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Divine Science Retreat Notes

Delivered by Dr. Sheikh Haitham al-Haddad

The Divine Science Part One: An Introduction into the Sciences of the Qur’an
1433AH / 2012CE starofknowledge.wordpress.com Muslim Research & Development Foundation
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Contents
Chapters                                Pages     Transliteration  table                                      03     Preface                                          04       01.      Chapter  One  –  Manhaj  al-­‐Istidlal                                                                                                                                                          05     02.      Chapter  Two  –  Preliminary  Topics                                  17     03.      Chapter  Three  –  Revelation  &  the  Qur’an                                                                      21     04.      Chapter  Four  –  Compilation  of  the  Qur’an                                22             05.      Chapter  Five  -­‐  Readings                                    28     06.      Chapter  Six  –  Division  of  the  Qur’an                                                                30     07.      Chapter  Seven:  Arabic  –  The  Language  of  the  Qur’an                              36     08.      Chapter  Eight  –  Inimitability  of  the  Qur’an                                37     09.    Chapter  Nine  –  The  Qur’anic  Message                                  39     10.      Conclusion                                          43    

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In the name of Allâh, All-Merciful, Most Merciful

TRANSLITERATION TABLE
        Consonants       ‫  ﺀ‬ ‫  ﺐ‬ ‫  ﺖ‬ ‫  ﺚ‬ ‫  ﺝج‬ ‫  ﺡح‬ a/i/u/’   b   t   th   j   h   kh   ‫  ﺩد‬ ‫  ﺬ‬ ‫  ﺭر‬ ‫  ﺯز‬ ‫  ﺱس‬ ‫  ﺵش‬ ‫  ﺹص‬ d   dh   r   z   s   sh   s   ‫  ﺽض‬ ‫  ﻁط‬ ‫  ﻅظ‬ ‫  ﻉع‬ ‫  ﻍغ‬ ‫  ﻑف‬ ‫  ﻕق‬ d   t   z   ‘   gh   f   q   ‫  ﻙك‬ ‫  ﻝل‬ ‫  ﻡم‬ ‫  ﻥن‬ ‫  ﻩه‬ ‫  ﻭو‬ ‫  ﻱي‬ k   l   m   n   h   w   y  

‫  ﺥخ‬     Vowels,  diphthongs,  etc.       Short:   ◌ Long:   Diphthongs:    

  ‫◌  ﺎ‬  

a   á/aa    

 

◌ ‫  ﻲ‬ ◌ ‫◌   ﻲ‬

i   í/ie/ee   ai/ay  

  ‫  ﻭو‬

o/u   oo/ú  

‫ ◌   ﻭو‬aw  

Divine Science Part One Study Notes 1433AH / 2012CE Muslim Research & Development Foundation

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PREFACE
  In the Name of Alláh (Subhanahu wa –ta’ala), Ar-Rahmán, Ar-Raheem. All Praise is for Alláh (Subhanahu wa –ta’ala). We Praise Him and Seek His Help and Forgiveness. We turn to Him in repentance and seek refuge in Alláh (Subhanahu wa – ta’ala) from the evil of our selves and the evil of our own deeds. Whomsoever Alláh (Subhanahu wa –ta’ala) guides, cannot be led astray and whomsoever Alláh (Subhanahu wa –ta’ala) misguides, none can guide him. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Alláh (Subhanahu wa – ta’ala) alone without any partner. I bear witness that Muhammed (ṣall Allāhu ʿalay-hi wa-sallam) is His Slave and Messenger. Alláh (Subhanahu wa –ta’ala) sent him with the Guidance and Religion of Truth. He conveyed the Message, fulfilled the Trust placed upon him, Sincerely Advised the Ummah, made Jihád in the Cause of Alláh (Subhanahu wa –ta’ala) in its truest sense and worshipped his Lord until he met the inevitable certainty. May the Salaah and Salaam of Alláh (Subhanahu wa –ta’ala) be upon him, his Household, his Companions and those who followed them exactly in Faith and Worship. To proceed: This document consists of personal notes taken from the Sabeel retreat; The Divine Science Part one, delivered during weekend of 10h and 11th Sha’ban 1433 by Sheikh Haitham al-Haddad. I ask Alláh (Subhanahu wa –ta’ala) to make this an accurate and successful presentation. And I take Alláh (Subhanahu wa –ta’ala) as a Witness that whatever Truth and Good is in it is from Him and by His Leave Alone and whatever opposes that is from my own mistakes and ignorance and from the accursed (la), and Alláh (Subhanahu wa –ta’ala), His Messenger (ṣall Allāhu ʿalay-hi wa-sallam), the Authors (rh) and Sheikh Haitham al-Haddad (ha) are free from that and I free myself from that and regret it and take it back. I ask Alláh (Subhanahu wa –ta’ala) to reward those who have assisted in this work and to make it a means of benefit for myself, those who have assisted in this work, the Authors, and the Readers. We ask Alláh (Subhanahu wa –ta’ala) to make us from those who preserve the Sunnah of His final Prophet and Messenger (ṣall Allāhu ʿalay-hi wa-sallam) and from those who adopt it. Abú Hudhayfah 10th Sha’ban 1433

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Saturday 30th June 2012/ Sabt 10th Sha’ban 1433 5:45am – Session One Mashallaah a fresh morning and normally the morning has barakah in it and the prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam made dua for starting early; the dua of barakah for starting early. The Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam established there is barakah in starting early in the morning. Many people are not used to early starts, Sheikh asks who has not been to sabeel before (large show of hands), sheikh mentions it is the first course for most of the people, maybe 70%.

Chapter One – Manhaj al-Istidlal
We need to look at the learning objectives of this chapter. When many people study Islam, they don’t know how to study or when to study and thus they study Islam for a long time with no roadmap and remain confused and feel they have not achieved much because this study in the beginning did not follow a structured course, which is why it is essential for a person beginning study to understand the overall picture of what they are studying. After mastering the whole picture, a person can go slowly into the details of the subject matter. If a person begins with the details, they will become lost and lose direction after some time. We are trying to draw a picture/map/roadmap of what Islamic knowledge is all about. We are trying to draw a picture of all Islamic knowledge in our mind. Once we have that picture clear in our mind are successful in reframing our mind according to that picture, it will be very easy to progress and understand. In the beginning it will

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be a very slow process until we reframe and structure our mind, but once we do so, we will be on the right path. Page 9 – the first page of chapter One. Contextualizing this course. There are a series of question. This course is an interactive course, so we must ensure that everyone exercises their mental ability and thinks according to a structure and after some time they will recognize they will think in a particular way. This is the aim of the course: to think in a structured way. This process in the beginning is a mental torture for those who are not used to it. However, after some time you will find it easy and not feel any difficulty. We tried in developing these courses to develop them in a way from the classical way to engage the person to think in a particular way, in a very academic, structured and Islamic way. A map shows you different locations, depending on the context you are in. When we talk about the knowledge map we are looking at different sciences. Some people study tafseer, some people study Aqeedah, Usool ul Fiqh. What is the link between all of these things? Should we study Tafseer and then Aqeedah and then Qur’an? How can we find a way to study all of these disciplines together? Has this been a result of academic scholarship or a reaction to problems? The sheikh answers that it is the result of all of these. Some books from 600 or 700 years ago may not be able to be used today. The sheikh studied Shariah in different ways. The sheikh found that the earlier books are more profound then later books.

