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CENTER FOR INTEGRATED FACILITY ENGINEERING

Multidisciplinary Process Integration & Design Optimization of a Classroom Building

By

Forest Flager, Benjamin Welle, Prasun Bansal, Grant Soremekun, & John Haymaker

CIFE Technical Report #TR175 OCTOBER 2008 Revised SEPTEMBER 2009

STANFORD UNIVERSITY

COPYRIGHT © 2008 BY Center for Integrated Facility Engineering

If you would like to contact the authors, please write to:

c/o CIFE, Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., Stanford University The Jerry Yang & Akiko Yamazaki Environment & Energy Building 473 Via Ortega, Room 292, Mail Code: 4020 Stanford, CA 94305-4020

acoustical. which permits unrestricted use. KEYWORDS: multidisciplinary design optimization. Vol.org . Engineering. 14 (2009).itcon.ISSN 1874-4753 MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROCESS INTEGRATION AND DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A CLASSROOM BUILDING PUBLISHED: August 2009 at http://www. mechanical (energy). One primary cause is limitations in the processes and software tools used by the AEC industry.org/licenses/by/3. 14. energy simulation. http://www. structural analysis. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon).0/). and reproduction in any medium. Flager. pg. Soremekun. Stanford University forest@stanford. Application Engineer Phoenix Integration grant@phoenix-int. Soremekun G. resulting in a significant reduction to design cycle time as well as improved product performance. Welle B. distribution.www. The number of performance criteria that can be analyzed from product models includes architectural. The aerospace industry has overcome similar limitations by using Process Integration and Design Optimization (PIDO) software to support Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). Bansal P. integration. Haymaker J (2009) Multidisciplinary process integration and design optimization of a classroom building.org/2009/38 COPYRIGHT: © 2009 The authors. and assess PIDO’s potential to improve AEC MDO processes and products. lighting ITcon Vol. MS Student Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics.itcon. 595 .itcon. and Haymaker. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.edu Benjamin Welle. This paper describes a test application of PIDO to an AEC case study: the MDO of a classroom building for structural and energy performance.0 unported (http://creativecommons. Bansal. provided the original work is properly cited. and Construction (AEC) professionals typically generate and analyze very few design alternatives during the conceptual stage of a project. Stanford University haymaker@stanford. We demonstrate how PIDO can enable orders of magnitude improvement in the number of design cycles typically achieved in practice. PhD Student Center for Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE). conceptual building design.com John Haymaker. automation REFERENCE: Flager F. Welle.Journal of Information Technology in Construction . Stanford University prasunb@stanford. Stanford University bwelle@stanford. pg. Assistant Professor Center for Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE). 1. INTRODUCTION The advancement of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and analysis methods now allows diverse disciplines to simulate building performance in a virtual environment.edu SUMMARY: Architecture. PhD Student Center for Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE). 595-612.edu Prasun Bansal.edu Grant Soremekun. structural.org/2009/38 EDITOR: Bjork B-C Forest Flager.

According to a survey of a leading firm (Flager and Haymaker 2007). 2004. 2007). not to explore multiple alternatives. Shea. O’Connor et al. Performance-based design supported by product models is becoming state-of-the-art practice (Hänninen 2006). One limitation is that the vast majority of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools used in the industry do not allow the product to be represented parametrically. Holzer. Grandine et al. including linking separate CAD/CAE tools to ensure a rapid and accurate flow of data. Beitz et al. FIG. 1: AEC professionals only consider a few design alternatives due to significant time spent managing information Researchers in the aerospace and automotive industries have developed methods for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) to address a similar set of limitations in these industries. enabling designers to consider many more design options and select designs with improved product quality and performance. During the conceptual design phase. and Haymaker. Aish et al. The majority of engineers surveyed indicated that they used simulation tools primarily to validate a chosen design alternative. Rivard et al. Many in the field have written about the inability of the tools used by different disciplines to share data effectively (Gallaher. However. 1. 2007). 14 (2009). MDO methods have been successfully applied in the aerospace and automotive industries (SobieszczanskiSobieski and Haftka 1997. which involves generating and analyzing a single design alternative using these methods. 2005). architects and engineers average less than three design cycles per project (Fig. 2005. The majority of their time now is spent managing design information. left). Consequently. AEC professionals’ restricted exploration of the design space is the result of a number of tool and process limitations. Wang. 1. Bansal. 596 . 2006. Chen and Usman 2001). A second limitation is that these tools do not represent information in a form that facilitates multidisciplinary analysis using simulation-based Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. Flager. the potential of this technology to inform design decisions has not yet been fully realized because current tools and processes do not support the rapid generation and evaluation of design alternatives using product models. the same survey shows that design professionals now are spending less than half of their time doing design and analytic work where they can use their specialized expertise to add the most value to the project. but their application to AEC practice has been comparatively modest. pg. Tengono et al. Parametric representations facilitate the rapid change of geometric and non-geometric variables according to particular design logic (Shah and Mäntylä 1995. including manually integrating and coordinating discipline-specific design and analytical representations (Fig. and speculated that the application of ITcon Vol. Pahl. Systematic procedures make it easier to divide work between designers and computers (Vandenbrande. MDO attempts to formalize problem decomposition and coordination among groups working on the design of complex engineering systems (AIAA 1991). Soremekun. it takes architects and engineers over one month to complete a design cycle. right). AEC professionals often make design decisions with little or no information about the performance of the chosen design compared to alternatives. Welle. Potential benefits include compressing design cycle time. Previous research studied Boeing’s MDO of a hypersonic vehicle. As a result of these limitations.and an expanding list of other concerns (Fischer 2006).

