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?? > GRE > ?? ?1??

Passage 1 Many critics of Eamily Bronte s novel Wuthering Heights see its second part as a c ounterpoint that comments on, if it does not reverse, the first part, where a rom antic reading receives more confirmation.Seeing the two parts as a whole is encour aged by the novel's sophisticated structure, revealed in its complex use of narr ators and time shifts. Granted that the presence of these elements need not argu e an authorial awareness of novelistic construction comparable to that of Henry James, their presence does encourage attempts to unify the novel s heterogeneous p arts. However, any interpretation that see s to unify all of the novel's diverse eleme nts is bound to be somewhat unconvincing. This is not because such an interpreta tion necessarily stiffens into a thesis (although rigidity in any interpretation of this or of any novel is always a danger), but because Wuthering Heights has recalcitrant elements of undeniable power that, ultimately, resist inclusion in an all-encompassing interpretation. In this respect, Wuthering Heights shares a feature of Hamlet. 1. According to the passage, which of the following is a true statement about th e first and second parts of Wuthering Heights? (A)The second part has received more attention from critics. (B)The second part has little relation to the first part. (C)The second part annuls the force of the first part. (D)The second part provides less substantiation for a romantic reading. (E)The second part is better because it is more realistic. 2. Which of the following inferences about Henry James s awareness of no-velistic construction is best supported by the passage? (A) James, more than any other novelist, was aware of the difficulties of noveli stic construction. (B) James, was very aware of the details of novelistic construction. (C) James s awareness of novelistic construction derived from his reading of Bront e. (D) James's awareness of novelistic construction has led most commentators to se e unity in his individual novels. (E) James's awareness of novelistic construction precluded him from violating th e unity of his novels. 3. The author of the passage would be most li ely to agree that an interpretatio n of a novel should (A) not try to unite heterogeneous elements in the novel (B) not be inflexible in its treatment of the elements in the novel (C) not argue that the complex use of narrators or of time shifts indicates a so phisticated structure (D) concentrate on those recalcitrant elements of the novel that are outside the novel s main structure (E) primarily consider those elements of novelistic construction of which the au thor of the novel was aware 4. The author of the passage suggests which of the following about Hamlet? I.Hamlet has usually attracted critical interpretations that tend to stiffen int o theses. II.Hamlet has elements that are not amenable to an all-encompassing critic-al in terpretation. III. Hamlet is less open to an all-encompassing critical interpretation th-an is Wuthering Heights. IV. Hamlet has not received a critical interpretation that has been widely acc-e



pted by readers. (A) I only (B) II only (C) I and IV only (D) III and IV only (E) I, II and III only KEYS: DBBB

?? > GRE > ?? ?2?? Passage 1 Many theories have been formulated to explain the role of grazers such as zoopla n ton in controlling the amount of plan tonic algae (phytoplan ton) in la es. Th e first theories of such grazer control were merely based on observations of neg ative correlations between algal and zoo-plan ton numbers. A low number of algal cells in the presence of a high number of grazers suggested, but did not prove, that the grazers had removed most of the algae. The converse observation, of th e absence of grazers in areas of high phytoplan ton concentration, led Hardy to propose his principle of animal exclusion, which hypothesized that phytoplan ton produced a repellent that excluded grazers from regions of high phytoplan ton c oncentration. This was the first suggestion of algal defenses against grazing. Perhaps the fact that many of these first studies considered only algae of a siz e that could be collected in a net (net phytoplan ton),a practice that overloo e d the smaller phytoplan ton (nannoplan ton)that we now now grazers are most li ely to feed on, led to a deemphasis of the role of grazers in subsequent researc h. Increasingly, as in the individual studies of Lund, Round, and Reynolds, rese archers began to stress the importance of environmental factors such as temperat ure, light, and water movements in controlling algal numbers. These environmenta l factors were amenable to field monitoring and to simulation in the laboratory. Grazing was believed to have some effect on algal numbers, especially after phy toplan ton growth rates declined at the end of bloom periods, but grazing was co nsidered a minor component of models that predicted algal population dynamics. The potential magnitude of grazing pressure on freshwater phytoplan ton has only recently been determined empirically. Studies by Hargrave and Geen estimated na tural community grazing rates by measuring feeding rates of individual zoo-plan ton species in the laboratory and then computing community grazing rates for fie ld conditions using the nown population density of grazers. The high estimates of grazing pressure postulated by these researchers were not fully accepted, how ever, until the grazing rates of zooplan ton were determined directly in the fie ld, by means of new experimental techniques. Using a specially prepared feeding chamber, Haney was able to record zooplan ton grazing rates in natural field conditions. In the periods of pea zooplan ton a bundance, that is, in the late spring and in the summer, Haney recorded maximum daily community grazing rates,for nutrient poor la es and bog la es, respectivel y, of 6.6 percent and 114 percent of daily phytoplan ton production. Cladocerans had higher grazing rates than copepods, usually accounting for 80 percent of th e community grazing rate.These rates varied seasonally, reaching the lowest poin t in the winter and early spring. Haney s thorough research provides convincing fi eld evidence that grazers can exert significant pressure on phytoplan ton popula tion.Many theories have been formulated to explain the role of grazers such as z ooplan ton in controlling the amount of plan tonic algae (phytoplan ton) in la e s. 1. The author most li ely mentions Hardy s principle of animal exclusion in order to (A) give an example of one theory about the interaction of grazers and phytoplan
































ton (B) defend the first theory of algal defenses against grazing (C) support the contention that phytoplan ton numbers are controlled primarily b y environmental factors (D) demonstrate the superiority of laboratory studies of zooplan ton feeding rat es to other inds of studies of such rates

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the first theories of grazer control m entioned in line 4 would have been more convincing if researchers had been able to (A) observe high phytoplan ton numbers under natural la e conditions (B) discover negative correlations between algae and zooplan ton numbers from th eir field research (C) understand the central importance of environmental factors in controlling th e growth rates of phytoplan ton (D) ma e verifiable correlations of cause and ef fect between zooplan ton and phytoplan ton numbers (E) invent laboratory techniques that would have allowed them to bypass their fi eld research concerning grazer control 3. Which of the following, if true, would call into question Hardy s principle of animal exclusion? (A) Zooplan ton are not the only organisms that are affected by phytoplan ton re pellents. (B) Zooplan ton exclusion is unrelated to phytoplan ton population density. (C) Zooplan ton population density is higher during some parts of the year than during others. (D) Net phytoplan ton are more li ely to exclude zooplan ton than are nannoplan ton. (E) Phytoplan ton numbers can be strongly affected by environmetnal factors. KEYS: ADB

?? > GRE > ?? ?3?? Passage 1 Many theories have been formulated to explain the role of grazers such as zoop lan ton in controlling the amount of plan tonic algae (phytoplan ton) in la es. The first theories of such grazer control were merely based on observations of n egative correlations between algal and zooplan ton numbers. A low number of alga l cells in the presence of a high number of grazers suggested, but did not prove , that the grazers had removed most of the algae. The converse observation, of t he absence of grazers in areas of high phytoplan ton concentration, led Hardy to propose his principle of animal exclusion, which hypothesized that phytoplan to n produced a repellent that excluded grazers from regions of high phytoplan ton concentration. This was the first suggestion of algal defenses against grazing. Perhaps the fact that many of these first studies considered only algae of a s ize that could be collected in a net (net phytoplan ton),a practice that overloo ed the smaller phytoplan ton (nannoplan ton)that we now now grazers are most l i ely to feed on, led to a deemphasis of the role of grazers in subsequent resea rch. Increasingly, as in the individual studies of Lund, Round, and Reynolds, re searchers began to stress the importance of environmental factors such as temper ature, light, and water movements in controlling algal numbers. These environmen tal factors were amen-able to field monitoring and to simulation in the laborato ry. Grazing was believed to have some effect on algal numbers, especially after phytoplan ton growth rates declined at the end of bloom periods, but grazing was considered a minor component of models that predicted algal population dynamics .

































Studies by Hargrave and Geen estimated natural community grazing rates by measuring feeding rates of individual zoo-pl an ton species in the laboratory and then computing community grazing rates for field conditions using the nown population density of grazers. (A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II only (D) II and III only (E) I. for nutrient poor la es and bog la es. if true. by means of new experimental techniques. The high estimat es of grazing pressure postulated by these researchers were not fully accepted. The author would be li ely to agree with which of the following statements re garding the pressure of grazers on phytoplan ton numbers? I. 4.6 percent and 114 percent of daily phytoplan ton production. (D) Net phytoplan ton are more li ely to exclude zooplan ton than are nannoplan ton. in the late spring and in the summer. Grazing pressure can vary according to the individual type of zooplan ton. Haney was able to record zooplan t on grazing rates in natural field conditions. until the grazing rates of zooplan ton were determined directly in the field. In the periods of pea zooplan ton abundance. (E) Phytoplan ton numbers can be strongly affected by environmental factors. would call into question Hardy s principle of animal exclusion? (A) Zooplan ton are not the only organisms that are affected by phytoplan ton re pellents. Grazing tends to exert about the same pressure as does temperature. (B) Zooplan ton exclusion is unrelated to phytoplan ton population density. Grazing pressure can be lower in nutrient poor la es than in bog la es. The author most li ely mentions Hardy s principle of animal exclusion in order to (A) give an example of one theory about the interaction of grazers and phytoplan ton (B) defend the first theory of algal defenses against grazing (C) support the contention that phytoplan ton numbers are controlled primarily b y environmental factors (D) demonstrate the superiority of laboratory studies of zooplan ton feeding rat es to other inds of studies of such rates 2. II. The passage supplies information to indicate that Hargrave and Geen s conclusio                                                                             . Using a specially prepared feeding chamber. however. Haney s thorough research provides convincin g field evidence that grazers can exert significant pressure on phytoplan ton po pulation. Haney recorded maximu m daily community grazing rates. II. reaching the lowest point in the winter and early spring. usually accounting for 80 percent of the community grazing rate.The potential magnitude of grazing pres-sure on freshwater phytoplan ton has o nly recently been determined empirically. Cladocer ans had higher grazing rates than copepods. These rates varied seasonally. III. of 6. It can be inferred from the passage that the first theories of grazer control m entioned in line 4 would have been more convincing if researchers had been able to (A) observe high phytoplan ton numbers under natural la e conditions (B) discover negative correlations between algae and zooplan ton numbers from th eir field research (C) understand the central importance of environmental factors in controlling th e growth rates of phytoplan ton (D) ma e verifiable correlations of cause and effect between zooplan ton and phy toplan ton numbers (E) invent laboratory techniques that would have allowed them to bypass their fi eld research concerning grazer control 3. (C) Zooplan ton population density is higher during some parts of the year than during others. and III 5. respecti vely. that is. Which of the following. 1.

rather than of light. (C) They estimated the community grazing rates of zooplan ton in the laboratory by using data concerning the natural community grazing rates of zooplan ton. Writing acceptable criticism of Blac fiction. criticism of Blac writing ha s often served as a pretext for expounding on Blac history. Addison Gayle's rec ent wor . (B) Although zooplan ton numbers were high in May. zooplan ton grazing ra tes began to increase. It can be inferred from the passage that one way in which many of the early r esearchers on grazer control could have improved their data would have been to (A) emphasize the effects of temperature. rating each wor according to the notions of Blac identity which it pr opounds. successfully alters the approach ta en by most previous studies. Rosenblatt's literary analysis discloses affinities and conne ctions among wor s of Blac fiction which solely political studies have overloo ed or ignored. presupposes giving sat isfactory answers to a number of questions. in attempting to apply literary rather than sociopolitical criteria to its subject. 8. (D) Both zooplan ton numbers and grazing rates were lower in March than in June. Which of the following is a true statement about the zooplan ton numbers and zooplan ton grazing rates observed in Haney s experiments? (A) While zooplan ton numbers began to decline in August. As Rosenblatt notes. is there a sufficient reason. and tal ing about no vels and stories primarily as instruments of idology circumvents much of the fic tional enterprise. judges the value of Blac fiction by overtly political st andards. its authors r eact to those circumstances in ways other than ideological. other than the racial identity of the authors. (E) They estimated the natural community grazing rates of zooplan ton by using l aboratory data concerning the grazing rates of individual zooplan ton species. (D) They estimated the natural community grazing rates of zooplan ton by using d ata concerning the nown population density of phytoplan ton. (E) Both zooplan ton numbers and grazing rates were highest in February. to group together wor s b y Blac authors? Second. Hargrave and Geen did which of the following in the ir experiments? (A) They compared the grazing rates of individual zooplan ton species in the lab oratory with the natural grazing rates of these species. how does Blac fiction ma e itself distinct from other modern fiction with which it is largely contemporaneous? Rosenblatt shows that B                                                                                           . on phytoplan ton (B) disregard nannoplan ton in their analysis of phytoplan ton numbers (C) collect phytoplan ton of all sizes before analyzing the extent of phytoplan ton concentration (D) recognize that phytoplan ton other than net phytoplan ton could be collected in a net (E) understand the crucial significance of net phytoplan ton in the diet of zoop lan ton 7. Although fiction assuredly springs from political circumstances. (C) Both zooplan ton numbers and grazing rates were higher in December than in N ovember. (B) The hypothesized about the population density of grazers in natural habitats by using data concerning the population density of grazers in the laboratory. for example. First of all. grazing rates did not become high until January. however. Passage 2 Roger Rosenblatt's boo Blac Fiction.n regarding the grazing pressure exerted by zooplan ton on phytoplan ton numbers was most similar to the conclusion regarding grazing pressure reached by which of the following researchers? (A) Hardy (B) Lund (C) Round (D) Reynolds (E) Haney 6. According to the passage.

or are the authors wor ing out of. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with (A) evaluating the soundness of a wor of criticism (B) comparing various critical approaches to a subject (C) discussing the limitations of a particular ind of criticism (D) summarizing the major points made in a wor of criticism (E) explaining the theoretical bac ground of a certain ind of criticism 3. Loo ing at novels written by Blac s over the last eig hty years. what Rosenblatt does include in his discussion ma es for an astute and worthwhile study. The author's discussion of Blac Fiction can be best described as (A) pedantic and contentious (B) critical but admiring (C) ironic and deprecating (D) argumentative but unfocused (E) stilted and insincere 5. For instance. and they spring. does this technique provid e a counterpoint to the prevalent theme that portrays the fate against which Bla c heroes are pitted. or trying to forge. The author of the passage objects to criticism of Blac fiction li e that by Addison Gayle because it (A) emphasizes purely literary aspects of such fiction (B) misinterprets the ideological content of such fiction (C) misunderstands the notions of Blac identity contained in such fiction (D) substitutes political for literary criteria in evaluating such fiction (E) ignores the interplay between Blac history and Blac identity displayed in such fiction 2. These structures are thematic. Its argu ment is tightly constructed. lucid style exemplifies levelhe aded and penetrating criticism. and its forthright. verges on expressionism or surrealism.lac fiction constitutes a distinct body of writing that has an identifiable. Is this a defect. he discovers recurring concerns and designs independent of chronology . 1. Rosenblatt's thematic analysis permits considerable objectivity. he even explicitly states that it is not his intention to judge the merit of the various wor s-yet his reluctance see ms misplaced. Blac Fiction surveys a wide variety of n ovels. the style of some Blac novels. Blac Fiction does leave some aesthetic questions open. co herent literary n wor s li e James Weldon Johnson's Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. especially since an attempt to appraise might have led to interest ing results. a theme usually conveyed by more naturalistic modes of exp ression? In spite of such omissions. whether they try to conform to that culture of rebel against it. not surprisingly. li e Jean Toomer's Cane. bringing to our attention in the process some fascinating and little. some of the novels appear to be structurally diffuse. from the cen tral fact that the Blac characters in these novels exist in a predominantly Whi te culture. a diff erent ind of aesthetic? In addition. It can be inferred that the author of the passage would be LEAST li ely to ap prove of which of the following? (A) An analysis of the influence of political events on the personal ideology of Blac writes (B) A critical study that applies sociopolitical criteria to autobiographies by Blac authors                                                                       . The author of the passage believes that Blac Fiction would have been improve d had Rosenblatt (A) evaluated more carefully the ideological and historical aspects of Blac fic tion (B) attempted to be more objective in his approach to novels and stories by Blac authors (C) explored in greater detail the recurrent thematic concerns of Blac fiction throughout its history (D) established a basis for placing Blac fiction within its own unique literary tradition (E) assessed the relative literary merit of the novels he analyzes thematically 4.