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Allaah decreed Quran to be a book for the whole of community, irrespective of place. Sometimes in the Qur’an you will find many things in one place e.g. in Baqarah you will see politics, rulings regarding talaq, salah, riba and many other different topics. This is amazing. We will find some classical books that followed the methodology of the Qur’an and after some time we will see that they are very profound. The sheikh wanted to do a presentation on inheritance law and found the most profound book and methodology is how the Qur’an presented inheritance law. However, very few people presented it like this. We do not want people to be over-confident with western academia and undermine Islamic style academia. We try to benefit from different tools in presenting knowledge, but have to be careful with how we merge the presentation of this knowledge with Western ways. The design we have here is a design deeply rooted in Islamic knowledge, however, in terms of presentation it is in a way that appeals to the Western/modern community, which preserves the essence of the knowledge. It also takes into consideration our contemporary problems. Page 10 – All the courses we need to attend, fit into this map. Here, Islamic knowledge in general can be classified into two parts, something called rulings and the other main category is how did we get those rulings. A product and how we got this product. Islamic knowledge can be classified like this, and how we got this outcome. E.g. we must pray five times a day, this is an product/outcome. How did we come about with this product/outcome? We don’t know.

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In medicine for example, you go to your GP, you have certain symptoms and he will diagnose you with a flu. He has given you an outcome. You may not be convinced, so you will ask him how/why? So, he will explain a little bit to you. Once you have the conclusion, it does not explore how he reached this conclusion. Similarly, you take your car, which has a problem to the mechanic. He may tell you that something needs to be changed. You may ask him how/why? You may have knowledge about what he is saying or not, highlighting the difference between the outcome and the way to the outcome. When many people ask questions over the phone, they don’t want to be told about the evidences of the rulings etc. E.g. a person said their parents passed away and asked how to divide the assets. The first question was, who died first, they asked is it important? We said “Yes”, he said “why?” This person is concerned with the outcome/ruling, so even when he asks, why, he has no knowledge about it, due to his level. Q. Is it permissible to be only interested in rulings and not the way to rulings as a Muslim, not as a student of knowledge, but as a layman? The first point: We need to understand some of the way to rulings to distinguish between different rulings and analyze, which is better. E.g. a doctor says you have flu, you may want to go one step further and explore it. Can we just accept rulings or is this taqleed (blind following) and do we only consider the understanding of the rulings important due to our experience of Western education.

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Western people are surprised that Muslims don’t doubt their religion. You have no peace in your heart if you doubt your religion. Unfortunately, this quality is starting to move to the Western world. The Ashari’ aqeedah has developed this methodology, to doubt and question the names and attributes of Allaah. Allaah created us to believe in certain things. The idea of fitrah (natural inclination) is not present in Western ideology. Yesterday after jumuah khutbah in Woolwich, the imam; a sister (16 years) had a friend who was 17, who accepted Islam and many of her friends came with her and were interested in Islam. A brother who was from Saudi Arabia was amazed that this was happening in the UK (strength of dawah). Islam is in the fitrah. The Sheikh went to a masjid in Brighton to pray and there was a person who had many tattoos, and performed the prayer. The sheikh after salah spoke with him and asked if he became Muslim, he said, “No, I am just searching for the truth”. He found the truth, through sajdah. Sheikh Yusuf Estes mentioned that he knew a person who would look to the sky and say, “I know you are there”. There are some things which are a given. We cannot question some things, but there are other things, which we can. We have to have a deep understanding of what we are preaching; this cannot simply be gained via knowing rulings only. The bulk of knowledge is rulings. However, there are many other branches that belong to the way to rulings.

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Those who want to compete and be as-siddique, they should understand the way to rulings. Hadith: “Allaah put barakah in the early morning for my ummah.” One of the narrators of this hadith used to send his servants who worked for him in his store and asked them to start work very early and became a big businessman, implementing this hadith. Don’t have this delusion that if you don’t sleep 8 hours, you are going to die, we’re all going to die, so it’s better to die after doing a lot rather than little. They say the average person only utilizes 10% of their potential, so we must extend ourselves. We should never say that we cannot do anything. In Psychology they say your worst enemy is yourself, so always push yourself and you can achieve a lot. The sheikh received a whatsapp message:”Hasbanallaah sa y’tinallahu min fadhihi wa rasooluhu, inaa ila rabbina la raaghiboon”(Surah Taubah: 59) Sheik Bin Baz says I have never used this dua in the tashahhud in a difficult matter that I face, except Allaah makes it easy. Sheikh Magamsi says this is a dua of miracles. These whatsapp messages are useful. Sometimes you might forget a dhikr and it enables people to remind you. We said Islamic knowledge could be divided into two parts; the rulings and the way to rulings. The sheikh asks if people have attended any courses in the past week or so and to decipher whether it falls into the category of rulings or way to rulings. E.g. Fiqh of Ramadhan, fiqh of inheritance fell in both categories as the rulings and the methodology of different madhabs were explained.
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The seerah itself is a very rich source for rulings, but it can also be used to understand the way to rulings. The Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam in Makkah never waged war against the kuffar, but when he established an Islamic state in Madinah he performed Jihad - Ruling. When Riba was prohibited, it was prohibited in stages; the last stage came just before the death of the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam - Ruling. If we look at tajweed as a separate discipline, it mainly consists of rulings. However, tajweed as a discipline can be connected to Qur’an, which is a source of knowledge, so tajweed can be categories in way to rulings too. We should always consider whether we are studying rulings or way to rulings. Rulings; Can be classified into two main categories: They either govern the relationship between human beings and the creator or they govern the relationship between creation. Believing in the unseen falls under believing in Allaah, because information about the unseen is from Allaah, so a prerequisite is to believe in Allaah. If you look at it from a rational perspective: Only Allaah and the creation exist. Thus, only two categories of rulings exist. The rights of the creation are not divorced from Allaah. Every right of the creation was made, because Allaah made it such. Any right of the creation exists only because Allaah gave us such a right. Therefore, we can transfer
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everything we do to ibaadah, however, if we do not do this, we will become humanists. Allaah created us, and decrees punishments, which should be applied to us. We transfer all of our actions because of Allaah. This is a deep point and there is a lot of confusion about it. Muslims, do not have a prevalent discourse, which causes them to feel inferior and to accept the Western discourse. The sheikh attended an Islamic conference by Muslims and there was a debate on the issue, as to whether we treat human beings based on them being human or whether we treat them in a certain way based on the rulings of Allaah. Allaah sent the Qur’an, to follow the Qur’an and the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam to follow the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam. Therefore, we do everything around us, based on the rights of Allaah. In the discussion concerning human rights, people neglect the importance of Allaah’s rights. In essence, secularism is kufr because it neglects the rights of Allaah. Some people claim that this is a selfish approach, but in reality they are the people who are selfish, because they do actions for self-satisfaction. Moreover, if you want to give a radical answer, say, “So what if it is selfish?” at the end of the day we want to go to paradise, we want to be martyrs and to get 72 hoor al ayn. It has been proven, all values except Islamic values will collapse, because they cannot stand e.g. London riots – normal people committed crimes too (where are the values?). The main point is that we do everything, because of Allaah. In fiqhi issues, it is important to examine the rulings and to understand who the rights of these rulings, belong to.

