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Reference Science Year 4 Practical 2 page 5

Theme

Investigating living thing Living things have basic needs

Learning Area

Learning Objectivies 1.3. Understanding that plants have basic need. Learning Outcomes Pupil: 1.3. 1 Identify the basic needs of plants. Topic : Basic plants. 1. Aim of an experiment Questions: i) What is the aim of the investigation? ii) What is the purpose of the investigation? iii) What do you want to find out from the investigation? iv) What do you want to study from the investigation? v) What do you want to proof from the investigation? Suggested answers : To investigate the relationship between manipulated/what to change and responding/what to observe/measure. To investigate/ study the relationship between sunlight i) (WTC) and t(WTO).
sps 7(C4)

The presence of air, water and

1. Materials / apparatus needed Stickers label, plastic bag, marker pens, water can and 4 port of balsam plants. Questions: i) What are the materials needed in the investigation? ii) What do we need in the investigation? Suggested answers : Stickers label, plastic bag, marker pens, water can and 4 port of balsam plants.

2. Hypothesis:

SPS 7( C1)

i) What is your hypothesis ? ii) Write a hypothesis for this experiment? iii) State one hypothesis based on the experiment? Suggested answers : i) ii) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) If the plants get enough air,water and sunlight then they will grow healthily. ii) Plants need air, water and sunlight to stay alive. 3. Identify Variables Questions: i) What to measure / observe? ii) What is responding variable? Suggested answers : Condition of plants Questions: i) What to change? ii)What is manipulated variable? Suggested answers : The presence of air, water and sunlight Questions : i) What to keep the same ? ii) What is controlled/ constant variable? Suggested answers : Type of plants SPS 7( C2 , C5)

4. Procedure / What do I do 1. Work in groups of five. 2. Label the pots as W, X, Y and Z.

3. Wrap the balsam plant in pot Y with a plastic bag.

SPS 2( C2 , C3)

4. Place pot Z in the back of the class.

5. Place pot W, X and Y outside your classroom.

6. Water the plants in W, Y, and Z everyday. 7. Do not water the plant in pot X. 8. Observe the conditions of each plant daily for six days. 9 Record your findings in the form of a table in your Science Journal.

5. Method/What do I find

SPS 6( C2)

1. The pots were labeled as W, X, Y and Z. 2. The balsam plant in pot Y was wrapped with a plastic bag. 4. Pot Z was placed in the back of the class. 5. Pot W, X and Y were placed outside the classroom. 6. The plants in W, Y, and Z were watered everyday. 7. The plant in pot X was not watered. 8. The conditions of each plant were observed daily for six days. 9 The findings were recorded in the form of a table in your Science Journal. 6 Observation /what do I find: The table below shows the result of the investigation: Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 w healthy healthy healthy healthy healthy healthy x healthy healthy healthy Not healthy Not healthy Not healthy Y healthy healthy healthy healthy healthy Not healthy Z healthy healthy healthy healthy Not healthy Not healthy sps 7(C6)

(An example of data obtained from the investigation) 6. Observation i) What happens to plant : a) Plant W b) Plant X c) Plant Y d) Plant Z

SPS1 (C3, C2)

ii) What can you say about the conditions of plants in pot W, X, Y and Z after the investigation? Suggested answers : Plant W is healthy Plant X is not healthy. Plant Y is not healthy. Plant Z is not healthy

7. Inference: i) Why it happened? ii) State one inference based on your observation Suggested answers : Plant W is healthy because get enough air, water and sunlight. Plant X is not healthy because does not get water. Plant Y is not healthy because does not get air. Plant Z is not healthy because does not get sunlight. 8. Conclusion. i) What do I conclude ii) What have you learnt from this experiment? iii) What conclusion can you make based on the experiment? Suggested answers : iii) iv) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) If plants get enough air,water and sunlight then the plants will grow healthy. ii) The basic needs of plants are air, water and sunlight.

Sample Question. Johnny plants a balsam plant .He waters the balsam plan every day. He records the height of the balsam plant in the table below. Day 5 7 9 11 13 a) Height of the balsam plant./ cm 6 10 14 18 22

What is the trend in the height of the balsam plant ? __________________________________________________________________

b) i)

Based on the investigation, state the following that is : kept the same ? (fixed/controlled variable) ____________________________________________________________ ii) changed ( manipulated variable) ____________________________________________________________ iii) measured (responding variable) ____________________________________________________________

c) What is the relationship between two variables? __________________________________________________________________

Suggested answers : a) Increasing b) i) Type of plant ii) Days ii) Heigth of plant c) i) The more the number of day the more the heigth of plant. ii) If the day is increased the the heigth of plant will increase

SPS

4
1 2 3 4 1 2

7
3 4 5 6

Criteri a Reference Theme 1 Learning area : Science year 4 practical 3 page 8 : Investigating living thing : Living things undergo undergo life processes

Learning objective: 2.1 Analysing life processes in humans Learning outcome: 2.1.1 Explain that humans breath Topic : Rate of breathing

1. Aim of an experiment Questions: i) What is the aim of the investigation? ii) What is the purpose of the investigation? iii) What do you want to find out from the investigation? iv) What do you want to study from the investigation? v) What do you want to proof from the investigation? Suggested answers : To investigate the relationship between manipulated/what to change and responding/what to observe/measure. ii) To investigate/ study the relationship between mass of pupils (WTC) and the number of chest movement in one minute(WTO). 2. Materials / apparatus needed Stop watch. Questions: i) What are the materials needed in the investigation? ii) What do we need in the investigation? Suggested answers : Stop watch. 3. Hypothesis: SPS 7( C1)
sps 7(C4)

i) What is your hypothesis ?