The author of the passage refers to James Weldon Johnson's Autobiography of a n Ex-Colored Man most probably in order to (A) point out affinities between Rose nblatt's method of thematic analysis and earlier criticism (B) clarify the point about expressionistic style made earlier in the passage (C) qualify the assessment of Rosenblatt's boo made in the first paragraph of t he passage (D) illustrate the affinities among Blac novels disclosed by Rosenblatt's liter ary analysis (E) give a specific example of one of the accomplishments of Rosenblatt's wor KEYS: Passage 1: ADBCE CED Passage 2: DAEBC DE ?? > GRE > ?? ?4?? Passage 1 The use of heat pumps has been held bac largely by s epticism about advertisers' claims that heat pumps can provide as many as two units of thermal energy for each unit of electrical energy (5) used. enters a compressor driven by an electric motor.(C) A literary study of Blac poetry that appraises the merits of poems accordin g to the political acceptability of their themes (D) An examination of the growth of a distinct Blac literary tradition within t he context of Blac history (E) A literary study that attempts to isolate aesthetic qualities unique to Blac fiction 6. as a high-pressure. the refrigerant expands and partially vaporizes. respectively. cooled liquid. Heat pumps circulate a fluid refrigerant that cycles alternatively from its liquid phase to its vapor phase in a closed loop. Of the two heat exchangers. The refrigerant. low-pressure vapor. one is located inside. thus apparently contradicting the principle of energy conservation. It then passes (20) through a second heat exchanger. The refrigerant leaves the compressor as a hot. becoming chilled. so (25) each is in contact with a different body of air: room air and outside air. (10) starting as a low-temperature. reducing the temperature of this second body of air. Now the refrigerant. The author of the passage uses all of the following in the discussion of Rose nblatt's boo EXCEPT (A) rhetorical questions (B) specific examples (C) comparison and contrast (D) definition of terms (E) personal opinion 7. The flow direction of refrigerant through a heat                     . which transfers heat from the air to the refrigerant. the evaporator. and the other one outside the house. As the pressure falls. dense vapor and flows through a heat exchanger called the condenser. confronts a flow restriction which causes the pressure to drop. which transfers heat from the (15) refrigerant to a body of air.

and factors affecting their use (D) advocate the more widespread use of heat pumps (E) expose extravagant claims about heat pumps as false 2. there is one real problem. The drop in capacity is caused by the lessening amount of refrigerant mass moved through the compressor at one time. then. the less the thermal load it can transfer through the heat-pump cycle. The author resolves the question of whether heat pumps run counter to the pri nciple of energy conservation by (A) carefully qualifying the meaning of that principle (B) pointing out a factual error in the statement that gives rise to this questi on (C) supplying additional relevant facts (D) denying the relevance of that principle to heat pumps (E) explaining that heat pumps can cool. But cold refrigerant vapor entering a compressor is at lower pressure than warmer vapor. Therefore. not even remotely: the additional input of thermal energy into the circulating refrigerant via the evaporator accounts for the difference in the energy equation. their use. 1. It can be inferred from the passage that. lies a genuine drawbac of heat pumps: in extremely cold climates-where the most heat is needed-heat pumps are least able to supply enough heat. The heating capacity is proportional to this mass flow (45) rate: the less the mass of refrigerant being compressed. wh     . room air 3. Here. in the course of a heating season. If the author's assessment of the use of heat pumps(lines 1-6) is correct. the heating capacity of a heat pump is greatest when (A) heating is least essential (B) electricity rates are lowest (C) its compressor runs the fastest (D) outdoor temperatures hold steady (E) the heating demand surges 4. the mass of cold refrigerantand thus the thermal energy it carries-is less than if the refrigerant vapor were warmer before com(55) pression. When the refrigerant flow is reversed. This flow-reversal capability allows heat pumps either to heat or cool room air. The (40) heating capacity of a heat pump decreases as the outdoor temperature falls. the heat exchangers switch func(30) tion.pump is controlled by valves. The volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor through the single-speed rotary compressor used in heat pumps is approxi(50) mately constant. Unfortunately. as well as heat. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) explain the differences in the wor ing of a heat pump when the outdoor tempe rature changes (B) contrast the heating and the cooling modes of heat pumps (C) describe heat pumps. Now. has the law of energy conserva(35) tion been challenged? No. if under certain conditions a heat pump puts out more thermal energy than it consumes in electrical energy.

Islam. All this was unified by bei ng subjected to the same ind of religious scrutiny. (B) Focus your advertising campaign on vague analogies and veiled implications i nstead of on facts. Jewish law and Roman Catholic canon law. Even the two other representatives of sacred law that are hi storically and geographically nearest to it. the impact of which varied greatly. represented a radical brea a way from the Arab paganism that preceded it. are perceptibly different. Both Jewish law and canon law are more uniform than Islamic law. the role of the flow restriction (lines 16-17) in a heat pump is to (A) measure accurately the flow rate of the refrigerant mass at that point (B) compress and heat the refrigerant vapor (C) bring about the evaporation and cooling of refrigerant (D) exchange heat between the refrigerant and the air at that point (E) reverse the direction of refrigerant flow when needed Passage 2 Islamic law is a particularly instructive example of "sacred law. on the other hand. a considerable and inevitable number of coincidences with one or the other of them as far as subject matter and positive enactment are concerned-that its s tudy is indispensable in order to appreciate adequately the full range of possib le legal phenomena. of legal su bject matter that was far from uniform. (C) Do not use facts in your advertising that willstrain the prospective client' s ability to believe. According to the passage. one of the primary codifications of Je wish law in the Diaspora. The author regards the notion that heat pumps have a genuine drawbac (A) cause for regret (B) sign of premature defeatism (C) welcome challenge (D) case of sloppy thin ing (E) focus for an educational campaign             as a . from a religious angle. and in others originating nove     7. Though historic ally there is a discernible brea between Jewish law of the sovereign state of a ncient Israel and of the Diaspora (the dispersion of Jewish people after the con quest of Israel). of cou rse. Islamic law is the result of an exa mination. the spirit of the legal matter in later parts of the Old Testa ment is very close to that of the Talmud." Islamic law i s a phenomenon so different from all other forms of law.ich of the following best expresses the lesson that advertisers should learn fro m this case? (A) Do not ma e exaggerated claims about the products you are trying to promote. from a religious angle. comprising as it did the various components of the laws of pre-Islamic Arab ia and numerous legal Islamic law is the result of an examination. (E) Concentrate your advertising firmly on financially relevant issues such as price discounts and efficiency of operati on. 5. (D) Do not assume in your advertising that the prospective clients now even the most elementary scientific principles.not withstanding. The passage suggests that heat pumps would be used more widely if (A) they could also be used as air conditioners (B) they could be moved around to supply heat where it is most needed (C) their heat output could be thermo-statically controlled (D) models with truly superior cooling capacity were advertised more effectively (E) people appreciated the role of the evaporator in the energy equation 6. of legal subject matter that was far from unif orm. being almost nonexistent in some fields. comprising as it did the various compone nts of the laws of pre-Islamic Arabia and numerous legal elements ta en over fro m the non-Arab peoples of the conquered territories.

in contrast with Judaism. and canon law was one of its political weapons. in Christianity it appeared as the struggle for p olitical power on the part of a tightly organized ecclesiastical hierarchy. Islamic law. represented a radical brea a way from the Arab paganism that preceded it.not withstanding. in Christianity it appeared as the struggle for political power on the part of a tightly organized ecc-lesiast ical hierarchy. was never supported by an organized institution. were dominated by the dualism of religion and state. are perceptibly different. on the other hand. Jewish law and Roman Catholic canon law. an alien power but the political expression of the same religion. and ritual rules that is typical of sacred law. Islamic in contrast with Judaism. an alien power but th e political expression of the same religion. where the state was not. 1. consequently. reinforced by pressure from outside. this antagonism varied according to place and time. There merely existed discordance between application of the sacred law and many of the regulations framed by Isl amic states. a considerable and inevitable number of coincidences with one or the other of them as far as subject matter and positive enactment are concerned-that its s tudy is indispensable in order to appreciate adequately the full range of possib le legal phenomena. one of the primary codifications of Je wish law in the Diaspora. of cou rse. But the conflict between state and religion too different forms. This central duality of legal subject matter and religious norm is additional to the variety of legal. its rules are the direct expression of this feeling of cohesion. Both Jewish law and canon law are more uniform than Islamic law. Islamic law differed from both Jewish and canon law. the spirit of the legal matter in later parts of the Old Testa ment is very close to that of the Talmud. on t he other hand. comprising as it did the various components of the laws of pre-Islamic Arab ia and numerous legal             . ethical. Islamic law is the result of an exa mination. th ere never developed an overt trial of strength." Islamic law i s a phenomenon so different from all other forms of law.l institutions. from a religious angle. Though historic ally there is a discernible brea between Jewish law of the sovereign state of a ncient Israel and of the Diaspora (the dispersion of Jewish people after the con quest of Israel). Even the two other representatives of sacred law that are hi storically and geographically nearest to it. The author's purpose in comparing Islamic law to Jewish law and canon law is most probably to (A)contend that traditional legal subject matter does not play a large role in I alamic law (B)support his argument that Islamic law is a unique ind of legal phenomenon (C)emphasize the variety of forms that can all be considered sacred law (D)provide an example of how he believes comparative institutional study should be underta en (E)argue that geographical and historical proximity does not necessarily lead to parallel institutional development KEYS: Passage 1: CCACE CA Passage 2: B ?? > GRE > ?? ?5?? Passage 1 Islamic law is a particularly instructive example of "sacred law. In its relation to the secular state. Jewish law was buttressed by the cohesion of the comm unity. of legal subject matter that was far from unif orm. tending toward the accommodation of dissent. Canon and Is-lamic law. But the conflict between state and religion too different forms. Islam. on the contrary. and canon law was one of itspolitical weapons.

Jewish law was buttressed by the cohesion of the comm unity. from a religious angle. 3. in contrast with Judaism. Islamic law differed from both Jewish and canon law. Islamic law. The passage provides information to answer which of the following questions? (A)Does Islamic law depend on sources other than Arab legal principles? (B)What secular practices of Islamic states conflicted with Islamic law? (C)Are Jewish law and canon law the most typical examples of sacred law? (D)Is Jewish law more uniform than canon law? (E)What characterized Arab law of the pre-Islamic era? 2. in Christianity it appeared as the struggle for p olitical power on the part of a tightly organized ecclesiastical hierarchy. its rules are the direct expression of this feeling of cohesion. which of the following statements about sacred law is correct? (A)The various systems of sacred law originated in a limited geograp hical area. But the conflict between state and religion too different forms. There merely existed discordance between application of the sacred law and many of the regulations framed by Isl amic states. where the state was not. and canon law was one of its political weapons.               . (B)The various systems of sacred law have had mar ed influence on one another. According to the passage. were dominated by the dualism of religion and state. tending toward the accommodation of dissent. 1. In its relation to the secular state. in Christianity it appeared as the struggle for political power on the part of a tightly organized ecc-lesiast ical hierarchy. consequently. the impact of which varied greatly. All this was unified by bei ng subjected to the same ind of religious scrutiny. Which of the following most accurately describes the organization of the pass age? (A)A universal principle is advanced and then discussed in relation to a particu lar historical phenomenon. ethical. This central duality of legal subject matter and religious norm is additional to the variety of legal. this antagonism varied according to place and time. an alien power but th e political expression of the same religion. was never supported by an organized institution. (E)Systems of sacred law function most effectively in communities with relativel y small populations. an alien power but the political expression of the same religion. Islamic in contrast with Judaism. (C)Systems of sacred law usually rely on a wide variety of precedents. But the conflict between state and religion too different forms. of legal su bject matter that was far from uniform. (B)A methodological innovation is suggested and then examples of its efficacy ar e provided. on the contrary. comprising as it did the various compone nts of the laws of pre-Islamic Arabia and numerous legal elements ta en over fro m the non-Arab peoples of the conquered territories. and ritual rules that is typical of sacred law.Islamic law is the result of an examination. and in others originating nove l institutions. being almost nonexistent in some fields. th ere never developed an overt trial of strength. Canon and Is-lamic law. reinforced by pressure from outside. (D)Systems of sacred law generally contain prescriptions governing diverse aspec ts of human activity. on t he other hand. It can be inferred from the passage that the application of Islamic law in Is lamic states has (A)systematically been opposed by groups who believe it is contrary to their int erests (B)suffered irreparably from the lac of firm institutional bac ing (C)frequently been at odds with the legal activity of government institutions (D)remained unaffected by the political forces operating alongside it (E)benefited from the fact that it never experienced a direct confrontation with the state 4. and canon law was one of itspolitical weapons.

As roc interfaces are crossed. As roc interfaces are crossed. where it is recorded by seismic instruments. (C)Although some of the sources of Islamic law were pagan. Passage 2 Because of its accuracy in outlining the Earth's subsurface. and III 6.I n field practice.(C)A traditional interpretation is questioned and then modified to include new d ata. (D)There was a fundamental shared characteristic in all pre-Islamic legal matter ta en over by Islamic law. the elastic characteristics encountered generally change abruptly.Because each constitutes an example of sacred law. and canon law i s correctly described by which of the following statements? I. (A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II only (D) II and III only (E) I. which causes part of the energy to be reflected bac to the s urface. (E)Although Islam emerged among the Arabs Islamic law was influenced by ethnical ly diverse elements.the seismic-reflecti on method remains the most important tool in the search for petroleum reserves. Jewish.The differences among them result partly from their differing emphasis on pu rely ethical rules. The passage suggests that canon law differs from Islamic law in that only can on law (A)contains prescriptions that nonsacred legal systems might regard as properly legal (B)concerns itself with the duties of a person in regard to the community as a w hole (C)was affected by the tension of the conflict between religion and state (D)developed in a political environment that did not challenge its fundamental e xistence (E)played a role in the direct confrontation between institutions vying for powe r 7. (E)A controversial viewpoint is presented and then both supportive evidence and contradictory evidence are cited. its integrity as a sa cred law was not compromised by their incorporation. 5. in a grid pattern. II. All of the following statements about the de-velopment of Islamic law are imp lied in the passage EXCEPT: (A)Pre-Islamic legal principles were incorporated into Islamic law with widely d iffering degrees of change. they necessarily share some features. (D)A general opinion is expressed and then supportive illustrations are advanced . which causes part of the energy to be reflected bac to the surface. where it is recorded by seismic instruments. the elastic characteristics encountered generall y change abruptly.They each developed in reaction to the interference of secular politicalinsti tutions III. The passage implies that the relationship of Islamic. such as small dynamite explosions. (B)Diverse legal elements were joined together through the application of a pure ly religious generates a wave train that moves downward at a speed determined uniquely by the roc 's elastic characteristics.As each source i s activated.The seismic records must be             . II. a subsurface is mapped by line arranging a series of wave-trai n sources.

and some errors are exposed (C) An assertion is made. Music. Passage 3 Scholars often fail to see that music played an important role in the preservati on of African culture in the United States. and a procedure is outlined] (D) A series of example is presented. The methods that a community de vises to perpetuate itself come into being to preserve aspects of the cultural l egacy that that community perceives as essential. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage? (A) A method is criticized. According to the passage. in the seismic-reflection method all of the followi ng have a significant effect on the signal detected by the seismic instruments E XCEPT the (A) presence of unrelated wave trains (B) placement of the seismic instruments (C) number of sources in the grid pattern (D) nature of the reflectivity of the roc interfaces (E) properties of roc s through which the wave train has traveled 3. including birth. was bas ed on a total vision of life in which music was not an isolated social domain.Then the data acquired at each of the specific source locations are combine d to generate a physical profile of the subsurface. They correctly note that slavery str ipped some cultural elements from Blac people-their political and economic syst ems-but they underestimate the significance of music in sustaining other African cultural values. which can eventually be used to select targ-ets for drilling.and for multiple reflections from the roc interf aces. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) analyze the impact that slavery had on African political and economic system s (B) review the attempt of recent scholarship to study the influence of African m usic on other music                       .unli e the music of some other cultures. and an alternative is suggested (B) An illustration is examined.but all phases of life. 1. It can be inferred from the passage that the seismic-reflection method would be li ely to yield an inaccurate physical profile of the subsurface in which of the following circumstances? (A) If the speed at which the wave train moved downward changed (B) If the receiver were not positioned directly at the wave-train source (C) If the roc on one side of a roc interface had similar elastic characterist ics to those of the roc on the other side (D) If the seismic records obtained f or the different sources in a grid were highly similar to each other (E) If there were no petroleum deposits beneath the area defined by the grid of wave-train sources 4. 1. for unrelated wave trains. wa s so inextricably a part of African culture that it became a crucial means of pr eserving the culture during and after the dislocations of slavery. death.processed to correct for positional differences between the source and the recei ver. The passage is primarily concerned with (A)describing an important technique (B)discussing a new method (C)investigating a controversial procedure (D)announcing a significant discovery (E)promoting a novel application 2. I n African culture music was pervasive. African music. serving not only religion. and supporting evidence is supplied. and play. and a conclusion is drawn (E) A hypothesis is advanced. wor . li e art in general.

and III Passage 4 Traditionally. Recent studies suggest another way in which species compensate for the inefficiency of wind pol lination. Music was a crucial part of the African cultural legacy. The speed and direction of the airflow disturbances can combin     . II.(C) correct the failure of some scholars to appreciate the significance of music in African culture (D) survey the ways by which people attempt to preserve their culture against th e effects of oppression (E) compare the relative importance of music with that of other art forms in cul ture 2. (D) Its pervasiveness in African culture hindered its effectiveness in minimizin g the impact of slavery. the phrase "isolated social domain" refers to (A) African music in relation to contemporary culture as a whole (B) music as it may be perceived in non-African cultures (C) a feature of African music that aided in trans mitting African cultural valu es (D) an aspect of the African cultural legacy (E) the influence of music on contemporary culture 3. in the view above. (B) It was more important in the development of African religious life than in o ther areas of culture. These studies suggest that species frequently ta e advantage of the ph ysics of pollen motion by generating specific aerodynamic environments within th e immediate vicinity of their female reproductive organs. wind-pollinated plants have. III. a number of features that are characteristic of wind-pollinated plants reduce pollen waste.It is the morphology of these organs that dictates the pattern of airflow disturbances through which po llen must travel. (E) Its isolation from the economic domains of life enabled it to survive the de structive impact of slavery. However. African music was similar to all other traditions of music in that it origin ated in a total vision of life. many wind-pollinated species fail to release p ollen when wind speeds are low or when humid conditions prevail. (C) It was developed in response to the loss of political and economic systems. According to the author. (A) I only (B) II only (C) I and II only (D) II and III only (E) I. compensated for the ensuing loss of pollen through happenstance by v irtue of producing an amount of pollen that is one to three orders of magnitude greater than the amount produced by species pollinated by insects. Which of the following statements concerning the function of African music ca n be inferred from the passage? (A) It preserved cultural values because it was thoroughly integrated into the l ives of the people. II. 4. Slavery stripped the slaves of their political and economic systems. so that the ultimate production of ne w seeds is assured at the expense of producing much more pollen than is actually used. For example. pollination by wind has been viewed as a reproductive process mar ed by random events in which the vagaries of the wind are compensated for by th e generation of vast quantities of pollen. scholars would err in drawing which of the following conclusions? I. In line 9. Because the potential hazards pollen grains are subject to as they are tr ansported over long distances are enormous.