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So far we have been discussing the map of the Islamic knowledge and we said we can divide Islamic knowledge into two main categories 1) way to rulings 2) rulings themselves. We said that the rulings are nothing but the rights of Allaah and the rights of the creation, however, this does not mean the rights of the creation are separate to the rights of Allaah. There are many other impacts of this important principle that everything belongs to Allaah. Allaah says “I have not created jinn and angels except to worship me”. Allaah also says in surah Bayyinah “They were not commanded except to worship Allaah alone”. If we want to divide the rights of Allaah and the rights of creation in more details we can easily say the rights of the creation, includes the rights we have on ourself. This also includes the rights of the family and the guests. There are rights of Allaah, rights of his prophets, rights for the leaders and the rights for the rest of the people. We can elaborate more and say the other creation have rights over us for example in the hadith when the prostitute gave water to the dog and Allaah had mercy over her for that and the man who was forgiven for the rahma he showed to the dog, showing animals have rights have over us. “In every moist river (meaning any being) has reward”. If we want to go further we say that the environment has rights over us, we are not allowed to spoil it for nothing, either for the environment for itself or because people enjoy it. Without going much further because of time, we can see on page 10 in front of us. This is useful because we may focus on only one right and neglect others. In the way to rulings, there is a very important part that has been neglected by people in Islam, as there has been very little emphasis on the way to rulings and to deeply and truly understands Islam we need to know where these rulings came from and how they came about.

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Also, if we want to have a better ability to explain certain Islamic rulings we need to have this background or we might be involved in debates and discussions, so we need to know where these ruling came from. If we want to be attached to the Qur’an and Sunnah and want to be attached to it, we must go back and see where these rulings came from. Way to rulings means where the rulings come from and the way those rulings were extracted (Sheikh emphasizes this point). This means these rulings were extracted from certain sources as they cannot simply be extracted from nowhere. Sheikh asks if anybody disagrees... nobody disagrees. They said one of the problems of technology is that they dismiss the age factor between people, especially young people, because there is no differentiation between ages on social networking sites, as a result young people lost they way they looked at older people, including respect. By time, the youth have lost their sense of age. A long time ago, a father or an older person would mean something, but now this sense of respect has been lost. We said way to rulings is extracted from certain sources, which means we have sources. When we talk about way to rulings, we should ask where these rulings were taken from. There is a source and a way to extract the ruling from the source – the understanding. Q. Why was the way to rulings neglected? Because sometimes they thought it was difficult, because there was a required level of understanding of how rulings are extracted from the source and a lazy culture developed, where people just wanted to learn rulings. It can be considered to be the fault of the teachers, because people look for an easy route and thus they do not provide the full picture. Thus, due to this being neglected, Sabeel focuses on way to
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rulings, because it helps us to have a structured way of understanding. We (Sabeel) want to develop leaders who can deliver Orthodox Islam to the people, which can only be achieved by understanding where rulings come from. Therefore, Sabeel compliments other classes and courses. The three-year Sabeel course provides you with the main bulk of what an Islamic university is providing, the skeleton structure of such a course. Moreover, what we found is that people are studying interconnected courses and there must be a way to bring them all together, so Sabeel enables us to create a bigger picture and have a holistic overview. Brothers, if you study a topic and there are many topics including general ones. If you do not understand the whole picture generally speaking e.g. a snapshot, all at once, you will never have an understanding of the topic or a very superficial understanding. For example, with Zakat, if a person does not have a snapshot of Zakah, they wouldn’t be able to master the Zakat topic fully and whenever they face any question, they will be confused. If you study transactions or Islamic finance, which is unfamiliar to most, you will become confused without a holistic picture. Many people study Usul ul Fiqh in a way that is not relevant in the minds of people. If you study Usul ul Fiqh in a structured way you will find it very easy and relevant. Example given by student: When you look at a map and get directions, if you zoom in, you have limited scope of the route, but if you zoom out, you can see the whole route in one snapshot. The sheikh mentions that this is a very profound example. Leaders have a vision because they have a bigger picture, and managers look at the detail. Understanding the structure is very vital, as we have mentioned.
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Way to rulings constitutes three steps 1) what are the sources of Islam 2) Understanding the sources 3) How to put this understanding into practice. You must implement your understanding, otherwise it means nothing e.g. learning the theory of driving and never driving is pointless. You need correct implementation, for correct understanding, for the correct sources. The sources of Islam are Qur’an and Sunnah mainly, but we can add to them Ijma and Qiyas. These sources require tools to be understood and to extract rulings from the sources. The scholars concluded that Ijma and Qiyas can be seen as main sources. Qur’an and Sunnah were revealed in Arabic; therefore if we want to understand them properly, we must know the Arabic language. Therefore, the Arabic language is the first/main tool to understand the Qur’an and Sunnah. If someone asks why is it a tool to understand the Qur’an and Sunnah? Because these texts are in the Arabic language, therefore it is needed to understand Qur’an and Sunnah. If a person does not understand the Arabic language, they have understood the Qur’an and Sunnah through a third party and do not have direct access to the Qur’an and Sunnah. To understand Qur’an and Sunnah, you have to be strong in the Arabic language. In conclusion, there is the source(s) and there are some tools we need apply in those sources to come up with the rulings. Those who know Qur’an and Sunnah and are stronger than us in Arabic language, they are more qualified than us to understand the Qu’ran and Sunnah. If we take this further, we could say the scholars are the best to understand the Islamic sources.

