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We're in that Fertile Crescent

"Inventing the arch, we put it on our city gates" Sumer was a region in Mesopotamia. Farming allowed villages to grow, and people made homes using bricks made of mud from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. These people learned how to track stars, created wheeled vehicles and invented the arch. In addition, they divided time into blocks of 60, a method still utilized today.

"But when we're writing it, we write it in cuneiform."

"I'm Sargon the Great, empire builder for the Akkadians." Sargon is thought to be the first ruler who created a standing army. He was emperor around 2000BCE. Ultimately, his empire didn't last.

"Hammurabi's Code matches tooth for tooth..."
Hammurabi was the leader of the 1750 BCE. Like Sargon, he

Babylonian empire from 1792 until maintained an army but is more

Code, a set of 282 laws based on the idea of retribution.

famous for writing Hammurabi's

"We're the Assyrians, assassins, seriously dangerous... burnt Babylon, built a library instead,"

was a ruthless culture. They burned down the city of Babylon, but did build a library, which contained Sumerian king, Gilgamesh.

This empire lasted a short time, but

tablets that told the story of a former

"One day , my wife says 'Neb, I miss trees."
Nebuchadnezzar, took out the creating a wall about 10 miles The Chaldeans, led by King

Assyrians. He rebuilt Babylon, long to help protect the city. Legend states that

Nebuchadnezzar constructed wife, who missed her homeland. wonders of the ancient world. This was one of the seven the Hanging Gardens for his

"Phoenicians, where we get our alphabet from..."
Phoenicians ran their city-states

addition to a strong military, trading cuneiform to symbols that were they were master shipbuilders, invented glassblowing and became highly coveted. was important. They advanced

differently. They believed that in

eventually used to create our own,

discovered a rare purple dye that

"You don't have to barter, Lydians make cents"
Around 687 BCE, nearby made history by being the use of money rather than relying on the barter system. first civilization to make in T urkey, the Lydians

"Between Egypt and Babylon, we're the Hebrews"

Another group of nomads began to organize in the land of Canaan. Unlike most other Mesopotamians, they were a monotheistic people. In the mid-1000s BCE, King Saul united them against another group of people living near the coast, the Philistines.

Why is Mesopotamia known as the "cradle of civilization?" 1. Development of the City 2. Invention of Writing

If each city-state had their own customs and social rules, what did they have in common? Cuneiform Polytheistic beliefs in same gods and goddesses T reatment and roles of women

Problems in Mesopotamia
Issues with irrigation (erosion, mineral salts) Battling city-states Decreased trade