44 views

Uploaded by Steve Spicklemire

Project for Quantum Mechanics students simulating a quantum superposition in the infinite square well.

save

- Michael Wiechers
- Computing Project 4
- Advances in Quantum Mechanics _Bracken
- 1605.01246.pdf
- Quantum Computing Project 2
- Quantum Free Electron Theory
- Quantum Teleportation to Quantum Thought.txt
- Quantum Colorado
- a26-jones
- RevModPhys.81.109
- Quantum Magick
- Chapter 05
- Computing Project 1
- Slides 3
- Shot noise in Mesoscopic systems
- PP-11-18
- Quantum Liquids.pdf
- Science & Mormonism
- M. J. Davis et al- Quantum effects and entanglement in Bose-Einstein condensates
- phil enidte
- Venture Into the Future BOOK
- (eBook) David Wilcock - The Science of Oneness
- Umea10
- Bits Admission Procedure
- Module 1
- The Many Worlds of Uncertainty (WWW.OLOSCIENCE.COM)
- Penrose
- In Memoriam Nicolaas Gotfried Van Kampen (1921-2013)
- Brad Logsdon and Giles Henderson- Stark Effects on Rigid Rotor Wavefunctions: A Quantum Description of Dipolar Rotors Trapped in Electric Fields as Pendulum Oscillators
- Aether Physics Model-Abstracts_1874
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi Delta
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- Yes Please
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- John Adams
- Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in America
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
- Bad Feminist: Essays
- Steve Jobs
- Angela's Ashes: A Memoir
- How To Win Friends and Influence People
- The Incarnations: A Novel
- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A Novel
- The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A Novel
- Leaving Berlin: A Novel
- The Silver Linings Playbook: A Novel
- The Light Between Oceans: A Novel
- The Flamethrowers: A Novel
- Brooklyn: A Novel
- The First Bad Man: A Novel
- We Are Not Ourselves: A Novel
- The Blazing World: A Novel
- The Rosie Project: A Novel
- Bel Canto
- The Master
- A Man Called Ove: A Novel
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A Novel
- Life of Pi
- The Cider House Rules
- A Prayer for Owen Meany: A Novel
- The Perks of Being a Wallflower
- Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A Novel
- The Bonfire of the Vanities: A Novel
- Beautiful Ruins: A Novel
- The Kitchen House: A Novel
- Interpreter of Maladies
- The Wallcreeper
- The Art of Racing in the Rain: A Novel
- Wolf Hall: A Novel
- A Tree Grows in Brooklyn

You are on page 1of 6

October 2, 2012

**Computing Probabilities in time for the Inﬁnite Square Well
**

This project capitalizes on the ﬁrst two projects by introducing a “real” system for which we can ﬁnd exact solutions to the Schr¨dinger equation and simulate the behavior of o the system over time. Two beneﬁcial side eﬀects of completing this project are that you’ll learn how to make real time graphs in vpython and you’ll learn some tricks for computing probabilities numerically with discretized (sampled) wave functions.

The Problem

Problem 2.8 (page 40, Griﬃths, 2nd ed.) reads: A particle of mass m in the inﬁnite square well (of width a) starts out in the left half of the well, and is (at t = 0) equally likely to be found at any point in that region. (a) What is the inital wave function Ψ(x, 0)? (Assume that it is real. Don’t forget to normalize it.) (b) What is the probability that a measurement of the energy would yield the value π 2 ¯ 2 /2ma2 ? h We worked out the normalization and coeﬃcients for HW 2.8 in class. If you’re careful you should ﬁnd the wave function is: (2/a) 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ a/2 otherwise

Ψ(x, 0) =

(1)

**and the expansion coeﬃcients for the stationary state expansion:
**

∞

Ψ(x, 0) =

n=1

cn ψn (x)

(2)

are: 1

cn =

2 nπ 1 − cos( ) nπ 2

(3)

where the ψn (x) are the stationary state solutions ψn (x) = (2/a) sin( nπ x) a (4)

It turns out the “probability of being in state n” (see Griﬃths comments about this phrase) is just |cn |2 , so we have the answer to part b as well. At later times we saw that each stationary state component of the wavefunction evolves simply with an e−iωn t phase factor according to the energy ¯ ωn of each state (where ωn h is determined by the kinetic energy in the nth state, p2 /2m = (¯ kn )2 /2m = n2 ¯ ω1 .), h h n so that the net wavefunction is simply:

∞

Ψ(x, t) =

n=1

cn ψn (x)e−iωn t

(5)

**or, upon substitution (watch out! It gets ugly...)
**

∞

Ψ(x, t) =

n=1

2 nπ 1 − cos( ) nπ 2

(2/a) sin(

nπ 2 x)e−in ω1 t a

(6)

**So.. what are we supposed to do?
**

Your mission is to produce three deliverables: 1) A 3D representation of the complex wavefunction over a time interval corresponding to two full cycles of the ground state component of the wavefunction. At the beginning your 3D representation should look something like Fig. 1. Later on your display should look something like this Fig. 2. Please include at least one screen capture of your wavefunction and include it in your report. 2) A graph of the probability of ﬁnding the particle in the range x < (a/2) as a function of the phase of ψ1 for a period of time equivalent to two full cycle of the ground state component of the wavefunction. With my setup I get a graph that looks like Fig. 3. 3) A graph of the expectation value of x as a function of time, for the same time period as (2) above. If you really want to impress me you can include graphs of x ± σ as well! Your graph might look something like Fig. 4.