Parmee. Practitioners must therefore be able to define and modify geometric and nongeometric parameters of a design alternative in a flexible user-friendly environment without significant effort to regenerate geometry and re-assign attributes. or chaotic components. Practitioners therefore need to customize optimization strategies based on the particular requirements of the design problem. 2. and a brief evaluation of relevant existing tools with respect to these requirements. The third section presents a case study that is designed to test the application of PIDO on an AEC project.1. ITcon Vol. including the objective. or through direct access to Application Programming Interfaces (Myers and Rosson 1992). constraints. Bansal. 2. Boeing’s MDO process was supported by Process Integration Design Optimization (PIDO). Once design intent has been captured by parametric relationships. practitioners need to be able to use tools they trust and with which they are familiar. 2. and Haymaker.e.1 Rapidly Generate Design Alternatives Researchers argue that the ability to investigate a large number of design alternatives is critical to finding successful designs (Akin 2002). The next section of this paper presents a partial list of requirements for applying MDO to AEC projects. Abraham et al. Beitz et al. 14 (2009). In an MDO environment.1. pg. 2007). Parmee et al. and the number and type (i. Soremekun. To manage the large number of alternatives generated. We developed the requirements from literature and our own industry experience. however. practitioners must be able to automate the analysis of parametrically generated design alternatives. usability and cost. but also a conceptual structure that guides variation. We conclude with an evaluation of the case study results and discuss the potential for using PIDO to support MDO on AEC projects. formal methods such as mathematical programming (Fleury and Braibant 1986) and optimality criteria (Berke and Khot 1987) generally perform well when the problem can be assumed to be continuous. performance. 2. Welle.2 Rapidly Analyze Design Alternatives Once an alternative is generated. Therefore. For example.1. The case study is a MDO of a classroom building for structural and energy performance.these methods and technology to the AEC industry could prove beneficial (Flager and Haymaker 2007). 2005. 2.3 Integrate Conventional CAD/CAE Tools Practitioners select CAD/CAE tools based on a variety of criteria including capability.1. a class of commercial software commonly used in the aerospace industry to help engineers automate and manage data flow between CAD/CAE tools and to optimize one or more aspects of a product design by iterating across a range of input parameters towards a set of target conditions.1 Requirements for Multidisciplinary Optimization Processes in AEC This section lists partial requirements that an MDO method for AEC should meet. while heuristic methods such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs) (Deb 1999. Such interoperability may occur through either proprietary or open standards-based data models such as Industry Foundation Classes (IAI 2008). Machwe. discrete or continuous) of design variables. the MDO method should support the effective automation and exchange of information between tools of the practitioner’s choice. stochastic.4 Customize Optimization Strategies The selection of an appropriate optimization strategy depends upon the formulation of the optimization problem. MDO PROCESS REQUIREMENTS AND EXISTING TOOLS 2. 2008) tend to be superior when applied to problems with non-linear. There are significant differences between AEC and the aerospace and automotive industries in terms of both their organizational structure and the products they produce. Increased automation frees practitioners from the repetitive task of manually integrating analytical representations. 597 . practitioners must be able to assess the performance of the alternative across a wide range of criteria in order to make an informed design decision. A variety of optimization strategies exist to solve different types of problem formulations. allowing them to spend more time evaluating the results and making design decisions (Pahl. Flager. Parameterization of design increases complexity of both the design task and the software interface since designers must model not only the artefact being designed. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential of PIDO tools to facilitate more effective MDO processes in the AEC industry. software automation can significantly reduce the time required for change and reuse (Aish and Woodbury 2005).

