You are on page 1of 11

UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY LAHORE, PAKISTAN

M. Sc. RESEARCH PROPOSAL TITLE OF RESEARCH
PULL-OUT ANALYSIS OF POST INSTALLED ANCHOR BAR IN TWO INFILL LAYER ASSEMBLY

NAME OF STUDENT: REGISTRATION NO: DATE OF REGISTRATION: PART TIME/FULL TIME: SUPERVISOR:

UMAIR AHMAD 2010-MS-CES-20 26-10-2010 FULL TIME DR. MUHAMMAD SALEEM

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING 2012

This technique is most commonly applied to area around the cut-off. universities and government institutes.PULL-OUT ANALYSIS OF POST INSTALLED ANCHOR BAR IN TWO INFILL LAYER ASSEMBLY 1. Reinforced concrete (RC) jacketing enhances the shear strength of RC piers as a whole and the ductility capacity of the pier base. The infill material used to fix the post installed anchor bar in surrounding concrete of a structure has divided into two layers whose effectiveness has to be checked under cyclic loading from envelop of hysteresis loop.    Increasing the global capacity – Strengthening Increasing local capacity of structural element – stiffness or strength ductility / deformability Localizing the damage Many methods for seismic retrofitting have been developed by various research organizations. Raw materials needed to apply this method are easily available and it does not require any factory fabrication of components used in retrofitting. load carrying capacity and from damaged capacity evaluation in the surrounding concrete. These methods range from being building specific to ones that are applied to bridges. and other areas that need seismic rehabilitation depending on the requirements of the existing bridge pier. The basic requirements needs to be fulfilled by seismic retrofitting can be categorized as follows.     FRP jacketing. Some of these methods are named as below. strategies and advancements in material technology which provide better resistance against earthquake forces. along with the lower need of skilled work force to carry out this type of retrofitting makes concrete jacketing method an attractive option to be applied for seismic retrofitting. Concrete jacketing External post-tensioning Base isolators Steel plate jacketing Among these techniques the method that is most commonly used for retrofitting concrete bridge piers is the method of concrete jacketing. PROBLEM STATEMENT To study the pull-out behavior of post installed anchor bar by using a new analytical model of two infill layer assembly. Background Research has been going on into the field of seismic retrofitting for the last several decades focusing on the development of retrofitting methods. energy absorption capacity. . The typical thickness added by the RC jacketing method is around 200 mm. A two infill layer analytical model use to simulate the deformational behavior of post installed anchor bar is to be developed. the base of bridge pier.

The chief preparations for such a calamity quick restoration of the facilities. The basic concept of seismic rehabilitation is to avoid shear failure of piers caused by large earthquakes resulting in the collapse of RC viaducts and bridges (see Fig. Cook. the aim is to increase the ductility capacity of column members through seismic rehabilitation in order to allow better absorption of earthquake energy. So for this purpose the bridges and train viaducts are the most important. The reason for this is that if the flexural strength of the column members damaged by an earthquake is enhanced. Shear failure at viaduct piers South Hyogo Prefecture (1995) .1. etc. et al. it is considered important to restrict damage after seismic rehabilitation to column members.1-5) analyzed the behaviors of single adhesive anchors and single headed or un headed grouted anchors under tensile load in concrete. some of which are listed below. For convenience and efficiency researchers adopted post-installation for bonding the reinforcements into the concrete by drilling a hole into hardened concrete footing and installing the anchor bar using an adhesive infill material. They summarized the general failure modes of these anchorage systems as pull-out Fig. Post-installed anchor bars are installed to improve the flexure and shear resistance of the structures. 2. To enhance the seismic capacity of the whole structural frame. the most important facilities are the transportation infrastructure facilities as their restoration helps in restoring the local economy. In case of bridges the most important aspect of the structure is the bridge piers which face the brunt of the force and most of the damage caused by the earthquake is concentrated in piers. but enhancing the flexural strength of the column members is not properly done. post installed anchor bar with two infill layer assembly has variety of applications.Applications In order to increase the seismic capacity. Since repair and strengthening of beams and foundation members is more difficult than for column members.1). access to public utilities etc.      Retrofitting of damaged structural elements Raising and controlled dismantling of structures Soil stabilization / rock stabilization Slope stabilization Controlled damage in out of plane structures by using dissipative anchor device. LITERATURE REVIEW The unpredictable nature of earthquake in terms of intensity and location makes the disaster prevention and recovery preparation more important. The investigations and applications of an anchor embedded in a hardened cementations material such as concrete have been carried out for many decades. future earthquake damage may occur in beam members and foundation members. Hence in order to make the area get back on track of recovery these piers play a pivotal role.