2

Figure 1: The initial wavefunction, 40 arrows, a=6.0

Figure 2: The wavefunction later, 40 arrows, a=6.0

3

(Note: If you set ω1 =1, then your time units will essentially be equal to the phase of ψ1 . You can always choose other time units, but this will be simplest.) The questions that need to be answered as part of the report require you to reﬂect on this graph, so it’s important to get it right. If you graph doesn’t look pretty close to mine, please ask!

Figure 3: The probability of x < (a/2) (as a function of phase of ψ1 )

Graphing in python

There are lots of ways to make graphs in python, but when using vpython (the visual module) the easiest way is to use the gdisplay and gcurve. At the beginning of your program you can just add: from visual.graph import * gd = gdisplay(title="Prob(x<a/2,t)", xtitle="t", ytitle="P") gr = gcurve(color=color.white) This will create an additional graphing window where your graph will appear. You can add points to the graph by calling the ‘plot’ method of the gcurve object. Here’s a simple complete example: from visual import * from visual.graph import *

4

Figure 4: x ± σ as a function of phase of ψ1 gd = gdisplay(title="A demo of a graph", xtitle="t", ytitle="x") gr = gcurve(color=color.red) A=10.0 s = sphere(pos=(A, 0, 0), color=color.blue) t=0.0 dt=0.01 scene.autoscale=False while True: rate(100) t=t+dt s.pos.x = A*cos(t) gr.plot(pos=(t, s.pos.x)) If you run this code, you’ll see that the graph simply shows the value of the x coordinate of the sphere over time. You’ll need similar code in your project to graph the probability vs. time.

Calculating Probabilities

The easiest way to compute a probability is to use the power, slicing and sum features of vpython (numpy really) arrays.

5

If you have a real array you can add all the elements like so: from visual import * x = array([1,2,3,4]) print x.sum() # prints out the value "10" print x**2 # prints out "[ 1 4 9 16]" print (x**2).sum() # prints out the value "30" Slicing is a way to get a portion of an array, so e.g., to get the ﬁrst half of an array you’d say: from visual import * x = array([1,2,3,4]) print x[:2].sum() # prints out the value "3" print x[:2]**2 # prints out "[ 1 4]" print (x[:2]**2).sum() # prints out the value "5" In general to get the ﬁrst half of an array you’d use x[:len(x)/2] and to get the last half x[len(x)/2:]. There are lots of other fancy slicing tricks, but this is all we’ll need for project 3. Finally to compute the sum of the squared magnitudes of a array of complex numbers you’d use all of these: from visual import * x = linspace(0, 6.0, 10) psi = exp(1j*x) print (abs(psi)**2).sum() print (abs(psi[:5])**2).sum()

# prints out the value "10.0" # prints out the value "5.0"

Questions

Please answer these questions at the end of your report. 1) Explain how it is that the probability of being on the left half of the square well returns to 1 every time the ground state component of the wavefunction completes a full cycle. 2) What happens when the ground state wavefunction completes half a cycle? Explain why this occurs. 3) Are there other initial wavefunctions you could choose that would also start the particle out on the left half of the well? Would the results be diﬀerent from what you found using the initial wavefunction from Eq.1? 6

- Michael WiechersUploaded byCalvin Sullivan
- Computing Project 4Uploaded bySteve Spicklemire
- Advances in Quantum Mechanics _BrackenUploaded byBrian Ellis
- 1605.01246.pdfUploaded bycrocoali
- Quantum Computing Project 2Uploaded bySteve Spicklemire
- Quantum Free Electron TheoryUploaded byAshish Manatosh Barik
- Quantum Teleportation to Quantum Thought.txtUploaded byquantumrealm
- Quantum ColoradoUploaded byLtblaze
- a26-jonesUploaded byCH.Amin Asi
- RevModPhys.81.109Uploaded byMuzamil Shah
- Quantum MagickUploaded byElidia Martins
- Chapter 05Uploaded byquastard
- Computing Project 1Uploaded bySteve Spicklemire
- Slides 3Uploaded byZul Carnine
- Shot noise in Mesoscopic systemsUploaded by11111__11__1111
- PP-11-18Uploaded byCarlos Arias Jiménez
- Quantum Liquids.pdfUploaded by陳琮方
- Science & MormonismUploaded bybealeda723
- M. J. Davis et al- Quantum effects and entanglement in Bose-Einstein condensatesUploaded byLomewcx
- phil enidteUploaded bygeni
- Venture Into the Future BOOKUploaded byPrashant Bagga
- (eBook) David Wilcock - The Science of OnenessUploaded bylykaonas
- Umea10Uploaded byaakashtrivedi
- Bits Admission ProcedureUploaded byankursrivastava006
- Module 1Uploaded bySyed Ahmed
- The Many Worlds of Uncertainty (WWW.OLOSCIENCE.COM)Uploaded byFausto Intilla
- PenroseUploaded bycodex35
- In Memoriam Nicolaas Gotfried Van Kampen (1921-2013)Uploaded byadi63
- Brad Logsdon and Giles Henderson- Stark Effects on Rigid Rotor Wavefunctions: A Quantum Description of Dipolar Rotors Trapped in Electric Fields as Pendulum OscillatorsUploaded byKiomax
- Aether Physics Model-Abstracts_1874Uploaded byOrion Morgan