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# 5.

1
E=

T2

∫ [r (t ) − rˆ(t )]

2

T1

2

K −1

dt = ∫ ⎢r (t ) − ∑ xl φl (t )⎥ dt
l =0

T1 ⎣
T2

2
K −1

E = −2 ∫ ⎢r (t ) − ∑ xl φ l (t )⎥φ k (t )dt
∂x k
l =0

T1 ⎣

T

T2

K −1

T2

T1

l =0

T1

= −2 ∫ r (t )φ k (t )dt + 2∑ xl ∫ φ l (t )φ k (t )dt
δl −k
T2

= −2 ∫ r (t )φ k (t )dt + 2 x k
T1

2

E = 0 ⇒ x k = ∫ r (t )φ k (t )dt
∂x k
T1

T

5.2

E=

T2

∫ [r (t ) − rˆ(t )]

2

T1

2

K −1

dt = ∫ ⎢r (t ) − ∑ xl φl (t )⎥ dt
l =0

T1 ⎣
T2

The optimum xk satisfy
2
K −1

0=
E = −2 ∫ ⎢r (t ) − ∑ xl φl (t )⎥φ k (t )dt
∂x k
l =0

T1 ⎣

T

e (t )

T2

0 = −2 ∫ e(t )φ k (t )dt ⇒ φ k (t ) is orthogonal to e(t )
T1

5.3
The set is orthogonal (but not orthonormal) means
l=k
l≠k

⎧E
∫ φ (t )φ (t )dt = ⎨⎩ 0

T2

k

l

k

T1

The optimum coefficients are derived as follows:
E=

T2

∫ [r (t ) − rˆ(t )]

2

T1

2

K −1

dt = ∫ ⎢r (t ) − ∑ xl φl (t )⎥ dt
l =0

T1 ⎣
T2

2
K −1

(
)
E = −2 ∫ ⎢r t − ∑ xl φl (t )⎥φ k (t )dt
∂x k
l =0

T1 ⎣

T

T2

K −1

T2

T1

l =0

T1

= −2 ∫ r (t )φ k (t )dt + 2∑ xl ∫ φl (t )φ k (t )dt
Ek when l = k
T2

= −2 ∫ r (t )φ k (t )dt + 2 x k E k
T1

T2

1
E = 0 ⇒ xk =
∂x k
Ek

T2

∫ r (t )φ (t )dt =
k

T1

∫ r (t )φ (t )dt
k

T1

T2

∫ φ (t )dt
2
k

T1

The solution for the optimum x’s is x = R −1 P . then R is the diagonal matrix .l = ∫ φl (t )φ k (t )dt for k = 0. …. With these definitions. this system of equations may also be expressed in matrix form as follows: ⎡ P0 ⎤ ⎡ R0.1 RK −1.1 R1. K − 1 ). K −1 ⎥⎥ ⎢ x1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ RK −1. To see this. … .0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ PK −1 ⎦ ⎣ RK −1. the system of equations is K −1 ∂ E = 0 ⇒ Pk = ∑ x k Rl . K − 1 . ∂x k l =0 As is customary with systems of equations. K −1 ⎦ ⎣ x K −1 ⎦ R0.5. K − 1 This defines a set of K equations in the K unknowns xk (for k = 0.1. ….… .0 ⎢ P ⎥ ⎢ R ⎢ 1 ⎥ = ⎢ 1. K − 1 .1.1. E= T2 ∫ [r (t ) − rˆ(t )] 2 T1 2 K −1 ⎡ ⎤ dt = ∫ ⎢r (t ) − ∑ xl φl (t )⎥ dt l =0 ⎦ T1 ⎣ T2 2 K −1 ∂ ⎡ ⎤ E = −2 ∫ ⎢r (t ) − ∑ xl φl (t )⎥φ k (t )dt ∂x k l =0 ⎦ T1 ⎣ T T2 K −1 T2 T1 l =0 T1 = −2 ∫ r (t )φ k (t )dt + 2∑ xl ∫ φl (t )φ k (t )dt 2 K −1 ∂ E = 0 ⇒ ∫ r (t )φ k (t )dt = ∑ xl ∫ φl (t )φ k (t )dt ∂x k l =0 T1 T1 T2 T k = 0. Let T2 T2 T1 T1 Pk = ∫ r (t )φ k (t )dt and Rk .1 R x The matrix equation is P = Rx. K −1 ⎤ ⎡ x0 ⎤ R1.k for k = 0. Note that if the set of basis functions is orthogonal.4 The set is neither orthogonal nor normalized. 0 P R0.1.