Advanced plotting tools that enable multi-dimensional data visualization such as Pareto (Grierson and Khajehpour 2002. Gelatt et al. Parmee. since it may involve the modification of the original process by new personnel. Smith and Eppinger 1997. In addition. 2005). researchers have focused on (1) developing algorithms capable of dealing with a variety of different types of optimization formulations. Khajehpour and Grierson 2003). To guide this generative method. Researchers have experimented with evolutionary computing methods. multi-dimensional search spaces. In related work. Researchers have developed methods to visually communicate process and information dependencies. (2) formulating decision-making methods for problems with multiple objectives. Subsequently.1 Computing Platforms for Structural Optimization The first application of computational optimization methods to structural design followed the development of reliable Finite Element Analysis (FEA) methods in the 1950s and 1960s. however.2 Strengths and Limitations of Existing Tools in Meeting the MDO Requirements This section briefly discusses several design optimization techniques/tools in the context of the AEC requirements outlined in the previous section. Parmee et al. 14 (2009). Developing robust and efficient optimization algorithms to deal with structural topology. Sacks et al. Hough et al. Shea et al incorporated an optimization process called Structural Topology and Shape Annealing (STSA). Kunz et al. design objectives and constraints often change during the design process based on observations and interpretations of results (Gero and Kannengiesser 2004). Shea et al. Related research has created integrated. 2008) plots have proven useful for this purpose. Deb and Gulati 2001. and Haymaker. including electric transmission towers (Shea and Smith 2006) and bracing topologies for tall building structures (Baldock.1. 2. Khajehpour and Grierson 2003. Designers need to be able to understand general performance trends as well as variable sensitivities in order to make informed decisions in guiding the optimization process. This research has enabled designers to optimize fairly large. Grierson subsequently has developed a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) strategy that employs a trade-off analytic technique to identify compromise designs in which competing criteria are mutually satisfied in a Pareto-optimal sense (Grierson 2006. Similarly. Bansal.2. Flager. Giger and Ermanni 2006.1. 2007). 2007). Parmee and Machwe have led efforts to incorporate aesthetic criteria into the decision-making process through the use of interactive methods and machine learning that incorporate designer preferences into the computational optimization process (Machwe. Baldock and Shea 2006. 2008). The methods. including genetic algorithms (Grierson and Pak 1993. Aish et al. and stochastic optimization via simulated annealing (Shea.6 Communicate Process and Information Dependencies Practitioners must be able to understand the steps involved in the MDO process easily. Khajepour and Grierson have developed methods involving multi-objective genetic algorithms (MOGAs) and Pareto optimization to investigate trade-offs for high-rise structures (Grierson and Khajehpour 2002. 2004) and Parallel Coordinate (Parmee 2005.g. 2. Miles et al. (Steward 1981. 598 . 2005. conflicting objectives has been an active field of research in recent years. 2005). including structural analysis and performance metrics. performance evaluation. Grierson 2008). Haymaker. Shea et al. complex problems. However. Yukish et al. these methods have not supported multi-objective optimization.5 Visualize Trade Spaces Applying computational optimization methods to conceptual design has proven difficult because a problem typically has multiple objectives and is imprecise with respect to one or more of these objectives (Shaw. 2004). Holzer et al used a parametric CAD tool linked with a proprietary optimization algorithm to optimize the shape of a stadium roof structure (Holzer. Machwe and Parmee 2007).2. This is important for quality control purposes (Baldock. Togan and Daloglu 2008). 2005) as well as to improve the reusability of the process on future projects (Lee. e. which combines structural grammars. Welle. Soremekun. Hasançebi 2008) and simulated annealing (Kirkpatrick. performance-driven. Abraham et al. FEA and optimization software. The interaction of human expertise and computer-based exploration therefore is essential for the process to be successful. nor do they adequately visualize the optimization process and results. pg. This work ITcon Vol. 1983) to sample and find areas of good performance in highly complex. Optimization methods that are able to manage multiple. are not integrated with conventional CAD / CAE tools nor can they incorporate parameters that lie outside of the structural design domain. genetic programming (Soh and Yang 2000. 2. generative design tools that link CAD. shape and member sizing has been the focus of a large body of work. and (3) integrating conventional CAD/CAE software into the optimization process. Stump. as well as how information flows between process tasks.