ii) Write a hypothesis for this experiment? iii) State one hypothesis based on the experiment? Suggested answers : v) vi) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) The heavier the pupils the less the number of chest movement in one minute. ii) If mass of pupils is big then the number of chest movement in one minute is less 4. Identify Variables Questions: i) What to measure / observe? ii)What is responding variable? Suggested answers : the number of chest movement in one minute Questions i) What to change? ii)What is manipulated variable? Suggested answers : Mass of pupils Questions : i) What to keep the same ? ii) What is controlled/ constant variable? Suggested answers : The distance to run SPS 7( C2 , C5)

5. Procedure / What do I do 1) Work in groups of five.

2)

Choose one of the above activities to do. 3) Every member in the group has to do the same activity. 4) Count the number of chest movement in a minute after doing the activity. 5) Record your findings in the form of a table in your Science Journal. 6. Method / What do I find 1) Pupils ran 100 metres . 3) The same activity was done by every member in the group. 4) The number of chest movement was counted in a minute after doing the activity. 5) The findings were recorded in the form of a table. 6 Observation /what do I find: SPS1 (C4)
sps 7(C3)

sps 7(C6)

Mass of pupils (kg) Number of chest movement in one minute(Rate of breathing) 20 125 25 120 30 115 40 100 50 95 (An example of data obtained from the investigation)

Observation i) What can you say about the number of chest movement for pupil A? ii) Do all pupils have the same number of chest movement? Suggested answers : i)The number of chest movement for pupil E is decreases. ii) No, different pupils have different number of chest movement. 7. Inference: i) Why it happened? ii) State one inference based on your observation iii) State one inference about the decreases of the number of chest movement. Suggested answers : i)The number of chest movement for pupil E is decreases because he is too heavy. ii) No, different pupils have different number of chest movement. 8. Conclusion. i) What do I conclude ii) What have you learnt from this experiment? iii) What conclusion can you make based on the experiment? Suggested answers : vii) viii) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) The bigger the size of the body the more the number of chest movement in one minute. ii) Different pupils have different rate of breathing. iii) If the size of the body is big then the number of chest movement is decrease.

Sample question Students Haris Abu Size of body Big small Rate of breathing(heart beat) 70 120

In one activity, two students need to count the rate of breathing after they are running for 100 metres. 1. State two variables based on the table. a)………………………………………. B)……………………………………… 2. What is the aim of the investigation. ………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. State two controlled/ fixed variables a)……………………………………………….b)…………………………………… 4. Based on the table , what is the observation about the rate of breathing for Haris compared to Abu? ………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 State one inference based on your answer in ( 4 )

……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 6 State the relationship between two variables. ………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………. 7 What is the trend of the rate of the breathing?

………………………………………………………………………………………….

Suggested answers : 1.i Size of the body 3) The distance to run ii) Rate of breathing ii) Type of activity 2) To investigate the relationship between size of the body and the rate of breathing 4) The rate of breathing for Haris is less than Abu. 5) The rate of breathing for Haris is less compared Abu because he is bigger than Abu. 6) The bigger the size of body the more the rate of breathing. 7) Increasing

SPS

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1 2 3 4 1 2

7
3 4 5 6

Criteri a Reference Theme 1 Learning area : Science year 4 practical 4 page 11 : Investigating Living Thing : 2. Living things undergo life processes

Learning objective: 2.2 Being aware that certain behavior can disturb life processes. Learning outcome: 2.1.1 2.2.2 state the effects of smoking on lungs Topic : Save Your Lung (Unit 4)

1. Aim of an experiment Questions: i) What is the aim of the investigation? ii) What is the purpose of the investigation? iii) What do you want to find out from the investigation? iv) What do you want to study from the investigation? v) What do you want to proof from the investigation? Suggested answers : To investigate the relationship between manipulated/what to change and responding/what to observe/measure. iii) To investigate/ study the relationship between the number of squeezing the plastic bottle (WTC) and the effects of the cotton balls at the bottom of the bottle(WTO). 3. Materials / apparatus needed Cotton ball, plasticine, pencil, plastic bottle, cigarette and lighter. Questions: i) What are the materials needed in the investigation? ii) What do we need in the investigation? Suggested answers : Cotton ball, plasticine, pencil, plastic bottle, cigarette and lighter.
sps 7(C4)

3. Hypothesis:

SPS 7( C1)

i) What is your hypothesis ? ii) Write a hypothesis for this experiment? iii) State one hypothesis based on the experiment? Suggested answers : ix) x) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) The more number of squeezing the plastic bottle the more the effect of cotton balls at the bottom of the bottle ii) If the number of squeezing the plastic bottle is increase then the effect of cotton balls at the bottom of the bottle increase 4. Identify Variables Questions: i) What to measure / observe? iii) What is responding variable? Suggested answers : the effect of cotton balls at the bottom of the bottle Questions: i) What to change? ii)What is manipulated variable? Suggested answers : the number of squeezing the plastic bottle Questions : i) What to keep the same ? ii) What is controlled/ constant variable? Suggested answers : Type of cigarette 5. Procedure / What do I do 1) Drop two cotton ball into a plastic bottle. 2) Put some plasticine to block the mouth of the bottle. SPS 7( C2 , C5)

3) Use a pencil to poke a hole through the plasticine. Take out the pencil.

cigarette

4) Put a cigarette into the hole created in the plasticine. 5) Light the cigarette. 6) Now, squeeze the plastic bottle gently to simulate breathing. Squeezing the bottle is for smoke to come out from the cigarette.

plasticine

7) After pumping the bottle a dozen times or so, remove the plasticne and the cigarette. 8) Observe the cotton balls at the bottom of the bottle. SPS1( C2 , C4)

5. Method / What do I find

sps 7(C3)