the solution for the optimum x’s is trival because R −1 ⎡1 ⎢E ⎢ 0 ⎢ =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢⎣ 1 E1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥ E K −1 ⎥⎦ T2 where E k = ∫ φ k2 (t )dt for k = 0. ⎥ ⎥ E K −1 ⎦ In this case. . when the set of basis functions is orthonormal.1.1.⎡ E0 ⎢ R=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ E1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥. Ek = 1 for k = 0. The solution for xk is T1 1 Pk Ek which is the solution to Exercise 5. Furthermore.1. …. R = I. K − 1 . so that R −1 = I .3. K − 1 . The solution for xk is xk = x k = Pk which is the solution to Exercise 5. …. As a consequence.

the expression can be interpreted as the squared Euclidean distance in a Cartesian coordinate system whose axes do not have the same length. .5 Let E k = ∫ φ k2 (t )dt for k = 0. K − 1 and note that T1 ⎧E ∫ φ (t )φ (t )dt = ⎨⎩ 0 T2 k l T1 k l=k . l≠k Now the energy in s (t ) is K −1 ⎡ K −1 ⎤ E s = ∫ s (t )dt = ∫ ⎢∑ a k φ k (t )∑ a l φ l (t )⎥ dt l =0 ⎦ T1 T1 ⎣ k = 0 T2 T2 2 K −1 K −1 T2 k =0 l =0 T1 = ∑∑ a k al ∫ φ k (t )φl (t )dt K −1 = ∑ a k2 E k k =0 The interpretation is that Es is a scaled squared Euclidean distance from the origin of the signal space. ….1.T2 5. Alternatively.

6 +A 1 t 1 −A −A +A t .5.

7 +A 1 t (0.+ A) −A +A 1 (+ A.0) t .5.

5.+ A) (− A.8 +2A ½ +2A 1 t t −2A −2A (− A.+ A) (+ A.− A) +2A −2A ½ 1 ½ 1 (+ A.− A) +2A ½ t 1 t −2A .

− A) +A t −A 1 1 t .0) (0.9 +A 1 t −A (0.5.+ A) +A 1 t -A (− A.0) (+ A.

+ ⎟⎟ ⎜ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ A 3 A⎞ ⎜+ .+ ⎟⎟ ⎜ 2 2⎠ ⎝ (0.5.− A) t −2A + ½ 1 +A t −A 1 1 .10 ½ − 3 −1 A 2 − 3 +1 A 2 1 t 3 +1 A 2 + 3 −1 A 2 t ½ ⎛ A 3 A⎞ ⎜− .0) +2A (0.

+ A) ½ +4A +2A ½ (+ A.+ A) (− 3 A.+ A) t (− A.11 .−4A t −2A −4A −4A 1 t −2A ½ 1 −2A −2A −4A ½ ½ t (− A.+ A) 1 1 (− 3 A.+ A) (+ 3 A.+ A) ½ 1 1 t +4A +2A +2A +2A t +4A +4A ½ ½ 1 1 t t 5.+ A) (+ A.+ A) (+ 3 A.

12 1 x 0 = ∫ r (t )φ 0 (t )dt = 0 1 2 1 x1 = ∫ r (t )φ1 (t )dt = 0 0 1 rˆ(t ) = x 0φ 0 (t ) + x1φ1 (t ) = φ 0 (t ) 2 r (t ) rˆ(t ) +1 +½ t ½ 1 .5.

13 1 x 0 = ∫ r (t )φ 0 (t )dt = 0 1 2 1 x1 = ∫ r (t )φ1 (t )dt = 0 0 1 rˆ(t ) = x 0φ 0 (t ) + x1φ1 (t ) = φ 0 (t ) 2 r (t ) +1 rˆ(t ) +½ t ½ 1 .5.

14 1 x 0 = ∫ r (t )φ 0 (t )dt =0 0 1 x1 = ∫ r (t )φ1 (t )dt = − 0 1 2 1 rˆ(t ) = x 0φ 0 (t ) + x1φ1 (t ) = − φ1 (t ) 2 r (t ) +1 +½ −½ −1 rˆ(t ) ½ t 1 .5.

15 1 x 0 = ∫ r (t )φ 0 (t )dt =0 0 1 x1 = ∫ r (t )φ1 (t )dt = 0 1 2 1 rˆ(t ) = x0φ 0 (t ) + x1φ1 (t ) = φ1 (t ) 2 r (t ) +1 +½ −½ −1 1 ½ t rˆ(t ) .5.

