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K.S.

School Of Business Management A Project Report On Horticulture Product “SOYBEAN”

Second Year M.B.A.
Dated On : October 5,2012. Sign :
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GROUP MEMBERS

NAME Vidhi Desai Keny Doshi Vrutika Gandhi Priyal Jain Jaimini Parmar Khushali Shah Maitri Shah Vidhi Shah

ROLL NO 2015 2016 2019 2022 2044 2066 2067 2071

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ACKNOWLEGEMENT

The project is dedicated to all the people whom we met,talked,interviewed took guidance and learn something from them.on this occasion, we want to grab this immense opportunity to ACKNOLEDGE our sincere Thanks to all of them while submitting this report. We would like to express our heartly gratitude towards DR.SARLA ACHUTHAN the director of K.S.SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT for giving us this unique opportunity of conducting a project which gave us immense knowledge. Encouragement,inspiration,positive attitude and guidance are the basic ingredients of success given by our project guide MS.SWATI MADAM during the entire process of project preparations. We are also thankful to the co-ordinators for helping and guiding us in project. The essence of preparing this project is to apply practical knowledge in our theoretical study.In order fulfil this objectives ,we have come up with team effort presenting an indepth knowledge on SOY BEAN.

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PREFACE
P-PLANNING R-RESOURCING O-ORGANISING J-JUDGEMENT E-EFFORTS C-CONTROL T-TACTFULNESS

“LET THE CHILD LEARN BYDOING”these are the words followed by most of the successful persons.”EXPERIENCE IS THE BEST TEACHER WHICH TAKES A TEST FIRST ANDTHEN TEACHES A LESSON”this saying has played a vital role and has guidedus throughout the project work.the purpose of preparing this project is to get an idea about SOY BEAN . this practical work develops awareness in students about difficulties and challenges. The project has provided us an opportunity to get glimpse of aluminium foil .this project is an example of the combination of our knowledge and experience, a written form of our visualisation.

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INDEX

CHAP NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

DISCRIPTION Introduction Major Producers Storage Distribution Price Profit Major Problems In Industry

Page No. 6 7 10 12 14 16 17

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INTRODUCTION
Soybean is known as the “GOLDEN BEAN” of the 20th Century. Though, Soybean is a legume crop, yet it is widely used as oilseed.It is now the second largest oilseed in India after groundnut. It grows in varied agro-climatic conditions. It has emerged as one of the important commercial crop in many countries. Due to its worldwide popularity, the international trade of Soybean is spread globally. Several countries such as Japan, China, Indonesia, Philippines, and European countries are importing Soybean to supplement their domestic requirement for human consumption and cattle feed.

Soybean has great potential as an exceptionally nutritive and very rich protein food. It can supply the much needed protein to human diets, because it contains above 40 per cent protein of superior quality and all the essential amino acids particularly glycine, tryptophan and lysine, similar to cow‟s milk and animal proteins. Soybean also contains about 20 per cent oil with an important fatty acid, lecithin and Vitamin A and D. The 4 percent mineral salts of soybeans are fairly rich in phosphorous and calcium.

Fat-free soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many prepackaged meals; soy vegetable oil is another product of processing the soybean crop. For example, soybean products such as textured vegetable protein (TVP) are ingredients in many meat and dairy analogues.Soybeans produce significantly more protein per acre than most other uses of land.

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MAJOR PRODUCERS
 Most Producing Countries of Soybean in world

   

United States of America Brazil Argentina China India

72,860,400 metric tonnes 57,857,200 metric tonnes 47,482,784 metric tonnes 12,725,147 metric tonnes 10,968,000 metric tonnes

 The global production of Soyabeans is 170-185 million tonnes, which is 55-58 per cent of the global production of oilseeds. US, Brazil , Argentina , China and India are the major producers. Prices follow international sentiment and display very high volatility.  India is the fifth largest producer of soybeans in the world, with average production of 4,809 TMT of soybeans. Average consumption in India is 4,812 TMT of soybeans, giving them the rank of sixth largest consumer of beans in the world. India is primarily a closed economy in the soybean arena. India's imports average a mere 8 TMT, while exports average 0 TMT. Average ending stocks in India are 68 TMT.  Soya is a kharif crop, sown in June-July and harvested by September-October. Peak arrivals are from October-November. India produces 5-7 million tonnes of beans, 1 million tonnes of oil and 3-5 million tonnes of soyameal in a normal year. Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan are the major producers of soyabean in India. The production of soyabean is highly dependent on the monsoon and fluctuates between years. Domestically produced soyabeans find application in the making of vegetable oil.

