, the Arabian Gulf, East Africa, the Indian subcontinent and all the way to China. One of the interesting results of these trading relations occurred during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid (786-809) when he exchanged ambassador and gifts with Charlemagne, the Holy Roman Emperor. As a result, Harun al-Rashid established the Christian Pilgrims' Inn in Jerusalem, fulfilling Umar's pledge to Bishop Sophronious, when he

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http://www.mei.edu/content/islamic-civilization

first entered Jerusalem, to allow freedom of religion and access to Jerusalem to Christian religious pilgrim. Thus, the transmission of knowledge happens through the exchange of vocabulary from the Arabic words to the modern Western languages. iii) KNOWLEDGE AND EDUCATION During the Pre-Islamic period, the poets and writers have a tradition to hang their writings on the wall in the city so that others can read their works and spread the writings from city to city and tribe to tribe. The tradition continued as the Qur'an was first memorized and transmitted by word of mouth and then recorded for following generations. This route of transmission of knowledge was clearly shown in the Abbasid period (7501258 A.D) where thousands of mosque schools were built as centers for religious and scientific development and many scholars have developed their theory there. It was in the tenth century that the formal concept of the Madrassah (school) was developed in Baghdad. The Madrassah had a curriculum and full-time and part-time teachers, many of whom were women. Rich and poor alike received free education. From there Maktabat (libraries) were developed and foreign books acquired. The two most famous libraries are Bait al-Hikmah in Baghdad (ca. 820) and Dar al-Ilm in Cairo (ca. 998). Universities such as Al-Azhar (969 A.D.) were also established long before those in Europe. THE ROLE OF TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE INTO MODERN SCIENCE The spread of Islam extended the Arabic language across Afro-Eurasian lands, from Central Asia to the Atlantic. Muslim governments had established centers of learning. At these centers, they would collect and translate scientific, literary, and philosophical works. Among the most famous effort was the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikma in Arabic) which was established by Khalifah al-Ma’mun in 870 C.E. in Baghdad.9 Al-Hunayn, a Christian scholar, led a great effort to collect and translate available knowledge. Emissaries were sent out to purchase books from wherever they could be found. They included works in the library at Jundi-Shapur, as well as all the great traditions. Around the

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time the House of Wisdom was founded, a new technology helped to advance the spread of knowledge which was paper-making. Suddenly, making books became cheaper and easier. Books and paper-making spread westward across Africa to Al-Andalus, or Islamic Spain. Another technology that spread with paper-making was the use of water-power to pound fiber. The result was libraries in Muslim lands grew to thousands of volumes even though books were still copied by hand! Scholars in different places using the same book corresponded with each other. They shared thoughts and ideas. Their efforts allowed for the growth of knowledge between cities. There also were other key factors advancing knowledge growth. Trade, travel, increased wealth and migration sped up this process. What's more, Baghdad’s scholars worked with scientific ideas everywhere whether in courts, palaces, streets, homes, and bookshops. They tested them by measuring, experimenting, and traveling. In time, they developed a large body of new knowledge, adding to the wisdom of ancient times. Educational institutions such as schools, universities, libraries and mosques spread across the network of Muslim cities. There were several already-existing important universities for teaching and research suach as Cairo’s famous al-Azhar University. So here the Western came to these colleges to acquire knowledge. They are called as travelling students that include young European scholars. They learned Arabic. They also transmitted important ideas once they returned home. Contacts during times of both war and peace brought Christian Europe information about an advanced way of life like luxury goods, music, fashions which are the learning available in Al-Andalus. Curious scholars traveled to AlAndalus to learn about these things firsthand. They wanted to see the libraries filled with books in Arabic on many important and useful subjects. Groups of Jewish, Christian, and Muslim scholars sat down together to translate these works from Arabic to Latin. During the 1100 and 1200s, Latin translations of Arabic books fostered changes in Europe’s schools and growing cities. Books about mathematics -- including algebra, geometry and advanced arithmetic -- introduced Arabic numerals. Yet, it took another 200 years before Arabic replaced Roman numerals in Europeans’ everyday life. Geography, maps, and navigational instruments allowed Europeans to see the world in a new way. These navigational instruments included the astrolabe, the quadrant, the compass, and the use of longitude and

latitude to create accurate maps and charts. In later in centuries, calculating longitude at sea came. From this came new sophisticated system called a Global Positioning System (GPS) which is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather, anywhere on or near the Earth. Medical books -- especially by Ibn Sina, al-Razi, and alZahrawi -- and some classical Greek works lifted the cloud of superstition over illness. What's more, descriptions of diseases and cures, surgery, and pharmacy; the art of preparing medicines - helped develop a medical profession in Europe. Modern writers Francis and Joseph Gies summarize the importance of translation work taking place in Spain after the Christian conquest of Toledo in 1085: It was the Muslim-Assisted translation of Aristotle followed by Galen, Euclid, Ptolemy, and other Greek authorities and their integration into the university curriculum that created what historians have called "the scientific Renaissance of the12th century." Certainly the completion of the double, sometimes triple translation (Greek into Arabic, Arabic into Latin, often with an intermediate Castilian Spanish…) is one of the most fruitful scholarly enterprises ever undertaken. Two chief sources of translation were Spain and Sicily, regions where Arab, European, and Jewish scholars freely mingled in for making Arab knowledge available to Europe. Scholars flocked thither. By 1200 "virtually the entire scientific corpus of Aristotle" was available in Latin, along with works by other Greek and Arab authors on medicine, optics, catoptrics (mirror theory), geometry, astronomy, astrology, zoology, psychology, and mechanics." SUMMARY We can say here that, there are a lot of channels that contribute to the spread of knowledge which later contribute to the growth of modern science. The transmission of knowledge through channels like translation of Arabic books to other languages, through trade and travel we are able to achieve what we have right now. It is more or less a contribution from Muslim scientists but, most have claimed that modern science is nothing but continuation and further development of Islamic science in the context of Western world. So this has been a great contribution to the progress of knowledge which lead to the modern science until nowadays. This Islamic science is applicable and reliable to all generations of humankind. The western claims that the Dark Ages comprises all nations in the world but Islam prove that the statement is wrong because Islamic Civilization is still thrive and live at that time.

Islamic origins of modern science and civilization, and the ascendancy of Islamic science and learning in the world for more than 600 years. The West has generally maintained and create a conspiracy of silence regarding its medieval rejuvenation through Islamicization (the imitativeinnovative assimilation of Islamic culture by non-Muslims - Islamization being the adoption of ideal Islamic culture and religion in the behavioral culture). REFERENCES 1. Prof. A.Y al-Hassan, Prof Maqbul Ahmed, Prof A.Z Iskandar. The Difference Aspects of Islamic Culture, Science and Technology in Islam, Vol 1, United Nations educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2001, Lebanon. 2. Howard R. Turner, Science in Medieval Islam: an Illustrated Introduction. Library of Congress Cataloging, 1st edition, 1995, United states of America. 3. http://www.jannah.org/articles/contrib.html, assess on 17th March 2012 4. http://www.mei.edu/content/islamic-civilization. assess on 20th March 2012. 5. http://www.islamicspain.tv/Islamic-Spain/Transfer-of-Knowledge/The-Heritage-ofLearning-Passes-to-Muslim-Civilization.html. assess on 21st March 2012.