Pro vided that these surfaces are strategically located.wher e the female reproductive organs of conifers are must be careful about attributing morphology to adaptation. A complete resol ution of the question is as yet impossible since adaptation must be evaluated fo r each species within its own unique functional context. (A) II only (B) III only (C) I and II only (D) I and III only       . Therefore.rangement o ccurs in a number of non-wind-pollinated plant lineages and is regarded as a cha racteristic of vascular plants. the consequences of this co mbination can significantly increase the pollen-capture efficiency of a female r eproductive organ. these patterns cannot b e viewed as an adaptation to wind pollination because the spiral ar.The amount of pollen released increases on a rainy day.According to the passage. 1. is important to the pr oduction of air-flow patterns that spiral over the cone's surfaces.the"aerodynamic environments" mentioned in line 23.The release can be affected by certain environmental factors. However. w hen they are produced. while evidence of such evolutionary adaptations does exist in some speci es. thereby pass ing airborne pollen from one scale to the next. the spiral arrangement is not li ely to be the result of a direct ad aptation to wind pollination. II. However. For example. The author suggests that explanations of wind pollination that emphasize the production of vast quantities of pollen to compensate for the randomness of the pollination process are (A) debatable and misleading (B) ingenious and convincing (C) accurate but incomplete (D) intriguing but controversial (E) plausible but unverifiable 3. A critical question that remains to be answered is whether the morphological att ributes of the female reproductive organs of wind-pollinated species are evoluti onary adaptations to wind pollination or are merely fortuitous. it must be sai d that. III. as a whole. true statements about the release of pollen by windpollinated plants include which of the following? I.According to the passage.Pollen is sometimes not released by plants when there is little wind.The author of the passage is primarily concerned with discussing (A) the current debate on whether the morphological attributes of wind-pollinate d plants are evolutionary adaptations (B) the inds of airflow patterns that permit windpollinated plants to capture p ollen most efficiently (C) the ways in which the reproductive processes of wind-pollinated plants are c ontrolled by random events (D) a recently proposed explanation of a way in which wind-pollinated plants red uce pollen waste (E) a specific morphological attribute that permits one species of wind-pollinat ed plant to capture pollen 2. of which conifers are only one ind.e with the physical properties of a species' pollen to produce a species-specifi c pattern of pollen collision on the surfaces of female reproductive organs. are primarily determined by the (A) presence of insects near the plant (B) physical properties of the plant's pollen (C) shape of the plant's female reproductive organs (D) amount of pollen generated by the plant (E) number of seeds produced by the plant 4. the spiral arrangement of scale-bract complexes on ovule-bearing pine cones.

6. and fundamentally altered their position in society. when women began to enter factories. (E)Demonstrated that the morphological attributes of the female reproductive org ans of wind-pollinated plants are usually evolutionary adaptations to wind polli nation. a French politician. In the nineteenth century. (C)Grasses. The passage suggests that the recent studies cited in lines 19-21 have not do ne which of the following? (A)Made any distinctions between different species of wind-pollinated plants.(E) I.Which of the following. (B)The female reproductive organs of plants often have a stic y surface that all ows them to trap airborne pollen systematically. (D)Rain showers often wash airborne pollen out of the air before it ever reaches an appropriate plant. is li ely to have been the ind of evidence used to support the view described in the first paragraph? (A)Wind speeds need not be very low for windpollinated plants to fail to release pollen. Jules Simon. (C)Indicated the general range within which plantgenerated airflow disturbances are apt to occur. II. generate specific aerodynamic environments withi n the immediate vicinity of their reproductive organs. (E) The airflow patterns over the cone's surfaces could be shown to be produced by such arrangements. (B)Considered the physical properties of the pollen that is produced by wind-pol linated plants. It can be inferred from the passage that the claim that the spiral arrangemen t of scale-bract complexes on an ovule-bearing pine cone is an adaptation to win d pollination would be more convincing if which of the following were true? (A) Such an arrangement occurred only in windpollinated plants. and III 5. 7. warned             . if nown. KEYS: Passage Passage Passage Passage 1: 2: 3: 4: ADCDA ED ACCC CBAB DCCDE AD ?? > GRE > ?? ?6?? Passage 1 It is frequently assumed that the mechanization of wor has a revolutionary effect on the lives of the people who operate the new machines and on the society into which the machines have been introduced. (B) Such an arrangement occurred in vascular plants as a whole. (5) it has been suggested that the employment of women in industry too them out of the household. their traditional sphere. (D) The number of bracts could be shown to have increased over time. (E)The density and size of an airborne pollen grain are of equal importance in d etermining whether that grain will be captured by a plant. (D)Included investigations of the physics of pollen motion and its relationship to the efficient capture of pollen by the female reproductive organs of wind-pol linated well as conifers. For example. (C) Such an arrangement could be shown to be beneficial to pollen release.

(D) The mechanization of wor creates whole new classes of jobs that did not pre viously exist. and the vacuum cleaner have not resulted in equally dramatic social changes in (25)women's economic position or in the prevailing evaluation of women's wor .                               . into public industry. now seriously question this assumption of transforming power. Recent historical investigation has led to a major revision of the notion that technology is always (55)inherently revolutionary in its effects on society. (C) Mechanization has caused the nature of women's wor to change since the Indu strial Revolution. the sewing machine. predicted that women would be liberated from the "social. jobs that require relatively low levels of s ill and offer women little opportunity for advancement all persist. single women as domestics. Mechanization may even have slowed any change in the traditional position of women both in the labor mar et and in the home 1. previously seen as an apprenticeship for beginning managers. The employment of young women in textile mills during the Industrial Revolution was largely an extension of an older pattern of employment of young. lower pay for women (50)as a group." The (35)increase in the numbers of married women employed outside the home in the twentieth century had less to do with the mechanization of housewor and an increase in leisure time for these women than it did with their own economic necessity and with high marriage rates that (40)shran the available pool of single women wor ers. thenceforth considered "women's wor . the typewriter. Which of the following statements best summarizes the main idea of the passag e? (A) The effects of the mechanization of women's wor have not borne out the freq uently held assumption that new technology is inherently revolutionary. however.(10)that by doing so. in many cases. from administrative wor that in the 1880's created a new class of "deadend" jobs. legal. It was not (30)the change in office technology. Friedrich Engels. but rather the separation of secretarial wor . Historians. while women's household labor remains demanding. but they agreed that it would transform women's lives. the only women employers would hire. women would give up their femininity. the conditions under which women wor have changed little since before the Industrial Revolution: the segregation of occupations by gender. moving from the household to the office or (45)the factory. Fundamentally. however." Observers thus differed concerning the social desirability of mechanization's effects. (B) Recent studies have shown that mechanization revolutionizes a society's trad itional values and the customary roles of its members. particularly those investigating the history (20)of women. previously. They conclude that such dramatic technological innovations as the spinning jenny. and economic subordination" of the family by technological developments that made possible the recruitment of "the whole female (15)sex . and later becoming mostly white-collar instead of blue-collar wor . Women's wor has changed conside-rably in the past 200 years.

(E) They hired women only when qualified men were not available to fill the open positions. (E) They oppose the further mechanization of wor .2. their wor has not had an impact on most historian s' current assumptions concerning the revolutionary effect of technology in the wor place. on the a verage. 6. The passage states that. t he majority of women's wor was done in which of the following settings? (A) Textile mills (B) Private households (C) Offices (D) Factories (E) Small shops 4. (B) They tended to employ single rather than married women. which. It can be inferred from the passage that. The author mentions all of the following inventions as examples of dramatic t echnological innovations EXCEPT the (A) sewing machine (B) vacuum cleaner (C) typewriter (D) telephone (E) spinning jenny 3. before the twentieth century. It can be inferred from the passage that the author most probably believes wh ich of the following to be true concerning those historians who study the histor y of women? (A) Their wor provides insights important to those examining social phenomena a ffecting the lives of both sexes. (D) While highly interesting.                                 . It can be inferred front the passage that the author would consider which of the following to be an indication of a fundamental alteration in the conditions of women's wor ? (A) Statistics showing that the majority of women now occupy white-collar positi ons (B) Interviews with married men indicating that they are now doing some househol d tas s (C) Surveys of the labor mar et documenting the recent creation of a new class o f jobs in electronics in which women wor ers outnumber men four to one (D) Census results showing that wor ing women's wages and salaries are. before the Industrial Revolution. (C) They employed women in only those jobs that were related to women's traditio nal household wor . tends to perpetuate existing inequalities in society. (C) Because they concentrate only on the role of women in the wor place. Which of the following best describes the function of the concluding sentence of the passage? (A)It sums up the general points concerning the mechanization of wor made in th e passage as a whole. they dr aw more reliable conclusions than do other historians. (D) They resisted technological innovations that would radically change women's roles in the family. as high as those of wor ing men 5. according to their fin dings. (B) Their wor can only be used cautiously by scholars in other disciplines. which of the following was true of many employers? (A) They did not employ women in factories. (B)It draws a conclusion concerning the effects of the mechanization of wor whi ch goes beyond the evidence presented in the passage as a whole. 7.

more survived at temperatures of 42°C than at 37°C. (C) Warm-blooded animals are more comfortableat an environmental temperature of 37°C than they are at a temperature of 42°C. apparently increasing stress on the (5)infected organism? It has long been nown that the level of serum iron in animals fills during infection. however. Cold-blooded animals were used to test this hypothesis because their body (15)temperature can be controlled in the laboratory. When (20)animals at 42°C were injected with an iron solution. (B) Warm-blooded animals require more iron in periods of stress than they do at other times.) Warm-blooded animals have elaborate physiological controls to maintain constant body temperature (in humans. Garibaldi first suggested a relationship between fever and iron. (C) That only iron bound to other substances can be used by bacteria. hydrophilia.The passage is primarily concerned with attempts to determine (A) the role of siderophores in the synthesis of serum iron (B) new treatments for infections that are caused by A.(C)It restates the point concerning technology made in the sentence immediately preceding it. (D) That there is a relationship between thesynthesis of siderophores in bacteri a of the genus Salmonella and environmental temperature. (E) In warm-blooded animals.         . in turn. fever would ma e it more difficult for an infecting bacterium to acquire iron and thus to multiply. 37°C). (E) That bacteria of the genus Salmonella require iron as a nutrient. (D)It qualifies the author's agreement with scholars who argue for a major revis ion in the assessment of the impact of mechanization on society. even though healthy animals prefer the lower temperature. 1. Research to determine whether similar phenomena occur in warm-blooded animals is sorely needed.Which of the following can be inferred about warm-blooded animals solely on th e basis of information in the passage? (A) The body temperatures of warm-bloodedanimals cannot be easily controlled in the laboratory. mortality rates increased significantly. Why then during sic ness should temperature rise.3°C. which. infections that lead to fever are usually traceable to bacteria. 3. (D) In warm-blooded animals. He found that microbial synthesis of siderophoressubstances that bind iron-in bacteria of the genus (10)Salmonella declined at environmental temperatures above 37°C and stopped at 40. Garibaldi determined which of the following? (A) That serum iron is produced through microbial synthesis (B) That microbial synthesis of siderophores in warm-blooded animals is more eff icient at higher temperatures. Passage 2 (This passage is excerpted from an article that was pulished in 1982.According to the passage. Kluger reported that of iguanas infected with the potentially lethal bacterium A. hydrophilia (C) the function of fever in warm-blooded animals (D) the mechanisms that ensure constant body temperature (E) iron utilization in cold-blooded animals 2. ma e iron available to the animal. bacteria are respon-sible for the production of sid erophores. Thus.

more generally. a projection of modern concerns onto past events." distinct from and sitting in judgment on such pursuits as theology and science 15) turns out. When. albeit discrectly. however. Metaphysics. the general explanation of 35) what it means to now something. as modern philosophers do. lies in a serious misinterpretation of the past." They were fighting. when decline in ecclesiastical power over scholarship and changes in the nature of science provo ed the final separation of 30) philosophy from both. that philosophy's core interest should be epistemology. Without the idea of epistemology. Modern philosophers now trace that notion bac at least to Descartes and Spinoza. since antiquity. to open the intellec tual world to the new science and to liberate intellectual life from ecclesiastical philosophy and envisioned their wor as contributing to the growth. distinct from and superior to any particular intellectual discipline. the survival of philosophy in an age of modern science is hard to imagine. in the seventeenth century. philosophy's traditional core-considered as the most general 45) description of how the heavens and the earth are put together-had been rendered almost completely mean-                   . 10) The basis for this view. are basic human questions whose tentative philosophical solutions have served as the necessary foundations on which all other intellectual speculation has rested. on close examination. but of research in mathematics and physics. such as theology or science.4. by Kant. This lin between philosophical interests and scientific practice persisted until the nineteenth century. as proposing a new and better philosophy. The idea of an autonomous discipline called "philosophy. they did not thin of themselves. The demarcation of philosophy from science was facilitated by the development in the early nineteenth century of a new notion. but it was not explicitly articulated until the late eighteenth century. Such philosoph5) ical concerns as the mind-body problem or. not of philos25) ophy. the nature of human nowledge they believe. but rather as 20) furthering "the warfare between science and theology. which of the following. is li ely to be the most effective treatment for warm-blooded animals with bacterial infe ctions? (A) Administering a medication that lowers the animals' body temperature (B) Injecting the animals with an iron solution (C) Administering a medication that ma es serum iron unavailable to bacteria (D) Providing the animals with reduced-iron diets (E) Keeping the animals in an environment with temperatures higher than 37°C PASSAGE 3 Present-day philosophers usually envision their discipline as an endeavor that has been. assuming each is possible. Descartes and Hobbes rejected medieval philosophy.If it were to be determined that "similar phenomena occur in warm-blooded anim als" (lines 21-22). to be of quite recent origin. and did not become built into the structure of academic institutions 40) and the standard self-descriptions of philosophy professors until the late nineteenth century.

According to the author. (B) The role of academic institutions in shaping metaphysical philosophy grew en ormously during the nineteenth century. (E) The role of philosophy in guiding intellectual speculation has gradually bee n usurped by science. (D) The status of philosophy as an independent intellectual pursuit is a relativ ely recent development. According to the passage. philosophy became "primary" no longer in the sense of "highest" but in the sense of "underlying". 1. 2. (C) Nineteenth-century philosophers carried out a program of investigation expli citly laid out by Descartes and Spinoza. Kant. After Kant. The author of the passage implies which of the following in discussing the de velopment of philosophy during the nineteenth century? (A) Nineteenth-century philosophy too science as its model for understanding th e bases of nowledge. however. (55) philosophers were able to reinterpret seventeenth-and eighteenth-century thin ers as attempting to discover "How is our nowledge possible?" and to project this question bac even on the ancients. philosophy became distinct from science and theology during the (A) ancient period (B) medieval period (C) seventeenth century (D) nineteenth century (E) twentieth century 4. foundational discipline. (C) The set of problems of primary importance to philosophers has remained relat ively constant since antiquity. (D) Kant had an overwhelming impact on the direction of nineteenth-century philo sophy                 . and thus to transform the notion of philosophy as "queen of sciences" into the new notion of philosophy as a separate.ingless by the spectacular progress of physics. managed to replace metaphysics with epis(50) temology. present-day philosophers believe that the mind-body problem is an issue that (A) has implications primarily for philosophers (B) may be affected by recent advances in science (C) has shaped recent wor in epistemology (D) has little relevance to present-day philosophy (E) has served as a basis for intellectual speculation since antiquity 3. Which of the following best expresses the author's main point? (A) Philosophy's overriding interest in basic human questions is a legacy primar ily of the wor of Kant. The author suggests that Descartes' support for the new science of the sevent eenth century can be characterized as (A) pragmatic and hypocritical (B) cautious and inconsistent (C) daring and opportunistic (D) intense but fleeting (E) strong but prudent 5. (B) Philosophy was deeply involved in the seventeenth century warfare between sc ience and religion. by focusing philosophy on the problem of nowledge.