elastic bonding and frictional shearing resistance.1) also developed a procedure for strength evaluating of closely spaced anchors bars and pointed out that full embedment length spacing can ensure these anchors to achieve their individual strengths. Gray11) reviewed the theories developed to explain the fiber de-bonding process in matrix and explain that fiber-matrix interfacial de-bonding was categorized into two types of resistance.of a concrete cone. Classic fiber pull-out problem Fig. Li.6) and Colak7) found that the addition of filler into epoxy adhesive reduced the shear strength of adhesive anchors. Bickel and Sheikh8) predicted that the shear capacity of single adhesive anchor using two methods with proper adjustments and Skla and Ashour9) found that the tensile capacity is linearly proportional to the embedment length by introducing artificial neural networks for predicting the tensile capacity of single adhesive anchors. 3. et al. The various factors influencing the bond strength of anchor were also evaluated and it was found that bond strength between concrete and anchor reduced for wet. the contribution of the elastic bonding to the total resistance offered for de-bonding decreased with the increase of the fiber embedment length. 2. 4. moist and un-cleaned holes. and combination of some of these failure modes as shown in Fig. Beard and Lowa10) used ultrasonic guided waves to successfully inspect the maximum embedment anchor length for a grouted anchor as shown in fig. et al. deboning at anchor–adhesive or concrete–adhesive interface. Pulse-echo test configuration for inspection of post-tensioning tendons using guided waves (Beard and Lowe) . 2 Failure modes of anchor pull-out (Cook et al.) Cook. 3. Moreover. Fig. fracture of anchor. According to the characteristics of stresses and deformations in the fibers and Fig.

4 was applied widely into the theoretical analyses by Gray11). however Bazant and Desmorat23) analyzed a pull–pull geometry of fiber or bar pull-out test and presented two interfacial de-bonding cracks developing from both ends with the same lengths assuming both the fiber and matrix have the same axial rigidity (fig. Most of the studies emphasize that the interfacial de-bonding crack only appears at the position where the fiber enters the matrix. 6. Most recently. Stang and Shah15). along with an analytical model to simulate the pull-out Fig.matrices.20)). The shear-lag approach considers equilibrium between the fiber and the matrix. Hsueh12-14).19) and Morrison et al. Conceptual Diagram of anchor-infill assembly . The fiber and matrix are then put together by displacement continuity conditions at the interface.. 5.25) also proposed an analytical solution for the pull-out response of FRP rods embedded in steel tubes using the philosophy of fiber pull-out from the matrix and verified the findings experimentally. Naaman et al17). The stress and displacement distributions of the fiber and matrix can be obtained using differential equations. 6.18). Gao et al. a shear-lag model shown in Fig. Based on Bazant’s and Desmorat’s23) work Shutong et al. The behaviors of the composites after de-bonding were extensively analyzed and two approaches were developed the first was the strength criterion. The whole pull-out load–end slip relationship of fiber was also gained accurately by Naaman et al. Stang and Shah15) and Sumitro and Tsubaki16) which assumes that the axial stresses in the matrix are negligible compared with those in the fiber and that the shear stresses in the fiber are so small that they can be ignored relative to those in the matrix. Ouyang et al. Hsueh12-14). 5). was introduced to analyze the interfacial de-bonding behaviors including pull-out of inclined fibers from matrix (see Gray11).24) have carried out a theoretical analysis on pull-out of anchor choosing the interfacial parameters randomly and found that initial and maximum pull-out load increase with the increase in mortar layer thickness.21-22) using strength criterion considering the process of fiber pull-out from the beginning of loading to the complete interfacial de-bonding. Zhimin et al. and took into account friction at the de-bonding zone. Saleem and tsubaki26-27) introduced a new type of anchor infill assembly structure as shown in fig. Then interfacial shear stresses and the tensile stresses distributions in the fiber were analytically obtained. Sumitro and Tsubaki16). where interfacial de-bonding is examined in terms of the interfacial shear stress and an second approach based on fracture mechanics known as the fracture energy-based criterion expressed in terms of energy equilibrium. Fiber pull-out problem Fig.