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We can say, Qur’an nd Sunnah was revealed in a particular time, therefore those who were present at that time, are the most qualified to understand the text e.g. the companions, who witnessed the text in it entirety. This matrix will help us to identify our weakness in Islamic knowledge. It will help us to identify what courses to study. The matrix (page 9) highlights what we need to study and what we should prioritize. The sheikh apologizes for repeating the foundations of Mihaj al Istidlal, but stresses the importance of the topic, and due to the number of new students this needed explanation.

Chapter Two – pg.14
The methodology of understanding Islam is based on three steps 1) getting the correct sources 2) the correct understanding of the sources 3) to implement the sources correctly. In education, if you create an environment where you emphasise certain things, they remain in your mind and serve as pillars and then you can connect between them and enable you to recall them. The correct sources are mainly Qur’an and Sunnah. In this course, we are studying the Qur’an as a source. Are we expecting to know the meanings of the Qur’an by the end of the course? No, this course does not explain the meanings of the Qur’an.

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This course is focusing on Qur’an as a source and how Qur’an came about e.g. the authenticity of the Qur’an. This is the meaning of studying the Qur’an as a source. We said that the sources of Islam are mainly the Qur’an and Sunnah. They are both sources, so we will study Qur’an as a source and Sunnah as a source aswell. When we study Qur’an as a source, we will study the authenticity of the Qur’an and how the Qur’an was compiled. When we study the Sunnah as a source for Islam, we study the authenticity of the sunnah and how the sunnah came about and was compiled. We have now drawn a parallel between studying the Qur’an as a source and the Sunnah as a source. We are not studying the tools or implementation of the tools. However, studying Islam as a source will help us to understand some aspects, principles or rules to understand the meanings of the Qur’an. We said that this course is studying Qur’an as a source, it means we are going to study the Qur’an from an authenticity point of view and how it came about. Chapter Two basically explains what we are going to study. These topics are normally covered in courses like this, called Ulum al Qur’an – Science of Qur’an. Ulum al Qur’an talks about the Qur’an as a source e.g. the order of the Qur’an, the collection of the Qur’an etc. These are the main topics of Ulum al Qur’an. Some scholars in the category Ulum al Qur’an have included the method of explaining Qur’an,, whereas others have included them in other categories due to linguistic differences. The classification of Makkan and Madinan surahs will help us to understand the text itself.

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The word Qur’an means recitation. The first element of the definition of the Qur’an says that it is the speech of Allaah. This means that Allaah did not create the Qur’an but Allaah spoke the Qur’an. It means the Qur’an that we read, are the words Allaah spoke a long time ago, no less, no more. The Qur’an that we read; when we read Surah Ikhlas, Allaah said this a long time ago, we are repeating exactly what Allaah spoke, no more, no less. There are two different styles of reciting “maliki yawmideen”. Allaah spoke both. Some people said that Allaah commanded the pen to write the Qur’an, so the pen wrote what Allaah had in himself to say, so the pen suppressed what Allaah wanted to say. THIS IS WRONG! Allaah spoke the Qur’an. Others have said that Jibreel took the pen and knew what Allaah wanted to say and wrote the Qur’an. – THIS IS WRONG. We must believe that Allaah spoke the Qur’an and there was a sound when Allaah spoke the Qur’an, because speech has sound. Allaah did not want to leave any doubts regarding the Qur’an, which is why he spoke the Qu’ran. A mute does not speak and wanted a glass of water, and a person knows his body language.

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Allaah does not speak and let others express what he wants to say – this is not befitting of his majesty. Allaah has honoured us by allowing us to repeat what Allaah has said. The Qur’an is the speech that was revealed to Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam, this differentiates it from all other books that were revealed. We can swear by the attributes of Allaah, so we can swear by the Qur’an because it is an attribute of Allaah. We can swear by the Taurah and Injeel, as long as it is the old injeel and Taurah. This is the speech of Allaah that has been sent to the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam, the recitation of which is considered to be an act of worship, in order to distinguish between the Qur’an and hadith Qudsi. Even if you do not understand the Qur’an it is an act of worship if you recite it. The biggest ni’ma we can get is reciting the Qur’an. There are more than 150 letters in Surah Fatiha, so through every recitation and teaching Fatiha, much hasanat can be gained. Some Shuyookh said that every man should compete with his wives as to who will teach the children surah Fatiha. Every person should set a target, that in five years they have the Qur’an memorized. The biggest ni’ma we can get is to memorize the Qur’an, so we must strive to do so within five years.

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Chapter Three – Revelation and the Qur’an – Ustadh Asif Uddin
Wahy can occur in two types: 1) Without an intermediary e.g. speaking directly to Allaah and also being inspired by Allaah via dreams. The Isra and Miraj is also considered to have occurred without an intermediary. However, a narration that mentions the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam received the last ayats of Baqarah during the Isra and Miraj – this narration that Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam received revelation directly from Allaah and not Jibreel alayhis-salam. However, this narration is not explicit and considered weak. 2) with an intermediary – Jibreel alayhis-salam came to the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam in the form of an angel, in his natural form. This happended three times, first time at jabal noor in Hira, the second time during the revelation of Al-Alaq and during the Isra and Miraj. Jibreel alayhis-salam would also come in the form of a man and the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam said this was the easiest form for him. There’s three parts of revelation. The first part is that Allaah told the pen to write in the Lawhul Mahfuz (Tablet). The second part is that it was revealed to the lowest heaven – baitul ‘izzah and finally the third part, is the conveying of revelation from Jibreel alayhis-salam to the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam. Some say Jibreel alayhis-salam took the Qur’an from the lowest heaven (baitul ‘izzah) and not from Allaah directly to the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam. They are implying that the Qur’an is created and that Qur’an is not the words of Allaah, but rather it is Jibreel’s and the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam’, however, they believe the meaning of the words lies with Allaah. The Qur’an came down from the Lawhul Mahfuz to the Baitul ‘Izzah on
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laylatul Qadr in one go. The purpose of sending it to the Baitul ‘izzah is to highlight the nobility of the Qur’an. Surah Ale’ Imran: 3 – Two meanings of nazla – 1) happens regularly and 2) intensive. However anzala means it goes down in one go. We know the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam was a prophet for 23 years. When he first received revelation, it would be infrequent. The surahs are divided into Makkan and Madinan periods. The Makkan period was 13 years and the Madinan period was 10 years. The Makkan period had a total of 85 surahs(11 Juz) and 29 surahs (19 Juz est.) in the Madinan period Imam Zartashi – Burhan on ulum al Qur’an. Imam Suyuti based his book on this work. - Abu Sharma (5th century)