For glassy metals to be formed. (30)Bernal of the University of London.(E) Nineteenth-century philosophy made major advances in understanding the natur e of nowledge. The resulting dense.The difference between the two is in the inetics or rate of formation of the crystalline structure. the molten metal must be (25)cooled extremely rapidly so that crystallization is suppressed. the natural long-term tendency for both types of materials is to (15)assume the crystalline structure. 7. when cooled. D. There is a growing interest among theoretical and applied (5) researchers ali e in the structural properties of these materials. At room temperature. molten (10)nonmetallic glass. the inetics favors rapid formation of a crystal line structure. The structure of glassy metals is thought to be similar to that of liquid metals. (E) History should be examined for the lessons it can provide in understanding c urrent problems. When a molten metal or metallic alloy is cooled to a solid. or glassy metals. random-pac ed structure was the basis for many attempts to model the structure of glassy metals.forming materials. The primary function of the passage as a whole is to (A) compare two competing models (B) analyze a difficult theory (C) present new evidence for a theory (D) correct an erroneous belief by describing its origins (E) resolve a long-standing theoretical controversy PASSAGE 4 The intensive wor of materials scientists and solidstate physicists has given rise to a class of solids nown as amorphous metallic alloys. which is controlled by factors such as the nature of the chemical bonding and the ease with which atoms move relative to each other. One of the first attempts to model the structure of a liquid was that by the late J. in (20)metals. With which of the following statements concerning the writing of history woul d the author of the passage be most li ely to agree (A) History should not emphasize the role played by ideas over the role played b y individuals. (C) History should not be focused primarily on those past events most relevant t o the present. 6. who pac ed hard spheres into a rubber vessel in such a way as to obtain the maximum possible density. (B) History should not be distorted by attributing present-day consciousness to historical figures. Thus. whereas in nonmetallic glasses the rate of formation is so slow that almost any cooling rate is sufficient to result in an amorphous structure. (35) Calculations of the density of alloys based on                     . do not assume a crystalline structure. In contrast. (D) History should be concerned with describing those aspects of the past that d iffer most from those of the present. but instead retain a structure somewhat li e that of the liquid--an amorphous structure. a crystalline structure is formed that depends on the particular alloy composition.

One difference between real alloys and the hard spheres used in Bernal models is that the components of an alloy have different sizes. The smaller metalloid atoms of the alloy might fit into holes in the dense. In usual crystalline materials. 1. one finds an inverse relation between the two properties. The author is primarily concerned with discussing (A) crystalline solids and their behavior at different temperatures (B) molten materials and the inetics of the formation of their crystalline stru cture (C) glassy metals and their structural characteristics (D) metallic alloys and problems in determining their density (E) amorphous materials and their practical utilization 2. (45)based on two sizes of spheres are more appropriate for a binary alloy. random-pac ed structure of the larger metal atoms. such as alloys of (40)palladium and silicon. The author's attitude toward the prospects for he economic utilization of gla ssy metals is one of (A) disinterest (B) impatience (C) optimism (D) apprehension           . One residual obstacle to (55)practical applications that is li ely to be overcome is the fact that glassy metals will crystallize at relatively low temperatures when heated slightly. although small discrepancies remained. phosphorus. The author's speculation about the appropriateness of models using spheres of two sizes for binary alloys would be strongly supported if models using spheres of two sizes yielded (A) values for density identical to values yielded by one-sphere models using th e smaller spheres only (B)values for density agreeing nearly perfectly with experimentally determined v alues (C)values for density agreeing nearly perfectly with values yielded by models us ing spheres of three sizes (D) significantly different values for density depending on the size ratio betwe en the two inds of spheres used (E) the same values for density as the values for appropriately chosen models th at use only medium-sized spheres 4.and carbon.Bernal-type models of the alloys metal component agreed fairly well with the experimentally determined values from measurements on alloys consisting of a noble metal together with a metalloid. One of the most promising properties of glassy (50)metals is their high strength combined with high malleability. or alloys consisting of iron. whereas for many practical applications simultaneous presence of both properties is desirable. The author implies that the rate at which the molten materials discussed in t he passage are cooled is a determinant of the (A) chemical composition of the resulting solids (B) strength of the chemical bonds that are formed (C) inetics of the materials' crystalline structure (D) structure the materials assume (E) stability of the materials' crystalline structure 3. for example. so that mode.

These difficulties suggest that we should by wary of indiscriminately using fluoride. (5) over 4 milligrams per day) over many years can lead to s eletal fluorosis. (E) The former is a fair approximation of the latter. molten nonmetallic g lasses assume a crystalline structure rather than an amorphous structure only if they are cooled (A) very evenly. it is much harder to estimate how much a given population ingests from foodstuffs because of the wide (15)variations in individual eating habits and in fluoride concentrations in foodstuffs. According to the passage. 1. In humans excessive inta e ( for adults. socially beneficial. regardless of the rate (B) rapidly. even in the form of fluoride-containing dental products. fluoride is more toxic than ozone. and in some plant species. as it is presented in the p assage? (A) The latter is an illustrative example of the former. Which of the following best describes the relationship between the structure of liquid metals and the structure of glassy metals. the author is primarily concerned with               . (C) The former is a structural elaboration of the latter. And while fluoride inta e from water and air can be evaluated relatively easily. sulfur dioxide. the (10)precise lower limit at which the fluoride content of bone becomes toxic is still undetermined. It can be inferred from the passage that. or pesticides.(E) s epticism 5. fluoride's toxic properties have been nown for a century. In the passage. (D) The former provides an instructive contrast to the latter. random-pac ed structure (D) What the alloy consists of and in what ratios (E) At what temperature the molten alloy becomes solid 6. followed by gentle heating (C) extremely slowly (D) to room temperature (E) to extremely low temperatures ??: Passage Passage Passage Passage 1: 2: 3: 4: CBACE DD BAEB DEDED BD CDBCD EC ?? > GRE > ?? ?7?? PASSAGE 1 The success of fluoride in combating dental decay is well established and. a well-defined s eletal disorder.For example. which of the following determines the crystalline s tructure of a metallic alloy? (A) At what rate the molten alloy is cooled (B) How rapid the rate of formation of the crystalline phase is (C) How the different-sized atoms fit into a dense. (B) The latter is a large-scale version of the former. theoretically. However. without a doubt. Some important questions remain. 7.

(C) In general the effect is not li ely to be as harmful as the effect of exposu re to sulfur dioxide. reactions with hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust) that exceed legally established limits. carbon-carbon bonds. All of these alternatives are carbon. (D) An inta e of 4 milligrams over a long period of time usually leads to a s el etal disorder in humans. if and . The passage suggests that it would be easier to calculate fluoride inta e fro m food if (A) adequate diets were available for most people. recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious pollutants fr om individual motor vehicles. (E) An inta e of slightly more than 4 milligrams for only a few months is not li ely to be life-threatening. involves a more complex series of react ions. and ozone (generated by photochemical.based fuels whose molecules are smaller an d simpler than those of gasoline. The passage suggests which of the following about the effect of fluoride on h umans? (A) The effect is more easily measured than is the effect of exposure to pestici des. and the hydrocarbons they do emit are less li ely to generate ozone. The combust ion of larger molecules. alternative fuels do have drawbac s. which have multiple carbon-carbon bonds. more than 100 cities in the United States still have levels of carbon monoxide. or me thanol. Compressed natural gas would require that vehicles have a set of heavy fuel tan s-a serious liability in terms of performance and fuel efficiency----                           . in part because they have fewer . liquefied petroleum gas. (B) The effect of fluoride inta e from water and air is relatively difficult to monitor.(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) analyzing and categorizing comparing and contrasting synthesizing and predicting describing and cautioning summarizing and reinterpreting 2. PASSAGE 2 Although. further reductions in vehicle emissions-short of a massive shift away from the private a utomobile-is to replace conventional diesel fuel and gasoline with cleaner-burni ng fuels such as compressed natural gas. One function of the second paragraph of the passage is to (A) raise doubts about fluoride's toxicity (B) introduce the issue of fluoride's toxicity (C) differentiate a toxic from a nontoxic amount of fluoride (D) indicate that necessary nowledge of fluoride remains incomplete (E) discuss the foodstuffs that are most li ely to contain significant concentra tions of fluoride 4. ethanol. These molecules burn more cleanly than gasoline. These reactions increase the probability of incomplete combustion and are more li ely to release uncombusted and photochemically active hydrocarbon compou nds into the atmosphere. On the other hand. realization that the only effective way to achieve. the number of such vehicles has been steadily incr easing consequently. (B) individual eating habits were more uniform (C) the fluoride content of food was more varied (D) more people were aware of the fluoride content of food (E) methods for measuring the fluoride content of food were more generally agree d on 3. There is a growing. particulate matter.

the low cost of which is one of its attractive features.and liquefied petroleum gas faces fundamental limits on supply. Yet much of the criticism i s based on the use of "gasoline clone" vehicles that do not incorporate even the simplest design improvements th at are made possible with the use of methanol. the most serious urban a ir pollutant. It is true. Li e any alternative fuel. The passage suggests which of the following about air pollution? (A) Further attempts to reduce emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles will not help lower urban air-pollution levels. (D) Pollutants emitted by gasoline-fueled vehicles are not the most critical sou rce of urban air pollution. Methanol's most attractive feat ure. on the other hand. since methanol. illegal dumping continues to increase. (C) Few serious attempts have been made to reduce the amount of pollutants emitt ed by gasoline-fueled vehicles. they would need comparatively less fuel. (B) Although a state passes strict laws to limit the type of toxic material that can be disposed of in public landfills. is that it can reduce by about 90 percent the vehicle emissions that form ozone. other things being equal. but it is currently about t wice as expensive as methanol.             . have important advantages over other ca rbon-based alternative fuels: they have a higher energy content per volume and w ould require minimal changes in the existing networ for distributing motor fuel . (D) discussing a problem and arguing in favor of one solution to it (E) outlining a plan of action to solve a problem and discussing the obstacles b loc ing that plan. V ehicles incorporating only the simplest of the engine improvements that methanol ma es feasible would still con tribute to an immediate lessening of urban air pollution. 1. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with (A) countering a flawed argument that dismisses a possible solution to a problem (B) reconciling contradictory points of view about the nature of a problem (C) identifying the strengths of possible solutions to a problem. the fuel tan would have to be somewhat larger and heavier. that a given volume of methanol provides o nly about one-half of the energy that gasoline and diesel fuel do. the town's tax rate exceeds that of other towns in the surrounding area. (E) gasoline is a carbon-based fuel 3. Ethanol is commonly used as a gasoline supplement. 4. methanol has its critics. however.fueled vehicles could be designed to be much m ore efficient than "gasoline clone" vehicles fueled with methanol. incomplete combustion is more li ely to occur with gasoline than with an alternative fuel because (A) the combustion of gasoline releases photochemically active hydrocarbons (B) the combustion of gasoline involves an intricate series of reactions (C) gasoline molecules have a simple molecular structure (D) gasoline is composed of small molecules. Which of the following most closely parallels the situation described in the first sentence of the passage? (A) Although a town reduces its public services in order to avoid a tax increase . 2. for example. According to the passage. However. Ethanol and methanol. (E) Reductions in pollutants emitted by individual vehicles have been offset by increases in pollution from sources other than gasoline-fueled vehicles. (B) Attempts to reduce the pollutants that an individual gasoline-fueled vehicle emits have been largely unsuccessful.

by limitations of available space. (D) Its use would ma e design improvements in individual vehicles feasible. (E) Although a country reduces the speed limit on its national highways. The creative shaping proce ss of a technologist's mind can be seen in nearly every artifact that exists. What would be the shape of the combustion chamber? Where should the valves be placed? Should it have a long or short piston? Such q uestions have a range of answers that are supplied by experience. that has fixed the outlines and filled in the details of our material surroundings. an d roc ets exist not because of geometry or thermodynamics but because they were first a picture in the minds of those who built them. 5. their dimensions and appearance. It can be inferred that the author of the passage most li ely regards the cri ticism of methanol in the last paragraph as (A) flawed because of the assumptions on which it is based (B) inapplicable because of an inconsistency in the critics' arguments. (B) It could be provided to consumers through the existing motor fuel distributi on system. a technologist might impress individual ways of nonverbal thin ing on the machine by continually using an intuitive sen se of rightness and fitness. (D) Although a country attempts to increase the sale of domestic goods by adding a tax to the price of imported goods. the town's water supplies continue to dwindle because of a steady increase in the total pop ulation of the town. and engineers---using non-scientific modes of thought. cathedrals. (C) misguided because of its exclusively technological focus (D) inaccurate because it ignores consumers' concerns (E) invalid because it reflects the personal bias of the critics PASSAGE 3 Many objects in daily use have clearly been influenced by science. then. It can be inferred from the passage that a vehicle specifically designed to u se methanol for fuel would (A) be somewhat lighter in total body weight than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline (B) be more expensive to operate than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasolin e (C) have a larger and more powerful engine than a conventional vehicle fueled wi th gasoline (D) have a larger and heavier fuel tan than a "gasoline clone" vehicle fueled w ith methanol (E) average more miles per gallon than a "gasoline clone" vehicle fueled with me thanol 7. nonverbal process. but the nonscientific component of design remains primary. inventors. In the development of Western technol ogy. by physical re quirements. may depend on scientif ic calculations. the num ber of fatalities caused by automobile accidents continues to increase. they are dealt with i n the mind by a visual.(C) Although a town's citizens reduce their individual use of water. Some decisions. Many features and qualities of the objects that a technologist thin s a bout cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions. were determined by technologist s artisans. such as wall thic ness and pin diameter. and not least by a sense of form. should be an essential element in engineering curricula. (E) Its use would substantially reduce ozone levels. N                 . but their for m and function. 6. Fo r example. by and large. in designing a diesel engine. it has been non-verbal thin ing. Pyramids. The author describes which of the following as the most appealing feature of methanol? (A) It is substantially less expensive than ethanol. (C) It has a higher energy content than other alternative fuels. designers. Design courses. the sale of imported goods within the cou ntry continues to increase.

it is the technologist who is best equipped to repair it. It can be inferred that the author thin s engineering curricula are (A) strengthened when they include courses in design (B) wea ened by the substitution of physical science courses for courses designe d to develop mathematical s ills (C) strong because nonverbal thin ing is still emphasized by most of the courses (D) strong despite the errors that graduates of such curricula have made in the development of automatic control systems (E) strong despite the absence of nonscientific modes of thin ing 3. Which of the following statements would best serve as an introduction to the passage? (A) The assumption that the nowledge incorporated in technological developments must be derived from science ignores the many nonscientific decisions made by t echnologists. arrangement. not the scientist. Which of the following statements best illustrates the main point of lines 128 of the passage? (A) When a machine li e a rotary engine malfunctions. we c an expect to encounter silly but costly errors occurring in advanced engineering systems. the only college students with the requisite abilities were no t engineering students. (B) Each component of an automobile-for example. early models of high-speed railroad cars loaded with soph isticated controls were unable to operate in a snowstorm because a fan suc ed sn ow into the electrical system. (B) Analytical thought is no longer a vital component in the success of technolo gical development. a central mechanism in engineering design. and texture. Absurd random failures that plague automatic cont rol systems are not merely trivial aberrations. For example. but rather students attending architectural schools. the engine or the fuel tan has a shape that has been scientifically determined to be best suited to that compo nent's function (C) A telephone is a complex instrument designed by technologists using only non verbal thought (D) The designer of a new refrigerator should consider the designs of other refr igerators before deciding on its final form. the author is primarily concerned with (A) identifying the inds of thin ing that are used by technologists (B) stressing the importance of nonverbal thin ing in engineering design (C) proposing a new role for nonscientific thin ing in the development of techno logy (D) contrasting the goals of engineers with those of technologists (E) criticizing engineering schools for emphasizing science in engineering curri cula 2. the stoc -in-trade of the artist. involves perceptio ns. they are a reflection of the cha os that results when design is assumed to be primarily a problem in mathematics. It courses in design.onverbal thin ing. In the passage. But it is paradoxical that when the staff of the Historic American Engineering Record wished to have drawings made of machin es and histoisometric views of industrial processes for its rical record of Amer ican engineering. which in a strongly analytical engineering curriculum prov ide the bac ground required for practical problemsolving. are not provided. 1." nonverbal thought is sometimes seen as a primitive stage in the development of cognitive processes and inferior to verbal or mathematical thought.                                       . the tendency has been to lose sigh t of the important role played by scientific thought in ma ing decisions about f orm. (E) The distinctive features of a suspension bridge reflect its designer's conce ptualization as well as the physical requirements of its site. 4. Because perceptive proc esses are not assumed to entail "hard thin ing. (C) As nowledge of technology has increased.