16 (a) 3φ0 (t ) + φ1 (t ) → +4 +2 t ½ 1 (b) 1 x 0 = ∫ r (t )φ 0 (t )dt =3 0 1 x1 = ∫ r (t )φ1 (t )dt =1 0 rˆ(t ) = x 0φ 0 (t ) + x1φ1 (t ) = 3φ 0 (t ) + φ1 (t ) rˆ(t ) r (t ) +4 +2 t ½ 1 (c) The best approximation for r (t ) in Span{φ 0 (t ).5. . φ1 (t )} is 3φ 0 (t ) + φ1 (t ) .

17 ½ +A 2 1 t ½ −A 2 −A +A 1 t .5.

18 +A 2 t ½ 1 (0.+ A) +A 2 (+ A.0) ½ 1 t .5.

− A) 1 −A 2 ½ 1 ½ 1 (+ A.19 +A 2 −A 2 +A 2 ½ 1 t t (− A.+ A) (− A.− A) +A 2 t ½ −A 2 t .5.+ A) (+ A.

20 +A 2 t −A 2 ½ 1 (0.5.0) (+ A.+ A) +A 2 −A 2 +A 2 ½ 1 t (− A.− A) +A 2 ½ 1 t −A 2 t −A 2 ½ 1 .0) (0.

+ ⎟⎟ ⎜ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ A 3 A⎞ ⎜− .+ ⎟⎟ ⎜ 2 2⎠ ⎝ (0.21 3 A 2 1 + A 2 + + − 1 A 2 ½ t 1 3 A 2 ⎛ A 3 A⎞ ⎜+ .5.0) +2A t −2A ½ t ½ 1 (0.− A) ½ −A 2 1 t 1 .

− A3 2 −A 2 − A3 2 −A 2 A 2 ½ ½ 1 1 t t −A 2 −A 2 A 2 ½ t (− A.+ A) (+ 3 A.22 .+ A) t (− A.+ A) A 2 A3 2 1 1 t t −A 2 A 2 A3 2 A 2 A3 2 ½ ½ 1 1 t t 5.+ A) (+ A.+ A) (− 3 A.+ A) (+ 3 A.+ A) ½ ½ −A 2 A 2 ½ (+ A.+ A) 1 1 (− 3 A.

5 2 .9 1 φ 1(t) 1 0 -1 dimension K = 2 (b) 2 1.9 1 0 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.5.7 0.6 0.2 0.5 t 0.5 1 1.5 t 0.8 0.5 -2 -2 -1.7 0.5 0 s2 s0 -0.5 0 φ0 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.5 s1 1 φ1 0.23 (a) φ 0(t) 1 0 -1 0 0.3 0.8 0.5 -1 -0.5 -1 s3 -1.

24 (a) φ 0(t) 1 0 -1 0 0.7 0. but the constellation is a reordered version of the constellation in Exercise 5.9 1 φ 1(t) 1 0 -1 dimension: K =2 (b) 2 1.6 0.5 2 φ0 The basis functions here are the same as those for Exercise 5.5 -2 -2 -1.5 s2 1 φ1 0.2 0.5 0 0.5 0 s1 s3 -0.23.2 0.6 0.5 1 1.4 0.8 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.5 t 0.5.3 0.1 0.23.5 -1 s0 -1.7 0.8 0. .5 t 0.9 1 0 0.5 -1 -0.

5 0 0.25 (a) 1.5.9 dimension: K = 1 (b) 8 6 4 2 0 s3 s2 s1 s0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 φ0 2 4 6 8 1 .5 t 0.1 0.7 0.4 0.5 -1 -1.6 0.2 0.5 1 φ 0(t) 0.3 0.5 0 -0.8 0.

3 0.5 t 0.5 t 0.4 0.6 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.7 0.6 0.5 -2 -2 -1.5 1 1.7 0.26 (a) φ 0(t) 1 0 -1 0 0.9 1 0 0.2 0.5 0 φ0 0.4 0.5 -1 -0.5 2 .5.5 s0 0 s1 -0.9 1 φ 1(t) 1 0 -1 dimension: K = 2 (b) s2 2 1.8 0.2 0.8 0.5 -1 -1.5 s3 1 φ1 0.