Chapter Four – Compilation of the Qur’an
As we said that Allaah spoke the Qur’an a long time ago, we don’t know when Allaah spoke the entire Qur’an. Allaah, then commanded the pen to write what he spoke; the entire Qur’an in the preserved tablet. Then, Allaah sent the entire Qur’an that he spoke and wrote to the lower heaven in Ramadhan in the night of al Qadr. Then, Allaah created Muhammad salallaahu alayhee wa salam and sent Muhammad salallaahu alayhee wa salam. We can say Allaah sent the Quran to the lower heaven during the life of prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam. Thus, the quran was in the lahw al mahfooz written and in the lower heaven. Allaah created prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam and sent him to be the messenger, so Allaah revealed to the prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam the first verse “Iqra..”. When Allaah wanted to send this to Muhammad salallaahu
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alayhee wa salam, Allaah spoke “Iqra” and jibreel heard it directly from Allaah, Jibreel alayhis-salam then came to Muhammad salallaahu alayhee wa salam and read before Muhammmad salallaahu alayhee wa salam “Iqra bismirabikallazi khalaq” and Muhammad salallaahu alayhee wa salam heard Jibreel alayhis-salam. say “Iqra bismirabikallazi khalaq” in the same way Jibreel heard it from Allaah, so the chain is like this. Muhammad salallaahu alayhee wa salam heard it from jibreel alayhis-salam, who heard it directly from Allaah. Ahlus Sunnah Wa’l Jama’ say that Jibreel alayhis-salam heard the verses directly from Allaah, however the Asharis say that Jibreel took it from al-Lahw al Mahfooz or the lowest heaven and not directly from the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam, but this opinion is incorrect as Ibn Abbas radiallaahu anhu says in one narration that Jibreel alayhis-salam took it directly from Allaah.

The Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam, then taught it to the companions, so they heard the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam tell them the Qur’an directly; a similar process continued over 23 years. Whenever something happened, Allaah revealed certain ayats and surah. Allaah speaks the ayats he wants to send to the prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam, although they were written in the lahw al mahfooz and sent to the lower heaven, Allaah says it again, Jibreel hears it and sends it to the prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam and the prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam teaches it to the companions. Allaah knew that the arabs around the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam belonged to different tribes and nations and spoke different Arabic dialects, and at that time due to poor communication between people, whatever dialect a tribe used, other tribes may not understand. In order to make the Qur’an easy for different tribes from the Arab community, who used to surround the
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prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam, Allaah spoke the Qur’an in different ways that are suitable for Arabs or different Arab tribes to pronounce. For example, Allaah spoke once “Alhamdhulillahir rabil aalameen ar-rahmanir-raheem malikiyawmideen” and another time “maalikiyawmideen”, because Allaah knows “Maakliki” is a word that is used by one tribe and “Maliki” by another. Allaah also said “ihdinas siratal mustaqeem”. It was authentically reported that it was revealed as “arshidna siratal mustaqeem”, because some are familiar with “ihdinas” and some are familiar with “arshidna”. Allaah spoke both and revealed both to the prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam. The Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam taught one tribe “ihdinas” and another tribe “arshidna”. The Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam was teaching the Arabs and knew that certain words were difficult for certain Arabs, so he asked Jibreel alayhis-salam to provide him with more recitations or more words, which the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam knew were difficult for some tribes. Allaah inspired Muhammad salallaahu alayhee wa salam to ask for this and Allaah knew this would happen, so Allaah spoke certain words in different ways to appeal to different Arab tribes and different Arabs took different ways of reading those verses. Jibreel alayhis-salam used to come to the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam every Ramadhan to revise what has been sent already, so jibreel alayhis-salam, would read and the prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam would listen to jibreel alayhis-salam and sometimes the prophet would read and jibreel listens in order to make sure the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam memorized exactly what jibreel taught him. Sometimes the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam would read quickly so that jibreel would catch him. Allaah said “don’t worry o Muhammad, it is upon us to collect it in your chest and to teach you how to recite it”, Allaah took it upon
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himself to do this. This process where jibreel alayhis-salam came to the prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam to revise with him, happened every year, meanwhile the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam taugh the Sahaba teaching them different versions. In the year the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam died, Jibreel alayhis-salam came and revised the Qur’an with the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam twice. According to some scholars, jibreel would read the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam would listen and Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam reads and Jibreel listens and so on, twice from both sides, which means in total it was recited four times. In this year, Jibreel alayhis-salam read to Muhammd salallaahu alayhee wa salam the Qur’an that Allaah chose to remain and jibreel told Muhammad salallaahu alayhee wa salam that certain words we have taught you before are abbroagted now, so they are not anymore in the Qur’an, so jibreel read both “maaliki” and “maliki”, so prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam knew both were accepted and approved. However, “ihdinas siratal mustaqeem” was taught and “ashidna siratal mustaqeem” was not taught, so either the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam knew this was no longer part of the Qur’an or Jibreel told him explicitly. The prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam taught the companions this “last revision”. One of the companions that heard this revision was Zayd ibn Thabit al Ansari radiallaahu anhu (one of the main scribes of the wahy). The Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam then died and some of the companions were already in different places and having learnt and memorized different ways of reciting the Qur’an including the abrogated words that the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam taught them, for example, when we said the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam taught some companions “ashidnas-siratal mustaqeem” and they travelled to other places Due to poor communication, they were not aware that this way of reciting the Qur’an was abrogated.

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The alternatives the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam requested have been mentioned in one hadith stating that he salallaahu alayhee wa salam asked for seven alternatives. In some cases, there are three, four or five alternatives; some alternatives use the subject before the object and visa versa. The maximum number of alternatives in one verse is seven. The companions that learnt these alternatives and travelled to other places, were unaware that some of the abrogation’s were omitted and some were approved. Afterwards, some of the Arabs began to apostate from Islam. When the Arabs apostated, Abu Bakr radiallaahu anhu fought them and some of the companions who had memorized the Qur’an were killed. Umar radiallaahu anhu, was concerned and went with Hudaifah to Abu Bakr radiallaahu anhu, recommending that the Qur’an is gathered together into one copy. Abu Bakr radiallaahu anhu. was reluctant but then accepted it as a good idea to gather it in one place. During the revelation, the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam was teaching the companions orally and sometimes when he salallaahu alayhee wa salam taught them, like Zayd ibn Thabit, they would write it down. They appointed Zayd ibn thabit to collect the written Qur’an. He memorized the Qur’an and knew the last version of the Qur’an. They collected the written pieces of the Qur’an from animal skins and put it all on one string. When they compiled it, they asked the companions to bring all the pieces of the Qur’an and required them to bring two witnesses to provide evidence that this was written in the time of the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam in the presence of the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam. They gathered the whole Qur’an on one string. Then came the reign of Umar and this copy was kept with him after the death of the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam. Umar was killed and Uthman’s reign began. The copy of the Qur’an was left with Hafsa, the daughter of Umar radiallaahu anhu. Some companions studied the Qur’an with the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam but were not aware of the abrogation