According to the passage.(D) A movement in engineering colleges toward a technician's degree reflects a d emand for graduates who have the nonverbal reasoning ability that was once commo n among engineers. scholars must be well trained in historical                         . The consequences of this neglect of traditional scholarship are particularly unfortunate for the (5) study of women writers. (E) engineering students were not trained to ma e the type of drawings needed to record the development of their own discipline 6. random failures in automatic control systems are "n ot merely trivial aberrations" because (A) automatic control systems are designed by engineers who have little practica l experience in the field (B) the failures are characteristic of systems designed by engineers relying too heavily on concepts in mathematics (C) the failures occur too often to be ta en lightly (D) designers of automatic control systems have too little training in the analy sis of mechanical difficulties (E) designers of automatic control systems need more help from scientists who ha ve a better understanding of the analytical problems to be solved before such sy stems can wor efficiently 7. The author calls the predicament faced by the Historic American Engineering R ecord "paradoxical" most probably because (A) the publication needed drawings that its own staff could not ma e (B) architectural schools offered but did not require engineering design courses for their students (C) college students were qualified to ma e the drawings while practicing engine ers were not (D) the drawings needed were so complicated that even students in architectural schools had difficulty ma ing them. 5. The author uses the example of the early models of high-speed railroad cars p rimarily to (A) wea en the argument that modern engineering systems have major defects becau se of an absence of design courses in engineering curricula (B) support the thesis that the number of errors in modern engineering systems i s li ely to increase (C) illustrate the idea that courses in design are the most effective means for reducing the cost of designing engineering systems (D) support the contention that a lac of attention to the nonscientific aspects of design results in poor conceptualization by engineers (E) wea en the proposition that mathematics is a necessary part of the study of design ??: Passage 1: DBDE Passafe 2: CBACE EA Passage 3: BAEAE BD ?? > GRE > ???? GRE????? It is possible for students to obtain advanced degrees in English while nowing little or nothing about traditional scholarly methods. If the canon-the list of authors whose wor s are most widely taught-is ever to include more women.

Instead students were engaged in a collective effort to do original wor on a neglected eighteenth-century writer. establish (10)a sequence of editions. Griffith's wor presented a number of advantages for this particular pedagogical purpose. In addi(35)tion. This student was suitably (45)shoc ed and outraged to find its title transformed into A Wife in the Night in Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica. For example. the usual procedure of assigning a large number of small problems drawn from the entire range of historical periods was abandoned.scholarship and textual editing. and so on are bereft of crucial tools for revising the canon. as her continued productivity and favorable reviews demonstrate.The author of the passage suggests that which of the following is a disadvantage of the strategy employed in the experimental scholarly methods course? (A) Students were not given an opportunity to study women writers outside the canon.It can be inferred that the author of the passage con-                           . to give them an authentic experience of literary scholarship (25)and to inspire them to ta e responsibility for the quality of their own wor . serve to vaccinate the student ---I hope for a lifetime-against credulous use of reference sources. Griffith's play The Platonic Wife exists in three versions. an experimental version of the traditional scholarly methods course was designed to raise students' consciousness about the usefulness of (15)traditional learning for any modern critic or theorist. Elizabeth Griffith. To minimize the artificial aspects of the conventional course. because Griffith was successful in the eighteenth century. (C) Little scholarly wor has been done on the wor of Elizabeth Griffith. (E) Students were not given an opportunity to encounter certain sources of information that could prove useful in their future studies. First. (B) Students' original wor would not be appreciated by recognized scholars. a student studying Griffith's Wife in the Right obtained a first edition of the play and studied it for some wee s. locate rare boo s. thus students spent little time and effort mastering the literature and had a clear field for their own discoveries. Such experiences. enough to provide illustrations of editorial issues but not too many for beginning students to manage. (40) The range of Griffith's wor meant that each student could become the world's leading authority on a particular Griffith text. To address such concerns. 2. (D) Most of the students in the course had had little opportunity to study eighteenth-century literature. her exclusion from the canon and virtual disappearance from literary history also helped raise issues concerning the current canon. though this procedure has the obvious (20)advantage of at least superficially familiarizing students with a wide range of reference sources. the body of extant scholarship on Griffith was so tiny that it could all (30)be read in a day. Scholars who do not now how to read early manuscripts. inevitable and common in wor ing on a writer to whom so little attention has been paid. 1.

Still.The passage suggests that which of the following is true of scientific investigations of cycad pollination? (A) They have not yet produced any systematic evidence of wind pollination in cycads. their cells become less efficient and less able to replace damaged components. Nev(5) ertheless. (C) The degree to which the ovules of female cycads are accessible to airborne pollen (D) The male cone's attractiveness to potential insect pollinators (E) The amount of pollen produced by the male cone 4. palmli e tropical plants. for example. most of which is probably dispersed by wind. The male cone of Cycas circinalis. For example. the blood vessels (5) become increasingly rigid. until recently.siders traditional scholarly methods courses to be (A) irrelevant to the wor of most students (B) inconsequential because of their narrow focus (C) unconcerned about the accuracy of reference sources (D) too superficial to establish important facts about authors (E) too wide-ranging to approximate genuine scholarly activity Experiments show that insects can function as pollinators of cycads. 3. (B) They have so far confirmed anecdotal reports concerning the wind pollination of cycads. sheds almost (10)100 cubic centimeters of pollen. anecdotal reports of wind pollination in cycads cannot be ignored.According to the passage. clouds of which are released from some of the larger cones. the lungs and the heart muscle expand less successfully. since only in this genus are the ovules surrounded by a loose aggregation of megasporophylls rather than by a tight cone. (E) They have usually concentrated on describing the physical characteristics of the cycad reproductive system. many male cycad cones are comparatively small and thus produce far less pollen. the structure of most female cycad cones seems inconsistent with direct pollination by wind. As people age. cycads removed from their native habitats-and therefore from insects native to those habitats-are usually infertile. (C) They have. rare. At the same time their tissues stiffen. produced little evidence in favor of insect pollination in cycads. Furthermore. Only in the Cycas (15)genus are the females' ovules accessible to airborne pollen. The structure of cycads male cones is quite consistent with the wind dispersal of pollen. (D) They have primarily been carried out using cycads transplanted from their native habitats. the size of a male cycad cone directly influences which of the following? (A) The arrangement of the male cone's structural elements (B) The mechanism by which pollen is released from the male cone. Furthermore. and the ligaments and tendons     .

This nonenzymatic glycosylation of certain proteins (20)has been understood by food chemists for decades. researchers have discovered that a process long nown to discolor and toughen (10)foods may also contribute to age. into new glucose-derived structures. Few investigators would attribute such diverse effects to a single cause. 5. although few biologists recognized until recently that the same steps could ta e place in the body. but still reversible. Although (40)no one has yet satisfactorily described the origin of all such bridges between proteins. substance nown as an Amadori product. (B) It paradoxically both helps and hinders the                         . the major protein in the lens of the eye. The researchers also discovered that the pigmented cross-lin s in human (55)cataracts have the brownish color and fluorescence characteristic of AGE's. In contrast. (45) In an attempt to lin this process with the development of cataracts (the browning and clouding of the lens of the eye as people age). This combination is unstable and quic ly rearranges itself into a stabler. researchers studied the effect of glucose on solutions of purified crystallin. many are also able to cross-lin adjacent proteins. Glucose-free solutions (50) remained clear. Nevertheless. the nonenzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any of several sites along any available peptide chain within a protein molecule.related impairment of both cells and tissues. suggesting that the molecules had become cross-lin ed. many investigators agree that extensive cross-lin ing of proteins probably contributes to the stiffening and loss of elasticity characteristic of aging tissues. but solutions with glucose caused the proteins to form clusters. These data suggest that nonenzymatic glycosylation of lens crystallins may contribute to cataract formation. More important for the body. some of its Amadori products slowly dehydrate and rearrange themselves yet again. whereby glucose becomes attached to proteins without the aid of enzymes. particularly ones that give structure to tissues and organs.With which of the following statements concerning the stiffening of aging tissues would the author most li ely agree? (A) It is caused to a large degree by an increased rate of cell multiplication. Nonenzymatic glycosylation begins when an aldehyde group (CHO) of glucose and an amino group (NH2) of a protein are (25)attracted to each other. When enzymes attach glucose to proteins (enzymatic glycosylation). forming what is called a Schiff base within the protein. The clusters diffracted light. The molecules combine. That process is nonenzymatic glycosylation. (30) If a given protein persists in the body for months or years. Most AGE's are yellowish brown and fluorescent and have specific spectrographic properties. These can combine with various inds of molecules to form irreversible structures named advanced (35)glycosylation end products (AGE's). ma ing the solution opaque. they do so (15)at a specific site on a specific protein molecule for a specific purpose.tighten.

According to the passage. (C) It can be counteracted in part by increased ingestion of glucose-free foods.Which of the following best describes the function of the third paragraph of the passage (lines 19-29)? (A) It offers evidence that contradicts the findings described in the first two paragraphs. (C) It does not require the aid of enzymes to attach glucose to protein. (B) Proteins affected by the process are made unstable. (E) Its effectiveness depends heavily on the amount of environmental moisture. (D) It is exacerbated by increased enzymatic glycosylation.According to the passage. (D) It proceeds more quic ly when the food proteins have a molecular structure similar to that of crystallin proteins. (B) It requires a higher ratio of glucose to protein than glycosylation requires in the human body. which of the following is characteristic of enzymatic glycosylation of proteins? (A) AGE's are formed after a period of months or years. (E) It probably involves the nonenzymatic glycosylation of proteins. 6. 8.longevity of proteins in the human body. (B) It presents a specific example of the process discussed in the first two paragraphs. which of the following statements is true of Amadori products in proteins? (A) They are more plentiful in a dehydrated environment. (B) They are created through enzymatic glycosylation. (E) They are derived from AGE's 9. (E) Amino groups combine with aldehyde groups to form Schiff bases. (C) They are composed entirely of glucose molecules. (C) Glucose attachment impairs and stiffens tissues.According to the passage. (D) Glucose is attached to proteins for specific purposes. (E) It begins a detailed description of the process     . (C) It explains a problem that the researchers mentioned in the second paragraph have yet to solve. 7. (D) It evaluates the research discoveries described in the previous paragraph. which of the following statements is true of the process that discolors and toughens foods? (A) It ta es place more slowly than glycosylation in the human body. (D) They are derived from Schiff bases.

by its very contrast with its environ(40)ment. remembering in her cellar the twig. The chapter "Old Alice's History " brilliantly dramatizes the situation of that early generation of wor ers brought from the villages and the countryside to the (35)urban industrial centers. vividly embodies one ind of response to an urban industrial environment: an affinity for living things that hardens.gathering for brooms in the native village                                     .into a ind of cran iness. particularly in its early chapters.The passage suggests that which of the following would be LEAST important in determining whether nonenzymatic glycosylation is li ely to have ta en place in the proteins of a particular tissue? (A) The li elihood that the tissue has been exposed to free glucose (B) The color and spectrographic properties of structures within the tissue. of tea at the Bartons' house. even though the method has a slightly distancing effect. the English novel had to wait 60 years for the early writing of D. Gas ell could hardly help approaching wor ing-class life as an outside observer and a reporter. an itemized description of the furniture of the Bartons' living room. But there is genuine imaginative re-creation in her accounts of the wal in Green (20)Heys Fields. (C) The amount of time that the proteins in the tissue have persisted in the body (D) The number of amino groups within the proteins in the tissue (E) The degree of elasticity that the tissue exhibits Mary Barton. Elizabeth Gas ell. (15) As a member of the middle class. If Gas ell never quite conveys the sense of full participation that would completely authenticate this aspect of Mary Barton." Indeed." The interest of this record is considerable. and of John Barton and his friend's discovery of the starving family in the cellar in the chapter "Poverty and Death. The account of Job Legh. the exact details of food prices in an account of a tea (10)party.introduced in the previous two paragraphs. and a transcription (again annotated) of the ballad "The Oldham Weaver. Lawrence. 10. What is most impressive about the boo is the intense and painsta ing effort made (5) by the author. to convey the experience of everyday life in wor ing-class homes. about Alice Wilson. is a moving response to the suffering of the industrial wor er in the England of the 1840's. for a similarly convincing re-creation of such families' emotions and responses (which are more crucial than the (25)material details on which the mere reporter is apt to concentrate). the weaver and naturalist who is devoted to the study of biology. and the reader of the novel is always conscious of this fact. H. The early chapters? about factory wor ers wal ing out in spring into Green Heys Fields. Her method is partly documentary in nature: the novel includes such features as a carefully annotated reproduction of dialect. she (30)still brings to these scenes an intuitive recognition of feelings that has its own sufficient conviction.

preventing a potentially disastrous planetwide temperature increase. The other early chapters eloquently portray the development of the instinctive cooperation with each other that was already becoming an important tradition among wor ers.The information in the passage suggests that scientists would have to answer which of the following questions in order to predict the effect of clouds on the warming of the globe? (A) What inds of cloud systems will form over the Earth? (B) How can cloud systems be encouraged to form over the ocean? (C) What are the causes of the projected planetwide temperature increase? (D) What proportion of cloud systems are currently composed of cirrus of clouds? (E) What proportion of the clouds in the atmosphere form over land masses? This is not to deny that the Blac gospel music of the             . researchers found that the models agreed quite well if clouds were (15)not included. about Job Legh. Which of the following is most closely analogous to Job Legh in Mary Barton. an increase in cirrus clouds could increase global warming. 11. as that character is described in the passage? (A) An entomologist who collected butterflies as a child (B) A small-town attorney whose hobby is nature photography (C) A young man who leaves his family's dairy farm to start his own business (D) A city dweller who raises exotic plants on the roof of his apartment building (E) A union organizer who wor s in a textile mill under dangerous conditions As of the late 1980's. intent on (45)his impaled insects? capture the characteristic responses of a generation to the new and crushing experience of industrialism. a wide range of forecasts was produced. Some studies suggested that a four percent (5)increase in stratocumulus clouds over the ocean could compensate for a doubling in atmospheric carbon dioxide. With such discrepancies plaguing the models. scientists could not easily predict how quic ly the world's climate would change. 12. On the other hand. neither theorists nor largescale computer climate models could accurately predict whether cloud systems would help or hurt a warming globe. But when clouds were incorporated. (10) That clouds represented the wea est element in climate models was illustrated by a study of fourteen such models. Comparing climate forecasts for a world with double the current amount of carbon dioxide.that she will never again see. nor could they tell which regions would face dustier droughts or deadlier monsoons.

13. children under age seven do not ta e into account the intentions of a person committing accidental or deliberate harm. Blac gospel (15)composers scored the music intended for White singing groups fully. (5)child psychologists supported pioneer developmentalist Jean. (5) published. According to Piaget. However. moral autonomy. Until recently. Both of these findings seem to indicate that children. Keasey found that six. indicating the various vocal parts and the accompaniment. but the music produced for Blac singers included only a vocal line and piano accompaniment. copyrighted. gospel music was composed. regardless of the amount of damage produced. improvisation remained central to gospel music. which is most li ely to have immediately preceded the passage? (A) Few composers of gospel music drew on traditions such as the spiritual in creating their songs. children under age seven occupy the first stage of moral development. in which they accept social rules (25)but view them as more arbitrary than do children in the first stage. but rather simply assign punishment for transgressions on (10)the basis of the magnitude of the negative consequences caused. Nevertheless. Keasey's research raises two ey questions for develop-                         . practiced by Blac Americans before the Civil War. (15)punishment will be meted out). The age at which young children begin to ma e moral discriminations about harmful actions committed against themselves or others has been the focus of recent research into the moral development of children. (E) Improvisation was one of the primary characteristics of the gospel music created by Blac musicians. One has only to listen to the recorded repertoire of gospel songs to realize that Blac gospel singers rarely sang a song precisely the same way twice and never according to (10)its exact musical notation. and sold by professionals. which is characterized by moral absolutism (rules made by authorities must be obeyed) and imminent justice (if rules are bro en. Whereas spirituals were created and disseminated in fol fashion. advance into the second stage of moral development. their moral judgments are based entirely on the effect rather than the cause of a transgression. in recent research. Piaget in his hypothesis that because of their immaturity. (D) Spirituals and gospel music can be clearly distinguished from one another. at an earlier age than Piaget claimed.year-old children not only distinguish between accidental and intentional harm. They performed what jazz musicians call "head arrangements" proceeding from their own feelings and from the way "the spirit" moved them at the time. continued after the war. (B) Spirituals and Blac gospel music were derived from the same musical tradition. but (20)also judge intentional harm as naughtier. Until young children mature.early twentieth century differed in important ways from the slave spirituals.Of the following sentences. (C) The creation and singing of spirituals. This improvisatory element was reflected in the manner in which gospel music was published.