27 (a) φ 0(t) 1 0 -1 0 0.5 1 1.5 3 0 0.5 t 2 2.5 t 2 2.5 1 1.5 3 φ 1(t) 1 0 -1 φ 2(t) 1 0 -1 dimension K = 3 (b) 5 s3 φ2 s2 0 s0 s1 -5 5 5 0 φ1 0 -5 -5 φ0 .5 1 1.5 t 2 2.5 3 0 0.5.

5 s1 s2 1 φ1 0.5 t 2 2.5 1 1.5 -1 -1.5 s0 0 -0.5 1 1.5 3 φ 1(t) 1 0 -1 dimension: K = 2 (b) 2.5.5 2 1.28 (a) φ 0(t) 1 0 -1 0 0.5 t 2 2.5 -2 -1 0 φ0 1 2 .5 3 0 0.5 -2 -2.

5. we have M −1 2 ∑ (2m + 1) m =0 2 M −1 2 M −1 2 M −1 2 m =0 m =0 m =0 = 4 ∑ m2 + 4∑ m + ∑1 ⎛M ⎞⎛ M ⎞ ⎛M ⎞⎛ M ⎜ − 1⎟⎜ ⎟(M − 2 + 1) ⎜ − 1⎟⎜ 2 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎠⎝ 2 = 4⎝ +4⎝ 6 2 3 M M −1 = 2 3 Putting this all together we have E avg = 2 A2 M M 3 − 1 M 3 − 1 2 A = M 2 3 3 ⎞ ⎟ ⎠+M 2 2 .29 The average energy may be expressed as E avg = M −1 2 2 A M ∑ (2m + 1) m=− 2 = M 2 2A M M −1 2 2 ∑ (2m + 1) m =0 We will need the following identities: n ∑i = n i =0 n ∑i = i =0 n ∑i 2 i =0 = n(n + 1) 2 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 6 Using these identities. .

05 +0.5 1 s(t) 0.5 -2 0 1 2 3 4 t/Ts 5 6 7 8 (c) x(t) r(t) DAC N samples/bit x(kT) p(−nT) decision n = kN (d) k 0 1 2 3 ----------------------------------x(k) +0. LUT 0 1 bits -0.05 +0.05 ↑N p(nT) ADC (b) -3 2 x 10 1.30 (a) A = 0.5.5 0 -0.00 -0.33 +0.05 +0.05 -0.5 -1 -1.05.07 ----------------------------------a(k) +0.05 ----------------------------------bits 1 0 1 1 s(t) .01 +0.

06 -0.07 +0.09 +0.5 x 10 2 1.5 -1 0 0.09 +0.09 -0.31 (a) A = 0. LUT 00 01 10 11 bits -0.03.03 ↑N p(nT) ADC (b) -3 2.03 -0.03 -0.5 1 1.5 0 -0.5.5 3 3.03 +0.5 2 t/Ts 2.09 ----------------------------------bits 10 11 01 00 s(t) .5 s(t) 1 0.10 ----------------------------------a(k) +0.03 -0.5 4 (c) r(t) DAC N samples/symbol p(−nT) decision n = kN (d) k 0 1 2 3 ----------------------------------x(k) +0.

125 +0.125 +0.355 -0.875 +0.375 +0.625 -0.601 -0.004 0.125 -0.125 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 bits LUT -0.625 -0.32 (a) A = 0.008 0.101 +0.5.777 --------------------------------------a(k) +0.01 0.375 -0.5 3 (c) r(t) DAC N samples/symbol p(−nT) decision n = kN (d) k 0 1 2 3 --------------------------------------x(k) +0.016 0.018 0.875 --------------------------------------bits 101 010 111 000 s(t) .02 0.012 0.875 -0.014 s(t) 0.5 t/Ts 2 2.002 0 0.625 +0.5 1 1.006 0.375 ↑N p(nT) ADC (b) 0.

2 -0.2 -0.3 0.1 0.4 -0.3 0.3 -0.3 -0.1 0.4 -0.5 2 1 0 -1 -2 -0.5 (d) All eye diagrams exhibit no ISI at the optimum sampling instant.1 0 t/Ts 0.4 -0.3 0. The peak overshoot increases as the excess bandwidth decreases. .4 0.5 2 1 0 -1 -2 -0.1 0 t/Ts 0.5 -0.5 -0.1 0 t/Ts 0.4 0.3 -0. the immunity to timing offset) decreases as the excess bandwidth decreases.2 0.5.2 0.4 0.33 2 1 0 -1 -2 -0.5 -0.2 -0.1 0. The width of the eye opening (and hence.2 0.