1) Two cotton balls were dropped into a plastic bottle. 2) Some plasticine was put to block the mouth of the bottle. 3) A pencil was used to poke a hole through the plasticine. 4) A cigarette was put into the hole created in the plasticine. 5) The cigarette was light up. 6) The plastic bottle was squeezed gently to simulate breathing. The bottle was squeezed for smoke to come out from the cigarette. 7) After pumping the bottle a dozen times or so, the plasticne and the cigarette were removed. 8) The cotton balls at the bottom of the bottle were observed

6 Observation /what do I find: Questions: i) What do we need to observe? ii) What should we observe? iii) What is observed? iv) What are we observing? Observation i) State the observation of the investigation ii) What can you say the effect of the cotton balls at the bottom of the bottle ? Suggested answers : The cooton balls at the bottom of the bottle turn into yellow colour 7. Inference: i) Why it happened? ii) State one inference based on your observation Suggested answers : The colour of the cotton balls turn into yellow because the number of squeezing the plastic bottle with cigarette is increase. sps 7(C6)

8. Conclusion. i) What do I conclude ii) What have you learnt from this experiment? iii) What conclusion can you make based on the experiment? Suggested answers : xi) xii) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) The more number of squeezing the plastic bottle with cigarette the more the effect of cotton balls ii) If the number of squeezing the plastic bottle with cigarette is decrease then the effect of the cotton balls at the bottom of the bottle is decrease

SPS

4
1 2 3 4 1 2

7
3 4 5 6

Criteri a Reference Theme 1 Learning area : Science year 4 practical 6 page 17 : Investigating Living Things : 2. Living things undergo life processes

Learning objective: 2.4 Understanding the life processes in plants Learning outcome: 2.4.1 state that plants respond to stimuli 2.4.2 identify the part of plant that respons to water Topic : Plants’ Response (Unit 6)

1. Aim of an experiment Questions: i) What is the aim of the investigation? ii) What is the purpose of the investigation? iii) What do you want to find out from the investigation? iv) What do you want to study from the investigation? v) What do you want to proof from the investigation? Suggested answers : To investigate the relationship between manipulated/what to change and responding/what to observe/measure. iv) To investigate/ study the relationship between the direction of the water (WTC) and the direction of the rootsWTO). 4. Materials / apparatus needed Green peas, cotton wool and plastic bottle. Questions: i) What are the materials needed in the investigation? ii) What do we need in the investigation? Suggested answers : Green peas, cotton wool and plastic bottle.
sps 7(C4)

3. Hypothesis:

SPS 7( C1)

i) What is your hypothesis ? ii) Write a hypothesis for this experiment? iii) State one hypothesis based on the experiment? Suggested answers : i) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. ii)If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. If the direction of the water is on the left then the direction of the roots is towards the left. 4. Identify Variables Questions: i) What to measure / observe? ii) What is responding variable? Suggested answers : the direction of the roots Questions: i) What to change? ii)What is manipulated variable? Suggested answers : the direction of the water Questions : i) What to keep the same ? ii) What is controlled/ constant variable? Suggested answers : The size of the green peas, type of seeds 5. Procedure / What do I do 1) Soak the green peas until shoots appear. 2) Label three plastic bottles as X, Y and Z. 4) Place Z in a box with a hole on one of it’s side. 5) Water X and Z daily. 6) Water Y at spot A daily.
SMS 2 (C3 , C1) SPS 4 (C3 , C4)

SPS 7( C2 , C5)

3) Place three green peas of similar size on the cotton wool in each plastic bottle.

7) Observe the peas every two days. 8) Draw your observation in the table given.

5. Method / What do I find 1) The green peas were soaked until shoots appear. 2) The three plastic bottles were labelled as X, Y and Z. bottle. 4) Z was placed in a box with a hole on one of it’s side. 5) X and Z were watered daily. 6) Y was watered at spot A daily. 7) The peas were observed every two days. 8) The observation was drawn in the table.
SPS 1 (C3 , C4) sps 7(C3)

3) Three green peas of similar size were placed on the cotton wool in each plastic

sps 7(C6) 6 Observation /what do I find: Direction of plants X left Y right

Observation i) State the observation of the investigation ? ii) What can you say from this investigation ? Suggested answers : The direction of the roots in plastic bottles X grow towards the left The direction of the roots in plastic bottles Y grow towards the right 7. Inference: i) Why it happened? ii) State one inference based on your observation iii) State one inference about the investigation Suggested answers : - The direction of the roots in plastic bottles X grow towards the left because the direction of water is on the left

sps 7(C6)

- The direction of the roots in plastic bottles Y grow towards the right because the the direction of the light is on on the right 8. Conclusion. i) What do I conclude ii) What have you learnt from this experiment? iii) What conclusion can you make based on the experiment? Suggested answers : If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. Roots grow towards water

Sample question Figure 2 shows the respons of red seedlings in an experiment.

light

black box

Red bean seadling

Petri dish X Petri dish Y After a few days

Petri dish X

Petri dish Y

Figure 2 shows the respons of red seedlings in an experiment. a) What is the aim of the experiment? b) State the variables in this experiment i) Variable that is kept constant: ________________________________________________________ ii) Variable that is manipulated? ________________________________________________________ iii) Variable that respons: c) Make an inference based on the information in Figure 2? ________________________________________________________

Answer : a) To study the relationship between the direction of light and the direction of shoot growth b) i)the germination stage of the seedlings ii) The direction of the light iii) The direction of shoot growth c) The shoot of seedlings grow towards light because the shoot of seedlings respon to light

SPS

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1 2 3 4 1 2

7
3 4 5 6

Criteri a Reference Theme 1 Learning area : Science year 4 practical 7 page 21 : Investigating Living Things : Living things undergo life processes

Learning objective: 2.4 Analysing life processes in plants Learning outcome: 2.4.6 State the plants reproduce Topic : Reproducing Plants