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of the verses, so they taught the un-abrogated verses and words of the Qur’an to their students. The scholars agree that the orders of the verses are in the same order that Allaah spoke them, but there is a difference of opinion concerning the order of the surahs. The majority opinion regarding the names of the surahs is that the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam allocated some of them and the companions allocated names for others. The copy of the Qur’an that was compiled by Abu Bakr radiallaahu anhu, was left with Hafsa radiallaahu anhu. During that time, Muslims spread all over the world and there was news that in some battles in Turkey and Iran, the children who learnt from their teachers different versions were fighting each other, claiming that their version of the Qur’an was better than the others. Hudhaifa was worried this would cause dispute, so he went Uthman ibn Affan consulted some sahaba and took the decision as the khalifah to standardize a reference copy of the Qur’an. He requested Zayd ibn Thabit to get the copy of the Qur’an from Hafsa, and formed a team for him to write it and he said “if you differ, write it like the Quraysh”. They began to write the Qur’an and some riwayat say that Zayd ibn Thabit did the writing and the sahaba came and checked. They wrote “Maliki” and “Maaliki” in a way that can cater for both recitations. However, they came across some words, which could not cater for different recitations, simply using one word. In some riwayat it mentions they would leave this section blank until they consulted Uthman radiallaahu anhu, who told them to write two copies. According to some scholars it mentions they made 4 copies, other said 5 copies and some said 7 copies were made. These copies are known as the Uthmaani mushafs. They presented an official copy. The
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different copies were given to the people who heard that form of recitation and they were sent to different places and he kept one copy himself. He ordered all other Qur’ans to be burnt and said that the recitation should be according to Qira’at of their teacher in a particular place. There was now different qira’at in different places. After some time, the ummah identified different qira’at, which have led t the 7 qira’at that we have today. At-Tabari said, “Allaah guided the companions to write the Qur’an in a way which similar to what Allaah wrote in al-Lahw al Mahfooz.” This is how Allaah preserved the Qur’an. Qur’an by exhibition Islam – buy a copy.

Chapter Five: Readings
The general meaning of this chapter has been explained. There are ten readers and each reader has two main students. Some said each student has a number of other students but the main readers have the standard official accepted qira’. The key thing is when do we consider a way of reciting the Qur’an as an accepted qira’. The key question is, are these ten qira’t the only accepted qira’at? The answer is yes – but why? Because all the ummah agreed and accepted them, so there is an element of ijma’. Their Qira’at are accommodated in one of the approved standard mushafs, written by Uthman. Any mushaf today can be traced back to the mushaf of Uthman because he destroyed the others.
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The accepted qira’ should have three conditions. 1) This qira’t should be accommodated by Arabic grammar. 2) There must be an agreement with the written text of Uthman. 3) Must be Muatawatir – traced back reliably to Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam The three criteria for preference are: 1) Arabic grammar 2) Agreement with text of Uthman 3) Reported/preferred by many. Abrogation of the ruling, but it is approved as part of the mushaf. “Don’t pray whilst intoxicated.” It does not mean, if you are not praying you can drink alcohol, but rather this was abrogated as it refers to a stage in the prohibition of alcohol. An abrogated text, but where the ruling in the text is applied. Deleting the meaning or text, yet the text is approved, or deleting it from the text but still apply the meaning. The stages of writing the text During the time of the prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam the text used to look like the script on page 59. After some time, they started to write the mushaf and placed lines in between the script (look at the book: the magnificent Qur’an). Adnan Ibrahim, who lives in Sweden, always criticizes Muawiyyah radiallaahu anhu. They asked Sufyan al Thawri, who is more loved, umar abdul azeez or Muawiyyah. He said, “a thread of hair in the nose of Muawiyyah is better than umar ibn abdil azeez” This is because he saw the prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam
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Abul Aswad Ad- Du’ali had an idea to put signs on the letters to distinguish which can be read as ba, ta etc. He went to ziyad in order to convince him to do this. Ziyad said no, he will not add anything. Some accounts said he inspired the son of Ziyad to read one ayat of Baqarah, so he called Abul Aswad AdDu’ali to invent the idea of fatha, dhamma and kasra. He mentioned to one of his scribes to take a red pen and told them that if he reads a dhamma, to put to circles above the letter, kasra, circle below and fatha, with a circle above and he check over it. This was around the year of 50A.H Around 70A.H, Islam began to spread around the world and many non-arabs became Muslim, and there were no dots in the text, which made it confusing for the non arab people to read the Qur’an. Abdul Malik ibn Marwan command Yahya ibn Marmar to invent a tariqah to put dots. Many people were writing Qur’an and used dots to distinguish the vowel sounds, which led to confusion due to lack of monitoring and oversight. Some scholars changed the vowel sounds to dashes in order to not confuse them with letters, which have dots. They then began to put vowel sounds in the script. Ali ibn Hilal Ibn Abdul Aziz ibn al Bawwab, made a complete copy of the oldest Qur’an in a modern naskh font in 413AH/1022CE. Calligrapher

Chapter Six – Sheikh Abu Rumaisa
Verses and chapters We find the Qur’an is divided into ayats and verses. “We do not abrogate a verse except that we bring something better than it”.
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Prior to the revelation of the Qur’an, there had never been a literature that was divided into ayats and verses before or after the Qur’an. Only the Qur’an has been divdied in this way and reflects a unique feature of the Qur’an and highlights that this was something new that was revealed to the prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam. thus, highlighting what the Arabs heard from the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam was something that was completely unfamiliar to them. We say the Qur’an is unique and miraculous without truly understanding how, and how it differs from other pieces of literature. It is very important to convey this to people to truly appreciate the Qur’an In the Arabic language we have different type of literature and spoken word e.g. prose, poetry. They would hang poems on the door of the kabah. Another type of literature is rhymed prose, which was commonly used by the soothsayers and oration, public speaking. When the Qur’an was revealed the Arabs realized straight away it did not fit into these four categories of literature. In Arabic, poetry needs to have certain qualities to be classified as such. Amazing Grace, How sweet the sound (8 syllables) That saved a wretch like me (6 syllables) This contains a soft syllable, followed by a hard syllable. This is known as a common meter. Arabic is similar, you have different types of meters. Arabic has 16 types of meters. There are three factors that constitute a poem; the rhyme, the rhythm, the meter. In Arabic it is frowned upon to have a continuation of a situation in a following stanza. Sometimes, the Qur’an has a rhyme in the end, and sometimes it doesn’t. At times, it follows a rhythm and other times it doesn’t. The Qur’an does not have a meter, which matches the sixteen categories. The
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Qur’an does not meet the criteria of poetry, so why is it that the Qur’an clears the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam of being a poet and refuting the idea that the Qur’an is not poetry? Because poetry was the closest similitude they had to the Qur’an. They believed that the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam was not a poet but accuesed him as such because this was the closest thing they could associate him with. Similarly poets made people believe different things, which was another reason why they believed it was poetry. There are individual ayats in the Qur’an that match poetry. The scholars discussed these verses and said the nature of the Arabic language is such that a person will inevitably speak with a meter. However, just because it is incidental, you can’t claim a person is a poet. Similarly, those parts of the Qur’an that have a meter are coincidental and not intended as poetry. We know the Qur’an is not prose, because it has rhythm in places, so this is easily refuted. Rhymed prose contains short compositions with vivid phrases and imagery, commonly talking about oaths and supernatural things. It has a constant rhyme, is short and includes obscure passages. The Qur’an differs from this, as it doesn’t have constant rhyme and most importantly never sacrifices meaning for obscure passages, a key difference between an orator and the composition of the Qur’an. When the Qur’an was revealed it was something new and completely unfamiliar to the Arabs. They could not point to any mistakes in the Qur’an, it was something new to them but still fell within the parameters of the Arabic language.