2 0.5 -0.3 -0.5 5 0 -5 -0.3 0.2 -0. .5 (d) All eye diagrams exhibit no ISI at the optimum sampling instant.4 -0.2 0.5 -0.4 -0.1 0.3 0.3 -0.1 0 t/Ts 0.1 0 t/Ts 0.3 -0.1 0 t/Ts 0.4 0.2 0. the immunity to timing offset) decreases as the excess bandwidth decreases.4 0.1 0.1 0.4 -0.2 -0.34 4 2 0 -2 -4 -0. The width of the eye opening (and hence.4 0.2 -0.5 -0.5 5 0 -5 -0. The peak overshoot increases as the excess bandwidth decreases.5.3 0.

35 magnitude (dB) part (a) 0 signal filter -20 -40 -5 0 frequency (cycles/symbol) 5 2 0 -2 -1 -0.5.5 0 t/Ts 0.5 1 magnitude (dB) part (b) 0 signal filter -20 -40 -5 0 frequency (cycles/symbol) 5 2 0 -2 -1 -0.5 1 .5 0 t/Ts 0.

5 0 t/Ts 0.magnitude (dB) part (c) 0 signal filter -20 -40 -5 0 frequency (cycles/symbol) 5 2 0 -2 -1 -0. The signal distortion manifests itself in the eye diagram as a narrowing of the eye opening and closure of the eye due to ISI. signal distortion increases. .5 1 (d) As the bandwidth of the channel decreases.

5 1 magnitude (dB) part (b) 0 signal filter -20 -40 -5 0 frequency (cycles/symbol) 5 2 0 -2 -1 -0.5.5 1 .5 0 t/Ts 0.5 0 t/Ts 0.36 magnitude (dB) part (a) 0 signal filter -20 -40 -5 0 frequency (cycles/symbol) 5 1 0 -1 -1 -0.

. This increases distortion seen as eye narrowing and eye closure due to ISI. an increasing amount of energy is removed from the signal.magnitude (dB) part (c) 0 signal filter -20 -40 -5 0 frequency (cycles/symbol) 5 2 0 -2 -1 -0.5 0 t/Ts 0.5 1 (d) As the order of the filter increases.

then the output of the phase shifter is 2ω0 cos(ω x (t − τ )) = cos(ω x t − ω xτ ) = cos(ω x t − θ ) If the LO is operating at ω x rad/s with τ = Using ω x = ω 0 ± ∆ω . 1 = π ω 0 ± ∆ω π ⎛ ∆ω ⎞ ⎟ = ⎜⎜1 ± ω 0 ⎟⎠ 2 ω0 2⎝ π 180 rad. the phase shift may be expressed as θ = ω xτ = Now.37 (a) ω 0τ = (b) π 2 π 2ω 0 ⇒ τ = π .5. So we want π 2 − π 180 ≤θ ≤ π 2 + π 180 which implies π⎛ π⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎞ ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ θ ≤ ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎝ 90 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 90 ⎠ Case 1: θ = ∆ω ⎞ ⎟ ⎜⎜1 + 2⎝ ω 0 ⎟⎠ π⎛ ω ω 1 ⎞ π ⎛ ∆ω ⎞ π ⎛ 1 ⎟⎟ ≤ ⎜1 + ⎞⎟ ⇒ − 0 ≤ ∆ω ≤ 0 ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ ⎜⎜1 + ω 0 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 90 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 90 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 90 90 π⎛ Case 2: θ = ∆ω ⎞ ⎟ ⎜⎜1 − 2⎝ ω 0 ⎟⎠ π⎛ ω ω 1 ⎞ π ⎛ ∆ω ⎞ π ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ≤ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⇒ − 0 ≤ ∆ω ≤ 0 ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ ⎜⎜1 − ω 0 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 90 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 90 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 90 90 π⎛ .

5.38
(a)

ω 0τ =

π
2

⇒ τ =

π
2ω 0

π⎞

The output of the phase shifter is sin ⎜ ω 0 t − ⎟ = − cos(ω 0 t )
2⎠

(b)
The system outputs are

− cos(ω0t )
sin (ω0t )
but − cos(ω 0 t ) = cos(ω 0 t + π ) and sin (ω 0 t ) = − sin (ω 0 t + π ) . So the system output may be
expressed as
cos(ω0t + θ )
− sin (ω0t + θ )
with θ = π. This system does indeed have the desired relationship.