 To carry out a comparison between the results obtained from finite element analysis and experimental results available. comparison was made by varying the thickness of first and second infill layer respectively and it was concluded that there exist good agreement between the analytical model results as the differences were consistently less than 5% for both the cases. the compressive strength and the tensile strength of pull-out behavior is less significant as compared with that of shear strength and elastic modulus.  To analyze 3-D anchor infill layer model with simultaneous crack extensions. Two-layer anchor-infill model examined by using the fracture energy based criterion as well as strength criterion. The bond between the anchor bar and infilled material was Fig. OBJECTIVES & SCOPE OF STUDY The primary purpose of this research is to extend an already existing 2-D anchor infill layer model into a 3-D anchor infill layer model by using FEM software. METHODOLOGY The present study will comprise of the following phases: The first phase will include a detailed literature review on the pull-out analysis of post installed . 3. It was found from the numerical analysis that influence of the parameters such as internal friction angle. 7.  To optimized the influencing interface properties of infill layer such as elastic modulus and shear strength by using sensitivity analysis. The specific objectives will be as follows:  To analyze 3-D anchor infill layer model with single crack extension. The purpose of this model was to investigate the influence of infill layer material properties such as stiffness and strength on the deformational response of the post installed anchor bars. It was concluded in the studies that the elastic model of infill should be large to reduce the pull-out displacement and the increase of the shear strength of infill makes the pull-out large. The influence of the interface properties of the infill material of the post installed anchor bar was investigated using a two layer analytical model having two pre-existing cracks at the top.deformational response of post installed anchor bar. From comparison it was concluded that analytical model is more conservative as it predicts a lesser load level for the initiation of debonding as compared to finite element method. Studies conducted by Saleem and Tsubaki26-27) were also verified by finite element analysis by considering a 2-D anchor infill assembly model. Also. 4.

3) To economize the retrofitting method as compared to other available expansive retrofitting technique e.g. The fourth phase will consist of comparison between the finite element method and experimental results already available. steel plate jacketing. 5. 5) Optimized interface properties of infill layers obtained from sensitivity analysis can yield better design for retrofitting of structures in future. RESEARCH TIME TABLE Tentative time schedule for the research work is shown below RESEARCH PLAN Sr. 2) To minimize the deformational response of structure during earthquakes. respectively. tuned mass dampers etc. 4) This research will lead to a new class of post-installed anchor infill assembly which upon use in retrofitting process can result in improvement of restoration time as compared to other retrofitting techniques available. No. The third phase of the research will include to analyze the already established 3-D model in second phase on FEM software by considering single layer crack extension and then simultaneous crack extension in two infill layers. anchor infill assembly will provide new innovations with respect to infill material properties used for practical purposes. Activities Sept '12 Weeks 1 Literature Review 1 2 3 4 1 Oct'12 2 3 4 1 Time (Months) Nov’12 2 3 4 1 Dec'12 2 3 4 1 Jan'13 2 3 4 1 Feb'13 2 3 4 . RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE/ APPLICATIONS 1) The research work will be very helpful in introducing a new anchor infill assembly as a new technique for retrofitting of structures. The second phase will be the development of 3-D modeling of anchor infill layer assembly by using FEM software. 6. The fifth and the final phase will be range of applicability of conclusions and recommendations for future research.anchor bar into two infill layer assembly.