Flager. is scalable. GENE_ARCH. 2. After evaluating commercially available PIDO software against the requirements listed in Section 2. flexibility. BLAST. 3.has shown that software integration can lead to improved collaboration among multiple disciplines (i. and ability to select from a range of optimization strategies make GenOpt a robust platform. 2002. Welle. OptEPlus utilizes EnergyPlus and various search routines to identify optimal buildings designs for energy usage (Ellis. We evaluated the classroom design for its structural integrity. SPARK. Loosemore et al. Griffith et al. pg. such as EnergyPlus. and it does not support multidisciplinary optimization. Evolutionary computing (EC) has been explored in energy performance analysis (Wright. however. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed BEopt and OptEPlus. The application has advanced geometry generation functionality. The modularity.2 Computing Platforms for Energy Optimization Government and academic researchers have developed a variety of optimization platforms for energy performance.1. Anderson et al. GENE_ARCH combines the use of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and DOE-2 for constraint-based. Fong. and to compare different design options. Bansal. but its visualization capabilities are limited. ModelCenter’s design exploration and optimization tools can be used to perform optimization and trade-off studies. these systems do not provide capabilities to adequately visualize multi-dimensional design spaces or to decide between competing objectives.3 PIDO Software Framework Process Integration and Design Optimization (PIDO) comprise software and design techniques intended to help engineers and analysts (Daratech 2001): • • • Automate and manage the setup and execution of digital prototyping. with windows on two opposite facades and a steel frame structure (Fig.1 Overview The case study we chose to evaluate was a single room classroom building. simulation. or any user-written code (Wetter 2000). Hanby et al. 2. ITcon Vol. 14 (2009). system directories. architects and structural engineers) and to better performing designs. 599 . and has good visualization capabilities. multi-objective optimization (Caldas 2006). we selected Phoenix Integration’s ModelCenter® to implement the case study. 2006). This tool is able to access a library of different optimization algorithms. TRNSYS. left). and analysis tools Integrate and/or coordinate analysis results from multiple physical domains in order to produce a more holistic model of product performance Optimize one or more aspects of a product design by iterating analyses of the design across a range of input parameters toward a specified set of target conditions. 2. We use this case study to assess the extent to which an MDO process implemented in ModelCenter can satisfy the requirements of the AEC industry as defined above. and computer routines that use an XML data model to transfer information among the various components. Visualization of the trade space however is limited. Once an integrated model has been built. The framework consists of a collection of EnergyPlus input and output files. DOE-2.2. is modular to allow distributed programming. CASE STUDY 3. This application integrates with multiple data sources. ModelCenter allows users bring commercial or proprietary software tools into a common environment using a software “wrapper” or “plug-in” which interfaces with the tool to be automated. 2006). GenOpt is a generic optimization program that can be used with any simulation program that has text-based input and output. 2006). The application includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that allows the user to select from a range of predefined and discrete building alternatives to be used in the optimization process. and supports selection of automation and optimization strategies. Soremekun. Recently. does not allow for multi-disciplinary optimization using multiple simulation engines. and can use either continuous or discrete variables. but its flexibility is limited as a result of having predefined building alternatives and its inability to consider a wide range of objective functions.e. The next section describes a case study application of ModelCenter to support MDO on a classroom building. BEopt uses the DOE2 and TRNSYS simulation engines and a sequential search technique to optimize building designs (Christenson. BEopt allows the user to rapidly generate and visualize the design space through a browser. and Haymaker. However.

FIG. 600 .energy consumption. representing sequential execution. representing iteration. Couplings below the diagonal of the DSM are feedback couplings.2 Structural Design Process. building regulations and energy costs. along with the optimization formulation and results. and results in three parts: structural. and combined structure and energy. The coupling between modules is represented by a solid circle. while vertical arcs represent inputs to the tasks. 14 (2009). Flager. pg. daylighting as well as initial capital and life-cycle costs. and the single-story height fixed at 10 feet. In DSM. Optimization. going from left to right. right. we discuss the design process. horizontal arcs represent the outputs from tasks. and Results The structural optimization process model for the classroom case study is shown in Figure 3 below. Kunz et al. Space: Floor area fixed at 960 sq ft. 3. and Haymaker. The model representation is based on the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) (Steward 1981) and Narratives (Haymaker. optimization. The major components in the process are described in more detail below. We chose San Diego. Soremekun. Daylighting performance: Maximum annual average lighting power multiplier of 0. 2. The objectives for the case study were to: • • Minimize the capital cost of the building’s steel frame Minimize the life-cycle cost for the building’s operation The design constraints were: • • • Structural safety: All the members of the steel frame had to meet building code requirements for strength (Code 1997). Bansal. Couplings above the diagonal of the DSM are feed-forward couplings. The five major components are represented along the downward diagonal of the diagram.6. Haymaker 2006). ITcon Vol. Welle. 2: Design variables for classroom case study Next. The design variables for the study are shown in Fig. energy. CA as the building’s location for the purpose of determining weather conditions. 2004.

left. 14 (2009). The structural analysis representation consisted of centreline geometry for all of the structural members in the model. The independent variable in the structural geometry model is building length..FIG.3 Structural code check and cost calculator The structural code check and cost calculator is a custom Visual Basic application. 3. and Haymaker. pg. Bansal. member end conditions. Once the centreline geometry for the structural members is imported into GSA.2. The code check component determines if the structural members have sufficient strength to resist the applied loading as specified by the building code (Code 1997). consisting of the weight of the structure. 3. The area of these panels corresponded to the tributary area of the building that each member was responsible for supporting. The area of each panel updates automatically when the building geometry changes. We considered three load cases in the analysis: (1) dead load. all of the structural properties for the members including steel sections. parametric loading panels were defined for each structural member in the model. Once all of this information was specified in GSA.2. 3: Structural design. consisting of the weight of occupants and impermanent furniture. equipment etc. the FEA was run and internal forces and moments for each member were exported by load combination to the code check component along with selected member properties. One of the challenges associated with the structural model was that varying the geometry of the building changed the loading on the structural members. and is shown in Fig 2.2. (2) live load. We then combined these loads into five-factored load combinations as specified by the building code. Flager. 601 . For each subsequent iteration. To ensure that the loading remained accurate for all possible geometric configurations. and (3) wind loads for the site.2 Structural analysis The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for the structure was performed using GSA (GSA 2008). Welle. where: FS = demand (D) / capacity (C). and 8 girders transferring the load to 10 supporting columns. This is determined by calculating the factor of safety (FS) for each member under each load combination. and optimization process 3. the point coordinates defining the structural members and the loading panels were updated automatically. Soremekun. analysis.1 Geometric Design The geometry for the classroom building was created using the parametric CAD software Digital Project (DP 2008). and loading are defined manually in GSA. The point coordinates defining the structural members and the loading panels are automatically loaded into the structural analysis software. The demand (D) is calculated based on the ITcon Vol. There were 9 beams spanning the roof.