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 Significant Producers Of Soybean In India
NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 NAME OF PRODUCERS Siddharth Food Products Sky Exim Pvt.Ltd. Ansh Trading Company Lakshminarasimha Traders Vishal Exports A.D.Enterprice Bhavani Impex Corporation Nilkanth Enterprice Rup International Saha Mercantile Pvt.Ltd. Goyal Exports Genuine Enterprice Naboday Agro India Ltd. Pentas Impex Pvt.Ltd. Mms India Pvt.Ltd. STATE Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Hydrabad Maharastra Maharastra Gujarat Gujarat New Delhi Kolkata Rajasthan Karnataka West Bengal Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu

 Siddharth Food Products
Siddharth Food Products is a premium supplier and exporter of whole grains like Wheat, Toor Dal, Kabuli Chana, Soya Beans, Mustard Seeds etc.

Name of CEO Year of Establishment Nature of Business Market Covered

: : : :

Shri Ashok Singhai 1992 Supplier & Exporter Domestic & World Wide

Siddharth Food Products Ltd Produces 55 lakh tonnes of Soybean every year.

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 This Article gives information about Production of Soybean in Current Season :

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STORAGE
Soybeans are harvested over a short period, and more than half the crop is marketed direct from the field. Farmers generally will benefit by holding their soybeans for a month or longer. Storage capacity on the farm has not kept pace with the increasing production. Additional farm storage is needed to enable farmers to hold the crop and provide more uniform marketing throughout the year.

Soybean Storage Buildings are constructed of concrete and steel, have in floor aeration and are covered with fabric fiber.Flat storage buidlings are the perfect storage solution for Agricultural Storage.

 Soybean Storage Tips
• Level off your bins immediately after harvest.

• Avoid using worn augers and mechanical spreaders that will damage the seed while filling. • Aerate your bin as soon as it is filled to remove the heat, regardless of the moisture. • Aerate the stored soybeans to maintain grain temperature at 35° to 40°F in winter and 40° to 60°F in summer. • Check your bin every couple of weeks throughout the season for sings of crusting, aerate if needed. • Be sure your bin is ready for unloading before winter. Keep a level seedbed.

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 Factors Affecting Storage
The three major factors affecting the storability of soybean and are Moisture content, Temperature, and Duration of storage.

Moisture Content :
Soybeans contain moisture ranging from 12% to 15% (wet basis) at harvest time. For winter storage, store commercial soybeans at 13% moisture or less. Soybeans with less than 15% moisture can be dried with bin fans. Soybean seed stored over one planting season should be 12% moisture or less. Store carryover seed at 10% moisture or less. The rate of moisture adsorption or desorption is directly related to the manner by which a product is exposed to the atmosphere. For example, Soybeans kept in jute sacks tend to gain or lose moisture more readily than soybeans in bulk form.

Temperature :
Growth of fungi and chemical changes such as oxidation increased with temperature in whole beans. On farms that produce both corn and soybeans, it may be possible to use the same hightemperature drying equipment for both crops. Reduce heat for soybeans and limit air drying temperature to 130°-140° F. for commercial beans and 100°-110°F. for seed beans. Retention time in the heat section of dryers should be less than 30 minutes.

Duration Of Storage :
Fully matured soybeans may be kept for a virtually unlimited time after drying. With a water content of 8%, soybeans have a very good storage life and are thus also well suited to being transported for relatively long periods and in bulk.