1. Aim of an experiment Questions: i) What is the aim of the investigation? ii) What is the purpose of the investigation? iii) What do you want to find out from the investigation? iv) What do you want to study from the investigation? v) What do you want to proof from the investigation? Suggested answers : To investigate the relationship between manipulated/what to change and responding/what to observe/measure. v) To investigate/ study the relationship between the types of plants (WTC) and the way they reproduce(WTO). 5. Materials / apparatus needed Potato, onions, bottle, hibiscus stem Questions: i) What are the materials needed in the investigation? ii) What do we need in the investigation? Suggested answers : Potato, onions, bottle and hibiscus stem. sps 7(C4)

3. Hypothesis:

SPS 7( C1)

i) What is your hypothesis ? ii) Write a hypothesis for this experiment?

iii) State one hypothesis based on the experiment? Suggested answers : xiii) xiv) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. ii) If the plant is hibiscus so the way they reproduce are stem cuttings SPS 7( C2 , C5,) 4. Identify Variables Questions: i) What to measure / observe? iv) What is responding variable? Suggested answers : the way plants reproduce Questions: i) What to change? ii)What is manipulated variable? Suggested answers : the type of plants Questions : i) What to keep the same ? ii) What is controlled/ constant variable? Suggested answers : species 5. Procedure / What do I do 1) Your teacher will give you three types of plants. 2) Discuss in your group how these plants reproduce. 3) In your Science Journal, describe how your group is going to plant them. 4) Observe and record what happens every other day. 5) Present your finding in the form of a brochure.

5. Method / What do I find 1) Pupils had given three types of plants. 2) In group discussion had been make to know how these plants reproduce. 3) Observe and record what happens every other day. 4) Present your finding in the form of a brochure. Sps 6(C1,C2 )

6. Observation /what do I find: Two hibiscus plants were reproduced by stem cutting. The cuttings were made from a young and old stem of the hibiscus. The number of leaves produced is shown in the table below. Number of leaves Two weeks Three weeks 5 8 6 7 sps 7(C6)

Old stem Young stem Questions:

One week 3 4

Four weeks 12 10

i) What do we need to observe? iii) What should we observe? iii) What is observed? iv) What are we observing? Suggested answers : i) ii) sps 4(C1)

After one week the number of leaves from the young stem were increase After four weeks the number of leaves from the old stem were decrease

7. Inference: i) Why it happened? ii) State one inference based on your observation iii) State one inference about the decreasing of the number of leaves Suggested answers : The number of leaves from the young stem were increase because it growing healthily 8. Conclusion. i) What do I conclude?

ii) What have you learnt from this experiment? iii) What conclusion can you make based on the experiment? Suggested answers : i) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. ii) If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure…………. iii) If the old stem cutting then the number of leaf is increase sps 5(C4)

SPS

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1 2 3 4 1 2

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3 4 5 6

Criteri a Reference Theme 1 Learning area : Science year 4 practical 8 page 25 : Investigating Living Things : 3. Animals and plants protect themselves

Learning objective: 3.2 Understand that animals have specific characteristics and behaviour to protect themselves from extreme weather Learning outcome: 3.2.1 Topic identify specific characteristics and behaviour of animals that protect them from very hot or cold weather : My Imaginary Pet

1. Aim of an experiment Questions: i) What is the aim of the investigation? ii) What is the purpose of the investigation? iii) What do you want to find out from the investigation? iv) What do you want to study from the investigation? v) What do you want to proof from the investigation? Suggested answers : To investigate the relationship between manipulated/what to change and responding/what to observe/measure. i) To investigate/ study the relationship between animals (WTC) and the specific characteristic(WTO). 6. Materials / apparatus needed and clear plastic bottle. Questions: i) What are the materials needed in the investigation? ii) What do we need in the investigation?
Sps 7(C4)

Empty can drinks of various sizes, drinking straws, sponge, toothpicks, cotton wool

Suggested answers : Empty can drinks of various sizes, drinking straws, sponge, toothpicks, cotton wool and clear plastic bottle.

3. Hypothesis:

SPS 7( C1)

i) What is your hypothesis ? ii) Write a hypothesis for this experiment? iii) State one hypothesis based on the experiment? Suggested answers : iii) iv) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) If an animals is rhinoceros then it would be seen wallowing in the mud on hot days 4. Identify Variables Questions: i) What to measure / observe? ii)What is responding variable? Suggested answers : The specific characteristics and behaviours of animals help to protect them Questions: i) What to change? ii)What is manipulated variable? Suggested answers : the types of animals Questions : i) What to keep the same ? ii) What is controlled/ constant variable? Suggested answers : Location, types of weather SPS 7( C2 , C5)

5. Procedure / What do I do 1) Work in groups of four.

2) Discuss in your group, the specific characteristics that you want to put into your imaginary animal to : a. Survive danger. b. Protect them from extreme weather. 3) Use the materials provided to create your imaginary pet. 6. Method / What do I find 1) The specific characteristics that we want to put into our imaginary animal to : a. Survive danger. b. Protect them from extreme weather. 2) Use the materials provided to create your imaginary pet. 7. Observation /what do I find: Sps 2(C1,C2) Sps 2(C1,C2,)

Questions: i) What do we need to observe? iv) What should we observe? iii) What is observed? iv) What are we observing? Suggested answers : i) Worms live underground during a hot day Sps 5(C1,C2)

7. Inference: i) Why it happened? Sps 5(C1,C2)

ii) State one inference based on your observation Suggested answers : Worms live underground during a hot day to protect from hot weather 8. Conclusion. i) What do I conclude? ii) What have you learnt from this experiment? iii) What conclusion can you make based on the experiment? Suggested answers : i) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. ii) If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure…………. iii) If sunny day then worm live underground