Nesdale and Rule concluded that (35)children were capable of considering whether or not an aggressor's action was justified by public duty: five year olds reacted very differently to "Bonnie wrec s Ann's pretend house" depending on whether Bonnie did it "so somebody won't fall over it" or because Bonnie wanted "to (40)ma e Ann feel bad. Darley found that these same children could ma e both distinctions. and do (30)they ma e distinctions between harmful acts that are preventable and those acts that have unforeseen harmful consequences? Studies indicate that justifications excusing harmful actions might include public duty. harm and unforeseeable harm for which the perpetrator (50)cannot be blamed.mental psychologists about children under age seven: do they recognize justifications for harmful actions. the more severe the punishment that the child will assign. (C) The children assign punishment less arbitrarily than they do when they reach the age of moral autonomy.It can be inferred form the passage that Piaget would be li ely to agree with which of the following statements about the punishment that children under seven assign to wrongdoing? (A) The severity of the assigned punishment is determined by the perceived magnitude of negative consequences more than by any other factor. though intentional. Psychologists have determined that during indergarten (45)children learn to ma e subtle distinctions involving harm. Darley observed that among acts involving unintentional harm. (5)who were themselves attac ed by free jazzers of the 1960's. Seven months later."Thus. His influence on all types of jazz was immeasurable. Thus. can be justified. (E) The more developmentally immature a child. At the height of his popularity. the constraints of moral absolutism no longer solely guide their judgments. The neoboppers of the 1980's and 1990's attac ed almost everybody else.self-defense. Proponents of different jazz styles have always argued that their predecessors. (B) The punishment is to be administered immediately following the transgression.                       . a child of five begins to understand that certain harmful actions. however. Coltrane largely abandoned playing bebop. to explore the outer reaches of jazz. and provocation. musical style did not include essential characteristics that define jazz as jazz. 1940's swing was belittled by beboppers of the 1950's. six-year-old children just entering indergarten could not differentiate between foreseeable. the style that had brought him fame. and thus preventable. 14. The titanic figure of Blac saxophonist John Coltrane has complicated the arguments made by proponents of styles from bebop through neobop (10)because in his own musical journey he drew from all those styles. (D) The punishment for acts of unintentional harm is less severe than it is for acts involving accidental harm. For example. thus demonstrating that they had become morally autonomous.

Coltrane's searching explorations produced solid achievement. this dogged student and prodigious technician-who (20)insisted on spending hours each day practicing scales from theory boo s-was never able to jettison completely the influence of bebop. the one constant in his journey from bebop to open-ended improvisations on modal. and great speed are part of each solo. he favored playing fast runs of notes built on a melody and depended on heavy. Two stylistic characteristics shaped the way Coltrane (25)played the tenor saxophone. downbeat accents. Coltrane found himself outside bop. John Coltrane did all of the following during his career EXCEPT (A) improvise on melodies from a number of different cultures (B) perform as leader as well as soloist (C) spend time improving his technical s ills (D) experiment with the sounds of various instruments (E) eliminate the influence of bebop on his own music A special mucous coating that serves as a chemical camouflage allows clown fish to live among the deadly tentacles of the unsuspecting sea anemone . Three recordings illustrate Coltrane's energizing explorations. With the soprano's piping sound. an instrument seldom used by jazz musicians. pile-driving notes into each other to suggest stac ed harmonies. the roc guitarist. repetitions. Utterly dependent on this unli ely host for protection from (5)predators. including Jimi Hendrix. The second (30)meant that his sense of rhythm was almost as close to roc as to bebop. 15. who modulated or altered melodies in his solos. lengthy solos built largely around repeated motifs-an organizing principle unli e that of free jazz saxophone player Ornette Coleman. On Giant Steps. with its fast and elaborate chains of notes and ornaments on melody. Here the sheets of sound. (50) When Coltrane began recording for the Impulse! label.(15) Coltrane himself probably believed that the only essential characteristic of jazz was improvisation. His music became raucous. and the variety of the shapes of his phrases is unique. physical. ideas that had sounded dar and brooding acquired a feeling of giddy fantasy. introducing his own composi(40)tions. raised the extended guitar solo using repeated motifs to a ind of roc art form. His influence on roc ers was enormous. The rigidly defined hierarchy of each clown-fish community is dominated by a monogamous breeding pair                         ." where he raced faster and faster. the results were astounding. My Favorite Things was another ind of watershed. he was still searching. The first led Coltrane to "sheets of sound. Here (35)he played surging. regularly accented beats. clown fish have evolved in isolated communities. Recording Kind of Blue with Miles Davis. exploring modal melodies. Here (45)Coltrane played the soprano saxophone.According to the passage. a pattern that has led to unusual behavioral adaptations. On the other hand. who following Coltrane. Coltrane debuted as leader. and African melodies. Indian. Musically.

(10)consisting of the largest fish, a female, and the next largest a male, attended by a fixed number of sexually immature fish ranging in size from large to tiny. A remar able adaptation is that the development of these juveniles is somehow arrested until the hierarchy changes; then they (15)crow in loc step, maintaining their relative sizes. While the community thus economizes on limited space and food resources, life is ris y for newly spawned clown fish. On hatching, the hundreds of larvae drift off into the plan ton. If, within three wee s, the defenseless larval clown fish (20)locates a suitable anemone(either by pure chance or perhaps guided by chemicals secreted by the anemone), it may survive. However, if an anemone is fully occupied, the resident clown fish will repel any newcomer. Though advantageous for established community mem(25)bers, the suspended and staggered maturation of juveniles might seem to pose a danger to the continuity of the community: there is only one successor for two breeding fish. Should one of a pair die, the remaining fish cannot swim off in search of a mate, nor is one li ely to arrive. It (30)would seem inevitable that reproduction must sometimes have to halt, pending the chance arrival and maturation of a larval fish of the appropriate sex. This, however, turns out not to be the case. In experiments, vacancies have been contrived by removing an (35)established fish from a community. Elimination of the breeding male triggers the prompt maturation of the largest juvenile. Each remaining juvenile also grows somewhat, and a minuscule newcomer drops in from the plan ton. Removal of the female also triggers growth in all (40)remaining fish and acceptance of a newcomer, but the female is replaced by the adult male. Within days, the male's behavior alters and physiological transformation is complete within a few months. Thus, whichever of the breeding pair is lost, a relatively large juvenile can fill (45)the void, and reproduction can resume with a minimal loss of time. Furthermore, the new mate has already proved its ability to survive. This transformation of a male into a female, or protandrous hermaphroditism, is rare among reef fish. The (50)more common protogynous hermaphroditism, where females change into males, does not occur among clown fish. An intriguing question for further research is whether a juvenile clown fish can turn directly into a female or whether it must function first as a male. 16.It can be inferred from the passage that sex change would have been less necessary for the clown fish if (A) the male clown fish were larger than the female (B) each sea anemone were occupied by several varieties of clown fish (C) many mature clown fish of both sexes occupied each sea anemone (D) juvenile clown fish had a high mortality rate (E) both male clown fish and female clown fish were highly territorial 17.The author mentions all of the following as characteristic of the "rigidly defined hierarchy" (line 8) of the clown-fish community EXCEPT:








(A) At any time only one female clown fish can be reproductively active (B) The mature clown fish are monogamous (C) The growth of clown fish is synchronized (D) The maximum number of clown fish is fixed (E) There are equal numbers of male juveniles and female juveniles 18.Which of the following, if true, would be LEAST consistent with the author's explanation of the advantage of hermaphroditism for clown fish? (A) The number of individuals in a clown-fish community fluctuates significantly (B) Adult clown fish frequently cannibalize their young (C) The sea anemone tolerates clown fish only during a specific stage of the anemone's life cycle. (D) Juvenile clown fish rarely reach maturity (E) Clown-fish communities are capable of efficiently recruiting solitary adult clown fish Over the years, biologists have suggested two main pathways by which sexual selection may have shaped the evolution of male birdsong. In the first, male competition and intrasexual selection produce relatively short, simple songs used mainly in territorial behavior. In the second, female choice and intersexual selection produce longer, more complicated songs used mainly in mate attraction; li e such visual ornamentation as the peacoc 's tail, elaborate vocal characteristics increase the male's chances of being chosen as a mate, and he thus enjoys more reproductive success than his less ostentatious rivals. The two pathways are not mutually exclusive, and we can expect to find examples that reflect their interaction. Teasing them apart has been an important challenge to evolutionary biologists. Early research confirmed the role of intrasexual selection. In a variety of experiments in the field, males responded aggressively to recorded songs by exhibiting territorial behavior near the spea ers. The brea through for research into intersexual selection came in the development of a new technique for investigating female response in the laboratory. When female cowbirds raised in isolation in soundproof chambers were exposed to recordings of male song, they responded by exhibiting mating behavior. By quantifying the responses, researchers were able to determine what particular features of the song were most important. In further experiments on song sparrows, researchers found that when exposed to a single song type repeated several times or to a repertoire of different song types, females responded more to the latter. The beauty of the experimental design is that it effectively rules out confounding variables; acoustic isolation assures that the female can respond only to the song structure itself. If intersexual selection operates as theorized, males with more complicated songs should not only attract females more readily but should also enjoy greater reproductive success. At first, however, researchers doing fieldwor with song sparrows found no correlation between larger repertoires and early mating, which has been shown to be one






indicator of reproductive success; further, common measures of male quality used to predict reproductive success, such as weight, size, age, and territory, also failed to correlate with song complexity. The confirmation researchers had been see ing was finally achieved in studies involving two varieties of warblers. Unli e the song sparrow, which repeats one of its several song types in bouts before switching to another, the warbler continuously composes much longer and more variable songs without repetition. For the first time, researchers found a significant correlation between repertoire size and early mating, and they discovered further that repertoire size had a more significant effect than any other measure of male quality on the number of young produced. The evidence suggests that warblers use their extremely elaborate songs primarily to attract females, clearly confirming the effect of intersexual selection on the evolution of birdsong 19. The passage is primarily concerned with (A) showing that intrasexual selection has a greater effect on birdsong than does intersexual selection (B) contrasting the role of song complexity in several species of birds (C) describing research confirming the suspected relationship between intersexual selection and the complexity of birdsong (D) demonstrating the superiority of laboratory wor over field studies in evolutionary biology (E) illustrating the effectiveness of a particular approach to experimental design in evolutionary biology An experiment conducted aboard Space Lab in 1983 was the first attempt to grow protein crystals in the low-gravity environment of space. That experiment is still cited as evidence that growing crystals in microgravity can increase crystal size: the authors reported that they grew lysozyme protein crystals 1,000 times larger than crystals grown in the same device on Earth. Unfortunately, the authors did not point out that their crystals were no larger than the average crystal grown using other, more standard techniques in an Earth laboratory. No research has yet produced results that could justify the enormous costs of producing crystals on a large scale in space. To get an unbiased view of the usefulness of microgravity crystal growth, crystals grown in space must be compared with the best crystals that have been grown with standard techniques on Earth. Given the great expense of conducting such experiments with proper controls, and the limited promise of experiments performed thus far, it is questionable whether further experiments in this area should even be conducted. 20.According to the passage, which of the following is true about the Space Lab experiment conducted in 1983? (A) It was the first experiment to ta e place in the microgravity environment of space. (B) It was the first experiment in which researchers in space were able to grow lysozyme protein crystals greater in size than those grown on





The fact that films on art are rarely seen on prime-time television may be due not only to limitations on distribution but also to the shortcomings of many such films. few of the hundred or so films on art that are made each year in the United States are broadcast nationally on primetime television. Yet films on art have not had a powerful and pervasive effect on the way we see.Earth. but these boo s and articles do not necessarily succeed in teaching us to see more deeply or more clearly. 21 The passage suggests that the author would most probably agree with which of the following assessments of the results of the Space Lab experiment? (A) Although the results of the experiment are impressive. (B) The results of the experiment are impressive on the surface. (E) Its results are considered by many to be invalid because nonstandard techniques were employed. Unfortunately. but this will require compromise on both sides." Vertov's description of filmma ing should apply to films on the subject of art. For close collaboration to occur. In 1923 the innovative Russian filmma er Dziga Vertov described filmma ing as a process that leads viewers toward a "fresh perception of the world. Some of these shortcomings can be attributed to the failure of art historians and filmma ers to collaborate closely enough when ma ing films on art. the experiment was too limited in scope to allow for definitive conclusions. have the potential to enhance visual literacy (the ability to identify the details that characterize a particular style) more effectively than publications can. Filmma ers need to resist the impulse to move the camera quic ly from detail to detail for fear of boring the viewer. to frame the image for the sa e of drama                           . A filmma er who is creating a film about the wor of an artist should not follow the standards set by roc videos and advertising. (C) Its results have been superseded by subsequent research in the field of microgravity protein crystal growth. however. (C) The results of the experiment convincingly confirm what researchers have long suspected. the experiment did not yield any results relevant to the issue under investigation. (D) Its results are still considered by some to be evidence for the advantages of microgravity protein crystal growth. These professionals are able. (E) The results of the experiment are too contradictory to allow for easy interpretation. with their capacity to present material visually and to reach a broader audience. but the report is misleading. professionals in each discipline need to recognize that films on art can be both educational and entertaining. Films. Much writing in art history advances the discourse in the field but is unli ely to inform the eye of one unfamiliar with its polemics. (D) Because of design flaws. to increase our awareness of visual forms. within their respective disciplines. Publications on art flourish.

which the following would describe the author's most li ely reaction to a claim that films on art would more successfully promote visual literacy if they followed the standards set for roc videos? (A) Ambivalence (B) Indifference (C) Sympathy (D) Interest (E) Disdain Investigators of mon eys' social behavior have always been struc by mon eys' aggressive potential and the consequent need for social control of their aggressive behavior. are concerned that it may not be compelling enough?and so they hope to provide relief by interposing "real" scenes that bear only a tangential relationship to the subject. Studies directed at describing aggressive behavior and the (5) situations that elicit it. On the other hand.                                     . However. (B) Rely on dramatic narrative and music to set a film's tone and style. in general. as well as the social mechanisms that control it. were therefore among the first investigations of mon eys' social behavior. a dispute would result and would be resolved through some form of aggression. art historians need to trust that one can indicate and analyze. thirsty mon eys would fight over water. Indeed. any time more than one mon ey in a group sought the same incentive simulta neously. and. But a wor of art needs to be explored on its own terms. Filmma ers are aware that an art object demands concentration and. 22. food deprivation not only failed to increase aggression but (20) in some cases actually resulted in decreased frequencies of aggression. but also by directing the viewer's gaze. The specialized written language of art history needs to be relinquished or at least tempered for the screen.alone. (C) Recognize that a wor of art by itself can be compelling enough to hold a viewer's attention (D) Depend more strongly on narration instead of camera movements to guide the viewer's gaze.The passage suggests that a filmma er desiring to enhance viewers' perceptions of art should do which of the following? (A) Rely on the precise language of art history when developing scripts for films on art. the motivating (15) force of competition for incentives began to be doubted when experiments li e Southwic 's on the reduction of space or the withholding of food failed to produce more than temporary increases in intragroup aggression. Only an effective collaboration between filmma ers and art historians can create films that will enhance viewers' perceptions of art. at the same time. Investigators initially believed that mon eys would compete for any resource in the environment: hungry (10) mon eys would fight over food. 23. to add music for fear of silence. (E) Emphasize the social and the historical contexts within which wor s of art have been created. not solely with words.

the several animals introduced to a group constitute their own social unit. These studies of intruders suggest that adult members (35) of the same species introduced to one another for the first time show considerable hostility because. reduces both the intensity and frequency of further attac . It can be inferred from the passage that the establishment and preservation of social order among a group of mon eys is essential in order to (A) eep the mon eys from straying and joining other groups (B) control aggressive behavior among group members (C) prevent the domination of that group by another (D) protect individuals see ing to become members of that group from mass attac (E) prevent aggressive competition for incentives between that group and another 25. The passage supplies information to answer which of the following questions? (A) How does the reduction of space affect intragroup aggression among mon eys in an experimental setting? (B) Do family units within a mon ey social group compete with other family units for food? (C) What are the mechanisms by which the social                           . however. If.Studies of animals in the wild under conditions of extreme food deprivation li ewise revealed that starving mon eys devoted almost all available energy to foraging. thereby initially excluding the new animal from the existing social unit. The simultaneous introduction of several animals (45) lessens the effect. indicates that one of the most potent stimuli for eliciting aggression is the introduction of an (30) intruder into an organized group. Whereas in the first case aggression establishes a social order. for example. in the second case resident animals mob the intruder. When a single new animal is introduced into an existing social organization. (50) and the very cohesion of the groups precludes prolonged individual combat. no individual is subjected to mass attac . one must be established to control interanimal relationships. in the absence of a social order. the study conducted by Bernstein. accumulating evidence from later studies of a variety of primate groups. Furthermore. if only because the group divides its attention among the multiple targets. 24. again. Such introductions result in far more serious aggression than that produced in any other types of experiments contrived to produce competition. Mon ey groups (55) therefor see to be organized primarily to maintain their established social order rather than to engage in hostilities per se. the (40) newcomer meets even more serious aggression. (25) with little energy remaining for aggressive interaction. rather than unleashing unchec ed aggression on the part of the victorious group. but. each group may fight the opposing group as a unit. The submission of the defeated group.

which not only attac sheep but also transmit diseases. and also encourages proliferation of sheep tic s. A tough competitor. and vegetation. many rural tenants still have the right of "estoyers" the right to cut brac en as bedding for livestoc and 45) uses. Of course. 26. biological control agents can safely be eleased only if it can be verified that they feed solely on he target weed. foreign predators are li ely to be able to multiply rapidly and overwhelm intended targets. The screening tests have so far been raught with difficulties. But legal consequences of attempts at biological control present a potential minefield. These are common problems with rearing insects for biological control. Growing enough brac en indoors is dfficult. But Britain lac s the legal and administrative machinery to assemble evidence for and against release. No less important to some people are brac en's effects on threatened 10) habitats and on the use of uplands for recreational purposes. The fern is itself poisonous to livestoc . and government bodies. What would happen if they were deprived of these rights? Once a biological control agent is released. and the impact of the clearance of brac en on the landscape. even though many appreciate its beauty. and the moths do not readily exploit cut stems. Because brac en occurs throughout the world. Policyma ers need to 30) consider many factors and opinions such as the cost of control compared to existing methods. the release of the biological control agents must be 50) authorized by the secretary of state for the environment. The first large shipment of moths 25) succumbed to a disease. Initially unrestrained by predators of their own. What consideration is due landowners who do not want to control brac en? According to law. For example. mammals. The potential gains for the environment are li ely to outweigh the losses because few plants. In fact. 5) brac en reduces the value of grazing land by crowding out other vegetation. The final paragraph can best be                                             . wildlife. Other problems can be foreseen.order of an established group of mon eys controls aggression within that group? (D) How do mon eys engaged in aggression with other mon eys signal submission? Brac en fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for centuries. insects. and birds live associated only with brac en. Two candidates. but it is spread among many individuals. it is difficult to control its speed. organizations. Biological controls may be the only economic solution. are now being studied. but the rate of encroachment into open countryside has lately increased alarmingly throughout northern and western Britain. One potentially cheap and self-sustaining method of halting the spread of brac en is to introduce natural enemies of the 15) plant. scientists already have much of the information needed to assess the impact of biological 35) control of brac en. both moths from the Southern 20) Hemisphere. and many would benefit 40) from a return of other vegetation or from a more diverse mosaic of habitats. there is plenty of scope for this approach.