In order to optimize for structural geometry.e. Welle. We configured the optimization problem in ModelCenter’s genetic algorithm-based optimization tool called Darwin (Darwin 2004).575 possible designs. From the graph. A FS of less than unity indicates that a particular member meets all of the structural design requirements for strength.4 Structural optimization Our preliminary investigation of the design space indicated that it was highly non-linear. FIG. one can quickly see the most efficient section sizes for the given problem as well as the trade off between different section sizes and depths. 32ft. and 48ft. meaning small changes in variable values sometimes resulted in large changes in performance. 602 . 4) shows the results of the section optimization for beams in the structure. Probability of Mutation = 5%. led us to choose a genetic algorithm to perform the structural steel optimization study. A single iteration took approximately 10 seconds running on desktop PC with a 3. Flager. we concluded genetic optimizers are much more likely to find globally optimal designs for this problem.00GHz processor and 8GB of memory. The size of the design space for a section optimization study consisted of approximately 29. The capacity (C) is calculated based on applied loading and the member properties. Each design candidate (consisting of a unique set of steel section sizes) is represented as a single point. This observation. Convergence Criteria: Fixed number of iterations = 250. genetic algorithms are able to search discontinuous and “noisy” design spaces effectively. The scatter plot (Fig. and Haymaker. We looked at four different building lengths: 24ft. The best performing designs (i. 4: Beam section optimization results ITcon Vol. Compared to gradient-based optimization algorithms. those which do not satisfy the structural strength criteria). Grey points represent infeasible designs (i.2. Since they do not require objective or constraint gradient information. The cost calculator component calculated the total cost of the building’s steel frame based on the sum of the weight of each member multiplied by an assumed price of steel per unit weight. The following genetic algorithm parameters were used for the optimization run: Population Size = 25. Genetic algorithms utilize processes analogous to natural selection to stochastically search for the best designs. 14 (2009). Bansal. A constraint in the optimization process was to have the FS for all members be less than one. The two different swaths of design points shown in the plot correspond to the two different depths of beam section that were considered in the optimization (W12x and W14x). Soremekun. 3. cheapest designs that satisfy the constraints) are dark blue. pg. 3. This was expressed as a single constraint in the formulation of the optimization problem (max (FS) < 1).e.5 Results Our objective in the structural optimization process was to minimize the cost of the steel frame while satisfying structural safety criteria for strength design. combined with the optimization formulation being comprised of only discrete variables. 40ft. Probability of Crossover = 100%.applied forces and moments from the structural analysis. The genetic algorithm described above converged in approximately 300 iterations (1% of the total possible designs).2. a section optimization was conducted for each geometric configuration.

Bansal. 2) perform better. and Haymaker.The parallel coordinates plot (Fig. the maximum bending moment decreases as the building gets longer. Welle. analysis. Each coloured line represents a different design. For example. we can see that the best designs all have a small range of beams section sizes in the two depths considered (as shown in the scatter plot). FIG. and results. the darker blue lines represent the best designs. 5) provides an alternative view of the design space. As the building length increases. but the beam span (S) is reduced due to the floor area constraint described in the overview. 14 (2009). This is what we might expect based on structural engineering principles given that roof beams are simply supported and governed by gravity loading. The ranges of values for each variable are represented as a vertical axis (increasing in value from the bottom of the axis to the top).3 Energy Design Process. Soremekun. The parallel coordinates plot also shows that designs which have a larger building length (see Fig. pg. 603 . 6. 5: Impact of structural design variables on building steel cost 3. and optimization process ITcon Vol. optimization. The point where each line intersects a vertical axis represents the value of the corresponding design variable for a particular design. FIG. As in the scatter plot. indicating that the choice for column size from the available alternatives has less influence on design performance. allowing for lighter beam sections and a cheaper overall design. Therefore. The process is shown in Fig. Visualizing results in this fashion allows the designer to quickly identify the range of variable values that often result in the best design configurations. analysis. The best (blue) designs also pass through the entire range of column sections. the loading (w) increases. Optimization. Flager. and Results This section describes the energy design process including geometric design. 6: Energy design. as expected.