5.39
(a) θ =

2

(b) ω 0τ =

2

⇒ τ =

2ω 0

(c)
The delay is 3 times the delay from Exercise 5.37. Furthermore, the tunable range over
which the phase error does not exceed 1° is less than that for Exercise 5.37.

5.40
(a) A = √2

ILUT
00
01
10
11

I(t)

-1
-1
+1
+1

↑N

p(nT)

2 cos(Ω 0 n )

bits

s(t)

− 2 sin (Ω 0 n )

QLUT
00
01
10
11

-1
+1
-1
+1

↑N

p(nT)
Q(t)

(b)

I(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

0

0.5

1

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3

3.5

4

0

0.5

1

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3

3.5

4

0

0.5

1

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3

3.5

4

Q(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

s(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

5 -1 -1.5 1 1.03 y(k) +1.00 +1.00 +1.5 0 0.5 -1 -0.5 1 0.00 ----------------------------------bits 01 10 11 01 .00 -1.5 0 -0.5 -1.01 +1.00 a1(k) +1.5 k 0 1 2 3 ----------------------------------x(k) -1.99 +1.00 +1.(c) x(t) x(kT) p(−nT) n = kN 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) r(t) decision DAC N samples/symbol − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) y(t) y(kT) p(−nT) n = kN (d) 1.00 +1.07 -0.00 -1.00 +0.02 +1.07 ----------------------------------a0(k) -1.11 -0.

05 = 0.41 (a) A = 0.02 I(t) 0.02 -0.04 s(t) 0.5 4 0 0.5 2 t/Ts 2.02 0 -0.01 -0.2708 +0.02 0 0.5 3 3.5.2236 ↑N p(nT) s(t) ADC 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) (b) 0.2236 LUT 00 01 10 11 bits -0.5 1 1.5 1 1.04 (c) x(t) r(t) DAC N samples/symbol 2 cos(Ω n ) 0 x(kT) p(−nT) decision n = kN .6708 -0.5 2 t/Ts 2.5 4 0.5 3 3.2236 +0.01 0 -0.

6 0.8 -1 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 k 0 1 2 3 ----------------------------------x(k) -0.4 -0.53 -2.67 +0.67 -0.03 +0.2 -0.(d) 1 0.4 0.2 0 -0.22 +0.67 ----------------------------------bits 01 10 10 00 .55 +1.8 0.10 ----------------------------------a(k) -0.6 -0.

5 3 3.5 1 1.5 3 3.5.5 2 t/Ts 2.5 1 1.1 .5 3 3.05 0 0.05 0 -0.5 2 t/Ts 2.1 0 -0.5 2 t/Ts 2.42 (a) A = 2 ILUT 00 01 10 11 I(t) 0 -√3 +√3 0 ↑N p(nT) 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) bits s(t) ADC − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) QLUT 00 01 10 11 0 +1 +1 −2 ↑N p(nT) Q(t) (b) I(t) 0.5 1 1.05 s(t) 0.5 4 0 0.05 0 -0.5 4 Q(t) 0.5 4 0 0.

(c) x(t) x(kT) p(−nT) n = kN 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) r(t) decision DAC N samples/symbol − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) y(t) y(kT) p(−nT) n = kN (d) 2.5 0 -0.03 -0.97 +1.00 +0.97 +1.01 +0.00 +0.73 +0.01 +0.03 y(k) +1.5 -2 -2.97 +1.00 ----------------------------------bits 01 00 00 10 .5 1 0.00 +1.5 -1 -1.00 +0.5 2 1.5 -2 -1 0 1 2 k 0 1 2 3 ----------------------------------x(k) -0.73 a1(k) +1.97 ----------------------------------a0(k) -1.00 +1.

05 0 -0.5 2 t/Ts 2.5 3 3.5 1 1.5 4 Q(t) 0.05 s(t) 0.5 2 t/Ts 2.5 3 3.5 2 t/Ts 2.5 4 0 0.05 0 -0.5 1 1.5.05 .43 (a) A = 2 ILUT 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 +√2 +1 −1 0 +1 0 -√2 −1 I(t) ↑N p(nT) 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) bits s(t) ADC QLUT 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) 0 +1 +1 +√2 −1 -√2 0 −1 ↑N p(nT) Q(t) (b) I(t) 0.5 1 1.5 3 3.5 4 0 0.05 0 0.05 0 -0.