There are two major reasons for this emphasis. By the 1960's. Their conclusions were quic ly challenged. Two different groups of scientists reported that LSD powerfully bloc aded serotonin's action. neuron. the level of technical expertise in the field of brain research was such that this hypothesis had to be tested on peripheral tissue (20) (tissue outside the brain). it was discovered early on that many of the major hallucinogens have a molecular structure similar to that of serotonin. however. a chemical that when released from a presynaptic serotonin-secreting neuron causes the transmission of (5) a nerve impulse across a synapse to an adjacent postsynaptic. animal studies of brain neurochemistry following administration of hallucinogens invariably reported changes in serotonin levels. the place of brac en within the forest habitat can best be described as (A) rapidly expanding (B) the subject of controversy (C) well established (D) circumscribed by numerous predators (E) a significant nutrient source Much of the research on hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD has focused on the neurotransmitter serotonin. or target. technical advances permitted the direct testing of the hypothesis that LSD and related (30) hallucinogens act by directly suppressing the activity of serotonin-secreting neurons themselves-the socalled presynaptic hypothesis. In (10) addition.described as (A) a summation of arguments presented in previous paragraphs (B) the elimination of competing arguments to strengthen a single remaining conclusion (C) an enumeration of advantages to biological control (D) an expansion of the discussion from the particular example of brac en control to the general problem of government regulation (E) an overview of the variety of factors requiring further assessment 27. Researchers reasoned that if the hllucinogenic drugs act by suppressing the           . especially when one site is in the brain and the other is not. As it is discussed in the passage. Early investigators correctly reasoned that the structural similarity to the serotonin molecule might (15) imply that LSD's effects are brought about by an action on the neurotransmission of serotonin in the brain. First. Unfortunately. We now now that the action of a drug at one site in the body does not necessarily (25) correspond to the drug's action at another site.

that LSD and related drugs act directly at receptor sites on serotonin target (45) neurons (the postsynaptic hypothesis). The enhanced effect of LSD reported after serotonin depletion could be due to a proliferation of serotonin receptor sites on serotonin target neurons. Thus. hallucinogenic drugs apparently do not act directly on serotonin-secreting neurons. neuron destruction enhanced the effect of LSD and related hallucinogens (40) on behavior. 28. 29. (C) Research results strongly suggest that hallucinogenic drugs create their effects by acting on the serotonin receptor sites located on target neurons in the brain. (D) Researchers have recently made valuable discoveries concerning the effects of depleting the amount of serotonin in the brain. because the system would already be maximally suppressed.activity of serotonin-secreting neurons. Contrary to their expectations. However. The research described in the passage is primarily concerned with answering which of the following questions? (A) How can researchers control the effects that LSD has on behavior? (B) How are animals' reactions to LSD different from those of human beings? (C) What triggers the effects that LSD has on human behavior? (D) What technical advances would permit researchers to predict more accurately the effects of LSD on behavior?   . the increase in the number of receptor sites appears to be a compensatory response to decreased input. (B) Researchers have spent an inadequate amount of time developing theories concerning the way in which the effects of hallucinogenic drugs occur. these and other available data do support an alternative hypothesis. Significantly. this hypothesis is supported by data from a number of different laboratories. The fact that LSD elicits "serotonin syndrome" -that is. rather than indirectly through the release of stores of serotonin. then drugs (35) administered after these neurons had been destroyed should have no effect on behavior. This phenomenon often (55) follows neuron destruction or neurotransmitter depletion. (E) Researchers have concluded that hallucinogenic drugs suppress the activity of serotonin-secreting neurons. causes the same inds of behaviors as does the administration of serotonin-in animals whose brains are depleted of serotonin indicates that LSD acts directly (50)on serotonin receptors. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage? (A) Research has suggested that the neurotransmitter serotonin is responsible for the effects of hallucinogenic drogs on the brain and on behavior.

Which of the following best describes the organization of the argument that the author of the passage presents in the last two paragraphs? (A) Two approaches to testing a hypothesis are described. Which of the following best defines "serotonin syndrome" (line 46) as the term is used in the passage? (A) The series of behaviors. and research that counters the supporting evidence is described. and hypotheses concerning its occurrence are considered and rejected. evidence undermining the hypothesis is revealed. In the early 1980's. usually associated with the administration of LSD. (E) A hypothesis is discussed. that also occurs when the amount of serotonin in the brain is reduced (C) The maximal suppression of neuron activity that results from the destruction of serotoninsecreting neurons (D) The release of stores of serotonin from serotonin-secreting neurons in the brain (E) The proliferation of serotonin receptor sites that follows depletion of serotonin supplies in the brain 31. and evidence for and against each hypothesis is discussed. and a further hypothesis based on the undermining evidence is explained 32. The author's attitude toward early researchers' reasoning concerning the implications of similarities in the structures of serotonin and LSD molecules can best be described as one of (A) complete agreeement (B) reluctant support (C) subtle condescension (D) irreverent dismissal (E) strong opposition The origin of the theory that major geologic events may occur at regular intervals can be traced bac not to a study of volcanism or plate tectonics but to an investigation of marine extinctions.(E) What relationship does the suppression of neuron activity have to the occurrence of "serotonin syndrome"? 30. (D) The reasoning behind a hypothesis is summarized. (C) A phenomenon is described. usually associated with the administration of serotonin. that also occurs when LSD is administered to animals whose brains are depleted of serotonin (B) The series of behaviors. evidence supporting the hypothesis is presented. (B) The assumptions underlying two hypotheses are outlined.   . and the greater merits of one approach are indicated.

compiled amaster list of marine species that died out duringthe past 268 million years and noted that there were brief periods during which (10) many species disappeared at once. seafloor spreading. and that the pac inghouse wor ers' efforts were part of the national movement for labor (15) reform. Additional data from the University of Chicago suggest that the pac inghouses were dangerous places to wor . the (10) frequency of labor disputes. Because the history maintains that conditions were above standard for the era. and plate movement. had (5) good wages. while social wor ers observed that most of the wor ers were poorly paid and overwor ed. These mass extinctions occurred at surprisingly regular intervals. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with (A) determining the dates of various geologic events (B) defending the conclusions reached by Raup and Sep os i (C) establishing a lin between the disciplines of paleontology and geology (D) proving that mass extinctions of marine animals occur periodcally (E) explaining how a theory concerning geologic events was formulated A recent history of the Chicago meat-pac ing industry and its wor ers examines how the industry grew from its appearance in the 1830's through the early 1890's. Later studies revealed that extinctions of terrestrial reptiles and mammals also occurred periodically. is not accounted for. due to low wages and unhealthy wor ing (20) conditions. the author argues. Speculation that so powerful a force might affect gelogic events as well led geologists to search for (20) evidence of periodicity in episodes of volcanism. These findings. In fact. 33. other historical sources for the late nineteenth century record deteriorating housing and high disease and infant mortality rates in the industrial community. Meat-pac ers. Raup and Sep os i. The history may be too optimistic because most of its data date from the 1880's at the latest. Two paleontologists. combined with the research of Raup (15) and Sep os i. wor ing conditions. especially in the mid1880's.(5) scientists began to loo closely at the question of how these extinctions occur. and did not cooperate with labor agitators since labor relations were so harmonious. and prospects for advancement within the pac inghouses. The government investigation commissioned by President Theodore Roosevelt which eventually led to the adoption of the 1906 (25) Meat Inspection Act found the pac inghouses unsanitary. led scientists to hypothesize the existence of some ind of cyclically recurring force powerful enough to affect living things profoundly. The wor ignores the fact that the 1880's were crucial years in American labor history. and the infor-                                                 .

Indeed. the strength of this community succeeded in generating a social movement that effectively confronted the problems of the industry that provided its livelihood.(30) mation provided from that decade is insufficiently analyzed. due to a reorganization of the pac ing process and a massive influx of uns illed wor ers. pay and conditions for the latter were wretched. While conditions for the former were arguably tolerable due to the strategic importance of s illed wor ers in the complicated slaughtering. The deterioration in (35) wor er status. The author's misinterpretation of the origins of the feelings the meat-pac ers had for their industrial (50) neighborhood may account for the history's faulty generalizations. Though a detailed account of wor in the pac inghouses is attempted. partly a result of the new availability of uns illed and hence cheap labor. arguably. 34. and (45) pac ing process (though wor er complaints about the rate and conditions of wor were frequent).the giant yards and the intricate plants ---. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing (A) how historians ought to explain the origins of the conditions in the Chicago meatpac ing industry (B) why it is difficult to determine the actual nature of the conditions in the Chicago meat-pac ing industry (C) why a particular account of the conditions in the Chicago meat-pac ing industry is inaccurate (D) what ought to be included in any account of the Chicago meat-pac ers' role in the national labor movement (E) what data are most relevant for an accurate account of the relations between Chicago meat-pac ers and local labor agitators 35. The author of the passage mentions all of the following as describing negative conditions in the meat-pac ing industry EXCEPT (A) data from the University of Chicago (B) a recent history of the meat-pac ing industry (C) social wor ers (D) historical sources for the late nineteenth century (E) government records 36. less the products of the industrial world of the pac ers ---. The pride and contentment the author remar s upon were. and continued to decline after the 1880's. Conditions actually declined in the 1880's.than of the unity and vibrance (55)of the ethnic cultures that formed a viable community on Chicago's South Side. The author of the passage uses the second                                                       . the author fails to distinguish between the wages and conditions for s illed wor ers (40) and for those uns illed laborers who comprised the majority of the industry's wor ers from the 1880's on. is not discussed. cutting.

We see aspects of reality represented (25) on television. I believe we must restore (40) our sense of wonder at the capacity to conjure up by forms. shades. postage stamps. provide food for thought. the study of art will be increasingly                         . and food pac ages. I must emphasize that I am not ma ing a plea. for the exercise of illusionist tric s in painting today. line. shape. But I thin . That the discoveries and effects of representation that were the pride of earlier artists have become trivial today I would not deny for a moment. although I am. By illusion I mean those contrivances of line color. Just as the study of poetry remains (45) incomplete without an awareness of the language of prose. Yet I believe that we are in real danger of (15) losing contact with past masters if we accept the fashionable doctrine that such matters never had anything to do with art. rather critical of certain theories of non(10) representational art. so. The very reason why the representation of nature can now be considered something commonplace should be of the greatest (20) interest to art historians." Even comics and advertisements. disguised or otherwise.paragraph to (A) summarize the main point of the history discussed in the passage (B) explain why the history discussed in the passage has been disparaged by critics (C) evaluate the findings of recent studies that undermine the premises of the history discussed in the passage (D) introduce a hypothesis that will be discussed in detail later in the passage (E) present evidence that is intended to refute the argument of the history discussed in the passage When we consider great painters of the past. But to argue over these theories would be to miss the point. or colors those mysterious phantoms of visual reality we call "pictures. lines. rightly viewed. Perhaps there are people who conclude from this that the cereal box is superior to a Giotto. Painting is taught in school and practiced as a pastime. and many modest amateurs have mastered tric s that would have loo ed li e sheer magic to the fourteenth-century painter Giotto. the study of art and the study of illusion cannot always be separated.that the victory and vulgarization of representational s ills (35) create a problem for both art historians and critics. We are surrounded and assailed by posters and advertisements. In this connection it is instructive to remember the Gree saying that to marvel is the beginning of nowledge and if we cease to marvel we may be in danger of ceasing to now. comics and magazine illustrations. in fact. I do not. I believe. Never before has there been an age when the visual image was so cheap in every sense of the word. Even the crude (30) colored renderings on a cereal box might have made Giotto's contemporaries gasp. and so forth that lead us to see (5) mar s on a flat surface as depicting three-dimensional objects in space.

The author's statement regarding how artists use the language of art (lines 4 8-52) implies that (A)artists are better equipped than are art historians to provide detailed evalu ations of other artists' wor (B)many artists have an unusually quic . The author suggests which of the following about art historians? (A) They do not believe that illusionist tric s have become trivial. 39. The passage asserts which of the following about commercial art? (A) There are many examples of commercial art whose artistic merit is equal to t hat of great wor s of art of the past. (C) The line between commercial art and great art lies primarily in how an image is used. (C) In modern society the victory of representational s ills has created a probl em for art critics. (D) Their -visual structure is more complex than that of medieval art. (E) They are less li ely than art critics to study comics or advertisements. 37. who use it as we use all language . disagrees with which of the following statements' (A) In modern society even nonartists can master techniques that great artists o f the fourteenth century did not employ. Which of the following best states the author's attitude toward comics. The way the language of art refers to the visible world is both so obvious and so myste(50) rious that it is still largely un nown except to artist. 40. (E) Modern painters do not frequently ma e use of illusionist tric s in their wo r . (C) They have not given enough consideration to how the representation of nature has become commonplace. The author of the passage explicitly. (E) They can be understood best if they are examined in conjunction with adverti sements. (D) The way that artists are able to represent the visible world is an area that needs a great deal more study before it can be fully understood. not in the motivation for its creation. intuitive understanding of language (C)artists can produce wor s of art even if they cannot analyze their methods of doing so (D) artists of the past.                                 . as e xpressed in the passage? (A) They constitute an innovative art form. (D) The level of technical s ill required to produce representational imagery in commercial art and in other inds of art cannot be compared. (B) Commercial art is heavily influenced by whatever doctrines are fashionable i n the serious art world of the time. (B) They can be a worthwhile subject for study. (B) The ability to represent a three-dimensional object on a flat surface has no thing to do with art.without needing to now its grammar and semantics. (C) They are critically important to an under-standing of modem art. 38. were better educated about artistic iss ues than were artists of the author's time (E) most artists probably consider the processes involved in their wor to be cl osely a in to those involved in writing poetry 41. such as Giotto.supplemented by inquiry into the "linguistics" of the visual image. (D) They generally tend to argue about theories rather than address substantive issues. (B) They generally spend little time studying contemporary artists.

which of the following does the Endangered Species Act define as a "critical habitat"? (A) A natural ecosystem that is threatened by imminent development (B) An industrial or urban area in which wildlife species have almost ceased to live among humans (C) A natural area that is crucial to the survival of a species and thus eligibl e for federal protection (D) A wilderness area in which the "ta ing" of wildlife species is permitted rar ely and only under strict federal regulation (E) A natural environment that is protected under law because its wildlife has a                         . Affected industries clung to the former wildlife policy of valuing individual species according to their economic usefulness. mas ed a bitter debate. (D) They do not thin that the representation of nature was ever the primary goa l of past painters. (C) They do not discuss important wor s of art created in the past. The act defined "wildlife" as almost all inds of animals-from large mammals to invertebrates-and plants. but they lost on nearly every issue. political compromises made in the enforcement of the act were to determine just what (20) economic interests would be set aside for the sa e of ecological stabilization.(E) The pervasiveness of contemporary commercial art has led art historians to u ndervalue representational s ills. They fought to minimize the law's impact (10) by limiting definitions of ey terms. According to the passage. "Ta ing" wildlife was defined broadly as any action that threatened an (15) endangered species. 44. (B) They do not agree that mar s on a flat surface can ever satisfactorily conve y the illusion of three-dimensional space. 42. reflecting the rising national popularity of environmentalism. areas vital to a species' survival could be federally protected as "critical habitats" Though these definitions legislated strong environmentalist goals. It can be inferred from the passage that someone who wanted to analyze the " grammar and semantics" (line52) of the language of art would most appropriately comment on which of the following? (A) The relationship between the drawings in a comic strip and the accompanying text (B) The amount of detail that can be included in a tiny illustration on a postag e stamp (C) The sociological implications of the images chosen to advertise a particular product (D) The degree to which various colors used in different versions of the same po ster would attract the attention of passersby (E) The particular juxtaposition of shapes in an illustration that ma es one sha pe loo as though it were behind another The 1973 Endangered Species Act made into legal policy the concept that endangered species of wildlife are precious as part of a natural ecosystem. (E) They concern themselves more with types art such as advertisements and magaz ine illustrations than with traditional art. The nearly unanimous passage of this act in the United States (5) Congress. about the adherents of "certain theories of nonrepresentational art" (lines 9-10) ? (A) They consider the use of illusion to be inappropriate in contemporary art. 43. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage.