and floors were modelled as single planar surfaces.3. and the daylighting sensor were then passed onto the energy analysis component. The windows were centred on their respective walls and the aspect ratio of the windows was constrained to be the same as the wall. The outputs from EnergyPlus consisted of the annual energy intensity. We chose to compare the results of the DoE with the results of the optimization to evaluate differences in the two methods in terms of performance of the ‘best’ design and the required simulation time. The DoE tool in ModelCenter was used to gather information about the analysis model’s behavior by running it for a number of different input variable combinations. Latin Hypercube. and multiple optima. 14 (2009). 2). A gradient-based algorithm was selected to perform the optimization study because the optimization formulation comprised a single objective and continuous design variables. The unit cost for gas and electricity were based on local utility rates. The design variables were building length.3. The HVAC system used was a Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner (PTAC) with gas heating and electric cooling. A lighting power multiplier of 0 means the space is completely day lit and 1 being completely lit by artificial lights. ITcon Vol. The algorithm chosen was called Design Explorer (DesignExplorer 2004). or a customized experiment. except holidays. 3. which was developed by Boeing to solve complex problems characterized by long running models. which was averaged over the total number of operational hours during the year to provide a single representative annual average lighting power multiplier for the design. cooling energy intensity. Wall. For the process to be automated. lighting energy intensity. A daylighting sensor location point was placed in the centre of the room two feet above the ground level. The independent variables were building orientation. The wall/roof construction had a structural steel frame with rigid board insulation and the floor was an un-insulated concrete slab. The building was assumed to operate all year.1.3. The windows were modelled as argon filled double pane and low-e. Soremekun.2 Energy analysis The thermal performance of the classroom was analyzed using EnergyPlus. The performance constraint was the annual average lighting power multiplier. N-dimensional parametric studies can be performed by specifying the number of samples for each of the input variables or you can choose from a variety of pre-defined “experimental designs”. noisy search spaces. It is a global search algorithm. window-to-wall ratio. It intelligently uses non-physics based mathematical models to reduce the number of required model executions. and window-to-wall ratio (See Fig. The thermal runs simulated the energy requirements to maintain a space temperature of 70-73oF between 7am-4pm Monday-Friday (operation hours for the classroom) with setbacks of 50oF and 90oF for off operation hours during the winter and summer. respectively.2. and Haymaker.3 Energy optimization A Design of Experiments (DoE) was conducted to evaluate performance trends over the entire spectrum of the design space. We set the single objective function to minimize total life-cycle operating costs. right). and the number of occupants for the classroom was 20. the equipment load at 1. building length. The lighting load was set at 1.1 Geometric Design The geometry was generated using the same Digital Project model described in section 3. a customized factorial was used involving the evaluation of 1881 different designs. and is often the starting point used to validate more sophisticated model methods like optimization. Bansal. so it is not likely to get stuck in local optima. The design space was constrained to be a rectangular room with two windows on the grid east and west walls. Four node coordinates for each wall and window surface. 604 .3. and annual operating costs for gas and electricity. This was done using a batch file format that gathered together the input data and modified the EnergyPlus input file to conduct the runs. pg. Flager. 3. heating energy intensity. In this case. Total life-cycle operating costs were calculated over a lifetime of 30 years in current dollars using a 3% discount rate.0 watts/ft2.5 watts/ft2. Welle. solar heat gain intensity. The DoE tool is a convenient way to begin exploring the design space. The EnergyPlus simulation also provided us with values for the hourly lighting power multiplier for the building. and orientation (Figure 2. The lighting power multiplier is the fraction of artificial lighting that is required to meet the design luminance in the space. roof. including Full Factorial. Central Composite. the EnergyPlus input file had to be parametric to absorb changes to the building node coordinates and the daylighting sensor location.

In our particular case study. Each point represents a design alternative. lifecycle operating cost. with blue representing the best and red the worst performing designs. However. optimization results. FIG. a reduction in artificial lighting (assuming photo sensors and dimmable ballasts for the lighting). and orientation. and a consequent reduction in ventilation and air-conditioning energy consumption due to the reduced heat load from the lighting energy. which increase the load on the HVAC system. 7: Glyph chart of building window and wall area vs. the larger windows also result in larger solar heat gains to the space and conductive losses through the fenestration. Both plots show building orientation and length vs. and Haymaker. Soremekun. Bansal. Intuition would suggest that total energy consumption would be minimized when both window area and wall area are minimized. Flager. in this case why architectural constraints prevent energy consumption from reaching the lowest possible value for the given floor area. FIG. building length. lifecycle operating cost The glyph chart in Fig. the tradeoffs between daylighting performance and energy performance were evaluated by varying window size. 605 . Larger windows generally result in improved daylight in the space. In addition. 14 (2009). pg. This is an example of how data visualization capabilities in ModelCenter can allow a designer to interpret what may otherwise may be a complex and non-transparent solution space.4 Results We explored the data generated by the Design of Experiments (DoE) including surface charts to understand general trends and glyphs charts to study data point spreads. a design that minimizes total window area cannot result in a total wall area in the lower range of that parameter.3.3. changes to the relative total window to wall area of the building changes the relative envelope conductive heat gains/losses. however the chart shows that due to the geometric constraints. ITcon Vol. 8: DoE results vs. Welle. 7 shows that the designs with the lowest total life-cycle energy costs are those with the highest total wall area and the lowest total window area.