Deterioration of soybeans in storage is a combined function of its moisture content, temperature, and duration of storage. Therefore, for safe storage, a combination of the three factors providing unfavorable conditions for mold development, such as low product moisture, low temperature, and short storage period are desirable.

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DISTRIBUTION
In the producing states, commission agents are the major agency in distribution of Soybean. In the consuming states, the distribution is confined to retailers. The purchase of Soybean for processing units is mainly done by the commission agents in all major assembling markets. As such, commission agents are the important distributing agency for Soybean. They attend to handling, packing and dispatch of Soybean on behalf of their clients. In the assembling markets, processing units also purchase and dispatch Soybean to their own units. Brokers and wholesalers play some role in distribution of Soybean but not to the extent of commission agents. The distribution for retail sale in the non-producing states is mainly affected through wholesalers.

 The General Distribution Channel and Uses of Soybean :

Farmers

Direct Use 10%

Processors

Exports

Feed,Seed,Food

Meal 79%

Oil 19%

Food Products 1.5%

Feed 98%

Industrial 5%

Food 85%

Energy and Industrial 15%

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 The distribution channel of Soybean between Madhya Pradesh,its Districts

and Gujarat :

Dewas Betul Ujjain Shajapur Gujarat

Madhya Pradesh
Sehor Ratla Dhar Pethamp

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PRICES
Prices of Soybean are mainly followed under two categories : 1). Mandi Prices 2).Government Prices

1). Soybean Mandi Prices :
In Rajasthan MANDI ARRIVAL OF SOYBEAN(In Tonnes) 2.1 2.7 18 35.5 0.2

(21 september,2012)

Ramaganj Baran Pratapgandh Kota Etawah In Maharastra -

MAXIMUM PRICES(Rs. Per Quintal) 4430 4100 4340 4351 4299

MINIMUM PRICES(Rs. Per Quintal) 3702 4050 3690 4000 4274

MODAL PRICES(Rs. Per Quintal) 4125 4075 4015 4300 4286

0.4 tonnes of Soybean arrived at Chalisgaon mandi at the Maximum rate of Rs. 3600 per quintal, Minimum rate of Rs. 3000 per quintal and the Modal rate of Rs. 3300 per quintal. In Madhya Pradesh MANDI
Sagar Mandsaur Dhar Khargone Itrasi Timarni Badnagar ARRIVAL OF SOYBEAN(In Tonnes) 5.6 80.7 15.8 1 14.3 1.7 13.8 MAXIMUM PRICES(Rs. Per Quintal) 4000 4381 4451 3501 3700 3710 4252 MINIMUM PRICES(Rs. Per Quintal) 3900 4100 2361 3501 2850 3000 3500 MODAL PRICES(Rs. Per Quintal) 3950 4240 4350 3501 3650 3600 4142

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In Gujarat MANDI ARRIVAL OF SOYBEAN(In Tonnes) 3.2 0.1 0.1 MAXIMUM PRICES(Rs. Per Quintal) 4350 3010 3405 MINIMUM PRICES(Rs. Per Quintal) 4300 3010 3405 MODAL PRICES(Rs. Per Quintal) 4300 3010 3405

Dahod Junagadh Gondal

In Karnataka 14 tonnes of Soyabeen variety Soybean arrived at Sankeshwar mandi, for the Maximum price being Rs. 4200 a quintal, Minimum price being Rs. 4100 a quintal and the Modal price being Rs. 4150 a quintal.

2).Govenment Prices :
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) took this decision to hike the MSP of soybean in its meeting held on Thursday, June 14, 2012 in New Delhi. Every year, the Government of India determines the Minimum Support Price of soybean based on the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Cost and Prices (CACP). YEAR MINIMUM SUPPORT PRICES OF BLACK SOYBEANS(Per 100 k.g.) 2200 1650 1400 1350 1350 910 900 900 900 840 795 795 775 755 705 MINIMUM SUPPORT PRICES OF WHITE SOYBEANS(Per 100 k.g.) 2240 1690 1440 1390 1390 1050 1020 1010 1000 930 885 885 865 845 795
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2012-2013 2011-2012 2010-2011 2009-2010 2008-2009 2007-2008 2006-2007 2005-2006 2004-2005 2003-2004 2002-2003 2001-2002 2000-2001 1999-2000 1998-1999
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PROFIT
Operating in a growing yet unorganized industry is a very different ball game. However, there is huge potential in this market and a planned systematic approach will bring in big profits. It is also important to take adequate precautionary measures to avoid risk elements. It is certain that on a long term basis, export of organic soybean and other organic products from India will become a major business.