SPS

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1 2 3 4 1 2

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3 4 5 6

Criteri a Reference Theme 1 Learning area : Science year 4 practical 9 page 29 : Investigating Living Things : 3. Animals and plants protect themselve themselves from enemies Learning outcome: 3.4.2 Topic

Learning objective: 3.4 Understanding that plants have specific characteristics to protect Describe how the specific characteristics of plants help to protect them from : Plants’ Protection

1. Aim of an experiment Questions: i) What is the aim of the investigation? ii) What is the purpose of the investigation? iii) What do you want to find out from the investigation? iv) What do you want to study from the investigation? v) What do you want to proof from the investigation? Suggested answers : To investigate the relationship between manipulated/what to change and responding/what to observe/measure. vi) To investigate/ study the relationship between type of animals (WTC) and the characteristics of plants that protect them from enemies(WTO). 7. Materials / apparatus needed and magnifying glass. Questions: i) What are the materials needed in the investigation? ii) What do we need in the investigation? Suggested answers : Sugar cane stem, papaya leaf, pineapple, aloe vera steam, yam leaf, knife, gloves and magnifying glass. sps 7(C4) Sugar cane stem, papaya leaf, pineapple, aloe vera steam, yam leaf, knife, gloves

3. Hypothesis:

SPS 7( C1)

i) What is your hypothesis ? ii) Write a hypothesis for this experiment? iii) State one hypothesis based on the experiment? Suggested answers : xv) xvi) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) Yam leaf used latex to protect them from enemies 4. Identify Variables Questions: i) What to measure / observe? ii)What is responding variable? Suggested answers : Plants characteristics Questions: i) What to change? ii)What is manipulated variable? Suggested answers : Type of plants Questions : i) What to keep the same ? ii) What is controlled/ constant variable? Suggested answers : plants 5. Procedure / What do I do 1) Work in groups 2) Observe the characteristics that the plants have to protect themselves from enemies 3) Use magnifying glass. 4) Record your finding in the table given. SPS 7( C2 , C5)

5. Method / What do I find 1) The characteristics that the plants have to protect themselves from enemies were observed. 2) Magnifying glass was used. 3) The findings were recorded in the table. 6 Observation /what do I find: Sps 2(C1,C2,)

Plants

Characteristics

Sps 4(C1,C3)Sps2(C1)

Observation i) What is the specific characteristics of papaya leaf ? ii) What is the specific characteristics of sugar cane stem ? Suggested answers : The papaya leaf has latex The sugar cane stem has fine hairs 7. Inference: i) Why it happened? ii) State one inference based on your observation Suggested answers : i) The papaya leaf prevent from enemies by using latex ii) The sugar cane stem prevent from enemies by using fine hairs 8. Conclusion. i) What do I conclude ii) What have you learnt from this experiment? iii) What conclusion can you make based on the experiment? Suggested answers : i) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. ii)If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) ii) Plants have specific characteristics to protect them from enemies Yam leaf used latex to protect them from enemies SPS 7( C2 , C5)

Reference Theme 1 Learning area

: Science year 4 practical 10 page 33 : Investigating Living Things : 1. .Measurement

Learning objective: 1.2 Understanding how to calculate area Learning outcome: 1.1.2. Carry out a test to confirm their guesses Topic : Take To The Air

1. Aim of an experiment Questions: i) What is the aim of the investigation? ii) What is the purpose of the investigation? iii) What do you want to find out from the investigation? iv) What do you want to study from the investigation? v) What do you want to proof from the investigation? Suggested answers : To investigate the relationship between manipulated/what to change and responding/what to observe/measure. vii) To investigate/ study the relationship between the length of string (WTC) and the time taken of the parachuter to falls down.(WTO). 8. Materials / apparatus needed Magnifying glass, Science Journal and pencil. Questions: i) What are the materials needed in the investigation? ii) What do we need in the investigation? Suggested answers : Magnifying glass, Science Journal and pencil.
sps 7(C4)

3. Hypothesis:

SPS 7( C1)

i) What is your hypothesis ? ii) Write a hypothesis for this experiment? iii) State one hypothesis based on the experiment? Suggested answers : xvii) xviii) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) The longer the strings the slower the parachute to falls down ii) If the strings is longer then the time taken for the parachute to falls is slower 4. Identify Variables Questions: i) What to measure / observe? v) What is responding variable? Suggested answers : The time taken the parachute to falls down Questions: i) What to change? ii)What is manipulated variable? Suggested answers : The length of the string Questions : i) What to keep the same ? ii) What is controlled/ constant variable? Suggested answers : The types of the parachute 5. Procedure / What do I do 1) Work in group of four. 2) Cut the plastic into a 20cm Xb20cm square as the canopy of the parachute. 3) Measure four lengths of string 30 cm each 4) Gather the ends of the strings together. 5) Tie the ends to a clothes peg 6) Drop the parachute from a height of two metres. SPS 7( C2 , C5)

7) Record the time taken for your parachute to reach the ground in the table given. 8) Repeat steps 3-8 using different length of string as shown in the table 5. Method / What do I find 1)Tthe plastic were cut into a 20cm Xb20cm square as the canopy of the parachute. 2) Four lengths of string were measure 30 cm each 9) The ends of the strings were gather together. 10) The ends to a clothes peg were tie. 11) The parachute from a height of two metres were drop. 12) The time taken for your parachute to reach the ground in the table given were record. 13) The steps 3-8 using different length of string as shown in the table were repeat.
sps 7(C3) sps 7(C3)

6 Observation /what do I find: Size of canopy Length(cm) of string 20cm X 20 cm 30 20cm X 20 cm 25 20cm X 20 cm 20 20cm X 20 cm 15 (An example of data obtained from the investigation)

Sps 4(C1), 7(C6) Time(seconds) 20 17 14 11

sps 4(C2),7(C6)
The time taken to fall down the parachute

25 20 15 10 5 0 30 25 20 15 Length (cm)