and window-to-wall ratio from 0. The MDO process is shown in Fig.4. 14 (2009). Bansal. Flager. The following genetic algorithm parameters were used for the optimization run: Population Size = 25. For multi-objective problems. 7 types of columns. with the points on the curve all being optimal in the sense that each represents a design point at which it would be impossible to improve one of the objectives without degrading the other(s). 606 . and Haymaker. The correlation between the optimum designs using DoE and the optimizer was extremely high. there were 65 types of girders. 3.1 Multidisciplinary Optimization The multidisciplinary geometric design and analysis inherited the characteristics and parameters of the structural and energy analyses. ITcon Vol. constraints. Soremekun. with the optimizer identifying the best performing design with almost the exact same design characteristics as the best design identified in the DoE. Darwin will generate Pareto trade-off curves. The design space had a population of approximately 55x106 possible designs.4 Multidisciplinary Optimization and Results The following section describes the combined structural and energy MDO formulation and the results. The fact that the optimization formulation was comprised of both continuous and discrete variables and multiple objectives led us to choose Darwin (Darwin 2004) to perform the multidisciplinary optimization study.1 increments). and 65 types of beams.Figure 8 compares the results of the DoE with the optimization. 3. Welle. The daylighting performance constraint applied in the optimization resulted in little variation in optimum designs since the vast majority of the designs had annual average lighting power multipliers less than 0. 2.6 due to the shallow range of building depths relative to the range of window areas present in the design space. the building length varied from 4-14 meters (in 1m increments). The number of simulations required to achieve the optimum design was reduced from 1881 to 93 (95%). Probability of Crossover = 100%. pg. The objective functions. For the structural analysis. 9. Building orientation was varied from 0-180 degrees (in 10 degree increments).9 (in 0. Probability of Mutation = 5%.1-0. and design variables used for the combined optimization were the same ones listed in Fig. Convergence Criteria: Fixed number of iterations = 250.

pg. analysis. This is due to several factors.FIG. resulting in a more efficient (and cheaper) structural frame. Soremekun. the beam span is reduced. Welle. however. and optimization process 3. These figures are examples of how designers can use PIDO to better understand performance trade-offs. This took approximately 34 hours on a desktop PC with a 3. Only by analyzing and visualizing a large number of design alternatives is it possible to accurately characterize these tradeoffs. 14 (2009).600 iterations (0. allowing them to make more informed decisions. including greater surface area of building skin.2 Results The optimization run required 5. which resulted in increased solar gains and cooling requirements. For example. The ‘optimal’ design depends on the client’s preference.00GHz processor and 8GB of memory. FIG. The designs marked with a black ‘+’ are Pareto optimal. 11 illustrates how building length impacts the first and life-cycle costs of the classroom. and a larger wall area for windows to meet day lighting requirements. 9: Multidisciplinary design. the building becomes less efficient as the building length increases. which resulted in greater conductive losses. and Haymaker. From the perspective of operating costs. Bansal.01% of the total number of possible designs). Flager. The trade-off between structural costs and energy (operating) costs is shown in Fig. 607 . One can see that the best designs from the perspective of operating cost have a relatively high capital cost and vice versa.4. The cost of the structure decreases as the length of the building increases because as the length of the building increases. 10. Fig. 10: Pareto front showing the trade-off between minimizing life-cycle energy costs and structural first costs ITcon Vol.