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The whole structure of the Qur’an, the way the verses begin and end and their composition are completely different to anything seen in the Arabic language – highlighted by Jahiz. The Orientalists criticized Surah Yusuf: the problem with the orientalists is that they read Surah Yusuf and are not listening to it. If they listened to it, it is exactly as it should be (Alan Jones – orientalist). Ayah – means a sign, miracle or something wonderful. The term verse is not strictly appropriate because the Qur’an is not poetry. It is therefore; better to say ayah and not verse. Ayah as a miracle “Ask the children of Israe’l, how many clear miracles we have given them.” Ayah as a lesson “The prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam said indeed a sign/lesson will come to your chest.” Ayah as something extraordinary “You made the son of mary and his mother an extraordinary sign” Ayah as a group “The people went out altogether as one group” All of these meanings are relevant and convey aspects of what an ayat is.

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Suwar means an elevated thing or a fence. Scholars differ why it is called a suwar. Some schoalrs say it is called as such due to its elevated status, while other say it is called a suwar because it fences one surah from another. The Qur’an has 114 chapters of unequal length and the shortest is four ayats long and the longest is 286 ayats. You find that the surah is named from a theme established in the surah. The names of suwar are not considered revelation. The naming of the surah can be classified into three categories: 1) By the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam e.g. Hadith of Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam mentions Baqarah, Ale- Imran and also Surah Kahf. 2) Name established by the companions. Ibn Abbas and Surah Hasr (Bukhari) 3) Naming by others after the companions. Eg. Surah Ra’ayta and Surah Lam yakun. There is no dispute that there are 114 chapters in the Qur’an. Ibn Masud didn’t have the muwadatayn. He never denied that they were part of the Qur’an, but did not initially consider them to be written. However, he later changed his opinion. (A case study will be explored concerning this in more detail below). Numbering of Ayats Sahih Muslim: “Whoever memorizes the first ten verses of Surah Kahf will be saved from the fitnah of the dajjal” – clear numbering
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“Seven of the oft repeated verses” (Al Hijr 15:87) alluding to numbering of Surah Fatiha. Determining Verses 1) Kufi school says that verses are divided entirely based on revelation and there is no room for ijtihad or qiyas. 2) Qiyas – weaker view. Verses judged by similar sounds and symmetry between ayats. Different numbering in a range of mushafs e.g. Madinah mushaf has 6217, Makkah has 6210, Palestine 6232, Damascus 6227. The scholars of Kufa determine 6326 ayats (most common and found in hafs and asim mushafs). Scholars of Basrah – 6204 ayats. However, it is important to note that the content in all of these mushafs is the same; simply the numbering of ayats is different. The order of the Surahs 1) The first and stronger view is that the arrangement is solely based on revelation as seen in a narration in Abu Dawud of Hudhayfah al Thaqafi. 2) The second view is that the companions did it 3) The third view is that the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam did some and others were done by other than the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam The Classification of Surahs according to length 1) Al-Tiwal (long ones): surahs 2-10
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2) Al Mi’un (apprx 100 ayats): surahs 10-35 3) Al Mathani (less than 100 ayats): surahs 36-49 – oft repeated, since they are recited more often in prayers than longer ones. 1) Al Mufassal: The last section of the Qur’an, beginning with Surah Qaf 50 – 114. There is some difference about this. The Qur’an is also sub-divided into Juz (Chapters). Each Juz is divided into two, with each part called a hizb. Each hizb is subdivided further into quarters which is called rub’. The Qur’anic text is also divided into seven parts of approximately sequal length, called manzil, for recitation over seven days, indicated in some mushafs by the word manzil and the respective number in the margins. 20:30pm – 22:45pm IQ Test/Maghrib/Dinner

Chapter Seven – Arabic: The Language of the Qur’an
The Qur’an was revealed in Arabic and thus the term Qur’an can only refer to the Arabic transmission of the Qur’an and the scripture of the words revealed to the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam. There are many evidences throughout Qur’an, which highlight that it was revealed in the Arabic language as seen in Surah Fussilat and Surah Shura. The Qur’an was revealed in Arabic and not in many languages so that there would not be any dispute about which one is the correct one, thus, preserving unity amongst all. The Qur’an was revealed in Arabic and thus Arabic became a preserved language due to the Qur’an being revealed in it.
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Translations of the Qur’an cannot be considered as the actual Qur’an, therefore, it does not take the rulings of the Qur’an nor a mushaf and can be touched when one is in a state of ritual impurity.

Chapter Eight – The Inimitability (I’jaz) of the Qur’an – Sheikh Abu Rumaisa
The scholars of Ahlus sunnah say there are a number of factors that lead to the inimitability of the Qur’an. You will not be able to find a better way to phrase a verse in the Qur’an than that which Allaah has chosen. There is a combination of factors, which makes the Qur’an unique, not one specific element. The greatest miracle of the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam is the Qur’an. The Challenge of the Qur’an Allaah challenges the disbelievers to bring something similar to the whole Qur’an (Al Isra’ 17:88), then Allaah challenged them to bring 10 surahs like it (Surah Hud 11:13) and then Allaah finally challenges them to bring something similar to only a single surah (Baqarah: 2:23-24). Allaah also challenged the disbelievers to find a fault within the Qur’an. These verses prove the sincerity of the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam e.g. if we take an exam in which we have guessed all the answers and then challenge them – we would never do this, a liar would not do what the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam did. This style/direct challenge is seen throughout the whole Qur’an. The case of Abu Lahab proves the miraculous nature of the Qur’an, it states he would die a disbeliever, all he had to do was become Muslim or even pretend to become Muslim and prove it wrong, but he didn’t.
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The challenge is to create something, which is similar to the composition of the Qur’an. Four types of I’jaz 1) Literal Inimitability: Its structure falls outside of that found in Arabic literature. Evidence for this can be seen in Sahih Muslim, with the case of Unays and Abu Dharr, who both affirm that it was neither the speech of a poetr nor a soothsayer. 2) Inimitable Information: Information about the unseen e.g. Allaah, his names and attributes, the angels, day of judgement etc, and historical facts e.g. referring to the king at the time of Yusuf as ‘Malik’ instead of ‘Firaun’ like the Bible, Hamman referenced in Qur’an and recently discovered as an Ancient Egyptian architect.