(An example data obtained from the investigation) Observation i) What is can you say about the time taken for the parachute to fall on the ground with the length 30cm? ii) What is the time taken for the parachute to fall on the ground if the length of string 30cm? Suggested answers : The time taken for the parachute to fall down on the ground with the length 30cm is longer. 7. Inference: i) Why it happened? ii) State one inference based on your observation iii) State one inference about the increasing of time when the length 30cm? Suggested answers : The time taken for the parachute to fall down on the ground is longer because the length is longer. 8. Conclusion. i) What do I conclude ii) What have you learnt from this experiment? iii) What conclusion can you make based on the experiment? Suggested answers : i)The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. ii)If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) The longer the string the longer the time taken to fall down the parachute ii) If the length of string is longer then the time taken to fall the parachute is longer. Criteri a Reference Science Year 4 Practical 12 page 43
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6

Theme

Investigating Force and Energy Measurement

Learning Area

Learning Objectivies 1.2 Understanding how to calculate area Learning Outcomes Pupil: 1.2.2 carry out a test to confoirm their guesses Topic : Swinging Timers 1. Aim of an experiment Questions: i) What is the aim of the investigation? ii) What is the purpose of the investigation? iii) What do you want to find out from the investigation? iv) What do you want to study from the investigation? v) What do you want to proof from the investigation? Suggested answers : To investigate the relationship between manipulated/what to change and responding/what to observe/measure. viii) To investigate/ study the relationship between the length of string (WTC) and the time taken for the timer to unwind(WTO). 9. Materials / apparatus needed Questions: i) What are the materials needed in the investigation? ii) What do we need in the investigation? Suggested answers Retort stand,stop watch,string,plasticine,chopstick 3. Hypothesis: SPS 7( C1)
sps 7(C4)

i) What is your hypothesis ? ii) Write a hypothesis for this experiment? iii) State one hypothesis based on the experiment? Suggested answers :

xix) xx)

The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure…………..

i) The longer the string the more the time taken is needed for the timer to unwind ii) If the string is longer then the time taken is for the timer to unwind is increase 4. Identify Variables Questions: i) What to measure / observe? vi) What is responding variable? Suggested answers : the time taken for the timer to unwindt Questions: i) What to change? ii)What is manipulated variable? Suggested answers : The length of string Questions : i) What to keep the same ? ii) What is controlled/ constant variable? Suggested answers : The height of the retort stand 5. Procedure / What do I do 4. Prosedure/What do I do 1. Use the string to make a line between two retort stands. 2. Make a timer like the one shown in the figure. 3. Twist the chopstick and then let go. 4. Record the time taken for your timer to unwind. 5. What happens if you change one of the following:make the strings longer 6. Carry out a test and record your findings. SPS 7( C2 , C5)

6. Method/What do I find

SPS 6( C2)

1 The string was used to make a line between two retort stands. 2.A timer was made like the one shown in the figure. 3. The chopstick was twisted and then let go. 4. The time taken for the timer to unwind was recorded. 5. Steps 1 to 4 were recorded with the longer string 6. Observation /what do I find: Observation sps 6(C1)

Length of the string(cm) 40 60

the time taken for the timer to unwind (s) 20 90

(An example of data obtained from the investigation)

Observation i) What is the time taken for the timer to unwind with 40 cm length?

Suggested answers : The time taken for the timer to unwind with 20 cm length is 20 seconds 7. Inference: i) Why it happened? ii) State one inference based on your observation iii) State one inference about the observation above. Suggested answers : The time taken for the timer to unwind with 20 cm length is 20 seconds because the length of string is longer. 8. Conclusion. i) What do I conclude ii) What have you learnt from this experiment? iii) What conclusion can you make based on the experiment? Suggested answers : xxi) xxii) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) The longer the string the more the time taken for the timer to unwind ii) If the string is longer then the time taken for the timer to unwind is increased.

Exampe of question

Figure 3 shows the apparatus used by a pupils in an experiment.The bobs of the pendulums have the same mass. Table 1 shows the data collected by the pupils. Pendulum P Q R S Table 1 1. State the variable that is kept constant in this experiment? __________________________________________________________ 2. State the the variables that is manipulated /what to measure in this experiment? __________________________________________________________ 3. State the variables that responds what to change in this experiment? __________________________________________________________ 4. Make the conclusion from the investigation? __________________________________________________________ Answer 1.a) The mass of the bob b) The length of the string c) Number of swings in 30 seconds 2. The longer the string, the more number of swings Length of the strings(cm) 10 12 15 20 Number of swings in 30 seconds 35 40 46 50

SPS

6
1 2 3 4 1 2

7
3 4 5 6

Criteri a Reference Theme 1 Learning area : Science year 4 practical 13 page 45 : Investigating Technology : 1. Properties of materials

Learning objective: 1.1 Understanding the properties of materials. Learning outcome: 1.1.3 Identify the materials that conduct electricity. Topic : Materials In Competition 1. Aim of an experiment Questions: i) What is the aim of the investigation? ii) What is the purpose of the investigation? iii) What do you want to find out from the investigation? iv) What do you want to study from the investigation? v) What do you want to proof from the investigation? Suggested answers : To investigate the relationship between manipulated/what to change and responding/what to observe/measure. ix) To investigate/ study the relationship between types of objects (WTC) and the the light of the bulb (WTO). 10. Materials / apparatus needed ruler. Questions: i) What are the materials needed in the investigation? ii) What do we need in the investigation? Suggested answers : Bulb and bulb holder,batteries, battery holder,crocodile clips,wooden ruler,metal ruler. Bulb and bulb holder,batteries, battery holder,crocodile clips,wooden ruler,metal
sps 7(C4)