and "critical habitats" (line 16) most li ely in order to (A) illustrate the misuse of scientific language and concepts in political proce sses (B) emphasize the importance of selecting precise language in transforming scien tific concepts into law (C) represent terminology whose definition was crucial in writing environmentali st goals into law (D) demonstrate the triviality of the issues debated by industries before Congre ss passed the Endangered Species Act (E) show that broad definitions of ey terms in many types of laws resulted in a mbiguity and thus left room for disagreement about how the law should be enforce d From the 1900's through the 1950's waitresses in the United States developed a form of unionism based on the unions' defending the s ills that their occupation line included and enforcing standards for the performance (5) of those s ills. "ta ing" (line 13). (D) The act would have had stronger support from Congressional leaders. the wor hours available were distributed fairly among all members rather than being assigned according to seniority. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) analyze a current trend in relation to the past (B) discuss a particular solution to a long-standing problem                       . It can be inferred from the passage that if business interests had won the d ebate on provisions of the 1973 Endangered Species Act. This "occupational unionism" differed substantially from the "wor site unionism" prevalent among factory wor ers. which of the following is an explanation for the de gree of support that the Endangered Species Act received in Congress? (A) Concern for the environment had gained increasing national popularity. 47. when a waitress lost her job. (C) Congress had long wanted to change the existing wildlife policy. waitress locals sought to control their occupation throughout a city. (10) Occupational unionism operated through union hiring halls. 48. the local did not intervene with her employer but placed her elsewhere.high economic value 45.According to the passage. not individual (15) job security-a basic protection offered by wor site unions. (D) The growth of industry had endangered increasing numbers of wildlife species . which provided free placement services to employers who agreed to hire their personnel only through the union. The author refers to the terms "wildlife" (line 11). Hiring halls offered union waitresses collective employment security. Rather than unionizing the wor forces of particular employers. 46. (C) Enforcement of the act would have been more difficult. and when jobs were scarce. which of the following w ould have resulted? (A) Environmentalist concepts would not have become widely popular. (B) The definitions of ey terms of the act would have been more restricted. (B) Ecological research had created new economic opportunities dependent on the survival of certain species. (E) The public would have boycotted the industries that had the greatest impact in defining the act. That is. (E) Legislators did not anticipate that the act could be effectively enforced.

partly because neither the animal's fleshy inner tissue nor its shell has any commercial value. in contrast to the greater diversity of the extinct species. (C) The union billed employers for its members' wor and distributed the earning s among all members. (C) Waitress union members held primarily. part-time positions. 50. which of the following was characteristic of the f orm of union that United States waitresses developed in the first half of the tw entieth century? (A) The union represented a wide variety of restaurant and hotel service occupat ions. brachiopods are the most (20) successful organisms extant. 51.000 species of this clamli e creature line have been cataloged from fossil records. in (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The author of the passage mentions "particular employers' (line 8) primarily order to suggest that occupational unions found some employers difficult to satisfy indicate that the occupational unions served some employers but not others emphasize the unique focus of occupational unionism accentuate the hostility of some employers toward occupational unionism point out a wea ness of wor site unionism In prehistoric times brachiopods were one of the most abundant and diverse forms of life on Earth: more than 30. and existing species are not well studied.(C) analyze changes in the way that certain standards have been enforced (D) apply a generalization to an unusual situation (E) describe an approach by contrasting it with another approach 49. (15) Several things. suggest that the conventional view needs revising. however. Many zoologists have interpreted this as a sign that the animal has been unable to compete successfully with other marine organisms in the evolutionary struggle. recent studies suggest that diversity among species is a less impor-                                       . if longevity is any measure. Today (5) brachiopods are not as numerous. uniform in appearance. (D) The union negotiated the enforcement of occupational standards with each emp loyer whose wor force joined the union. wor ers' unions? (A) Waitress unions were more successful than factory wor ers' unions in that th ey were able to unionize whole cities. Further. (E) The union ensured that a wor er could not be laid off arbitrarily by an empl oyer. Which of the following statements best summarizes a distinction mentioned in the passage between waitress unions and factory. the genus Lingula has an unbro en fossil record extending over more than half a billion years to the present. (E) Waitress unions defined the s ills of their trade. (D) Waitress unions emphasized the occupation of wor ers. For example. Moreover. According to the passage. whereas the impac t of factory wor ers' unions was national. Thus. (B) The union defined the s ills required of waitresses and disciplined its memb ers to meet certain standards. the approxi(10) mately 300 nown surviving species are relatively. whereas factory wor ers' unions placed their members in full-time jobs. (B) Waitress unions had an impact on only certain local areas. whereas factory wor er s' unions emphasized the wor site at which wor ers were employed. whereas the s ills of fac tory trades were determined by employers' groups.

on the other hand are not dependent on a particular substrate. They misunderstand the causes of specialization. the author is primarily concerned with (A) rejecting an earlier explanation for the longevity of certain brachiopod spe cies (B) reevaluating the implications of uniformity among existing brachiopod specie s (C) describing the varieties of environmental change to which brachiopods are vu lnerable (D) reconciling opposing explanations for brachiopods' lac of evolutionary succ ess (E) elaborating the mechanisms responsible for the tendency among brachiopod spe cies toward specialization     54. One specialist species. when a particula substrate to which a specialist species has (45) adapted is no longer available. The relatively greater uniformity among the existing brachiopod species may offer greater protection from environmental change and hence may reflect highly successful adaptive behavior.   53. all of them generalists. Generalists. during periods of environmental instability. The adaptive advantages of uniformity for brachio(30) pods can be seen by considering specialization. In the passage.tant measure of evolutionary success than is the ability to withstand environmental change. only 6 survived in the clay. has valves weighted at the base. Those that can survive on many surfaces are called generalists. and studies of arctic and subarctic seas (55) suggest that generalists are often dominant members of the marine communities there. other species secrete glue allowing them to survive on the face of (40) underwater cliffs. for example. The fossil record demonstrates that most brachiopod lineages have followed a trend toward increased specialization. 52. such as when a layer of clay replaces sand on the ocean (25) bottom. a characteristic that assures that the organism is properly positioned for feeding in mud and similar substrates. it seems unli ely that the phylum is close to extinction. ned (A) (B) The author suggests that the scientists holding the conventional view mentio in lines 15-16 ma e which of the following errors? They mista enly emphasize survival rather than diversity. However. Of the 35 brachiopod species found in the chal . One study of the fossil record revealed a mass extinction of brachiopods (50) following a change in sedimentation from chal to clay. As long as enough generalist species are maintained. while those that can survive on a limited range of substrates are called (35) specialists. a process that occurs as a result of prolonged colonization of a uniform substrate. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The second paragraph ma es use of which of the following? Specific examples Analogy Metaphor Quotation Exaggeration           . the species quic ly dies out. and are thus less vulnerable to environmental change.

the lac of an independent record of iceage timing made the hypothesis untestable. Each time. (D) The ratio of specialist to Generalist species is slowly but steadily increas ing. cyclic changes in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit and in the tilt and orientation of its spin axis. if true. something in the Earth's climatic equation has changed. (E) It is easier for a brachiopod to survive a change in sedimentation than a ch ange in water temperature. is not inevitable. Scientists speculated that these glacial cycles were ultimately (10) driven by astronomical factors: slow. (A) I only (B) II only (C) II and III only (D) I and III only (E) I. be sure to consider all the choices before deciding which one is best. II and III Since some of the questions require you to distinguish Fine shades of meaning. 55. ?. Information in the passage supports which of the following statements about brachiopods? ?. (E) They overloo an alternative criterion of evolutionary success. the seafloor. ?. Which of the following.nown species (E) the degree of its physiological complexity 56.(C) They misuse zoological terminology. though typical. (C) It was recently discovered that certain brachiopod species are almost always concentrated near areas rich in offshore oil deposits. A tendency toward specialization. would most strengthen the author's claim (l ines 56-57) that "it seems unli ely that the phylum is close to extinction"? (A) Generalist species now living in arctic waten give few if any indications of a tendency towards significant future specialization. Few brachiopods living in prehistoric times were specialists. 57. Specialist species dominate in all but arctic and subarctic waters. (15) Then in the early 1950's Emiliani produced the first complete record of the waxings and wanings of past glaciations. (D) They catalog fossilized remains improperly. allowing snow in the mountains and the northern Line latitudes to accumulate from one season to the next (5) instead of melting away. Eight times within the pat million years. It can be inferred from the passage that the decision to study an organism m ay sometimes be influenced by (A) its practical or commercial benefits to society (B) the nature and prevalence of its fossilized remains (C) the relative convenience of its geographical distribution (D) its similarity to one or more better. (B) Zoologists have recently discovered that a common marine organism is a natur al predator of brachiopods. Single-cell marine organisms called "foraminifera" house themselves in shells made         . But up until around 30 years ago. It came from a seemingly odd place. the enormous ice sheets resulting from this continual buildup lasted tens of thousands of years until the end of each particular glacial cycle brought a warmer climate.

and become part of seafloor sediments. as water vapor evaporated from warm oceans moves away from its source.18 than frozen water was during past glacial periods .(20) from calcium carbonate. (35) Hence. its oxygen -18 returns more quic ly to the oceans than does its oxygen-16.16) in the carbonate preserves the ratio of the two oxygens in water molecules. the ratio of a heavy. the higher the proportion of oxygen-18 becomes in seawater. It is now understood that the ratio of oxygen isotopes in seawater closely reflects the proportion of (30) the world's water loc ed up in glaciers and ice sheets. As the (40) oxygen-18-poor ice builds up the oceans become relatively enriched in the Isotope. "wrin les" (55) superposed on each cycle -small decreases or surges in ice volume . (45) Emiliani found that the isotopic ratio rose and fell in rough accord with the Earth's astronomical cycles. the carbonate of their shells preserves certain characteristics of the seawater they inhabited. Water molecules containing the heavier isotope tend to condense and fall as precipitation slightly sooner than molecules contai ning the lighter isotope. In addition. (C) Natural processes unrelated to ice formation do not result in the formation                   . When the foraminifera die. In particular. The discussion of the oxygen-isotope ratios in paragraph three of the passag e suggests that which of the following must be assumed if the conclusions descri bed in lines 49-58 are to be validly drawn? (A) The Earth's overall annual precipitation rates do not dramatically increase or decrease over time. (E) In comparison with seawater. the global ice volume has pea ed every 100. (D) It is steadily decreasing in amount due to increased thawing during summer m onths. Analyzing cores drilled from seafloor sediments. Since that pioneering observation. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is true of t he water loc ed in glaciers and ice sheets today? (A) It is richer in oxygen. (B) The various chemicals dissolved in seawater have had the same concentrations over the past million years.000 years.and hence in the sediments. 58. What falls as snow on distant ice sheets and mountain glaciers is relatively depleted of oxygen -18. A ind of meteorological distillation accounts for the lin . in eeping with the precession and tilt frequencies of the Earth's spin axis. (C) Its ratio of oxygen isotopes is the same as that prevalent in seawater durin g the last ice age. matching the period of the orbital eccentricity variation. Over the past 800.000 years. sin to the bottom. The larger the ice sheets grow.000 years. isotope of oxygen (25) (oxygen-18) to ordinary oxygen (oxygen. it is relatively poor in oxygen-18.000 and 41. 59.have come at intervals of roughly 23. oxygen-isotope measurements have been made on hundreds of cores A chronology for the combined record enables scien(50) tists to show that the record contains the very same periodicities as the orbital processes. (B) It is primarily located in the northern latitudes of the Earth.

For Gilpin.18. but a (35) peopled landscape with a rich history and tradition of its own. few women in the history of photography had so devoted themselves to chronicling the landscape. but they nonetheless preserved the "heroic" style and maintained the role of respectful (30) outsider peering in with reverence at a fragile natural world. (E) Compared data obtained from core samples in many different marine environmen ts with data samples derived from polar ice caps. Her photographs of the Rio Grande. her approach to landscape photography set (15) her apart from men photographers who. (C) Matched the data obtained by geologists with that provided by astronomers. a source of food for livestoc . consistently depict the river in terms of its significance to human culture: as a source (40) of irrigation water. unpopulated and ready for American settlement. an environment that shaped and molded the lives of its inhabitants. Also instructive is Gilpin's general avoidance of extreme close-ups of her natural               . represented by Ansel Adams and Eliot Porter. The next generation (25) of male photographers. Dorothea Lange's landscapes were always (10) conceived of as counterparts to her portraits of rural women.of large quantities of oxygen. (E) Increases in global temperature do not increase the amount of water that eva porates from the oceans. and a provider of town sites. documented the western United States. Anne Brigman often photographed woodlands and coastal areas. Other women had photoline graphed the land. but none can be regarded as a land(5) scape photographer with a sustained body of wor documenting the physical terrain. but They were generally settings for her artfully placed subjects. c ontinuous picture of past variations in marine-sediment isotope ratios did which of the following? (A) Relied primarily on the data obtained from the analysis of Emiliani's core s amples. Before Laura Gilpin (1891-1979). by contrast. (D) Water molecules falling as precipitation usually fall on the open ocean rath er than on continents or polar ice pac s. (B) Combined data derived from the analysis of many different core samples. often wor ed with conservationist groups rather than government agencies or commercial companies. li e Gilpin. At the same time that Gilpin's interest in landscape wor distinguished her from most other women photographers. (D) Evaluated the isotope-ratio data obtained in several areas in order to elimi nate all but the most reliable data. These explorerphotographers documented the West that their employers wanted to see: an exotic and majestic land shaped by awesome natural forces. for example. Western American landscape photography grew out of a male tradition. pioneered by photographers attached to government and commercial survey teams that went (20) west in the 1860's and 1870's. the landscape was neither an empty vista awaiting human settlement nor a jewel-li e scene resisting human intrusion. 60. The passage suggests that the scientists who first constructed a coherent.

Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage? (A) Gilpin's landscape photographs more accurately documented the Southwest than did the photographs of explorers and conservationists. described the landscape in terms of its potential to sustain human life. Gilpin never spo e of herself as a photographer with a feminine perspective: she eschewed any (55) discussion of gender as it related to her wor and maintained little interest in interpretations that relied on the concept of a "woman's eye. pristine parts of the river and its surroundings (D) Existing commercial ventures that relied heavily on the river (E) The dams and other monumental engineering structures built on the river 64. (C) The labeling of Gilpin's style of landscape photography as feminine ignores important ties between it and the heroic style. 61." Thus it is ironic that her photographic evocation of a historical landscape should so clearly present a distinctively feminine approach to landscape photography. Based on the description of her wor s in the passage.The passage suggests that a photographer who practiced the heroic style would be most li ely to emphasize which of the following in a photographic series foc using on the Rio Grande ? (A) Indigenous people and their ancient customs relating to the river (B) The exploits of navigators and explorers (C) Unpopulated. 62. (D) Gilpin's wor exemplifies an arguably feminine style of landscape photograph y that contrasts with the style used by her male predecessors. it can nonetheless be argued that Gilpin's unique approach to landscape photography was anal(50) ogous to the wor of many women writers who.subjects: for her. (B) Gilpin's style of landscape photography substantially influenced the heroic style practiced by her male counterparts. (E) Gilpin's style was strongly influenced by the wor of women writers who desc ribed the landscape in terms of its relationship to people. far more than their male counterparts. It can be inferred from the passage that the teams mentioned in line 19 were most interested in which of the following aspects of the land in the western Un ited States? (A) Its fragility in the face of increased human intrusion (B) Its role in shaping the lives of indigenous peoples (C) Its potential for sustaining future settlements (D) Its importance as an environment for RARE PLANTS AND ANIMALS (E) Its unusual vulnerability to extreme natural forces 63. emblematic details could never suggest the intricacies of the interrelationship between (45) people and nature that made the landscape a compelling subject. which of the following would most li ely be a subject for a photograph ta en by Gilpin? (A) A vista of a canyon still untouched by human culture (B) A portrait of a visitor to the West against a desert bac drop (C) A view of historic Native American dwellings carved into the side of a natur al cliff (D) A picture of artifacts from the West being transported to the eastern United States for retail sale (E) An abstract pattern created by the shadows of clouds on the desert eys:                         . While it is dangerous to draw conclusions about a"feminine" way of seeing from the wor of one woman.