5 -1 -1.00 -1.00 +1.64 -1.49 -0.41 +0.00 +1.00 -1.30 +1.(c) x(t) x(kT) p(−nT) n = kN 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) r(t) decision DAC N samples/symbol − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) y(t) y(kT) p(−nT) n = kN (d) 2 1.5 1 0.65 y(k) +1.51 -0.5 0 -0.41 a1(k) +1.00 ----------------------------------bits 010 100 101 000 .09 +0.07 ----------------------------------a0(k) -1.91 +0.5 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 k 0 1 2 3 ----------------------------------x(k) -1.00 +0.

1 0 -0.5 3 3.2 0 -0.44 (a) A = 2 ILUT 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 +2√2 0 +2 +2√2 −2 -2√2 0 -2√2 I(t) ↑N p(nT) 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) bits s(t) ADC QLUT 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) +2√2 +2 0 −2√2 0 +2√2 −2 −2√2 ↑N p(nT) Q(t) (b) I(t) 0.1 0 -0.5 2 t/Ts 2.5 2 t/Ts 2.5 4 0 0.5 3 3.5 1 1.1 0 0.5.1 s(t) 0.5 3 3.5 4 Q(t) 0.5 1 1.5 1 1.5 4 0 0.2 .5 2 t/Ts 2.

00 +1.00 -2.01 +1.64 +0.25 ----------------------------------a0(k) -2.(c) x(t) x(kT) p(−nT) n = kN 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) r(t) decision DAC N samples/symbol − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) y(t) y(kT) p(−nT) n = kN (d) 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -5 0 5 k 0 1 2 3 ----------------------------------x(k) -2.00 +0.00 ----------------------------------bits 111 001 010 100 .00 +2.20 -1.00 +7.64 y(k) -2.00 +1.00 +0.00 a1(k) -2.83 +2.83 +0.

45 (a) A = 2 ILUT 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 +2 -1 +1 +2 -1 -2 +1 −2 I(t) ↑N p(nT) 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) bits s(t) ADC QLUT 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) +2 +1 +1 -2 −1 +2 -1 −2 ↑N p(nT) Q(t) (b) I(t) 0.05 0 -0.5 3 3.5 3 3.5 3 3.5 1 1.5 2 t/Ts 2.5 4 Q(t) 0.5 2 t/Ts 2.5.5 2 t/Ts 2.5 1 1.1 0 -0.5 4 0 0.5 1 1.1 .05 s(t) 0.05 0 0.5 4 0 0.05 0 -0.

51 +0.(c) x(t) x(kT) p(−nT) n = kN 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) r(t) decision DAC − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) N samples/symbol y(t) y(kT) p(−nT) n = kN (d) 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 k 0 1 2 3 ----------------------------------x(k) -1.71 -0.00 -2.05 y(k) -1.00 +2.00 +1.00 ----------------------------------bits 100 011 010 001 .51 +1.32 -1.00 +1.00 -1.00 +1.32 +0.32 +1.05 ----------------------------------a0(k) -1.00 a1(k) -1.

9 -0.3 +0.9 +0.9 +0.9 +0.3 -0.3 +0.9 −0.3 ILUT 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 -0.3 -0.3 -0.3 +0.3 I(t) ↑N p(nT) 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) bits ADC QLUT 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 +0.3 -0.3 -0.3 +0.3 −0.9 +0.9 -0.3 − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) ↑N p(nT) Q(t) s(t) .9 +0.9 +0.9 -0.3 +0.9 -0.5.9 +0.46 (a) A = 0.9 -0.9 -0.3 -0.9 -0.3 +0.9 +0.3 +0.

5 3 3.02 0 -0.5 1 1.5 1 1.02 s(t) 0.02 0 -0.02 0 0.5 2 t/Ts 2.5 3 3.5 4 0 0.05 0 -0.5 1 1.5 4 Q(t) 0.5 4 0 0.5 2 t/Ts 2.(b) I(t) 0.5 3 3.05 (c) x(t) x(kT) p(−nT) n = kN 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) r(t) decision DAC N samples/symbol − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) y(t) y(kT) p(−nT) n = kN .5 2 t/Ts 2.

07 ----------------------------------a0(k) -0.4 -0.09 +0.6 0.2 0 -0.8 -1 -1 -0.8 0.65 y(k) +0.6 -0.49 -0.90 +0.64 -0.90 -0.4 0.03 +0.91 +0.30 +0.5 1 k 0 1 2 3 ----------------------------------x(k) -0.90 a1(k) +0.30 -0.51 -0.30 ----------------------------------bits 0100 1111 0110 1001 .2 -0.30 +0.5 0 0.(d) 1 0.30 -0.