3. Hypothesis:

SPS 7( C1)

i) What is your hypothesis ? ii) Write a hypothesis for this experiment?

iii) State one hypothesis based on the experiment? Suggested answers : xxiii) xxiv) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) If the objects are made from metal then the bulb will light up ii)If the object are not made from metal then the bulb will not light up 4. Identify Variables Questions: i) What to measure / observe? vii) What is responding variable? Suggested answers : The type of object Questions: i) What to change? ii)What is manipulated variable? Suggested answers : the light from the bulb Questions : i) What to keep the same ? ii) What is controlled/ constant variable? Suggested answers : The number of batteries 5. Procedure / What do I do 3) 4) Work in groups of five. Choose one of the above activities to do. 3) Set up the apparatus as shown in figgure 1. 4) Choose an object and iudentify the material. 5) Clip a crocodile clip to each end of this object. 6)Observe the bulb in the circuit. 7)Record your observation in the table given 8.Repeat steps 1 to 4 with another object. SPS 7( C2 , C5)

5. Method / What do I find .

sps 7(C3)

1) Set up The apparatus as shown in figgure 1. were set 2)An object and identify the material were choose. 3) A crocodile clip were clip to each end of this object. 4)The bulb in the circuit were observe. 5) Observation in the table given were record 6).Steps 1 to 4 with another object wee repeat. 6 Observation /what do I find: SPS 6(C1) (An example of data obtained from the investigation) sps 7(C3) Observation i)What can you see from the observation ? Suggested answers : The bulb will light up if the object are made from metal. 7. Inference: i) Why it happened? ii) State one inference based on your observation Suggested answers : The bulb light up if the object are made from metal because metal are conduct electricity. 8. Conclusion. i) What do I conclude ii) What have you learnt from this experiment? iii) What conclusion can you make based on the experiment? Suggested answers :

i)The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. ii)If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) If the object are made from metal then the bulb will light up ii)If the bulb are not made from metal then the bulb will not light up

Sample question Figure 1 shows an investigation carried out by a student.

The student uses four different materials as object X. The result are as follows Materials Copper Rubber Plastic Iron Obsevation Light bulb lights up Light bulb does not light up Light bulb does not light up Light bulb light up

a)What is aim of the investigation? b) State the variable that is manipulated? c)What inference can be made from the investigation? Answer: a)To study the relationship between types of the materials and the light of the bulb b) The types of materials c) The materials that are made from copper and iron will light up the bulb because they are conducter electric.

SPS

4
1 2 3 4 1 2

7
3 4 5 6

Criteri a Reference Theme 1 Learning area : Science year 4 practical 15 page 59 : Investigating Materials : Properties of materials

Learning objective: 1.5 Understanding that some materials can rust Learning outcome: 1.5.4 Design a fair test to find out what factors cause rusting by

deciding what to keep the same, what to change and what to observe. Topic : Rusting

1. Aim of an experiment Questions: i) What is the aim of the investigation? ii) What is the purpose of the investigation? iii) What do you want to find out from the investigation? iv) What do you want to study from the investigation? v) What do you want to proof from the investigation? Suggested answers : To investigate the relationship between manipulated/what to change and responding/what to observe/measure. x) To investigate/ study the relationship between the presence of air , water (WTC) and the rusty of iron nails(WTO). 11. Materials / apparatus needed iron nails and oil. Questions: i) What are the materials needed in the investigation? ii) What do we need in the investigation? Suggested answers : Tap water, pieces of label, piece of sand paper, test tube, drying agent, rubber stopper, iron nails and oil. 3. Hypothesis: SPS 7( C1)
sps 7(C4)

Tap water, pieces of label, piece of sand paper, test tube, drying agent, rubber stopper,

i) What is your hypothesis ? ii) Write a hypothesis for this experiment? iii) State one hypothesis based on the experiment? Suggested answers :

xxv) xxvi)

The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure…………..

i) The rusting of iron needs air and water. ii) Air and water can cause iron to rust. 4. Identify Variables Questions: i) What to measure / observe? viii) What is responding variable? Suggested answers : The rusty of iron nail Questions: i) What to change? ii)What is manipulated variable? Suggested answers : The presence of air and water Questions : i) What to keep the same ? ii) What is controlled/ constant variable? Suggested answers : Type of nails,quantity of nail. SPS 7( C2 , C5)

5. Procedure / What do I do 1) Work in groups of five. 2) Collect your materials. 3) Label the test tubes as A, B and C.

4) Clean three iron nails with a sand paper. 5) Put an iron nail in each test tube.

6) Pour some tap water into test tube A.

SPS 2 (C1 , C2)

7) Put three spoon of drying agent into test tube B and cork it with a rubber stopper.

8) Pour the boiled water into the test tube C until half full and pour some oil into it. 9) Keep your experiment in a safe place for a week. 10) Observe the nail in each test tube after a week. 11) Discuss your observation. 12) Record your finding in the table given. 5. Method / What do I find 1) Three iron nails were cleaned with a sand paper. 2) An iron nail was put in each test tube. 3) Some tap water was poured into test tube A. 4) Three spoon of drying agent were put into test tube B and cork it with a rubber stopper. 5) The boiled water was poured into the test tube C until half full and some oil were poured into it. 6) The experiment was keeps in a safe place for a week.

7) The nail in each test tube was observed after a week.The observations were recorded

6 Observation /what do I find: Test tube Observation of the iron nails A Rusty B Non rusty C Non rusty (An example of data obtained from the investigation) Observation i) What is your observation about iron nail in test tube A ? ii) What can you say about the iron nail in test tube A ? Suggested answers : The iron nail in test tube A is is rusting 7. Inference: i) Why it happened? ii) State one inference based on your observation iii) State one inference about iron nail in test tube A. Suggested answers :

sps 7(C6)

sps 7(C6)

The iron nail in test tube A is is rusting because it is exposed to air and water 8. Conclusion. i) What do I conclude ii) What have you learnt from this experiment? iii) What conclusion can you make based on the experiment? Suggested answers : xxvii) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. xxviii) If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) The rusting of iron needs air and water.

ii) Air and water can cause iron to rust.