3) Future Events: Victory at Badr, the conquest of Makkah and the defeat of the Persians by the Roman Empire.

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Sunday 1st July 2012/ Ahad 11th Sha’ban 1433 06:00am – Session One Chapters Four and Five are the most difficult in this course, everything else is easy. Imam Qurtubi reported an event from the court of Al- Ma’mun: A Jewish man embraced Islam after testing, the Torah, the Injil and the Qur’an. He made deletions and additions to each book and found only the Muslims noticed these additions and deletions in the Qur’an, fulfilling the promise of Allaah, that the Qur’an will be protected (Surah al-Hijr 15:9). Many scholars say that the rules of tajweed are taken from the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam, who took it from Jibreel alayhis-salam, who took it from Allaah.

Chapter Nine – The Qur’anic Message
Ibnul Qayyim said 102 scriptures were sent and all of them can be condensed into three books, the Torah, Injeel and the Qur’an, can be condensed into the Qur’an, which can be condensed into the beginning and the end of the Qur’an, which can be condensed into Al-Fatiha, which can be condensed to the ayah “iyyakanabudu wa iya kanasta’een”

There is profound symmetry throughout the Qur’an with topics being mentioned throughout. One writer mentions concerning Juz Ama. If you see a house on fire, you will scream and shout at them to get them out, but they have their tv on very loud and they cant hear you or in London, you see a person you
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go into a night club and scream out to him, but he cant hear you because it is so loud, so you shake him, warning him. Sayyid Qutb mentions that this is what the Qur’an does. Through his mercy, Allaah has placed all these things in the The major aim of the Qur’an is to know Allaah and every page alludes to Tawheed and learning about our creator is a fundamental aim of the Qur’an and this is why the greatest ayah is about Allaah – ayatul Kursi. Another major aim of the Qur’an is to tell us that now that we recognize Allaah as our Lord and the one we worship we must as individuals become balanced and avoid what Allaah dislikes and do the things Allaah likes. The Qur’an is a shifa (cure for our deseases). The Qur’an has different cures in different parts of the Qur’an, for example, you will see a different cure in Surah Fatiha than what you will see in another surah. The Qur’an is aimed at two periods, the Makkan people, who are undergoing hardship and problems and the Madinan people, who are still undergoing problems but to a lesser extent. Another theme in the Qur’an is our role to society as a whole. As an individual what is our criteria for right and wrong, what motivates us to do righteous actions. It is not possible for a person that does not believe in a religion to be a good person, because they have no criteria for right and wrong e.g. incest is considered wrong because of social consensus, but this can easily change, but through the Qur’an we can actualize criteria’s within ourselves and in our lives. In terms of the structure, there is an element that has only been propogated more recently, this is an nadm, having a structure in the Qur’an. Ibn al Qayyim says all of the Qur’an revolves around the beginning and the end of the Qur’an and it can all be found in Fatiha. He further says that all the scriptures can be summarized in “iyyakanabudu wa iya kanasta’een” in Surah fatiha. In terms of its structure, fatiha is a phenomenal surah fatiha. Everything mentioned before
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“iyyakanabudu” is about Allaah and everything that comes after this, is all about the creation. A translation of the Qur’an is a type of interpretation, in which the message of the Qur’an is not lost, but there are twelve verses about the Qur’an being revealed in the Arabic language. There are two types of words in the Arabic language nouns (ism) and verbs (f’al) e.g. democracy is considered to be a noun and a verb is a “doing” word. The implication of a noun is that it is permanent and a verb is temporary by nature, because it is constrained by the past, present and future. What is amazing is that if we look at the verses before “iyyakanabudu”, Allaah only uses nouns to describe himself. However, when Allaah describes the creation he uses verbs. iyyakanabudu wa iyaka nasta’een; Both of these iyyaka go back to the verse before them, which are about Allaah. Alhamdhulillah is translated into English as a verb, but in Arabic if it was mentioned as a verb, it would restrict praise to time, but Allaah is always deserving of that praise.  Two face sentences. If we look at the structure of Surah fatiha, Allaah mentions three main concepts in the first verse; 1) Al Hamd, 2) Rahma, 3) Malik. When you think about the Rahma of Allaah, you have hope. When you think about Allaah as the owner of the day of judgment you have fear and when you hear Al-Hamd, you have love. These are three main elements of eeman. There are four concepts that are mentioned towards the end of Surah concepts, these are 1) those who have gone astray (dual-een), 2) those who have incurred

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Allaah’s anger (maghdubi) 3) favour (ni’ma) and 4) guidance (hidaya). We can link anger with favour and guidance with those who have gone astray. Scientists say that the left side of the brain, looks at things in black and white, right or wrong, and the right side of the brain looks at creativity. The Arabic language is mathematical but is also rich in its literature form. There are words like fa’lan, which act like a verb and words like fa’eel, which act like an adjective. Ar Rahman-ir-Raheem – Ibnul Qayyim says that Rahman is the mercy of Allaah for the believers and disbelievers in this life - temporal, but raheem is the mercy of Allaah for the believers and is permanent forever. In Fatiha, there is a connection between “Ar-Rahman” and the verse, which comes before it because the verse mentions whatever is between the heaven and the Earth – temporal. “Ar-Raheem” has a connection with the verse that comes after it, as it mentions the Day of Judgement – which is outside the temporal time. Faqur-udeen Ar-Ra’zi says the “Qur’an is like one ayah”, due to its coherence. >Fadhil Samarrai’ Surahtul Fatiha is a unique surah. Each of the aims of the Qur’an mentioned above could all be found in surah Fatiha.

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Conclusion
Ibn Masud used to have his own copy of the qur’an and they said this copy has its own order and has 106 surahs, which is less than the mushaf we have today. Ibn Masud would consider surah Falaq and Nas as dua and not surahs in the Qur’an. Uthman did not include Ibn Masud in the project to collate the Qur’an and he became upset because the Prophet salallaahu alayhee wa salam praised him in relation to the Qur’an. Perhaps, Uthman did not include it for political reasons.

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