9 -0.9 -0.5 -0.9 +0.9 +0.9 -0.3 +0.3 +0.9 +0.9 0 I(t) ↑N p(nT) 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) bits ADC QLUT 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 +1.5 -0.3 -0.47 (a) A = 0.3 0 0 0 0 -0.9 +0.9 +1.3 0 -0.3 ILUT 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 0 -0.5 − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) ↑N p(nT) Q(t) s(t) .5 +0.3 +0.5.9 -1.3 -1.3 -0.9 0 +0.9 +0.

(b) I(t) 0.05 0 -0.5 1 1.5 1 1.05 s(t) 0.5 3 3.5 1 1.1 0 -0.5 4 0 0.5 3 3.05 0 -0.5 4 0 0.5 4 Q(t) 0.5 2 t/Ts 2.5 2 t/Ts 2.5 2 t/Ts 2.1 (c) x(t) x(kT) p(−nT) n = kN 2 cos(Ω 0 n ) r(t) decision DAC N samples/symbol − 2 sin (Ω 0 n ) y(t) y(kT) p(−nT) n = kN .5 3 3.05 0 0.

5 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 k 0 1 2 3 ----------------------------------x(k) +0.90 +0.00 a1(k) +0.5 0 -0.90 -0.90 ----------------------------------bits 0011 0110 1110 1100 .95 +1.(d) 2 1.94 ----------------------------------a0(k) +0.00 -0.90 +0.05 y(k) +0.54 +0.5 1 0.01 -1.90 -1.90 -1.90 +0.5 -1 -1.91 -0.50 +0.

48 .5.

5.49 .

50 .5.

51 .5.

52 .5.

53 E avg E avg 4r12 + 12r22 r12 + 3r22 = = 16 4 2 2 2 4r + 12r2 + 16r3 r 2 + 3r22 + 4r32 = 1 = 1 32 8 .5.

7236 r1 ∆θ = 0 maximum d min = 0.54 r2 = 2.1462 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 .5.

2143 r1 ∆θ 1 = 0 ∆θ 2 = 0 maximum d min = 0.073658 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -5 0 5 .8242 r1 r3 = 4.55 r2 = 2.5.

56 E avg E avg ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) 4 2 A 2 + 4 9 A 2 + 4 25 A 2 + 4 18 A 2 27 2 = = A 16 2 4 2 A2 + 4 9 A2 11 = = A2 8 2 .5.

57 r1 = 2 A θ1 = π 4 θ2 = 0 π r3 = 3 2 A θ 3 = r2 = 3 A r1 = 5 A 4 θ2 = 0 r1 = 2 A θ1 = r2 = 3 A π 4 θ2 = 0 .5.

5.58 .

59 .5.

5.60 .

0 +1.0 -1.-1) -0.0 +1.0 -1.0 -------------------------------------------bits 10 00 11 11 .0 -1.61 (a) 1.5 (b) k 0 1 2 3 -------------------------------------------x(kTs) +1.0 +1.5 0 -0.5 (1.5 1 1.5 -1.0 +1.1) 1 (1.0 +1.0 -------------------------------------------a0(k) +1.0 +1.0 -1.-1) -1.0 a1(k) -1.5)Ts) -1.5 0 0.0 y((k+0.5 -1 (1.1) 0.5.0 +1.0 +1.5 -1 (-1.

62 For each case.6 Mbits/s sec symbol subcarrier .8 Mbits/s sec symbol subcarrier (b) 16-QAM (k = 4) Rb = 100000 symbols subcarriers bits × 64 ×4 = 25.6 Mbits/s sec symbol subcarrier (c) 64-QAM with rate-2/3 code: k = 6 × Rb = 100000 2 =4 3 symbols subcarriers bits × 64 ×4 = 25. the bit rate is Rb = 1 N M k where k is the number of data bits per subcarrier. TM (a) QPSK (k = 2) Rb = 100000 symbols subcarriers bits × 64 ×2 = 12.5.

63 Rb = NM 1 NM k TM Rb 20 × 10 6 = = = 25 1 200000 × 4 k TM .5.

16-QAM. The selection criterion would be the maximum allowed bit error rate. Assign a point from a constellation with a large number of points (e...5. QPSK) to those subcarriers that are attenuated a lot by the channel. .g. 64-QAM) to those subcarriers that are not attenuated a lot by the channel. BPSK.64 Assign a point from a constellation with a small number of points (e.g.