 Profitability and Efficiency In Soybean Cultivation :
PARTICULARS GROSS RETURN Rs./ha OPERATIONAL COST Rs./ha NET RETURN Rs./ha INPUT/OUTPUT RATIO Madhya Pradesh 11240 4160 7080 2.70 2001/2002 Maharastra 15816 6481 9335 2.44 Rajasthan 8603 3396 5207 2.53 1984/1985 Madhya Pradesh 2084 1305 729 1.60

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MAJOR PROBLEMS IN THE INDUSTRY
 Soybean Varieties
1. The problem is to develop improved, high yielding soybean varieties with good seed viability and resistance to yellow mosaic and rust. 2. The soybean seeds of these varieties stored under ambient conditions quickly lost viability; when planted in the next season, their germination was very poor. Because of the hot and humid conditions prevailing from March to June, the seed viability dropped below 50%. 3. Therefore, breeding for resistance to yellow mosaic and rust as well as for increased seed longevity is the major challenge for soybean breeders in India. 4. With the rapid spread of the high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice in India during the early 1970s, even the marginal lands were being used by the farmers for these crops, and the question of where soybean would fit in the cropping system arose. 5. Soybean scientists in India started looking for possible niches, including intercropping, relay cropping, rotation, and utilizing fallow lands where soybean could be grown.  Use of quality seed 1. The seed replacement ratio for soybeans is very low. Farmers often use their own seeds from the previous season. 2. Soybean seeds are highly sensitive to several storage factors such as temperature, humidity, aeration, pests and pathogens, and also to physical handling. 3. The seeds tend to lose viability in a short time (even the seed certifying agencies approve the seeds if they exhibit 75 percent germination, unlike other crops where the minimum germination is more than 90 to 95 percent). 4. The poor quality seeds result in below normal plant population, which leads to a reduction in yield.

 Correct quantity of seed: As farmers consider the seeds to be 100 percent viable, they often use just the recommended rate of 70 to 80 kg/ha and sometimes even slightly less, without compensating for lower viability. This results in suboptimal plant population, leading to a lower yield.

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 Proper sowing methods: As soybeans exhibit an epigeal mode of germination, the deepplacement of seeds in order to prevent bird damage results in uneven and patchy plant stands.

 Adequate tillage: Because of the soil moisture requirement, sowing is often done hurriedly with the onset of monsoon without the desired level of cultivation, which accelerates the weed problem.  Plant protection measures: The soybean crop is often affected by diseases, for example, rust, and yellow mosaic virus. Farmers very rarely use any plant protection measures. 1. In order to promote soybean production and to improve its economic viability and production efficiency, 2. A systematic study should be made on the consumer preference for soybean products in different regions of the country and should be followed up by promotional methods to popularize soy products. 3. Due to improper marketing arrangement the small producers do not gain much from the increased market price – the middlemen make the most Small producers have hardly any role in the entire soy value chain because of their unorganized nature . Other factors:     Uneven, unpredictable rainfall, Gaps in agronomic practices, Old varieties, low investment on varietal development, Lack of institutional credit in agriculture Services.

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CONCLUSION
We would finally like to conclude our project with the high feeling of having gained knowledge about Soybean. This task has provided us the much needed break from worldly activities that one has to undergo. The important part is extracting as much information as possible which helped us to improve potential. We also conclude that project work is not an easy task. It requires group supports,co-operation and co-ordination.The project is result of our combined efforts and hard work.

With gratitude Group „B‟ from S.Y. M.B.A K.S School of Business Management

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