N. Vol.. Vol. 6) Li Y.S.. 76–86. Vol 100. R.: Bond stress model for design of adhesive anchors. 1. 2004. ˇbolt J. ACI Structural Journal. 222–230. A.: Behavior and design of single. Pt. Oz. Indian Concrete Journal. Konz. 1. 487–493. headed and unheaded.. 2002. 2.R.C.E. pp.A. Fuchs W. R..: Factors influencing bond strength of adhesive anchors. Vol 98. Eligehausen R.. Cook. ACI Structural Journal. and Shaikh. R. 5. pp.: Behavior of grouted anchors.: Parametric study of factors affecting the pull-out strength of steel rods bonded into precast concrete panels.47. 4. Pt. pp. 2002. G. and Consolazio. 2. pp. and Lehr.2 Development of 3D anchor infill model 3 Sensitivity analysis Analyze model with single crack extension Analyze model with simultaneous crack extension 4 5 6 7 8 Comparison Thesis write up Seminar preparation 7. R.F. ACI Structural Journal. and Konz. ACI Structural Journal. 487–493. R..J. pp. G. 8) Bickel. Vol 95. and Cook. 1993. Pt. Vol. Pt. Pt. Pt. R.T. 7) Colak. and Konz R.: Behavior and design of single adhesive anchors under tensile load in uncracked concrete. 2003. . 2001. T..A. PCI Journal. 2001. Pt. 99. R. REFERENCES 1) Cook.A. ACI Structural Journal. 514–24.A. 1998. 3) Zamora.: Shear strength of adhesive anchors. 2) Cook. Vol 78. 14–21.A. 21. Pt.C. 4) Subramanian. pp. A.: Numerical analysis of quadruple fastenings with bonded anchors.A. 90. 149–156. 5. Kunz J. pp. 6. grouted anchors under tensile load. R. Doerr. and Klingner.C. 5) Cook. International Journal of Adhesion. pp. N. B. 9–26. Vol.

3. 19. A. 9.: Micromechanical fiber pull-out model for steel fiber reinforced concrete. 11) Gray. 1990.599.: Consideration of radial dependences of axial stresses in the shear-lag model for fibre pull-out. Shah. and Jenq S.P. A. Pt. H. R. 12. 1537-1548. pp. JSCE. H. 1994.: Fiber pull-out and bond slip. Journal of Structures. Struct. A. 2005. Journal of Engg.E.: Elastic load transfer from partially embedded axially loaded fibre to matrix. 83. 19761. H. 19) Gao.. pp. and Najm. J. 117. Namur. 1988. Vol. S. Review of theories. and Tsubaki. C. 212-218. and Cotterell. and Shah. Pt. Z. pp.. and Lowe.P. 1-11. K. 10) Beard.: Ultrasonic guided waves for inspection of grouted anchors and bolts. pp. Vol. C. 18) Ouyang. A. 2003. Xiaozhi. 2136–2150.: Theoretical analysis on pull-out of anchor from anchor-mortar-concrete anchorage system. 14) Hsueh. Pt. Mechanics.H. and Shah. 1991. 7.D. Journal of Material Sciences. 1984.. 155-163. Journal Engineering Fracture . 2.S. 40. Journal of Structural Engineering. 21) Naaman. Journal of Engineering Mechanics.. and Najm. 1792–1803. Vol.: Pull-out mechanism in steel fiber-reinforced concrete. Alwan.E. 23) Bazant. Pt. M. 861-870. 2769–2790. 1998.J. 3.: Analysis of the effect of embedded fibre length on fibre de-bonding and pull-out from an elastic matrix. pp. 1801–1806. S. Y.1994. II: Experimental validation. 4. Pt. J. Vol. pp. S. Y. Journal Material Science Letter. pp.M. Journal of Material Science and Engineering. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. 22) Naaman.G. 13) Hsueh. 39. pp.: Pull-out problem: stress versus fracture mechanical approach. P.P. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics.: Analysis of fiber debonding and Pull-out in Composites. Pavements. 15) Stang.S. Mai. Pt. J. G. Journal of Materials and Science..S.P.M.. pp.J. Journal Struct.G. 120.. Y.E. 120. and Cawley. 5.H. pp. 20) Morrison. and Jianjun. pp. 2791–2800.S. Vol.F. S. 1990. 1988. Vol 29. S. Materials. A. S. 1991.P. Conc. 277-294. Namur. Z.. ACSE. Vol.J. Vol. 1994. and Desmorat.. pp. H. 16) Sumitro. 9. 1988. and Ashour.: Fiber pull-out and bond slip. Z. Division. 123. Li. R. W. Pt.: Interfacial de-bonding and fiber pull-out stresses of fiber-reinforced composites. Computer Structure. M. Vol.9) Sakla. C. pp. Journal of Engg and Materials. Pt. Part 1.: Size effect in fiber or bar pull-out with interface softening slip.: Fracture of fiber-reinforced materials.. 2641–2659.Y. G. 15. 9. 497-500. Vol 7.: Prediction of tensile capacity of single adhesive anchors using neural networks. No. Vol. Alwan. pp. Vol. Pt. B. 116. Pt. Journal of Material Civil Engg. Issue 1.:Pull-out of inclined fibers from cementations matrix. 1945–1962. 114. Zhimin.H. C. Vol. 12) Hsueh. T. Pt. 550–572.S. Engg. I: Analytical study. Pacios. and Shah. 17) Naaman. 24) Shutong. pp. Vol 117. 10.