14 (2009). Bansal. 4. and Haymaker. using PIDO we were able rapidly to analyze over 5.1 Rapidly Generate and Analyze Design Alternatives Alternatives were automatically and rapidly generated using the parametric CAD model.2 Integrate Conventional CAD/CAE Tools ModelCenter was able to integrate and automate the industrial applications we selected. ModelCenter successfully automated the creation of analytical representations for structure and energy.1. On projects of this scale. however. Design theory argues that this leads to underperforming designs. Even with minimal simulation times and a limited number of design variables. Once a robust parametric model was developed. 608 . Soremekun. Flager. Due to the simplified nature of our case study. We needed software development expertise to write the wrappers. Once wrappers have been written.1. the computation time required for MDO may be a major barrier.Fig. simulation times for both structural and energy performance were minimal. Welle. ITcon Vol. The aerospace and automotive industries have overcome similar limitations using MDO methods implemented in PIDO software. resulting in reduced design cycle time and improved product performance. We now discuss our observations with respect to the MDO requirements we outlined in section 2. This step required close coordination among the design team members and thorough testing to ensure that the analysis representations were valid over the full range of design parameters.1. an uncommon skill among architects and civil engineers. 11: When structural costs (left) and energy costs (right) are plotted against building length. we found that PIDO software enabled orders of magnitude improvements in the number of design cycles when compared to conventional methods. 4. CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER WORK AEC practitioners today typically create very few design alternatives before choosing a final design.1 MDO Process Requirements and PIDO Case Study Application 4. more complex projects with much larger design spaces. Future work should test alternative topology generation techniques in the PIDO environment. our MDO of 5. however. The challenge was in creating and integrating the geometry for the analysis representation into a common parametric logic. This obstacle. The only requirement was that the application be able to run in batch mode. Instead of the usual two to three design cycles in a typical project.000 design alternatives and choose from a range of near-optimal solutions. may be addressed with the utilization of distributed and parallel computing and improved analysis application performance and wrapper communication. In this case study. the Pareto optimal designs show opposite performance trends 4. Practitioners typically work on larger. the space of alternatives we explored was limited because the classroom was geometrically simple and topological variations were not explored.600 alternatives took 34 hours. pg. For the AEC case study presented.

CATIA/Digital Project already had a plug-in available.1. These diagrams helped us communicate the processes. and to plan interoperability strategies. Woodbury (2005). This research was supported by the Stanford Graduate Fellowship (SGF) program. it took approximately 100 man-hours to integrate EnergyPlus. On this project. Future work should include the integration of such visualizations of process and data interoperability into the PIDO software and the testing of the extent to which they aid design teams design and manage MDO processes more easily.engineers and architects can reuse wrappers to create new processes as long as the data inputs and outputs are supported. REFERENCES AIAA (1991). 5. American Institure for Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. scatter. pg. Aish R. 200 man-hours to integrate GSA. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. the parallel coordinates plot in Fig. parallel coordinates. Future work is needed to allow designers to explore the design space and simultaneously see the impact upon product performance and geometry. including glyph. we used a genetic algorithm for the discrete structural section optimization analysis and a gradient-based method for the energy optimization analysis. A genetic algorithm was used for the multidisciplinary optimization.4 Visualize Trade Spaces We used advanced tools for multi-dimensional visualization. 2005). and the Center for Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE). We avoided typical interoperability issues frequently encountered in integrating industry CAD and CAE applications by bypassing the intermediate step of converting geometric information into a proprietary or opendata schema and then importing and converting that information into the receiving application’s required format (Eastman. The Precourt Energy Efficiency Center (PEEC). Volume 3638/2005: 151-162. and R. more complex AEC design problems or whether new methods will be required. is in its early stages. Future work should implement these wrappers and test their suitability for inclusion into the PIDO methodology. In this project. 4. The work on PIDO. and 60 man-hours to write the structural code checker. and to measure and compare the development and execution time necessary to automate the process against the benefits gained. The optimization methods worked well for these respective formulations. We believe this development work can be reused on future projects. It is possible to further interrogate this model to determine data dependencies. ITcon Vol. The visualizations may be represented with any combination of input design variables and output results. 3. by giving us the ability to generate and analyze many times the number of design alternatives. and much work remains to determine the applicability of PIDO on large scale.5 Communicate Process and Information Dependencies ModelCenter contains a window for viewing the process similar to the process diagrams shown (Fig. and Haymaker. Current state of the art in multidisciplinary design optimization. complex AEC projects and how it may be integrated with conventional tools and methods. Flager. We found it helpful to sketch the process before implementation in ModelCenter in order to identify the actors responsible for each step in the process and the specific information being exchanged. 8). Welle. This allowed us to understand general performance trends as well as variable sensitivities to support the decision-making process. Multi-level Interaction in Parametric Design. 609 . we found that PIDO has great promise to transform the AEC industry by changing the way we solve design problems. Further research is needed to examine whether these optimization methods are capable of tackling larger. 14 (2009).1. the Design of Experiments tool allowed us to visualize the entire design space and to validate the optimization method (Fig. There are many other AEC tools including lighting and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses which are not currently wrapped for the ModelCenter Environment. 6 and 9). Bansal. In conclusion.3 Customize Optimization Strategies Once automated. but more work is needed to test the generality of the wrappers. 5 revealed that the choice of column section was not as influential as the choice of beams. and histogram plots. MDO Technical Committee. 4. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. we were able to choose from a variety of optimization methods suitable for both discrete and continuous variables. For example. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank Kranthi Kode for his software development work and Phoenix Integration for their technical support. Future work should test the viability of utilizing emerging industry standard data models for information exchange such as IFC. In the energy design process. Soremekun. Wang et al. 4. and by providing tools and methods to systematically search for better performing building designs.1. 6. nevertheless.

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