Sample Question. Figure 1 shows two iron nails in two beakers with different situation.

water

oil

iron nail

boiled water

Beaker A Figure 1 (a) State the variables: i) ii) iv)

Beaker B

kept the same ? (fixed/controlled variable):_________________ changed ( manipulated variable);_________________________ measured (responding variable)_______________________

(b) What is the aim of the investigation? ______________________________________________________ (c) What is your observation about nail in beaker A? _____________________________________________________________ (d) State one inference based on your observation in (c)

(e) What can you conclude based on the investigation.

(a) i) ii) v) (b) (c) (d) (e)

State the variables: kept the same ? (fixed/controlled variable):Type of nail changed ( manipulated variable); The presence of air and water measured (responding variable): The condition of nail To investigate the relationship between the presence of air, water and the condition of nail. The nail in beaker A is rusting after two weeks. The nail in beaker A is rusting after two weeks because it is exposed to air and water. Iron nail will rust if it is exposed to air and water.

SPS

4
1 2 3 4 1 2

7
3 4 5 6

Criteri a Reference Theme 1 Learning area : Science year 4 practical 18 page 68 : Investigating Technology : Technology

Learning objective: 1.2 Understanding the development of technology. Learning outcome: 1.2.2 Recognise the needs to innovate or invent devices for the bettement of mankind. Topic : Tower of water

1. Aim of an experiment Questions: i) What is the aim of the investigation? ii) What is the purpose of the investigation? iii) What do you want to find out from the investigation? iv) What do you want to study from the investigation? v) What do you want to proof from the investigation? Suggested answers : To investigate the relationship between manipulated/what to change and responding/what to observe/measure. xi) To investigate/ study the relationship between the number of tablespoon of water (WTC) and the stability of tower(WTO). 12. Materials / apparatus needed Glue, stapler, cellophane tape, container , tablespoon and newspapers. Questions: i) What are the materials needed in the investigation? ii) What do we need in the investigation? Suggested answers : Glue, stapler, cellophane tape, container,tablespoon and newspapers.
sps 7(C4)

3. Hypothesis:

SPS 7( C1)

i) What is your hypothesis ? ii) Write a hypothesis for this experiment? iii) State one hypothesis based on the experiment? Suggested answers : xxix) The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure.

xxx)

If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure…………..

i) The more the number of tablespoon of water the less the stability of the tower ii) If the number of tablespoon of water is increases then the stability of the tower is decreases. 4. Identify Variables Questions: i) What to measure / observe? ii)What is responding variable? Suggested answers : The stability of the tower. Questions: i) What to change? ii)What is manipulated variable? Suggested answers : The number of tablespoon of water Questions : i) What to keep the same ? ii) What is controlled/ constant variable? Suggested answers : The heigth of tower SPS 7( C2 , C5)

5. Procedure / What do I do 1) Look at the picture of the different towers with objects on them. 2) Discuss the shape of the structures of the towers. 3) Identify the common shape found in these structures. 4) In this activity, you are going to design and build a tower that can hold a water container.
SPS2 (C1 , C2, C3)

5) Work in groups of four. 6) Build a tower by using the materials given.

7) Place the container on the top of the tower.

8) Use a tablespoon to fill water into the container. 9) Record the number of tablespoons of water that the tower can hold. 10) Show the results and the design of the tower to the class. 11) Draw the tower that can hold the biggest volume of water in your Science Journal. 5. Method / What do I find 1) A tower was buit by using the materials given. 2) The container was placed on the top of the tower as shown in the picture. 3) A tablespoon was used to fill water into the container. 4) The number of tablespoons of water that the tower can hold was recorded. sps 7(C6) 6 Observation /what do I find: The number of tablespoon of water The stability of tower

1 Stable

2 Stable

3 Stable

4 Not Stable

(An example of data obtained from the investigation) sps 7(C6)

Observation i) What is your observation about the stability of the tower when the container is filled with 4 tablespoon of water ? ii) What can you say the stability of the tower when the container is filled with 4 tablespoon of water ? Suggested answers : The tower cannot hold the biggest volume of water when the container is filled with 4 tablespoon of water. 7. Inference: i) Why it happened? ii) State one inference based on your observation Suggested answers : The tower cannot hold the biggest volume of water when the container is filled with 4 tablespoon of water because it is not stable.

8. Conclusion. i) What do I conclude ii) What have you learnt from this experiment? iii) What conclusion can you make based on the experiment?

Suggested answers : i)The more/the less manipulated/the more or the less responding/what to observe/measure. ii)If manipulated/ what to change…………then responding/what to measure………….. i) The more the number of tablespoon of water the less the stability of the tower ii) If the number of tablespoon of water is increases then the stability of the tower is decreases.

Sample question. The diagram below shows three types of models L, M and N which are the same type but different in their heigths. All the object are then pushed from the side until each falls down.

L

M

N

b) Predict whichmodel is the most stable ? ________________________________________________________________ b) i) Based on the investigation, state the following that is : kept the same ? (fixed/controlled variable) __________________________________________________________ ii) changed ( manipulated variable) __________________________________________________________ vi) measured (responding variable) _________________________________________________________ c) What is the aim of the investigation ? ________________________________________________________________ d) What is the conclusion based on the investigation ? ________________________________________________________________

Suggested answers : c) Model N d) i) Type of model ii) The heigth of model ii) The stability of the model c) To investigate the relationship between the heigth of model and the stability of model c) The more the heigth of the model the less the stability of the model