PP.Mechanics. pp. Dr.. pp. Vol.237-240. Vol. Framcos-7. Y. Vol. W. Z. M. Dr. and Tsubaki.: Multilayer model for pullout behavior of post-installed anchor. 823-830 2010. 27) Saleem. Proc. The proposal may kindly be placed in the meeting of the PGRC for further necessary action. AEDIFICATIO Publishers. Dr.. Asad Ullah Qazi 3. 2009. pp. M. 597-609. Structural Engineering Division 1. Germany. 26) Saleem. 8. and Xiaozhi. II. 2010. Journal of Material and Structures. 6.: Influence of mechanical properties of infilled materials on pullout behavior of post-installed anchor bar. Rashid Hameed __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ . fracture mechanics of concrete structure. Vol 43. 49. T. Muhammad Ilyas 2. 961-985. H. Japan. T. All proposed suggestions have been incorporated. 75. Prof. Asif Hameed 4. Dr. Jianjun. No. 2008.: Analytical solution for the pullout response of FRP rods embedded in steel tubes filled with cement grout. Signature of the Supervisor Signature of the Student Members of program committee. 25) Zhimin. and Tsubaki. Proc of JSCE 11th International summer symposium. COMMENTS OF THE SUPERVISOR The research proposal entitled “Pull-Out Analysis of Post-Installed Anchor Bar in Two Infill Layer Assembly” of Umair Ahmad has been discussed in the meeting of the Program Committee of Structural Engineering Division held on ______________. Shutong.

Research through Dean. The committee recommended forwarding the proposal to DG(R) through Dean Faculty of Civil Engineering for further necessary action.5... Muhammad Saleem -----------------------------------Signature of Student Umair Ahmad 2010-MS-CES-20 Dated….... Dr..... Lahore.. M Saleem __________________________ 9...... ---------------------------------Signature of Supervisor Dr.. Faculty of Civil Engineering. CED/…………….G... Endst. Dr.. Aun Bashir 6.. COMMENTS OF THE COMMITTEE The proposal may kindly be placed in the meeting of PGRC for onward forwarding to the D... Chairman Department of Civil Engineering Dean Faculty of Civil Engineering DG Research University of Engineering & Technology. No. The research proposal entitled “Pull-Out Analysis of Post Installed Anchor Bar In Two Infill Layer Assembly” of Umair Ahmad has been discussed in the meeting of the PGRC of Civil Engineering Department held on ______________.. ..